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Problems and Countermeasures Countermeasures Countermeasures

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					Problems and Countermeasures Countermeasures Countermeasures

 Dilemma Strategies of Chinese Enterprises
 I. Introduction

 along with the deepening of China's reform and opening up, China's economy has
changed from a shortage of economic surplus economy, China's economic adjustment
determined by the bucket theory of the adjustment of key industries into the national
macro-economic structural adjustment, improve the business environment is
becoming increasingly competitive, the consumer downturn, businesses more
competitive; with the United States on The success of China's accession to the WTO
negotiations, China's accession to the WTO is possible. The face of intense domestic
and international market competition, Chinese enterprises are the measures taken?

 20-year reform and opening up, companies formed by the planned economy
gradually extensive production management requirements of the market economy and
efficiency of modern business management transformation, which includes enterprise
reform, reorganization, restructuring involved in enterprise management system,
management methods, management concepts, are a major change in business
management. This is the enterprise in the face of fierce competition at home and
abroad to obtain the only choice for survival. Giant Group, 3, and the failure of love
and more groups are all well illustrate the problem. China to the need for management
and management of national salvation revolution time!

 RP as an advanced, modern competitive environment, management philosophy and
management methodology to help companies to complete the transformation of the
most powerful weapon. But MRP-II/ERP introduced to China 20 years, very few
successful companies, and most successful enterprises in foreign enterprises and
state-owned large enterprises. 90% of Chinese companies, however, for small and
medium enterprises, SMEs are now the main body of the market economy is the main
source of market dynamism and innovation, small and medium enterprises the success
of this change directly related to the rise and fall of China's market economy.

 What are the causes ERP in large state-owned enterprises, foreign enterprises and
joint ventures in order to succeed? As economic entities, 90% of small and medium
enterprises how to successfully implement ERP projects, the completion of the
revolutionary changes in business management? Some companies on ERP projects
fail to think, ERP vendors to think, to provide consulting services for the ERP project
management consulting companies are thinking. 99 April 28, Chinese Journal of
computer users held in Kyoto Hotel, "99ERP Development Seminar." The Forum is
well-known management expert, domestic and foreign well-known ERP vendors,
ERP users and to provide advice for the implementation of ERP project management
consulting firm eyes of the beholder, the wise see wisdom. I think the value in ERP in
every aspect of the supply chain all have some problems. ERP vendors such as uneven
quality of the implementation of ERP business is generally low, ERP management
consulting firms to implement the methodology of the level of consultation is not high,
the value of the supply chain to connect ERP ERP implementation process tripartite
detailed design and implementation is not well . Especially in the first three links in a
very short period of time can not be solved, the fourth link: ERP implementation
process, in the current ERP project success.


 2, ERP suppliers

 0 years is the introduction of MRP-II phase, due to the economic environment or in a
planned economy with market regulation for the Fu, awareness of enterprises to
participate in market competition is not enough, backward management machinery
manufacturing industry, coupled with business leaders on the MRP-II knowledge is
not enough, from the overall implementation of MRP-II effect, enterprises benefit and
significant investment income is far from . MRP-II domestic market is far from
mature, MRP-II only foreign manufacturers MRP-II services. From 90 to 96 years,
China's deepening reform and opening up, China's economic system from a planned
economy to a market economy, market situation has undergone significant changes.
At this time the majority of users are given a more or less in the application of the
proceeds. The MRP-II of the application time is also limited to the manufacturing
sector, the domestic manufacturers, such as Beijing, Lima has been open and the blind
thinking and Shanghai have begun to provide such services to businesses. From 97
years later, the rapid development of network economy, the traditional manufacturing
enterprises and service enterprises definition tend to blur, more and more wide range
of enterprise business, traditional MRP-II software, more and more difficult to adapt
to changes in business environment, In the MRP-II based on the ERP evolved as a
management model is proposed and introduced, and with the improvement of
business environment and business-management software implementation experience
of growth and rational understanding of the management software, business
MRP-II/ERP management software on demand began to increase, while many
Chinese software firms are not only traditional manufacturing software vendors and
new vendors and a large number of financial software vendors started to provide such
services.

 present in the country's domestic and foreign firms to provide MRP-II/ERP Dozens
of many. Foreign ERP vendors and their products: SAP's R / 3, Oracle's
OracleApplication, JDEdwards of OneWorld, four classes of MSS manufacturing
management software, SSA's BPCS, Scala, Symix the Syteline, Baan, Shanghai Olin
Island agent MRP9000 Lenovo integrated agent Morex. There are also a lot in MEP-II,
ERP software, MRP-II software earlier in the development of Lima and the opening
of Beijing's thinking, Shanghai, Qiming, 98 years ago has been to survive. 98 years
after the country set off from the climax of ERP, Lima and open thinking though
revenue fell short of foreign manufacturers, but also made a leap in growth
performance. Other software vendors have joined the ERP market: enterprises in
Tianjin Star MRP-II, Beijing Air Alliance AEPCS gold production management
systems, MRP Dr. Gao, Guangzhou, Nanjing Hanbang the joint health
NETUP-MRPII, Qingdao Jin Wei's launched ERP, Beijing Cauchi Union SJ-ERP,
north of the North Star computer ERP, Beijing and the Czech Republic's EMIS, Xi'an
Broadcom information MEP-II, Guangdong Hui Asia MRP-II, Shanxi Jingwei
JW-MIS, Beijing and good ERP, Beijing and Belgium HS2000ERP, Xi'an
collaboration software, Southeast University / Jiangsu's ERP software, computers,
central software, ERP, Wuhan open goal ERP. June 26, 1998, our group of companies
engaged in financial software development: UF, Kingdee An easy wave Newgrand,
gold abacus, constant selection, up to eight, etc., into the ERP market, jointly
announced; In addition, Beijing Fu Hong Kong ERP, Guangzhou, China through ERP,
the Hai Boke commercial ERP.


 in 98 years ago, MRP-II/ERP or a few vendors, 98 years after the country had as
many as three 40 really gives a spring night came suddenly, such as , Arcadia 10000
Pear Tree open feeling. This from a side note MRP-II/ERP in the country has good
prospects, but also shows China's MRP-II/ERP manufacturers still at immature stage.
Abroad, MRP-II/ERP software vendors after decades of development have a better
company now 56, but there are dozens of what many domestic; while income from
MRP-II/ERP manufacturers also can see that domestic manufacturers and foreign
manufacturers of the gap. 31 domestic vendors, ERP sales and implementation
services revenue more than 10 million yuan of the company are: UF, Lima, open
thinking, the four waves of the country strong; and 11 vendors in foreign countries, its
ERP product sales and implementation services revenue more than 5 million U.S.
dollars are SAP, Oracle, JDEdwards, four classes, SSA these five, of which SAP is
over 10 million U.S. dollars revenue. Income of more than 2 million U.S. dollars are:
Scala, Symix and Baan.

  share in the market, the domestic manufacturers is not MRP-II/ERP and foreign
firms compared MRP-II/ERP. ERP vendors in China's main market share in the
market as shown:

 plant name SAPQADORACLEJDEFOURTHSHITCABAANSYMIXSSA
 share% 28.76.820.77.57.23.23.01.65.8

  and foreign ERP vendors, domestic ERP vendors have the following weak: 1, lack of
implementation experience. Foreign ERP vendors have several years of
implementation experience, domestic ERP vendors only a few years of
implementation experience, and ERP is a computer works, but it is a complex project
management innovation. 2, domestic ERP vendors institutions are not complete: the
lack of ERP management consulting organization designed and implemented. The
agency involved in ERP design of internal and external customers involved in the
implementation of ERP consulting for companies implementing ERP for the
enterprise to provide accurate advice and implementation of key and difficult to
implement the report. In practical design of ERP software ERP vendors, but there are
computer designed to take part, and the corporate management are basically not
involved. 3, this thesis from many www.5udoc.com [worry documentation] to collect
and organize, for the original author! Conducting domestic ERP ERP software
vendors, the only manual workshops or a hacker type. 4, the lack of the required
software development system and development system software development.
Leading to poor stability of the software. 5, ERP vendors do not realize is that they
help companies implement management of change, but merely treat it as a computer
project. Of course, the implementation of change management to help companies do
not wishful, if companies just need a computer replica of modern management model,
which is necessary to the implementation of ERP vendors experience and skills. This
is also when many companies fail in the implementation of one of the major ERP.

  domestic ERP vendors compared with foreign ERP vendors have some advantages:
1, domestic ERP vendors in the technology and foreign ERP vendors have some
synchronization. If the current business environment in order to meet the needs of
market competition, ERP and e-commerce are closely linked; order to adapt to
dynamic business management model, all software vendors are actively developing a
dynamic enterprise modeling DEM (DynamicEnterpriseModule), in order to achieve
business management and software systems separation. These technologies can be
said that domestic and foreign firms in the same starting line. 2, domestic ERP
vendors in the language consistent with the domestic user. Competitive Environment
domestic ERP vendors to understand more deeply. 3, the price of domestic ERP
software has a strong advantage. ERP software is often expensive abroad, only a few
large or very large enterprises can afford to bear; the domestic ERP software is
relatively inexpensive, many of China's small and medium enterprises, it can bear.
This is also the domestic ERP vendors hope for.

 income from domestic sales and service more than 10 million yuan of the UF, Lima,
open thinking, the wave of the country strong companies can see Chinese
MRP-II/ERP hope. Lima and open thinking from the traditional manufacturing
software to ERP management software. UF and the wave of country strong start from
the financial software ERP management software. Lima and open thinking owns the
market in the experience of MRP-II in the ERP market leading position, UF by virtue
of their brands in the financial software market, while ERP stand our ground to
achieve better results still, wave Guoqiang made Results in the domestic ERP vendors
are worthy of study. Guoqiang wave in the financial software market is not Kingdee
strong, but from the wave of the country strong and Symix cooperation in software
development and software implementation experience on the use foreign counterparts
to effectively shorten the wave of the country strong and the other ERP vendors in the
distance, although the wave Guoqiang into the ERP market less than two years, but in
the ERP market has made great achievements.
 3, ERP application status

  since 1981, Shenyang No. 1 Machine Tool Plant Engineers from Germany to
introduce the first set since the MRP-II software, MRP-II/ERP in application and
promotion of our country has experienced 20 years of ups and downs. From toddlers
to begin to explore the effectiveness of subsequent gradual stages and the mature
stage of development now. According to incomplete statistics, China now has 700
enterprises to purchase or use of this advanced management software. Many ERP
vendors in the next, and many companies actively promote the practice and
application, ERP enterprise applications the results? According to statistics, the ERP
system in all applications, there are three situations: as scheduled and system
integration to achieve successful implementation of the budget accounted for 10% -
20%; did not achieve total system integration, or to achieve some integration of 30% -
40%; which accounts for 50% of the failure and success in the implementation of 10%
- 20% in the majority of foreign-funded enterprises.

 why the ERP system implementation success rate so low? Why do large and medium
enterprises and foreign ERP system implementation success rate? Small and medium
enterprises will be able to implement ERP management system? If implemented, the
implementation of ERP for small and medium enterprises can not improve the success
rate? In China, 90% of the enterprises, but small and medium enterprises!


 from a business perspective, ERP implementation failures are mainly as follows: 1,
business leaders on the implementation of ERP projects insufficient attention. In the
ERP's implementation, the implementation of both corporate officers or ERP vendors
as well as the implementation of ERP business management consulting company
management consulting, ERP project are that the "number one" project. Success of the
project from the implementation of ERP business enterprises and failure experiences
and lessons of these conclusions can be drawn very clearly. 2, the concept of fuzzy.
Understanding of these enterprises ERP fuzzy, confused "ERP software" and "ERP
systems" concept. They believe that as long as certain investment funds to purchase
computer hardware and Mo species of ERP software, companies can solve this kind
of long-standing problem. In fact, ERP should first as a management philosophy and
methods, followed by a computer application. 3, enterprise management mechanism
and market imperfections. Some domestic enterprises some of the officers also used
under the traditional planned economy, management, market awareness is not strong,
coupled with external market laws and regulations are not perfect, administrative
intervention occur, the contract on time performance and other factors do not affect
the law and according to market rules operation, the ERP is a product of the market
economy, if not overcome these differences, ERP implementation will be difficult to
conduct. 4, the demand for their own lack of depth. MRP-II/ERP implementation is a
complicated project, how the needs of the enterprise needs to conduct thorough and
detailed feasibility studies: feasibility analysis. 5, inadequate infrastructure. Due to
historical reasons, many companies lag behind common technical equipment,
computers weak foundation, corporate officers lack the training, the management of
the recent thinking and not enough technical knowledge to understand, not deep. Only
know the positions of business, little is known about the business of other positions,
to understand the lack of knowledge of information technology managers, and IT staff
lack management experience.

 for medium and large enterprises, business leaders more familiar with modern
management concepts, management systems and enterprise management system
running on a relatively sound infrastructure and complete training of personnel is
more sufficient, medium and large enterprises ERP project implementation resistance
encountered small and easily overcome. Relatively small and medium enterprises,
enterprises in the implementation of the ERP project will encounter significant
resistance, which most likely makes the ERP project can not get the desired results,
but also may make the project halfway. This small and medium enterprises can not
only reap the benefits of the implementation of ERP projects, but will burden the
enterprise ERP project, bottomless pit.

 small and medium enterprises can not be on it because this ERP project? I think not
only on small and medium enterprises, but also strongly encourage the enterprises to
the ERP project. 1957 American Production and Inventory Control Society
(AmericanProductionandInventoryControlSociety, APICS) before and after 1960, the
establishment and development JosephOrlicky, who first set of material requirements
planning (MaterialRequirementsPlanning, referred to as MRP) software available,
indicating that the modern enterprise resource management system has begun to start.
Throughout its nearly 40-year history, we find that the development of enterprise
resource management system in every step and stage of social and economic
development, enterprise business environment and changes in which are closely
related, is particularly important that the new management philosophy, management
theory, management techniques and management methods of the emergence of
enterprise resource management system must be a catalyst for development. Brief
phases of this process is as follows:

 phase of business management software form the basis of theoretical issues
 0 l's pursuit of lower costs

l ordering point method for management

l production out frequent
  how to determine the ordering of time and number of orders l MRP system inventory
management theory

lMAST
lBOM

 0 l plan's deviation from the actual

l artificial complete operation plan
  plan to safeguard the effective implementation and adjustment of closed loop MRP
system l Capacity Planning

l% D Operations Management Workshop % A
l planning, implementation, feedback and control loop

 0 l years to pursue competitive advantage

l subsystem link
  lack of how to achieve integrated management system of MRP-II system l System
Integration Technology

l Logistics Management

l Decision Simulation

 0 l's pursuit of innovation

l requirements adapt to changing market conditions and how the
  society to use all available resources to supply chain ERP system l

l mixed production environment

l pre-control


 is thus clear that the essence of ERP application management philosophy rather than
the other. Which is large in this paper from www.5udoc.com [worry documentation]
to collect and organize, for the original author! Small businesses currently needed.

 result of the small and medium enterprises, ERP project is more focused according
to the business environment faced by the enterprises to adopt appropriate
environmental management and business theory and management approach to the
implementation of ERP projects. So that small and medium enterprises from extensive
production management to a market economy the economic benefits of a modern
business model transformation.

 4, ERP implementation bottlenecks and Solutions
  large number of domestic ERP vendors, the small and medium enterprises is their
target customer. Because the basis of good management of advanced large-scale
enterprises often choose to implement products mature and experienced to serve
foreign companies. Such as Volkswagen Co., Ltd. in January 1996 began to use SAP's
R / 3 system. The previously mentioned weak domestic ERP vendors and enterprises
to implement ERP project failure is impossible to solve in a short period of time. So
the lack of implementation experience on the domestic ERP vendors and weak
infrastructure, low level of management of small and medium enterprises how to
improve the ERP project success rate?

  in the implementation of ERP, ERP project is "number one" project, if business
leaders did not attach importance to the project, then the project will fail; but that does
not mean that as long as the "number one" attention to be successful implementation.
Decision on the enterprise ERP project leaders on how businesses have great hopes on
the ERP, also attached great importance to the ERP project. But there are still many
enterprises fail. If the depth of the following can be found, since the lack of
implementation experience in the domestic ERP 厂商 can change in a short time,
weak infrastructure, low levels of small and medium enterprise management and can
not look at the infrastructure can become strong, high levels of corporate management,
then the value of the supply chain to connect ERP ERP vendors, business and
management consulting firms standardized ERP implementation process is the key to
successful ERP implementation. ERP implementation process so that companies can
get experience in business management will also improve the implementation process.


 how to make it standardized ERP implementation process? First ERP vendors in the
organizational structure established within the ERP implementation consultants.
Before the ERP project implementation, evaluation and analysis of enterprises in the
implementation of the preparation process actively cooperate with the management
consulting firm and business make business process re-analysis, in the
implementation process with the implementation of corporate personnel officers to
complete training. In which the information in the ERP assessment before the
preparation of detailed, complete or not is the key to the success of ERP project
implementation. Because, if business leaders while in the subjective and objective
attention on the leadership of its limitations because not attention, you can by careful
and complete preparation work to make up for it, which makes the ERP project to
develop the expected direction. Second, enterprises should evaluate the content of a
detailed and careful analysis and design. In the evaluation of ERP project
implementation, the main content:

, Industry analysis. ① Through analysis of different industries on ERP business
needs can be clearly intrinsic motivation. If market competition is a simple static,
such as chemical, semi-finished processing their intrinsic motivation to implement
ERP is to reduce business costs; on the dynamic and complex competitive
environment such as the IT industry, for their intrinsic motivation to implement ERP
is to improve the corporate response to the market and technology capacity; their
products competitive environment both in there in a simple static dynamic and
complex competitive environment, the group, their intrinsic motivation to implement
ERP is to be a comprehensive, high-speed and standardized management processes.
ERP vendors by industry analysts after the target company can get the internal driving
force to better address the problems faced by enterprises. ② Analysis of the nature
of the industry. Is the manufacturing and services? A single production or
cross-industry business? If the manufacturing industry, so is the production of discrete,
continuous production or mixed manufacturing enterprises? Manufacture of small
assembly of large and small manufacturing large assembly.

, Internal factors: internal factors in the analysis is to conduct the feasibility analysis
of ERP projects, as well as in the implementation of ERP projects will meet those
challenges and difficulties. ① enterprise management mechanism is perfect. ERP is
a product of the market economy, if the company is still in the planning system under
the management system, it would be difficult to carry out the implementation of ERP;
enterprise whether the current management of the requirements of market competition.
Companies in the market response capabilities? And is the leading competitors, the
strength is very or backward? Currently the management methods and work
competency competition requirements, such as hand-duration order to meet customer
requirements can. ② The MRP-II/ERP ideological content and implementation of a
comprehensive understanding is not accurate. As the ideological concept of the
formation of ERP not long into the domestic short time to teach. If the business
philosophy of understanding of the ERP application is not in place, enterprises should
first be trained. ③ the production, technical, financial, human resources and
comprehensive picture of suppliers, according to the strategic goals of business
enterprises in the technical viability. ④ infrastructure are sound. Many small and
medium enterprises is widespread backward technology and equipment, computer
base is weak, and businesses whether the quality of personnel can adapt to ERP
software. Business up and down the management, activities, and thinking whether the
requirements of modern enterprises. Enterprise management mechanism is reasonable.
Compliance with market rules and operational characteristics of enterprises.
Management system is improved and standardized, feasible ways to implement it
smooth.

, Business needs analysis. Through the enterprise business requirements analysis to
determine the successful implementation of ERP projects key factor. Industry analysis
of the total available enterprise key factor in the actual implementation, but also from
the project management process, senior support, personnel training and management
reform, corporate partners and enterprise of business process reengineering Lai Jin
Xing concrete analysis. ERP project implementation is the current enterprise
management mode now is because pirated computer companies in the implementation
of ERP project, the key factor causing uncertainty. If you need high-level support, but
what kind of support needed high-level rather vague; management reform, the
implementation of ERP business what kind of management before the mode of
implementation of what kind of management style, to complete the most critical
factor in this shift is what . These key factors should be before the implementation of
ERP projects for corporate leaders should have a very clear understanding, so that
when the enterprise in the implementation of ERP will not be because someone that
does not meet national or does not meet the ERP implementation Factory Please
aliasing, and ultimately become now Management of the computer piracy.

, Investment cost analysis. ERP is a complex project, the investment is relatively large.
It not only requires a lot of software costs, hardware costs, but also into consulting
services, training fees. Overseas, software, hardware and services investment
proportion for the 1:2:4, the actual investment to domestic ratio of 1:4:1. Therefore,
enterprises need to change the current investment concepts, increase the cost of
advisory services before and after.

, Business process reengineering. Status of business management and business needs
of the gaps, develop business process reengineering and enterprise management
improvement program. Development management business standards.

, Careful planning and meticulous implementation of MRP-II/ERP goals and
expectations and procedures. MRP-II/ERP project is not a cease and respect, it should
be phased according to the specific situation of enterprises step by step.

, Analysis of ERP projects to determine the end of each stage of the standard, that is,
ERP Project Evaluation. With such an evaluation index system, we can end the
arbitrary implementation of ERP projects. Put in place to protect each step.

 V. Conclusion

 Chinese software market in 1998 totaled 75.59 billion U.S. dollars, of which ERP
software market in total value of 3.751 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for 5.0% of the
software market. ERP market, according to authoritative forecasts and the latest
research AMRResearch announced to the global ERP market in 2002 will reach 71.6
billion. ERP market prospects for the future, China's ERP industry long way to go.


 thesis from www.5udoc.com [worry documentation] to collect and organize, for the
original author! / Center>

				
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