NonVerbal Communication (1) The Importance of Nonverbal Communication • Consciously and unconsciously, intentionally and unintentionally, we make important judgements and decisions concerning the internal states of others— states they often express without words. Introduction • There is language in her eyes, her cheek, her lips. Nay, her foot speaks. — Shakespeare • Anthropologists estimate: • language — 35% • Non-verbal — 65% • All human beings perform actions to which other people attach meanings, but these meanings are culturally based. • We also use the actions of others to learn about their affective or emotional states. Our emotions are reflected in our posture, face and eyes—be it fear, joy, anger, or sadness—so we can express them without ever uttering a word. • For this reason, most of us rely heavily on what we learn through our eyes. In fact, research indicates that we will believe nonverbal messages instead of verbal ones when the two contradict with each other. • “Eyes are more accurate witnesses than ears.” • Nonverbal communication is significant in human interaction because it is usually responsible for first impressions. • Nonverbal communication has value in human interaction because many of our nonverbal actions are not easily controlled consciously. This means that they are relatively free of distortions and deception. It is difficult to control a blushing face when we are embarrassed or a clenched jaw when we are angry. • Finally, nonverbal communication is important to the study of intercultural communication because a great deal of nonverbal behavior speaks a universal language. Whether in San Francisco, Madrid, or Beijing, people tend to have similar meanings for behaviors such as smiling, frowning, laughing, and crying. Defining Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal communication involves all those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both the source and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver. Functions of Nonverbal Communication • Repeating • Complementing • Substituting • Regulating • Contradicting 1. Repeating • People often use nonvebal messages to repeat a point they are trying to make. Americans might hold up their hand in the gesture that signifies a person to stop at the same time they actually use the word stop. The gestures and words have a similar meaning and reinforce one another. 2. Complementing • Complementing adds more information to messages. For example, you can tell someone that you are pleased with his or her performance, but this message takes on extra meaning if you pat the person on the shoulder at the same time. • Many writers in the area of nonverbal communication refer to this as a type of accenting because it accents the idea the speaker is trying to make. 3. Substituting • We use substitution in nonverbal communication when we perform some action instead of speaking. • If you see a very special friend, you are apt to enlarge the size of your smile and throw open your arms to greet him or her, which is a substitute for all the words it would take to convey the same feeling. 4. Regulating • We often regulate and manage communication by using some form of nonverbal behavior: we nod our head in agreement to indicate to our communication partner that we agree and that he or she should continue talking. Or we have direct eye contact with someone to let him or her know the channels are open. • In short, our nonverbal behavior helps us control the situation. 5. Contradicting • On some occasions, our nonverbal actions send signals opposite from the literal meanings contained in our verbal messages. • You tell someone you are relaxed and at ease, yet your voice quavers and your hands shake. • Because people rely mostly on nonverbal messages when they receive conflicting data, we need to be aware of the dangers inherent in sending opposing messages. Nonverbal Communication and Culture—Parallel • Culture is pervasive, multidimensional, and boundless, it is everywhere and in everything. The same is true of nonverbal bahavior. • Another parallel is that both need to be learned. Although much of outward behavior is innate (such as smiling, touching, eye contact), we are not born knowing the communication dimensions associated with nonverbal messages. Classifications of Nonverbal Communication • 1. those that are primarily produced by the body (apperance, movement, facial expressions, eye contact, touch, smell, and paralanguage); • 2. those that the individual combines with the setting (space, time, and silence) Nonverbal Communication • Ⅰ. General Apperance and Dress • Ⅱ. Kinestics (身势学movements of body) • Ⅲ. Paralanguage (副语言) • Ⅳ. Space and Distance (spatial language or proxemics空间学) • Ⅴ. Time (temporal language or chronemics时间学) • Ⅵ. Silence Ⅰ. General Apperance and Dress • We make inferences (always faulty) about another’s intelligence, gender, age, approchability, financial well-being, class, tastes, values, and cultural background from attractiveness, dress and personal artifacts. • In intercultural communication, appearance and dress are important because the standards we apply and the judgements we make are subject to cultural interpretations. Clothing • For example, clothing is a reflection of a culture’s value orientation. • Modesty is highly valued among Arabs. Muslim girls usually wear scarves to cover their heads. • In German, correct behavior is symbolized by appropriate and very conservative dress. The male business uniform is a freshly pressed, dark suit and tie with a plain shirt and dark shoes and socks. Like the dress, their manners are also conservative. • Dressing Code (TOP): Time, Occasion, Place Ⅱ. Kinestics (movements of body) • Action communicates. • The study of how movement communicates is called kinestics. • In general, kinestics cues are those visible body shifts and movements that can send message about (1) our attitude toward the other person (2) our emotional state and (3) our desire to control our environment. • 1posture, 2 gestures, 3 facial expressions, 4 eye contact and gaze, 5 touch, 6 smell Posture • Posture and sitting habits offer insight into a culture’s deep structure. In many Asian cultures, the bow is much more than a greeting. It signifies that culture’s concern with status and rank. • In Japan, for example, low posture is an indicator of respect. Posture 1. Japan • Although it appears simple to the outsider, the bowing ritual is actually rather complicated. The person who occupies the lower station begins the bow, and his or her bow must be deeper than the other person’s. The superior, on the other hand, determines when the bowing is to end. When the participants are of equal rank, they begin to bow in the same manner and end at the same time. 2. Thailand • The Thai people use a similar movement called the wai. The wai movement—which is made by pressing both hands close together in front of one’s body, with the fingertips reaching to about neck level—is used to show respect. The lower the head comes to the hands, the more respect is shown. Sitting Manners • In Ghana and in Turkey, sitting with one’s legs crossed is extremely offensive. • People in Thailand believe that because the bottoms of the feet are the lowest part of the body, they should never be pointed in the direction of another person. In fact, for the Thai, the feet take on so much significance that people avoid stomping with them. Gestures • 1. pointing • In the US, people point to objects and even at people with the index finger. Germans point with the little finger, and the Japanese point with the entire hand, palms up. In much of Asia, pointing with the index finger is considered rude. 2. OK • In Argentina, one twists an imaginary mustache to signify that everything is okay. • In the US, making a circle with one’s thumb and index finger while extending the others is emblematic of the word “OK”. • In Japan (and Korea), it signifies “money” (okane). • Among Arabs, this gesture is usually accompanied by a baring of teeth, and together they signify extreme hostility. • This same gesture has a vulgar connotation in Mexico and Germany, and to the Tunisian it means “I’ll kill you”. Put the following Chinese expressions into English • Do you think they can be properly understood by people from other cultures? • 摩拳擦掌，拂袖而去，五体投地 • 捶胸顿足，趾高气昂，袖手旁观 • 愁眉苦脸，呆若木鸡，瞠目结舌 • 垂头丧气，满面春风，昂首阔步 Facial Expressions • There are universal facial expressions for which people have similar meanings, but cultural norms often dictate how, when, and to whom facial expressions are displayed. Facial Expressions • For example, smile is an emotional display that is rooted in one’s culture. The whole world smiles, but the amount of smiling, the stimulus that produces the smile, and even what the smile is communicating often shift from culture to culture. Smile • In America, a smile can be a sign of happiness or friendly affirmation. • Although these same meanings are found in the Japanese culture, the smile also can mask an emotion or be used to avoid answering a question. • In Korean culture, too much smiling is often perceived as the sign of a shallow person. • Thais, on the other hand, smile much of the time. In fact, Thailand has been called the “Land of Smiles”. Eye Contact and Gaze • In the US, eyes serve 6 important communication functions: 1. Indicate degrees of attentiveness, interest and arousal. 2. Influence attitude change and persuasion. 3. Regulate interaction. 4. Communicate emotions. 5. Define power and status relationships 6. Assume a central role in impression management. • In the U.S., as in other societies, for every situation there is a proper looking time, a definite period during which you are allowed to meet and hold someone’s eyes. In an elevator the time is so brief that it can hardly be considered looking at all. Your eye catches that of a stranger and you look away at once. In a crowded bus, a subway or train, you can look a little longer. But go beyond the proper time— some 10 seconds—and you violate the unwritten but rigid code of body language. • Trying holding a fellow pedestrian’s eye a bit longer than the proper time. You creat an awkward situation and often the only solution is to smile and offer a casual remark, “How are you?” or “Nice day.” You may find youself in conversation with a complete stranger. • The unwritten laws of body language allow a longer time for starting when we talk to someone, but it is still a limited time. In all conversations we look away frequently and break eye contact. Only a lecturer or a politician addressing an audience can hold eye contact as long as he wishes. Eye-contact • Culture modifies the amount of eye contact in which we engage and who is the recipient of the eye contact. • People in the Western societies expect the person with whom they are interacting to “look them in the eye”. Eye-contact • Direct eye-to-eye contact is not a custom throughout the world. In Japan, for example, prolonged eye contact is considered rude, threatening and disrespectful. In fact, in Japan, people are not taught to look another in the eye but at a position around the Adam’s apple. • People from Latin America and Carribean cultures also avoid eye contact as a sign of respect. • Chinese, Indonesians, and rural Mexicans also lower their eyes as a sign of deference. To them too much eye contact is a sign of bad manners. • Arabs, on the other hand, look directly into the eyes of their communication partner, and do so for long periods. They believe such contact shows interest in the other person and helps them assess the truthfulness of the other person’s words. • In America, a prolonged stare at a member of the same sex is often perceived as a signal of interest and sexual suggestion. Touch • Culture teaches people how to communicate with touch. In the US, people learn that they can shake hands with nearly everyone (making sure it is a firm shake), hug certain people (but not everyone with the same intensity), and so on. Touch • Differences in touching behavior are highly correlated with culture. People in high contact cultures evaluate “close” as positive and good, and evaluate “far” as negative and bad. People in low contact cultures evaluate “close” as negative and bad, and “far” as positive and good. • Specifically, Latin American and Mediterranean countries are high contact, the United States is moderate contact, and the Far East is low contact. Shaking Hands • In some cultures, shaking hands is the only form of public touch. For instance, in England, shaking hands lightly is fine, but other forms of touching (such as backslapping or putting an arm around the shoulder of a new acquaintance) are not common. People from such diverse cultures as the South Pacific, Eastern and Western Europe, and even the East and parts of Africa greet each other with a handshake and may wave at each other at a distance. Shaking Hands • In most of these countries other forms of touching in public are generally not encouraged. In other countries (in parts of Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East), handshaking can be followed (or substitute for) by an embrace or a kiss on the neck. Shaking Hands • In parts of Europe and other places, you can shake hands by offering your forearm, elbow or shoulder to be shaken instead of your hand (especially if your hand is dirty). The handshake is light and quick in France, England, and certain other parts of the world influenced by these countries. It differs from the very firm, pumping, and continued U.S. handshake. The German handshake is firm but quite stiff. Shaking Hands • In some places, handshakes are, reserved for men. This happens frequently in parts of Africa, India and the Middle East. In countries where men and women are allowed to shake hands, the rules are complicated. In Eastern Europe, where women are allowed to shake hands, the woman must extend her hand before the man offers his, but in France and Russia, men must reach out first. In Germany, a man shakes a woman’s hand before he shakes the hand of another man. In some European countries— including Austria, Poland and Romania— handshaking between women and men is sometimes accompanied by a kiss of the woman’s hand by the man. Kissing • Men in much of Asia shake hands when they meet. • Men in much of Eastern Europe, Spain, Italy, Portugal, and the Arab world will kiss when they meet their friends. There is also much more same-sex touching in Mexico. Men will greet each other with an embrace. • Although kiss is common in most western cultures, it is not widespread in many parts of Asia. The Japanese have no word for kissing, so they borrowed from the English language for their word kissu. Touch • Cultures that believe in emotional restraint and rigid status distinction (German, English, Scandinavian) do very little touching as compared with cultures that encourage outward signs of affection (Latin America, Middle Eastern, Jewish, Greek, Eastern European). Smell • Odor communicates not only when we are face to face with each another person, but even when the other person is not present. Victor Hugo said, “Nothing awakens a reminiscence like an odor.” • For example, Americans represent a culture that tends to be ucomfortable with natural smells. Many other cultures regard natural odors as normal, and most Arabs actually perceive a person’s smell as an extension of the person. Matching Task • When trying to operate in a cross-cultural situation, we frequently face a myriad of potential communication hazards. Not only do different cultures speak unintelligible languages, but their body languages are often mutually incomprehensible as well. Different gestures may serve the same function, and the same gesture can have a number of unanticipated consequenses when dealing with people from different cultures. Think over the following and make a proper match between cultures and gestures or the meanigns they convey. 1. How to beckon somebody to come over ① in the U.S. a. waving the hand with the palm down ② in the Middle East b. just waving the index finger ③ in Portugal c. downward waving of the arm d. waving the hand ④ in Tonga with the palm up • badc 2. How to point something or somebody out ① In the U.S. a. Pointing with the lips ② In Mongolia b. Pointing with the ③ In India tongue ④ In Guinea-Bissau c. Extending the index finger d. Pointing with the chins • cadb 3. How to show approval ① In France a. Raising one’s ② In Greece eyebrows ③ In Tonga b. Having two thumbs ④ In Kenya up c. Having one thumb up d. Tilting one’s head • cdab 4. What the OK sign may mean ① In Brazil a. Rudeness ② In Russia b. Money ③ In France c. Something vulgar ④ In Japan d. Something worthless • cadb 5. What the folded arms may suggest ① In the U.S. a. No special meaning ② In Russia b. Impatience ③ In Finland c. Being rude ④ In Wales d. Arrogance • bcda Ⅲ. Paralanguage • Paralanguage involves the linguistic elements of speech, that is, how something is said and not the actual meaning of the spoken words. • Most classifications divide paralanguage into three kinds of vocalizations: 1. Vocal characterizers (laughing, crying, yelling, moaning, whining, belching, yawning) 2. Vocal qualifiers (volume, pitch, rhythm, tempo, resonance, tone) 3. Vocal segregates (un-huh, shh, uh, oooh, mmmh, humn) Volume • Arabs speak very loudly because loudness for them connotes strength and sincerity. • For Israelis, increased volume reflects strong beliefs toward the issue under discussion. • But for Thai people, a loud voice is perceived as being impolite. • In Japan, raising one’s voice often implies a lack of self-control. • When interacting with Americans, people from cultures that speak softly often believe that Americans are angry or upset because of their relatively loud speech. • Laughing and giggling also send different messages, depending on the culture. Although smiling and laughing are signs of joy in all cultures, the Japanese often laugh to hide displeasure, anger, sorrow and embarrassment. • Accents and dialects are additional components of paralanguage that often influence the communication process. • Accent refers only to distinctive pronunciation, whereas dialect refers to grammar and vocabulary as well.