INDUCTION OF MULTIPLE BIRTHS IN AKKARAMAN CROSS BRED SHEEP by benbenzhou

VIEWS: 25 PAGES: 4

More Info
									Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 50, 97-100, 2006




              INDUCTION OF MULTIPLE BIRTHS
      IN AKKARAMAN CROSS-BRED SHEEP SYNCHRONIZED
        WITH SHORT DURATION AND DIFFERENT DOSES
          OF PROGESTERONE TREATMENT COMBINED
         WITH PMSG OUTSIDE THE BREEDING SEASON
  MEHMET AKÖZ, BÜLENT BÜLBÜL1, MEHMET BOZKURT ATAMAN2 AND SÜLEYMAN DERE3

                                       Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics,
                                 2
                                 Department of Reproduction and Artificial Insemination,
                                            3
                                              Department of Animal Science,
                      Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selcuk, 42075, Konya, Turkey
                               1
                                 Department of Artificial Insemination and Biotechnology,
                Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research Institute, 42020 Karatay-Konya, Turkey
                                              e-mail:ataman@selcuk.edu.tr

                                         Received for publication January 14, 2005.



                         Abstract                                gonadotrophin (eCG), follicle stimulating hormone
                                                                 (FSH) (17, 20), pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin
     Determination of the optimal PMSG dose for inducing         (PMSG) (7, 23), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)
increased the prolificacy in Akkaraman cross-bred ewes           and mixed gonadotrophin preparations (13). Another
synchronized with the different doses of fluorogestone acetate   technique is actively immunizing ewes against
(FGA) outside the breeding season was the aim of this study.     androstendione (10), testosterone (3) and oestron (25).
A total of 90 non-lactating ewes were randomly divided into           The aim of this study was the determination of the
two groups. Vaginal sponges containing 30 mg (group FGA1)
and 40 mg (group FGA2) of fluorogestone acetate were
                                                                 optimal dose of PMSG for inducing increased
inserted into the vagina of the ewes. The sponges were           prolificacy in Akkaraman cross-bred ewes synchronized
withdrawn on day 7 and 300 IU of PMSG (FGA1A, FGA2A),            with different doses of fluorogestne acetate (FGA)
500 IU of PMSG (FGA1B, FGA2B) and 700 IU of PMSG                 outside the breeding season.
(FGA1C, FGA2C) were injected intramuscularly in the named
above subgroups of FGA1 and FGA2. Oestrus response,
pregnancy, lambing, and multiple birth rates were 100%,                        Material and Methods
93.3%, 78.6% and 18.8% in the group FGA1A, 93.3%, 92.8%,
76.9% and 40% in the group FGA1B, 100%, 100%, 86.7% and
69.2% in the group FGA1C, 93.3%, 92.8%, 76.9% and 20% in              A total of 90 non-lactating ewes (Merinos x
the FGA2A, 92.8%, 100%, 84.6% and 36.4% in the group             Akkaraman crossbred, F1) aging 18-24 months and 6
FGA2B, 100% 93.3%, 85.7%, 66.7% in the group FGA2C,              healthy rams (Merino) aging 2-3 years with a known
respectively. Multiple birth rates in the groups FGA1C and       fertility were used. The study was carried out between
FGA2C were significantly higher than in the other groups. In     May 1 and 31, which is the period accepted as outside
conclusion, the application of 700 IU PMSG was rather more       breeding season in Konya, Turkey.
effective than injections of 300 IU and 500 IU in ewes being          The ewes were kept indoors at night and had access
outside the breeding season.                                     to grazing outdoors for most of the day. Indoors, the
                                                                 ewes were fed barley, wheat bran, and wheat straw
   Key words: Akkaraman ewe, fluorogestone,                      supplemented with vitamins. Water and mineral licks
PMSG, oestrus synchronization, non-breeding season.              were available ad libitum.
                                                                      At first, the ewes were randomly divided into two
                                                                 groups. Vaginal sponges (Chrono-gest, grey sponges,
     Methods to improve reproduction in ewes often aim           Intervet, Turkey) containing 30 mg of FGA were
to increase the proportion of ewes having multiple               inserted into the vagina of ewes in the first group
ovulations, and thereby increase lambing percentage              (FGA1) (n=45) and vaginal sponges (Chrono-gest, white
(24). Ovulation rates are increased by injection of              sponges, Intervet, Turkey) containing 40 mg of FGA
gonadotrophins (22) such as human menopausal                     were inserted into the vagina of ewes in the second
gonadotrophin     (hMG)     (6),   equine    chorionic           group (FGA2) (n=45). The sponges were withdrawn on
98


day 7. The ewes, following the withdrawal of the                                       Results
sponges, were divided into three subgroups in each of
FGA groups. Each subgroup consisted of 15 ewes. In the              One of the ewes in the group FGA2B lost its
subgroups of FGA1 and FGA2, 300 IU (FGA1A,                      vaginal sponge during the treatment and data analysis
FGA2A), 500 IU (FGA1B, FGA2B), and 700 IU                       did not include this ewe. Oestrus response, pregnancy,
(FGA1C, FGA2C) of PMSG (Folligon, Intervet,                     lambing, and multiple birth rates in the subgroups were
Turkey) were injected intramuscularly to all ewes.              summarized in the Table 1.
     After the injections of PMSG, the oestrus cycle of             There were no statistically significant differences
each ewes was followed twice at a 12-h interval using           among the groups FGA1A, FGA1B, FGA1C, FGA2A,
teaser rams. After the detection of oestrus, the ewes           FGA2B, and FGA2C for oestrus, pregnancy, and
were hand-mated. Pregnancy in ewes was determined               lambing rates (P>0.05). But multiple birth rates in the
using the real-time B-mode ultrasound (Scanner 480              groups FGA1C and FGA2C were significantly higher
Vet, Pie Data Medical, Maastrich, Netherlands) with the         than in the other groups (P<0.05). There were no
5 MHz linear-array transrectal probe on day 30                  significant differences among the groups FGA1A,
following the mating. The number of multiple embryos            FGA1B, FGA2A, and FGA2B for multiple birth rates
of each ewe was determined using the transrectal                (P>0.05).
ultrasonography on days 30 and 36 following the
mating, as described by Schrick and Inskeep (21).
     The following traits were evaluated for each of the                             Discussion
treated groups:
     - oestrus response (number of ewes showing                      Increasing rate of reproduction in sheep offers the
oestrus/total ewes treated in each group x 100);                best opportunity to increase the efficiency of lamb meat
     - pregnancy rate (number of pregnant ewes/number           production (15). Methods improving the reproduction
     of ewes showing oestrus and mated in each                  often aim to increase the proportion of ewes having twin
       group x100);                                             ovulations, and thereby increase multiple birth
     - lambing rate (number of ewes lambing/number of           percentage (24).
pregnant ewes in each group x 100);                                  Gonadotrophins are used to induce superovulation
     - multiple birth rates (number of multiple                 in sheep (6). These compounds are administered over
lambing/total lambing in each group).                           the last 2 - 3 d before progestagen sponge removal or
     The data were evaluated with chi-square analysis to        injection of prostaglandin to synchronize oestrus (9).
          compare the oestrus response, pregnancy,              PMSG, when injected immediately after the removal of
          lambing                                               the progestagen sponge, may produce an increase in the
     and multiple birth rates among the groups at the 5%        rate of ovulation (16, 19).
          and 1% level of significance (11).



                                                       Table 1
                             Oestrus response, pregnancy, lambing, and multiple birth rates

                                     Oestrus response       Pregnancy rate    Lambing rate       Multiple birth rate
                                           (%)                   (%)             (%)                    (%)
                    FGA1A
                                           15/15                 14/15            11/14                2/11
               (300 IU PMSG)
                                           (100)                 (93.3)           (78.6)              (18.2) b
                    (n=15)
                    FGA1B
                                           14/15                 13/14            10/13                 4/10
     FGA1      (500 IU PMSG)
                                           (93.3)                (92.8)           (76.9)               (40) b
                    (n=15)
                    FGA1C
                                           15/15                 15/15            13/15                9/13
               (700 IU PMSG)
                                           (100)                 (100)            (86.6)              (69.2) a
                    (n=15)
                    FGA2A
                                           14/15                 13/14            10/13                 2/10
               (300 IU PMSG)
                                           (93.3)                (92.8)           (76.9)               (20) b
                    (n=15)
                    FGA2B
                                           13/14                 13/13            11/13                 4/11
     FGA2      (500 IU PMSG)
                                           (92.8)                (100)            (84.6)              (36.4) b
                    (n=15)
                    FGA2C
                                           15/15                 14/15            12/14                 8/12
               (700 IU PMSG)
                                           (100)                 (93.3)           (85.7)              (66.7) a
                    (n=15)
Different superscripts in columns differ significantly; a,b: P<0.05
                                                                                                                          99


     In our study, the doses of 300 IU (18.2% and 20%)       IU and 500 IU of PMSG in Akkaraman cross-bred ewes
and 500 IU of PMSG (40% and 36.4 %) compared to              in the breeding season.
700 IU (69.2% and 66.7%) were found to be less
effective to induce multiple births. This might be               Acknowledgments: The authors would like to
because the dose used in our study was not sufficient to     thank Mr Şefik SAYANER for providing the
stimulate additional follicular development or weak          experimental animals.
response of the breed used in this experiment. Regarding
this, the use of 500 IU of PMSG at sponge withdrawal
was reported to improve the fertility by about 35-70%                                 References
(2), but the response among different breeds can be
varied (12). The multiple birth rates obtained in the        1.    Ak K., İleri K.İ., Horoz H., Şenünver A., Alkan S.,
groups FGA1C (69.2%) and FGA2C (66.7%) were                        Rahimi H., Kaşıkçı G.: Kıvırcık koyunlarda mevsim içi
similar to findings of Bekyürek (2). Romano et al. (19)            östrus senkronizasyonu. İ Ü Vet Fak Derg 1994, 20, 261-
reported that, PMSG at 250 IU did not increase the                 266.
fertility or prolificacy rate during the breeding season.    2.    Bekyürek T.: Anöstrüs dönemindeki Tuj koyunlarında
Similarly, 300 IU of PMSG did not sufficiently increase            östrüsün uyarılması. Tr J Vet Anim Sci 1993, 18, 11-15.
                                                             3.    Cognié Y., Scaramuzzi R.J. : Les techniques
the multiple birth rates in our study.                             physiologiques d’accroissement de la fertilité de la
     Koyuncu et al. (14) synchronized the Kıvırcık ewes            prolificité chez les ovins. Actes du 3ème Congres
using      pessaries    containing     progesterone   and          Mondial de Reproduction et Selection des Ovins et
superovulated them with different doses of PMSG (500               Bovins à Viande, Ed. INRA, Paris, 1988, 2, 623-636.
and 700 IU) during breeding season. Prolificacy rates        4.    Çoyan K., Ataman M.B., Erdem H., Kaya A., Kasıkcı G.:
were 158% and 196% in the 500 and 700 IU groups,                   Synchronization of estrus in cows using double PGF2
respectively. The authors demonstrated that progestagen            alpha, GnRH - PG2 alpha and hCG- PGF2 alpha
and PMSG treatment increased prolificacy significantly             combination. Revue Méd Vét 2003, 154, 91-96.
in Kıvırcık ewes. In this study, FGA + PMSG treatment        5.    Esen F., Bozkurt T.: Akkaraman ırkı koyunlarda flushing
                                                                   ve östrüs senkronizasyonu uygulamasının dölverimi
also provided sufficient synchronization and multiple              üzerine etkisi. Tr J Vet Anim Sci 2001, 25, 365-368.
birth rates.                                                 6.    Evans A.C.O.: Ovarian follicle growth and consequences
     Özbey and Tatlı (18) synchronized the Awassi ewes             for fertility in sheep. Anim Reprod Sci 2003, 78, 289-
for 14 d with sponges containing 40 mg of FGA and                  306.
superovulated by 500 IU of PMSG injection and oestrus        7.    González-Reyna A., Márquez-Garciá E., Lizárraga-Tracy
and twinning rates were 100% and 46%. These rates                  H., Martínez-González J.C.: Dose response effects of
were higher than our ones obtained by using 500 IU of              PMSG on ovulation rate and follicular development in
PMSG. This difference may be explained by the                      Pelibuey ewes treated with Syncro-mate-B implants.
influence of breed differences on response to the                  Small Rum Res 1999, 31, 149-155.
                                                             8.    Gökçen H., Ünal E.F, Tümen H., Deligözoğlu F., Soylu
treatment protocol. Also, Karagiannidis et al. (12)                M.K., Çelik İ.: Kızgınlıkları değişik yöntemlerle
reported that response to the different PMSG doses                 sinkronize edilerek tohumlanan Merinos koyunlarında
among various breeds was different.                                dölverimi üzerinde araştırmalar. U Ü Vet Fak Derg 1992,
     In our study, results in groups FGA1C (100%,                  11, 81-90.
69.2%) and FGA2C (100%, 66.7%) for oestrus and               9.    Haresign W.: Controlling reproduction in sheep. New
twinning rates were similar to those obtained by Esen              developments in sheep production. In: British Society of
and Bozkurt (5) who treated the Akkaraman ewes for 14              Animal Production. Ed: CFR Slade and TLJ Lawrence,
d with pessaries containing 40 mg of FGA and injection             1990, 14, 23-37.
of 600 IU of PMSG at the time of pessary removal.            10.   Haresign W.: Manipulating of reproduction in sheep. J
                                                                   Reprod Fert Suppl 1992, 45, 127-139.
They reported that the oestrus and twinning rates in         11.   Inal S.: Biyometri, S. U. Veteriner Fakültesi Basımevi,
breeding season were 94% and 57%, respectively.                    Konya,Turkey, 1998, p. 12.
     Ak et al. (1) treated the Kıvırcık ewes for 14 d with   12.   Karagiannidis A., Varsakeli S., Karatzas G., Brozos C.:
sponges containing FGA and injected them with 500 IU               Effect of time of artificial insemination on fertility of
of PMSG and 500 IU of hCG at pessary removal. Their                progestagen and PMSG treated indigeneous Greek ewes,
oestrus and twinning rates were 100 and 90%. The rates             during non-breeding season. Small Rum Res 2001, 39,
were lower in the groups FGA1B and FGA2B than those                67-71.
reported by Ak et al. (1) and this may be due to lack of     13.   Knights M., Baptiste Q.S., Dixon A.B., Pate J.L., Marsh
hCG injection in our experiments. Relevant to this,                D.J., Inskeep E.K. Lewis P.E.: Effects of dosage of FSH,
                                                                   vehicle and time of treatment on ovulation rate and
Çoyan et al. (4) reported that hCG was a good                      prolificacy in ewes during the anestrous season. Small
exogenous source of LH to accelerate the ovulation.                Rum Res 2003, 50, 1-9.
     In our study, oestrus and pregnancy rates in the        14.   Koyuncu M., Uzun Ş.K., Şengül L.: Kıvırcık
groups FGA1A-B and FGA2A-C agreed with those                       koyunlarında progesterone ve farklı dozda PMSG
observed by Gökçen et al. (8), who superovulated the               kullanımının kızgınlık denetimi ve döl verimini arttırma
Merino ewes with vaginal sponge + 500 IU of PMSG                   olanakları. Tr J ve Anim Sci 2001, 25, 971-974.
and received 92% oestrus and 85% pregnancy rates.            15.   Lamberson W.R., Thomas D.L.J.: Effects of season and
     As a conclusion, the application of 700 IU of PMSG            breed of sire on incidence of estrus and ovulation rate in
was rather more effective than the administration of 300           sheep. J Anim Sci 1982, 54, 533-538.
100


16. Maxwell W.M.C., Evans G., Rhodes S.L., Hillard M.A.,          21. Schrick F.N., Inskeep E.K.: Determination of early
    Bindon B.M.: Fertility of superovulated ewes after                pregnancy in ewes utilizing transrectal ultrasonography.
    intrauterine or oviducal insemination with low numbers            Theriogenology 1993, 40, 295-306.
    of fresh or frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Reprod Fertil          22. Stenbak T.K., Grazul-Bilska A.T., Berginski H.R., Bilski
    Dev 1993, 5, 57-63.                                               J.J., Erickson A.S., Kirsch J.D., Kraft K.C., Navanukraw
17. Noël B., Mandiki S.M.N., Perrad B., Bister J.L., Paquay           C., Toutges M.J., Reynolds L.P., Redmer D.A.:
    R.: Terminal follicle growth, ovulation rate and hormonal         Ovulation rate in ewes synchronized with syncro-mate-B
    secretion after melatonin pre-treatment prior to FGA-             (SBM) and follicle stimulating hormone. Small Rum Res
    PMSG synchronisation in Suffolk ewes at the onset of              2003, 48, 1-8.
    the breeding season. Small Rum Res 1999, 32, 269-277.         23. Wani G.M., Buchoo B.A., Wani N.A.: Use of human
18. Özbey O., Tatlı P.: İvesi koyunlarda flushing ve                  gonadotrophin in superovulation of Southdown sheep.
    sinkronizasyon uygulamalarının döl verimi üzerine etkisi.         Small Rum Res 1997, 25, 93-94.
    U Ü Vet Fak Derg 2001, 20, 109-116.                           24. Wilkins J.F.: Method of stimulating ovulation rate in
19. Romano J.E., Rodas E., Ferreira A., Lago I., Benech A.:           Merino ewes may affect conception but not embryo
    Effects of progestagen, PMSG and artificial insemination          survival. Anim Reprod Sci 1997, 47, 31-42.
    time on fertility and prolificacy in Corriedale ewes. Small   25. Wilson P.A., Cox R.I., Wong M.S.F., Paul D.R.:
    Rum Res 1996, 23, 157-162.                                        Improved prolificacy in Merino ewes immunized against
20. Rubianes E., Castro T., Kmaid S., Carbajal B., Benquet            a combination of androgens and oestrogens. Proc Aust
    N., Pinczak A.: Superovulatory response to FSH                    Soc Reprod Biol 1986, 18, 41.
    treatments after different progesterone priming in ewes.
    Small Rum Res 1999, 33, 159-162.

								
To top