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Respiratory Physiology abdominal muscle

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					1. Respiratory Physiology                                   __________________________________________
2. The Atmosphere
                                                            __________________________________________
   Exerts pressure
                                                            __________________________________________
   At sea level:
                                                            __________________________________________
      1 atmosphere
                                                            __________________________________________
      760 mmHg
      760 torr                                              __________________________________________
   Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide
                                                            __________________________________________
3 - 4. Boyle’s Law                                          __________________________________________
   PV = k where:                                            __________________________________________
        P is the pressure                                   __________________________________________
        V is the volume of the gas                          __________________________________________
        k is a constant                                     __________________________________________
   At any constant temperature, the pressure exerted        __________________________________________
   by a gas varies inversely with the volume of the         __________________________________________
   gas                                                      __________________________________________
http://classes.midlandstech.com/hoffman/23.13L.jpg          __________________________________________

5 - 6. Dalton’s Law                                         __________________________________________

   Total pressure of mixture of gases is sum of             __________________________________________

   pressures exerted by each gas independently              __________________________________________

   Partial pressure of gas is pressure contributed by       __________________________________________

   a single gas                                             __________________________________________

        Proportional to percentage of that gas in           __________________________________________

        mixture                                             __________________________________________

http://www.westga.edu/~chem/courses/chem410/3510_01/img01   __________________________________________
7.gif                                                       __________________________________________
                                                            __________________________________________
7. Henry’s Law
                                                            __________________________________________
   The concentration of gas dissolved in a fluid is
                                                            __________________________________________
   directly proportional to the partial pressure of that
                                                            __________________________________________
   gas.
                                                            __________________________________________
        Solubility
                                                            __________________________________________
        Temperature
                                                            __________________________________________
http://www.chem.ufl.edu/~itl/2045/change/C12F14.GIF _
                                                            __________________________________________
8. Gas Movement
                                                            __________________________________________
   Gases will move according to pressure gradients
                                                            __________________________________________
   High pressure to low pressure
                                                            __________________________________________
   Atmosphere         respiratory organs       across
                                                            __________________________________________
   respiratory membrane          capillary blood
                                                            _________________________________________
9. Ventilation                                 ________________________________________
   Ventilation -                               ________________________________________
   Phases -                                    ________________________________________
     Inspiration -                             ________________________________________
     Expiration –                              ________________________________________
                                               ________________________________________
10. Flow, Pressure, Resistance
                                               ________________________________________
       F = ÄP/R
                                               ________________________________________
11. Airway Resistance                          ________________________________________
                                               ________________________________________
12. Airflow
                                               ________________________________________
   Pressure gradient is primary determinant
                                               ________________________________________
   Resistance usually not a major factor
                                               ________________________________________
   Bronchoconstriction
                                               ________________________________________
     Bronchiolar smooth muscle contraction
                                               ________________________________________
     Decreased radius
                                               ________________________________________
     Parasympathetic
                                               ________________________________________
   Bronchodilation
                                               ________________________________________
     Bronchiolar smooth muscle relaxation
                                               ________________________________________
     Increased radius
                                               ________________________________________
     Sympathetic
                                               ________________________________________
13-15. Pressures
                                               ________________________________________
   Atmospheric pressure (Patm )
                                               ________________________________________
     Pressure of outside air
                                               ________________________________________
     760 mm Hg
                                               ________________________________________
   Intra-alveolar pressure (Palv)
                                               ________________________________________
     Pressure of air inside alveoli
                                               ________________________________________
     Equal to atmospheric pressure at rest
                                               ________________________________________
     760 mm Hg or 0 mm Hg
                                               ________________________________________
     Varies during ventilation
                                               ________________________________________
     Difference between Patm and Palv drives
                                               ________________________________________
     ventilation
                                               ________________________________________
   Intrapleural pressure (Pip)
                                               ________________________________________
     Pressure in pleural space
                                               ________________________________________
     Less than Patm
                                               ________________________________________
     - 4 mm Hg at rest
                                               ________________________________________
     Varies during ventilation
                                               ________________________________________
   Transpulmonary pressure (Palv)
                                               ________________________________________
        Pressure across lung wall                     __________________________________________
     Difference between intrapleural and              __________________________________________
     intrapulmonary pressure (Palv – Pip)             __________________________________________
     Distending force across lungs                    __________________________________________
                                                      __________________________________________
16. Boyle’s Law
                                                      __________________________________________
  At any constant temperature, the pressure exerted
                                                      __________________________________________
  by a gas varies inversely with the volume of the
                                                      __________________________________________
  gas
                                                      __________________________________________
17-18. Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation             __________________________________________
  Driven by pressure gradients                        __________________________________________
  Respiratory muscles act on thoracic wall            __________________________________________
     Change volume of thoracic cavity                 __________________________________________
     Lung volume also changed                         __________________________________________
  Change in volume results in change in pressure      __________________________________________
                                                      __________________________________________
19-20. Inspiration
                                                      __________________________________________
  Contraction of
                                                      __________________________________________
     Diaphragm
                                                      __________________________________________
     External intercostals
                                                      __________________________________________
21-22. Expiration
                                                      __________________________________________
  Relaxation of inspiratory muscles
                                                      __________________________________________
  Recoil of lungs
                                                      __________________________________________
23. Active Inspiration / Expiration                   __________________________________________
  Accessory muscles of inspiration                    __________________________________________
     Raise sternum                                    __________________________________________
     Raise ribs 1 and 2                               __________________________________________
     Increased thoracic cavity volume                 __________________________________________
     Increased lung volume                            __________________________________________
     Decreased intra-alveolar pressure                __________________________________________
  Muscles of expiration actively contract             __________________________________________
     Abdominal muscles                                __________________________________________
     Internal intercostals                            __________________________________________
     Decreased thoracic cavity volume                 __________________________________________
     Decreased lung volume                            __________________________________________
     Increased intra-alveolar pressure                __________________________________________
                                                      __________________________________________
24. Factors That Affect Ventilation                   __________________________________________
   Lung compliance                                   __________________________________________
      Distensibility of a hollow, elastic organ; a   __________________________________________
      measure of how easily the structure can be     __________________________________________
      stretched                                      __________________________________________
   Lung elasticity                                   __________________________________________
      Rebound of lungs after having been stretched   __________________________________________
   Surface tension                                   __________________________________________
      Surfactant                                     __________________________________________
                                                     __________________________________________
25. Lung Volumes and Capacities                      __________________________________________
   Lungs do not operate at full volume               __________________________________________
      Gas exchange is continuous                     __________________________________________
      Decreases the work of breathing                __________________________________________
                                                     __________________________________________
26. Variations in Lung Volume
                                                     __________________________________________
[Sherwood Fig. 12-14, pg. 378]
                                                     __________________________________________
27-28. Lung Volumes                                  __________________________________________
   Tidal volume                                      __________________________________________
Inspiratory reserve volume                           __________________________________________
Expiratory reserve volume                            __________________________________________
Residual volume                                      __________________________________________
                                                     __________________________________________
29-30. Lung Capacities
                                                     __________________________________________
   Inspiratory capacity
                                                     __________________________________________
      IRV + VT
                                                     __________________________________________
   Functional residual capacity
                                                     __________________________________________
      ERV + RV
                                                     __________________________________________
   Vital Capacity
                                                     __________________________________________
      ERV + VT + IRV
                                                     __________________________________________
   Total lung capacity
                                                     __________________________________________
      Vital capacity + RV
                                                     __________________________________________
                                                     __________________________________________
31. FEV1 [Fox Fig. 16.17]
                                                     __________________________________________
                                                     __________________________________________
32. Respiratory Disorders
                                                     __________________________________________
   Obstructive diseases
                                                     __________________________________________
      Increased airway resistance
                                                     __________________________________________
      Harder to inspire and expire
                                                     __________________________________________
     FEV1 < 80%                                     __________________________________________
  Restrictive diseases                              __________________________________________
     Decreased lung expansion                       __________________________________________
     Decreased TLC and VC                           __________________________________________
                                                    __________________________________________
33. Respiratory Rates and Volumes                   __________________________________________
  Respiratory Rate                                  __________________________________________
     breaths per minute                             __________________________________________
     RR                                             __________________________________________
  Respiratory minute volume                         __________________________________________
     Amount of air moved each minute                __________________________________________
     Tidal volume x rate                            __________________________________________
     VE = VT x RR                                   __________________________________________
                                                    __________________________________________
34-36. Alveolar Ventilation
                                                    __________________________________________
  VA = RR x (VT – VD)
                                                    __________________________________________
  VD is anatomic dead space
                                                    __________________________________________
     Air in conducting zone never reaches alveoli
                                                    __________________________________________
37. Definitions                                     __________________________________________
   Eupnea                                           __________________________________________

   Dyspnea                                          __________________________________________
                                                    __________________________________________
   Apnea
                                                    __________________________________________
   Hyperpnea                                        __________________________________________

   Hyperventilation                                 __________________________________________
                                                    __________________________________________
   Hypoventilation
                                                    __________________________________________
   Hypoxia                                          __________________________________________

   Hypoxemia                                        __________________________________________
                                                    __________________________________________
   Hypercapnea
                                                    __________________________________________
   Hypocapnea                                       __________________________________________

38. Gas Exchange and Transport                      __________________________________________

  Alveolar air is not the same as atmospheric       __________________________________________

     Saturated with water                           __________________________________________

     Old air remains in alveoli                     __________________________________________

     Decreased O2, increased CO2                    __________________________________________
                                                    __________________________________________
http://meds.queensu.ca/medicine/physiol/undergrad/phase1/Ph1   __________________________________________
resp.htm
                                                               __________________________________________
39. Diffusion at Respiratory Membrane                          __________________________________________
   Difference in partial pressures across membrane             __________________________________________
   Small distance                                              __________________________________________
   Gases lipid soluble                                         __________________________________________
   Large total surface area                                    __________________________________________
   Coordination of blood flow and air flow                     __________________________________________
                                                               __________________________________________
40-41. Air/Blood Flow Coordination
                                                               __________________________________________
   Ventilation-Perfusion matching
                                                               __________________________________________
   Ventilation perfusion ratio normally = 1
                                                               __________________________________________
42-43. Gas Diffusion                                           __________________________________________
                                                               __________________________________________
44. Oxygen Transport                                           __________________________________________
   Bound to hemoglobin (98.5%)                                 __________________________________________
   Dissolved in plasma (1.5%)                                  __________________________________________
                                                               __________________________________________
45-46. Oxygen Bound to Hemoglobin
                                                               __________________________________________
                Loading (lungs)
                                                               __________________________________________
   Hb + O2                                HbO2
                                                               __________________________________________
                Unloading (tissues)
                                                               __________________________________________
Deoxyhemoglobin                   Oxyhemoglobin
                                                               __________________________________________
   Law of Mass Action                                          __________________________________________
      Reaction driven to right in lungs                        __________________________________________
      Reaction driven to left in tissues                       __________________________________________
                                                               __________________________________________
47 – 48. Oxygen Saturation
                                                               __________________________________________
   Percentage of heme units that are bound to
                                                               __________________________________________
   oxygen
                                                               __________________________________________
   Related to PO2
                                                               __________________________________________
   Hemoglobin-Oxygen Dissociation Curve
                                                               __________________________________________

49. Affinity of Hemoglobin for Oxygen                          __________________________________________

   Decreased Affinity                                          __________________________________________

      Decreased PO2                                            __________________________________________

      Decreased pH                                             __________________________________________

         Bohr effect                                           __________________________________________
         Hb + O2 HbO2 + H+                                     __________________________________________
     Increased temperature                              __________________________________________
       Increased PCO2                                   __________________________________________
       Carbamino effect
                                                        __________________________________________
     Decreased 2,3-BPG
                                                        __________________________________________
                                                        __________________________________________
50. Carbon Dioxide Transport
  Dissolved in plasma (10%)                             __________________________________________
                                                        __________________________________________
  Bound to protein portion of Hb (30%)
                                                        __________________________________________
     Carbaminohemoglobin
                                                        __________________________________________
  Bicarbonate (60%)
                                                        __________________________________________
                                                        __________________________________________
51 – 53. Bicarbonate
                                                        __________________________________________
         carbonic anhydrase
                                                        __________________________________________
CO2 + H2O              H2CO3               H+ + HCO3-
                                                        __________________________________________
               carbonic acid              bicarbonate
                                                        __________________________________________
                                                        __________________________________________
54. Effect of O2 on CO2 Transport                       __________________________________________
  Haldane effect                                        __________________________________________
     Increased binding of O2 to hemoglobin              __________________________________________
     decreases amount of CO2 that can be                __________________________________________
     transported                                        __________________________________________
     Unloading of CO2 in lungs                          __________________________________________
     Loading of CO2 in tissues                          __________________________________________
                                                        __________________________________________
55-57. Control of Respiration
                                                        __________________________________________
  Extrinsic and intrinsic controls over respiration
                                                        __________________________________________
  Chemoreceptors:
                                                        __________________________________________
     peripheral
                                                        __________________________________________
     central
                                                        __________________________________________
  CNS
                                                        __________________________________________
  Changes in blood flow and oxygen delivery
                                                        __________________________________________
     Locally controlled
                                                        __________________________________________
  Changes in rate and depth of respiration
                                                        __________________________________________
     CNS control
                                                        __________________________________________
  Medulla oblongata                                     __________________________________________
  I neurons                                             __________________________________________
     stimulate motor neurons that innervate             __________________________________________
     respiratory muscles                                _________________________________________
  E neurons                                    __________________________________________
     Inhibit inspiratory neurons               __________________________________________
  Influenced by pontine respiratory group      __________________________________________
                                               __________________________________________
58-60. Chemoreceptors
                                               __________________________________________
  Monitor blood
                                               __________________________________________
     PCO2
                                               __________________________________________
     PO2
                                               __________________________________________
     pH
                                               __________________________________________
  Central
                                               __________________________________________
     in medulla
                                               __________________________________________
  Peripheral
                                               __________________________________________
     aortic bodies
                                               __________________________________________
     carotid bodies
                                               __________________________________________
61. Effects of PCO2 and pH                     __________________________________________
  Maintain normal CO2, O2, and pH levels       __________________________________________
  Hyperventilation                             __________________________________________
     low CO2 (hypocapnia) and increased pH     __________________________________________
  Hypoventilation                              __________________________________________
     high CO2 (hypercapnia) and decreased pH   __________________________________________
                                               __________________________________________
62-63Acid-Base Balance
                                               __________________________________________
  Acidosis
                                               __________________________________________
     pH <7.35
                                               __________________________________________
  Alkalosis
                                               __________________________________________
     pH >7.45
                                               __________________________________________
  Hemoglobin as buffer
                                               __________________________________________
  Bicarbonate as buffer
                                               __________________________________________
  Respiratory acidosis
                                               __________________________________________
     Decreased pH due to increased CO2
                                               __________________________________________
  Respiratory alkalosis
                                               __________________________________________
     Increased pH due to decreased CO2
                                               __________________________________________
  Metabolic acidosis
                                               __________________________________________
  Metabolic alkalosis
                                               __________________________________________
                                               __________________________________________
                                               __________________________________________
                                               __________________________________________
                                               __________________________________________

				
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Description: Respiratory Physiology abdominal muscle