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Woodlands

VIEWS: 121 PAGES: 39

									The Eastern
Woodlands
                                  The Region
Because the region is so large,
it is broken into smaller
geographic regions.


There are actually three
distinct areas:
    -The Great Lakes
    -The Northeast
    -The Southeast


The Great Lakes region is
included with the Northeast for
this class.
The Woodlands are
characterized by enormous
forests.
                                   The Environment
Many of the trees are deciduous
and lose their leaves each year.


Even though America has lost
90% of our forests, the general
feel of the Woodlands is still
evident.


Since there has been such a vast
amount of wood available in the
Eastern Woodlands for
thousands of years, the use of
wood in artistic construction is
also prominent.
Life in the Eastern Woodlands has been
primarily sedentary since the Archaic Period.
                                                  The Lifestyle
People lived in villages and towns, with
outlying sites for food gathering, production
and procurement.
A network of trade routes and information
systems existed thousands of years before
Contact through which goods, ideas and
materials traveled.
There was a heavier reliance on agriculture in
the southeast, and hunting and gathering in the
northeast.
Climates varied considerably from one end of
the range to the other.
                                                         The People




The tribes of the Eastern Woodlands are the
descendents and inheritors of the prehistoric cultural
complex from the Archaic period.


In both the Northeast and Southeast, there are
Ceremonial Complexes which illustrate the
continuity of cultural and artistic connection from
thousands of years ago, to today.
    Change……                     The impact of Contact
                            Trade…
Disease…                                              Adaptation…
                                                                                 Loss…


Displacement…
                                                    Population pressures…
•
•          • Disease had terrible impact on the tribes of the Eastern Woodlands as a
    result of Contact and this had powerful effect on the artistic production of tribes.
•         • In some communities, the death rates were complete and there were no
    survivors. In others, the loss of life impaired traditions and culture to the extent that
    they were unable to recover.
•         • In some cases, all that remains of some tribes are the few pieces of art that
    have survived.
                                                    The Northeast




Tribes relied on hunting and gathering for subsistence, living in villages and year-
round communities. Sme nations also farmed the “3 sisters”: corn, beans, squash.
   Sedentary agricultural villages
   Farming supplemented by hunting
       The ratio of hunting to farming varied
       Coastal people relied more on fish and shellfish
   Housing: longhouse/wigwam
   Extensive “warfare” before Europeans
   Highly developed political structures
                                   Tribes and Alliances
While there were many political alliances
between tribes in the Northeast, one of the most
famous is the Iroquois Confederacy – the
People of the Longhouse.


The Six Nations – or Haudenosaunee, remain a
powerful alliance of six tribes.
          -Onondaga
          -Cayuga
          -Mohawk
          -Oneida
          -Seneca
          -Tuscarora
                                                     The Southeast




Tribes relied on agricultural practices for subsistence, and lived in sedentary towns.
   Intensive agriculture in well watered river
    valleys and piedmont.
   Centralized political organization.
   Moundbuilders (remember this is a time period
    not a tribe): highly developed social and
    religious organization.
   Diffusion of religious ideas from Olmec of
    Mexico
              Southeastern Tribal Nations
   While there were many political
    alliances between tribes in the
    Southeast, one of the most famous
    group of nations is the Five
    Civilized Tribes.

   The Five Tribes may have been
    adversaries in the past, but are
    political and social allies today.
          -Cherokee
          -Choctaw
          -Chickasaw
          -Creek
          -Seminole
                                      Artistic Traditions




Changes in artistic conventions and traditions occurred first in the Woodlands because
the trade materials and influences were present.
                                               Fingerweaving




One of the few textile forms that is produced without a loom.
Seminole Patchwork
                                                       Silverwork




Silver working replaced Native “cold hammer” metalworking traditions after
Contact.
                                                            Shellwork




The elaborate carving and decoration of shells extends from the prehistoric period to
the present in the Eastern Woodlands.
Northeastern Basketry




         Splint and wickerwork basketry
         is very common, but many other
         styles are also produced.
Southeastern Basketry




    Wicker weave and split river-cane baskets
    are the forms most commonly produced, but
    coiled pine needle baskets are also found.
                                Woodcarving
Wooden implements like this
Chippewa ladle and
Narragansett bowl are rare.



Many carved wooden items
were destroyed during the
early years of Contact in an
effort to eradicate disease
epidemics.


Young men were often
responsible for carving the
household dishes and utensils
for their family.
                     False Face Masks
A tradition of the northern part
of the Eastern Woodlands, these
masks have been carved for
thousands of years.


To carve a mask, one must be a
member of the False Face
Society.


The masks are cared for by the
Clan Mothers, but are used by
men in healing ceremonies.


There are many different kinds
of masks because there are
many illnesses to heal.
                                        Husk Face Masks
These masks are found throughout the
Woodlands and are used for healing in the
home.


 Most families would maintain husk faces
for healing common illnesses and
complaints.
Booger Masks

This style of mask comes
from the southern part of the
Woodlands.


Carved by Cherokee artists
for dance performance,
healing, and ceremonial use.


They continued to be carved
and used by members of the
Eastern Band Cherokee in
North Carolina.
Quillwork was first impacted in the Woodlands, and
eventually nearly replaced by the use of glass seed
beads for decorating clothing and other items.
                                                      Quillwork
                            Moosehair Embroidery




A tradition which continues to be produced by a few families today.
                                               Beadwork
   The first tiny glass seed beads were
    introduced in the Woodlands as trade
    items, along with silk ribbon and
    fabrics, from the French and English.

   Native artisans quickly adapted these
    colorful and durable beads to clothing
    and adornment.

   Their desirability created change within
    tribal economic systems.

   The new glass beads nearly replaced
    the tradition of porcupine quillwork.

   Floral motifs are most common in
    Woodlands beadwork traditions.
                                                     Weaponry




Warclubs and other defensive weapons were created in response to Contact.
These were not weapons used in hunting, only for combat. Tomahawks were an
early “favorite” trade item.
Both stone and wood are used in sculpture.   Sculpture
Woodlands Artists
Martha Berry, Cherokee
Knokovtee Scott Cherokee/Creek
Rowena Bradley – Cherokee




         Split river-cane baskets with natural dyes.
Marcus Amerman, Choctaw




          Specialty - beaded portraiture.
Maude Klegg, Ojibway
Ramona Peters, Wampanoag
Clara Neptune, Passamaquoddy
Cyril Henry, Onondaga




             Soapstone carvings.
Norval Morriseau, Ojibway
  Mary Kawennatakie, Mohawk




Sweetgrass and black ash splint basketry.

								
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