Livestock production in Djibouti by pengtt


									                IGAD LIVESTOCK POLICY INITIATIVE                                        • POLICY BRIEF

                       Pro-Poor Livestock Policy in the small desert
                                   entrepôt of Djibouti

                      ivestock production in Djibouti, a        military positions, throughout the
                                                                country’s history. While the executive
                      small, young country on the Horn of
                                                                has tried to manage minority Afar
                          Africa, has a curious character:      discontent     by     distributing    some
                 it accounts for only 3-5% of GNP and 10%       appointments, goods and services, ethnic
                 of food requirements, yet is the main or       tensions erupted into civil conflict for
                 sole method of livelihood for one-half to      much of the 1990s. The final peace
                 one-third of the country’s population          accord, in 2001, brought promises of
                 and 90% of the rural populace. The vast        decentralization and electoral reform,
                 majority     of    Djiboutian     livestock    but these have yet to be truly enacted.
                 producers are extremely poor nomads,
                                                                   Under these conditions, policy and
                 engaging in traditional, non-commercial
                                                                institutional changes aimed to improve
                 subsistence pastoralism. In general, it
                                                                the lives of the livestock-dependent poor
                 does not appear that the government
                                                                are difficult. Livestock producers face
                 gives priority to the livestock sector or
                                                                additional constraints as well, including:
                 the ministry responsible for it, the
                 Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and the         Extremely harsh, arid climatic
                 Sea.                                               conditions, with severe persistent
                                                                    drought causing loss of fodder and
                                                                    livestock, which in turn has led to
                 • Political economic                               the breakdown of traditional land
                                                                    and environmental management
                   environment                                      strategies and rapid urban migration;
                     The political economy of Djibouti is
                 that of a classic neo-patrimonial rentier         Very low marketing infrastructure
                 state. Rents come from two large foreign          levels for livestock and related
                 military     bases,      the       deep-sea       products;
                 transshipment Port of Djibouti, and a
                 remarkable amount of US foreign aid.              Exceedingly low human and
                 Despite this income, Djibouti is one of           organizational capacity, with only
                 the poorest countries on earth, with 75%          27% adult literacy and a dearth of
                 national and 96.7% rural poverty levels.          resources and training opportunities;
                 Government revenue largely benefits the
                 elite at the expense of the poor, as the          Poor access to markets and credit;
                 rentier nature of the economy permits it
                 to neglect governance issues.                     Lack of alternative livelihood
                     Politics  in    Djibouti    is    highly      opportunities / exit strategies from
                 centralized     in   the     capital     and      an unproductive livestock sector;
                 personalized around the executive.
                 Djibouti is an electoral democracy,               Insufficient access to animal health
                 though the ruling party has won every             care and pharmaceuticals;
                 seat      in   every     election      since
                 independence.      This     control      has      Inadequate sanitation and hygiene
                 exacerbated tensions in the country, as           regulations and protocols in the
                 politics is sharply divided along the             sector;
                 country’s two ethnic groups, Issa and
A Living from
                 Afar, and the majority Issa have held             Lack of donor coordination on
Livestock                                                          livestock development efforts.
                 power, as well as most government and
                                               prosopis plant explosion and to help the
• Bringing livestock issues to                 GORD     provide    training,    extension
  the fore                                     services and water retention facilities
                                               for gardeners are also feasible.
    Two recent developments, however,
have changed the marginal status of
livestock issues. First, severe repeated       • Animal health
droughts have resulted in rapid
urbanization      rates     that    have          Deregulating or simplify licensing
overwhelmed the government’s urban             processes for veterinary pharmacies so
service capabilities. As a result, the         that drugs could be made available
Government of the Republic of Djibouti         outside the capital would greatly assist
(GORD) has found new interest in rural         the livestock-dependent poor, as would
development. Second, Djibouti has been         allowing the importation of animal-
given an opportunity to quarantine Horn        specific medicines from non-European
of Africa livestock for export to the          sources. Follow-up for the nascent
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which has             CAHWs program, including an assessment
banned East African livestock for nearly       of its impact to date and both continued
a decade.                                      training for the CAHWs and sensitization
    Because of these changes, a number         campaigns generally would also be
of politically feasible strategic entry        beneficial.
points now exist on which to engage
policy or institutional change that will
help the livestock dependent poor.             • Trade and export
• Capacity building in the                        Working with MAEM and the Ministry
                                               of Commerce to update hygiene
  Ministry of Agriculture,                     regulations for livestock trade and
  Livestock and the Sea                        export, including for the quarantine,
  (MAEM)                                       abattoir, and livestock market will be
                                               crucial for Djibouti to maintain access to
    Since the GORD is currently focused        export markets. Regionally, FAO will look
both on rural development to slow              to the Inter-Governmental Authority on
urbanization and on developing a               Development’s Livestock Policy Initiative
competent authority for livestock export       (IGAD LPI) to take a role in coordinating
certifications, supporting MAEM should         overlapping     livestock-related   donor
be       well      received.      Increasing   projects, as well as providing a regular
management, planning and technical             forum for the facilitation of accords and
skills, as well as the number of qualified     harmonization      of   disease    control
staff will provide MAEM with the ability       regulations and protocols between IGAD
to write feasible multi-year policies,         member states and target importers.
reduce the need to work in “crisis”
mode, supply human resources for data
collection and analysis, and allow MAEM
to develop its animal health services,
including its nascent Community Animal
Health Worker (CAHW) program. A
complete capacity assessment of MAEM
should be initiated as the first step.

• Rural development                             Policy Brief based on:
    Because of the prolonged drought, it        The Political Economy of Pro-Poor
will be important for the GORD to               Livestock Policy: the Case of Djibouti,
introduce a new pastoral law for the            Jennifer N. Brass.
management      and    preservation  of         Date of Publication: 2007
pasturelands.        Researching    and
implementing ways to deal with the

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