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Radiology DEPARTMENT OF RADIOLOGY AND ONCOTHERAPY abdominal pain

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Radiology DEPARTMENT OF RADIOLOGY AND ONCOTHERAPY abdominal pain

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									         DEPARTMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY AND ONCOTHERAPY

                                        Exam questions

1. Lung segmental anatomy included projections on plain film.
2. Fluoroscopy, radiography, indirect and direct digital imaging.
3. Lung screening techniques. AMBER. PACS. RIS. HIS.
4. Computed tomography of the chest. Sequential, Helical, HRCT.
5. Hounsfield Units, window technique for lung and mediastinum.
6. Angiographic, US, CT and MR contrast materials.
7. DSA, Seldinger, selective angiography.
8. Interventional radiology in pulmonary and heart diseases.
9. Clinical impact of ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy.
10. Conventional and flow sensitive MR in pulmonary embolism.
11. Imaging of obstructive lung diseases.
12. Imaging of restrictive lung diseases.
13. Imaging of granulomatous lung diseases.
14. Organic and anorganic dust inhalation related diseases.
15. Radiologic categories of inflammatory lung diseases.
16. Primary and secondary bronchiectasis.
17. Lung and heart imaging in congestive diseases.
18. Imaging of pleural disorders.
19. Imaging of diseases of diaphragm.
20. Primary lung tumours and imaging.
21. Secondary malignancies in the lung.
22. Mediastinal disorders on plain film radiography.
23. Mediastinal US, CT, EBCT, MR imaging.
24. Cardiac nuclear medicine modalities.
25. Side effects, complications and emergency care after iv. contrast administration.
26. Gastrointestinal contrast materials in upper and lower tracts.
27. Imaging of functional, organic and postoperative esophageal diseases.
28. Imaging modalities of the stomach and duodenum.
29. Gastrointestinal bleeding.
30. Imaging modalities of the small bowel.
31. Radiologic anatomy of the lower gastrointestinal tract.
32. Imaging of colorectal diseases.
33. Symptomatic and asymptomatic upper gastrointestinal tumours.
34. Symptomatic and asymptomatic lower gastrointestinal tumours.
35. Postoperative radiologic procedures.
36. Imaging of acute abdominal pain syndromes.
37. Imaging of chronic abdominal pain syndromes.
38. Retroperitoneal anatomy. Retroperitoneal spreading of inflammations and tumours.
39. Imaging of the acute pancreatitis.
40. Chronic pancreatitis.
41. Imaging of the adrenal gland diseases.
42. Diseases and imaging of the aorta.
43. Diagnostic algorithm of kidney and ureter imaging.
44. Diagnostic algorithm of prostate and testicular imaging.
45. Interventional procedures in urogenital radiology.
46. Diagnostic algorithm of female pelvic imaging.
47. Basic diagnostic categories of bone radiography.
48. Radiologic algorithm of osteoporosis diagnostic.
49. Metabolic and hormone dysfunction related musculoskeletal changes.
50. Imaging of joint disorders.
51. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue disorders.
52. Bone reaction types in low- and in high growth rate osseal lesions.
53. Imaging algorithm of primary and secondary bone tumours.
54. Spine imaging.
55. Imaging of acute intracranial disorders.
56. Intracranial tumour imaging.
57. Imaging of chronic non-tumour intracranial diseases.
58. Imaging of maxillofacial and cranial pain syndromes.
59. Types and imaging of hydrocephalus.
60. Segmental anatomy of the liver.
61. Imaging algorithm of solitary liver lesions.
62. Imaging algorithm of diffuse and multiple liver lesions.
63. Biliary imaging modalities without and with hepatotrope molecules.
64. Interventional procedures in the hepato-biliary system.
65. Splenic imaging algorithm.
66. Diagnostic algorithm of breast cancer screening.
67. Diagnostic algorithm of patients with clinical symptoms of breast.
68. Radiotherapy of breast cancer.
69. Complex oncotherapy of breast cancer patients.
70. Direct and indirect radio-biologic effects.
71. Deterministic and stochastic effects of ionizing radiation.
72. Genetic and somatic hazards of ionizing radiation.
73. Acute radiation injury related syndromes.
74. Chronic radiation-related syndromes.
75. Physical factors of radiation sensitivity. Physical dose, biological dose, LET, RBE.
76. Cellular factors of radiation sensitivity. Cell cycle.
77. Radiation sensitivity in comparison of different tissue types.
78. Radiation sensitivity of the human organs and organism.
79. Complex medical care of acute radiation injury patients.
80. Repair, regeneration, abortive regeneration, repopulation, reoxigenization.
81. Radiation protection of patient, of staff, of environment. Dosimetry.
82. Computer assisted 2D and 3D dose planning.
83. Fractional radiation therapy.
84. Protraction in radiation therapy.
85. Open and closed radiation sources.
86. Modalities of teletherapy.
87. Modalities of brachytherapy.
88. Curative and palliative radiation therapy.
89. Side effects and complications of radiation therapy, patient care.
90. Protocols for radiation therapy in combination of drug and hormone cancer therapy.
91. Chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy.
92. Tumour epídemiology and imaging requirements.
93. Grading and staging. TNM system and imaging modalities.
94. Imaging of recurrent and residual tumours.
95. Curative and palliative oncotherapy.
96. Interventional chemotherapy, embolisation. PEI, cryotherapy, thermotherapy. Local pain
    therapy modalities.
97. Long term psychologic and somatic care of cancer patients, systemic pain therapy.
98. Breast cancer staging and radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
99. Gynecologic cancer staging and radiation therapy indications.
100. Lymphoma staging and radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.



INVASIVE AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY 2002 - 2003
PROF. Laszlo ENGLONER M. D.

2nd DEPT. of MEDICINE, SEMMELWEIS UNIVERSITY, BUDAPEST

INVASIVE AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY INVASIVE RADIOLOGY
MEANING
DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS WHICH HAVE POTENTIAL
POSSIBILITY OF COMPLICATIONS FOR THE PATIENTS
for instance urography- because water soluble X-ray contrast medium
is injected intravenously before examination

INVASIVE AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
MEANING
THERAPEUTIC RADIOLOGICAL PROCEEDINGS WHICH ARE BASED ON INVASIVE METHODS
FOR EXAMPLE: PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL ANGIOPLASTY - PTA :
a radiological methods for treatment of arterial stenosis using balloon
catheter
INVASIVE AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY METHODS

TRANSLUMBAR PUNCTION -
  DOS SANTOS METHOD
 no palpable femoral arteries
 general anesthesy
 patient is lying prone

INVASIVE AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
  EQUIPMENTS
  CONTRAST MATERIALS
    MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTRAST MATERIALS FOR ANGIO and CT

WATER SOLUBLE
RENAL EXCRETION BY GLOMERULAR FILTRATION
NO TOXICITY
VERY GOOD ENHANCEMENT EFFECT
INVASIVE AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
CONTRAST MATERIALS FOR ANGIO/CT

TYPES :
1. LOW OSMOLARITY C.M.
   NON IONIC
   IONIC
2. HIGH OSMOLARITY C.M.
   IONIC

INVASIVE AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY INVASIVE DIAGNOSTIC PROCEEDINGS
  ANGIOGRAPHY
  PERCUTAN TRANSHEPATIC CHOLANGIOGRAPHY - PTC
   DUCTOGRAPHY
   FISTULOGRAPHY
   BIOPSIES

INVASIVE AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY ANGIOGRAPHY
MEANING
X- ray examination of vessels using water soluble x ray contrast material (
c.m.)
ARTERIOGRAPHY: c.m. is injected into the arteries - directly or through
catheters
VENOGRAPHY: c.m. is injected into the veins directly or through catheters
LYMPHOGRAPHY: oil c.m. ! is injected into the lymphatic vessels directly

ARTERIOGRAPHY
AORTOGRAPHY : EXAMINATION OF AORTIC ARCH,THORACIC AND ABDOMINAL AORTA
SELECTIVE ARTERIOGRAPHY : EXAMINATION OF ARTERIES DERIVED FROM AORTA
CAROTID-,VERTEBRAL-,SUBCLAVIAN-, COELIAC- , ILIAC ARTERIES ETC.
SUPERSELECTIVE ARTERIOGRAPHY : EXAMINATION OF THE NEXT ARTERIAL JUNCTIONS
HEPATIC DEXTRA-, SINISTRA -, ETC

VENOGRAPHY
CAVOGRAPHY: EXAMINATION OF SUPERIOR OR INFERIOR VENA CAVA
LYMPHOGRAPHY
EXAMINATION OF THE LYMPHATIC VESSELS AND NODES ( the water soluble c.m. is not
suitable)
NOT APPLIED for modern imaging technics

PERCUTAEOUS TRANSHEPATIC CHOLANGIOGRAPHY: PTC
MEANING:
AN INVASIVE X- RAY EXAMINATION OF BILE DUCT SYSTEM BY PERCUTANEOUS PUNCTION,
CROSSING LIVER PARENCHYMA AND CONTRAST MATERIAL FILLING
INDICATIONS:
BILE DUCT DILATATION
DIAGNOSTIC AIM JUST BEFORE DRAINAGE

DUCTOGRAPHY
MEANING
EXCRETORY ORGANS EXAMINATIONS: BY CANULATION OR OF DUCTAL SYSTEM AND CONTRAST
FILLING
FISTULOGRAPHY
MEANING
EXAMINATION OF POSTOPEREATIVE OR OTHER FISTULAS
BEFORE SURGICAL TREATMENT

BIOPSIES
1. FINE NEEDLE BIOPSY ASPIRATION
2. CORE BIOPSY
GUIDENCE BY
ULTRASOUND
CT
MR
X-RAY

INTERVENTIONS
VASCULAR INTERVENTION
NON VASCULAR INTERVENTION
TUMOR THERAPY
OTHERS

VASCULAR INTERVENTION
PERCUTAN TRANSLUMINAL ANGIOPLASTY   - PTA
ENDOPROTHESIS - STENTS
FILTERS
RECANALIZATION of VESSELS
EMBOLIZATION - ARTIFICIAL OCCLUSION of VESSELS

PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL ANGIOPLASTY - PTA
MEANING:
TREATMENT OF STENOTIC LESIONS OF ARTERIES AND VEINS - USING BALLON CATHETER
INDICATIONS:
SEGMENTAL STENOSIS - TREATMENT
COMBINATION WITH STENT IMPLANTATION
COMBINATION WITH SELECTIVE THROMBOLYSIS
RESULTS
COMPLICATIONS

ENDOPROTHESIS - STENT
VASCULAR STENTS
BALLOON STENT
SELF-EXPANDING STENTS

CAVA FILTER-s: temporary, permanent
MEANING:A FILTER CAN BE PLACED INTO THE OF PULMONAR EMBOLI
RECANALIZATION
MEANING :
RESOLVING OF ARTERIAL OCCLUSION
BY
- THROMBOLYSIS

SPECIAL EQUIPMENTS
ROTATORS ATHERECTOMY CATHETER ETC..
INVASIVE AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
EMBOLIZATION
MEANING: ARTIFICIAL CATHETER OCCLUSION OF VESSELS
INDICATIONS
MATERIALS

INVASIVE AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY  ORGAN INTERVENTIONS
LIVER - TIPS
transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts :
treatment of portal hypertension
INDICATION
METHOD
RESULT
COMPLICATION

BILE DUCT INTERVENTION
PTD - PERCUTAN TRANSHEPATIC DRAINAGE
EXTERNAL
INTERNAL
BILE DUCT STENTS
GALL-BLADDER PUNCTION - DRAINAGE

KIDNEY
ANGIOPLASTY OF RENAL ARTERY
EMBOLIZATION
PERCUTAN NEPHROSTOMY
DILATATION OF URETER STENOSIS

TUMOR THERAPY
RADIOFREQUENCY - TUMOR ABLATION
LASER - TUMOR ABLATION
PERCUTAN ETHANOL INJECTION
VASCULAR METHODS
LOCAL INTRAARTERIAL CHEMOTHERAPY
INFUSION TECHNIC
INDICATION
LOCAL INTRAARTERIALCHEMOEMBOLIZATION IN LIVER TUMOURS
MATERIALS
INDICATIONS

								
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