E1481 Second Emergency Municipal Services Rehabilitation Project (EMSRP II) Environmental Management Plan (EMP) Background: 1. Introduction: The World Bank has granted US$10 million to the Palestinian municipal sector through the Second Emergency Municipal Services Rehabilitation Project (EMSRP II). This Project would support the participating municipalities in the West Bank and Gaza through the Municipal Development and Lending Fund (MDLF) to restore and maintain the essential municipal services and create temporary employment opportunities. It will build on the achievements of the Emergency Municipal Services Rehabilitation Project and in particular that related to establishing a mechanism - Municipal Development and Lending Fund (MDLF) - for channeling international and national support to the municipal system on a more rational, transparent and coordinated way, and to assist with overall development of the sector. 2. Environmental Category: This Project is rated a category “B” in accordance with World Bank Operational Policy 4.01 (January 1998). This due to the likelihood to finance investments which may have an impact on the environment but which can be easily mitigated. The investments are likely to include: rehabilitation and maintenance of internal and access municipal roads, water and sanitation services, storm water drainage networks, maintenance of public facilities such as schools, health services centers, parks as well the construction, through an intensive labor methods, of addendums to schools, health centers and community centers, as well as other municipal assets that would generate municipal revenue streams. Therefore, some negative impacts which are easily mitigated may occur due to the implementation of the rehabilitation and maintenance sub-projects. As a result, An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) was prepared for the project. The EMP would aim to provide a review, analysis and recommendations of the best mitigation measures that the project management team shall consider during implementation. 3. Investment Components: This Project cost will be US$37.2 million of which US$10 million of Bank financing and US$6.3 million of Dutch financing with fund administration is yielded to the Bank in addition to other donor financing expected to be provided in parallel financing but through the same implementing agency, i.e. MDLF. The will have four components, the first of which will support investments in physical municipal service rehabilitation sub- projects through the MDLF (estimated cost US$20.4 million), while the second will support investments in job creation type sub-projects (estimated cost US$13.1 million), the third will support MDLF innovation window including piloting a prepaid electricity meters concept (estimated US$1.2 million) and the fourth will support MDLF project management cost (estimated cost US$2.5 million). 4. EMSRP II will like to finance sub-projects from the following positive list: Sub-projects related to infrastructure rehabilitation, maintenance and upgrading and goods and equipment for service delivery are likely to include: Public Facilities: maintenance of municipal buildings and structures especially that associated with service delivery such as maintenance garage of municipal vehicles and equipment, rehabilitation, maintenance and upgrading of public schools and community centers, rehabilitation and maintenance of beach watching towers, etc. Roads Sector: maintenance of roads and road networks, installation of road medians, road marking and stripping and sidewalks within existing right-of-way, replacement of damaged traffic lights and signs, and rehabilitation and maintenance of retaining walls. Water and Wastewater Sector: rehabilitation, maintenance and upgrading of existing networks, reservoirs, wells, meters, connections and pumps; this also includes supply of spares and chlorine used for water purification. Electricity Sector: rehabilitation, maintenance and upgrading of electrical networks, supply and maintenance of transformers and generators; this includes supply of equipment, machinery, meters, cables and spares. Solid Waste Sector: maintenance of existing waste collection vehicles and containers including repair or replacement of broken parts, supply of new vehicles and containers; and service contracts for solid waste collection wherever relevant, and supply of WHO approved pesticides for combating insects and rodents. Budgetary Support (Recurrent Expenditures) is likely to include: Supply of goods and equipment to assist in restoring essential municipal services including: cost of fuel, cost of maintenance and repair of services vehicles provided by the private sector, municipal waste dumping fees at approved landfills, electricity bills for water and waste water pumps and street lighting, transport fees of municipal waste if contracted to private sector, cost of removal of waste resultant of demolished houses and streets. Labor-intensive Employment Generation related activities: Rehabilitation, maintenance and upgrading of side walks, retaining and boundary walls for public assets, Road islands, medians, plantation, painting and cleaning; beach cleaning; rehabilitation, maintenance and upgrading of play grounds and public parks; rehabilitation of destroyed or damaged municipal buildings due to conflict or deferred maintenance; rehabilitation and maintenance of public garages. 5. Institutional Structure: The implementation responsibility of this Project will be with the MDLF with close cooperation and coordination with Ministry of Local Government and the participating/eligible municipalities. The MDLF’s core team recruited and trained through the Bank’s MIDP-II and EMSRP will provide the continuity of the understanding of the Bank’s environmental policies as well as the experience on the ground in monitoring and mitigating the anticipated environmental implications created by the implemented sub-projects. This Project would further develop such capacity by either financing additional training to specific MDLF’s operations staff which would be designated as “an environmental officer(s)” who would be responsible for reviewing, advising and reporting on environmental issues. The MDLF would also benefit from the services of a number of local consulting firms in both the West Bank and in Gaza who have been involved over the past 5 years in Bank financed municipal projects and have developed a good understanding of Bank’s environmental policies. These firms will be asked to carryout annual audit of the environment indicators and report on the compliance (or lack of it) with the EMP. Such experiences would be tapped to help the MDLF in supervising sub-projects on the ground and providing advice and guidance on environmental issues and mitigation measures. 6. Environmental Audit of Sample Sub-Projects: A rapid environmental audit was carried out during the preparation of Municipal Management and Service Delivery Project (MMSDP), a project that was planned for Board presentation in May 2006. MMSDP was build on EMSRP’s institutional achievements and with greater focus on the local government development agenda. As the condition in West Bank and Gaza continued to deteriorate a demand for a second generation EMSRP was eminent. With the limited time on hand to prepare an EA for EMSRP II, it was agreed with the client that the EA prepared for MMSDP would be relevant since a number of subprojects that were audited may be financed by EMSRP II’s first component related to maintenance of local road networks as well as the second component related to labor intensive municipal service delivery and community services. 7. The audit was carried out by an independent consultant contracted by the client (Municipal Development and Lending Fund) of 20 randomly selected locally prioritized sub-projects (17 in West Bank and 3 in Gaza) representing the type of sub-projects which EMSRP II would finance. The sample included sub-projects in the roads sub-sector (16 rehabilitation and maintenance of roads), education sector (3 maintenance and upgrading of schools/classrooms, a service that this within the municipal mandate especially in the West Bank), and other labor intensive types projects with minimum 50% of labor content. Dust and gases emissions Water (wastewater, surface water discharge, storm water) Construction waste Accidental risks Loss of vegetation Aesthetics 8. The 20 sub-projects include 14 road sub-projects (13 roads and 1 road and sewage pipes), 3 educational (schools) sub-projects, 1 street lighting sub-project, and 1 street signing, marking and furnishing sub-project. The potential impacts would be those associated with: (i) Rehabilitation, maintenance and upgrading of roads and road networks (construction safety, noise, dust, waste material, and vehicular traffic); (ii) Provision of sanitary and electricity services; and (iii) Rehabilitation, maintenance and upgrading of schools. 9. A desk top review by the MDLF was carried for those types of sub-projects that are likely to be financed by EMSRP II but was not covered by the audit. This is primarily related to sub- projects that were financed by EMSRP in municipal services especially that in the area of maintenance of water, wastewater, roads and electricity networks in addition to municipal waste collection and disposal. In addition to goods related to chlorine for water supply and insects and rodent control. The review relied on the various monitoring reports over the life of EMSRP. 10. In general, the audit and the desk top review yielded positive conclusions. All of the sub- projects will benefit local communities through: (i) improved access to essential social and other services, (ii) improved quality of environment and sanitation, (iii) more temporary employment opportunities during construction and more sustainable ones during operations and maintenance especially in communities with high rate of unemployment, (iv) will contribute to the preservation of valuable cultural and historical assets through improvement of the surrounding environment, improved access to them and therefore which may lead into job creation from improved internal and external tourism. 11. The audit and the desk top review have yielded positive conclusions. Both identified that most of these sub-projects will contribute positively to the communities that are situated in whether in terms of improved access to essential social and other services, improved quality of environment and sanitation, will provide opportunities temporary employment opportunities during construction and more sustainable ones during operations and maintenance especially in communities with high rate of unemployment, will contribute to the preservation of valuable cultural and historical assets through improvement of the surrounding environment, improved access to them and therefore improved attention by the authorities to allocate the necessary resources for protection and preservation. 12. The audit and the review have highlighted that environmental impacts are expected to be minimal. These impacts would be easily mitigated by following the EMP prepared for the project. The potential impacts are related to a possible increase in gas emissions due to generated and/or increased traffic, increased level of noise, improper disposal of construction waste, potential for threat to cultural assets. 13. The potential adverse impacts would be restricted in scope and severity, such as: Dust, noise and odor due to demolition and new construction; Increased air pollution due to traffic congestion; Increased traffic accidents; Risk for aesthetic and vegetation; Inadequate handling of construction waste; Risk for road accessibility and health; Excessive use of chemical dosage in water supply and pest control; and Risk for cultural heritage assets. 14. Environmental Management Plan (EMP): The EMP has been prepared based on the existing environmental situation and the auditing requirements. These requirements were realized after analyzing each of the 20 sub-projects and a sample of sub-projects financed under the first EMSRP. The sample represents in general the types of sub-projects and sectors that EMSRP II will finance and their anticipated impacts and identified mitigation measures. Based on the audit and assessment of the projects, the EMP highlighted the following elements: Site-specific environmental screening review and assessment of key environmental issues. An environmental audit of similar projects and regular maintenance and rehabilitation of essential infrastructure. Ensure adequate consultation during the assessment process. Develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan. Develop methodologies and procedures to be applied in context of the EMP. Grouping the sub-projects into sectors Roads, Water and Wastewater, Electricity, Solid waste, Public Buildings and Facilities and Chemicals. 15. The EMP is prepared in compliance with the Palestinian environmental laws and municipal bylaws. It provides tools for the evaluation and management of the impacted environmental parameters and they are: Dust and gases emissions Water (wastewater, surface water discharge, storm water) Construction waste Accidental risks Loss of vegetation 16. The EMP has included specific guidelines as mitigation measures for safe handling of the pests and management for the insects and rodent control (please see Annex 1 entitled Pest Management Plan). These guidelines have been authorized by the Palestinian Ministry of Health. The EMP has also included some mitigation measures that should be considered while using transformers that contain PCBs (please see Annex 2 entitled “Maintenance and Replacement of PCBs based electrical transformers, Safety instructions and mitigations measures for participating municipalities”). 17. The EMP elaborated the requirements for the environmental management and monitoring of the Municipal Infrastructure and Services Audit (MISA) projects and provided tools for the environmental auditing. The overall assessment is provided by means of general judgment and statements using tables, which can be summarized that the MISA projects are positive and their impacts are manageable and can be controlled. 18. Site specific Environmental Screening, Review and Assessment. The MDLF will have the responsibility of reviewing and assessing the environmental feasibility of the proposed sub- projects. This will be carried out by the MDLF team who has prior experience from EMSRP but will receive additional environment specific training during the life of the project. The MDLF team will also liaise with key stakeholders including EQA and the recipient municipalities. The team will also liaise with the appropriate officials from the Department of Antiquities at the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities where needed. 19. An environmental audit of a sample of implemented sub-projects will be carried on an annual basis by specialized consulting firms recruited by the MDLF and financed by the project. This consultant will also assess the MDLF team capacity and performance and recommend areas that need further strengthening. 20. Environmental Capacity Building and Training Program: The MDLF and through its Capacity Building Department and in cooperation with EQA will initiate specifically tailored environment related training to municipal project related officials. It will also liaise with the Palestinian Engineers Syndicate and the Contractors Association to carry out similar training tailored to contractors. Training will be conducted both in the West Bank and in Gaza. 21. Mitigation Measures: The primary objective of environmental management plan is to define the necessary mitigation measures that would be considered / implemented at the various stages of project implementation (design, construction and post construction). The type and magnitude of the impacts vary one sub-project to another depending on the scale, local hosting environment and tools adopted for physical implementation. 22. The environmental audit adopted a methodology of consultation and requesting feedback from potential beneficiaries through a well designed and structured questionnaire. The questionnaire covered public and environmental health, water and sanitation, solid waste, noise and psychological comfort, land use, air pollution and public safety. 23. The results of the questionnaire are considered as indicators of the improvements in the different environmental subjects. Both positive and negative impacts on the environment and social life are presented in details as the findings of the environmental audit. Environmental auditing is recommended during the different phases of the project to ensure further assessment of the impacts and to control their effects. The following environmental matrix shows the expected impacts covered by the reviewed sub-projects and lists the mitigations to be implemented prior, during and post the construction phase of the sub-projects. 24. EMP and Monitoring Cost Estimate: The cost associated with implementing the EMP and monitoring of environmental safeguards is accommodated by the project and estimated at US$104,250. The project will finance as part of the MDLF’s management fee the remuneration of an environmental specialist as a member of its core team. While, the cost of related designs, clean up and disposal of construction debris and waste will be included in the sub-project contract financed by the Grant. This is estimated to cost on average around 3-5% of the municipal grants. 25. The cost of supervision and monitoring the EMP as well as the proposed training programs addressed to municipal staff and eligible contractors will be part of the Terms of Reference of the Local Technical Consulting firms (LTC) to be contracted by the MDLF for the entire life of the project. The Terms of Reference of these firms have been reviewed and approved by the Bank’s team. The LTC will report on semi-annual basis the compliance with the EMP and recommend actions for non-compliance cases. 26. The costs associated with implementing post construction measures will be financed through the annual municipal budgets for operations and maintenance of assets and infrastructure. During the supervision missions, the Bank team will review at random a sample municipal budgets and confirm that such budget include specific line items for post project mitigation measures. Table 1: Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan Matrix No. Sector Phase Impact Mitigation Measure Operation Supervision 1 Road Sub- Constructi Dust generated by Monitor the excavations. Consultant and Municipality Projects on construction activities. Applying (spraying) water where Contractor and Supervision (14) possible. Engineer Avoid work during windy days. Proper activity scheduling and Consultant and Municipality working hours and days. Contractor and Supervision Engineer Increasing the concentration Proper scheduling and working Consultant and Municipality of pollutants and noise. hours and of any risky activities. Contractor Increase the risk of accidents Traffic regulation signs and Contractor and Municipality during construction. Traffic calming measures. Consultant and Supervision Engineer Use signs to control speed limit. Contractor Municipality and Supervision Engineer Provision of adequate notification Contractor and Municipality procedures for any road closures Consultant and Supervision Engineer Loss of aesthetic features Monitor the using of safety Consultant and Municipality due to illegal dumps. measures. Contractor and Supervision Engineer Dump at proper and approved Consultant and Municipality sites. Contractor and Supervision Engineer Potential accidental break of Survey of existing facilities Consultant and Municipality other water lines and other during the design. Contractor and Supervision utilities. The contractor consults relevant Engineer utilities, agencies or companies. Construction waste Proper plans for disposing off Consultant Municipality generated. construction waste including waste generated from used machinery (used oil) to be included in the contract documents. Due to obstruction, traffic Monitor the use of traffic signs, Consultant and Municipality concentration will be safety measures and tools. Contractor and Supervision transferred to other streets Engineer causing traffic congestions. Post- Long-term traffic increase. Traffic signs to reduce the traffic Consultant and Municipality constructi (one-way sign) and traffic Contractor and Supervision on calming signs. Engineer Increase the risk of Traffic regulation signs and traffic Consultant Municipality accidents. calming measures. Cumulative increase in dust Control the traffic speed. Municipality and gas emissions because of Maintain vegetation cover. more traffic movement. Regular checks of vehicle. Maintenance of new assets Prepare an annual maintenance Municipality MOLG (roads and associated plan as well as setting an wastewater and storm allocation for the necessary drainage networks) financial resources in the annual budget. 2 School Constructi Dust generated by Monitor the excavations. Consultant Municipality and Health on construction activities. Applying (spraying) water where Contractor and Supervision facilities possible.Avoid work during Engineer Sub- windy days. projects Increase the risk of Proper scheduling of any risky Consultant and Municipality (3) accidents. activities. Contractor and Supervision Engineer Traffic signs to ensure proper Consultant and Municipality routing and distribution of traffic. Contractor and Supervision Engineer Construction waste Clear site management plans and Contractor Municipality generated and left in site. dumping at proper and approved and Supervision sites Engineer Improper disposal of Ensure that the facilities are Contractor Municipality generated waste. connected to either wastewater and Supervision network and if not available to a Engineer septic tank that is regularly maintained. Post- Loss of aesthetic due to the Design of landscaping around the Consultant Municipality constructi increase in built-up areas. facility. on Noise around the facility by Traffic regulation signs and traffic Consultant Municipality traffic movement. calming measures. Improper disposal and pile Cleaning and removal of wastes Contractor Municipality up of construction wastes to landfills or designated areas. and Supervision Engineer Inadequate functioning of Ensure systematic maintenance of Municipal Municipality the wastewater collection the network/septic tanks. Maintenance system. Department 3 Maintenan Constructi Increasing the concentration Proper scheduling and monitor of Consultant and Municipality ce of on of pollutants, noise and odor. any risky activities. Contractor and Supervision water, Engineer wastewate Dust generated by r, storm construction activities. drainage Disturb the features. networks Increase the risk of disease Monitor the using of safety Consultant and Municipality measures and tools. Contractor and Supervision Engineer Loss of aesthetic features Proper plans for disposing off Consultant and Municipality due to illegal dumps. broken pipes, manholes and other Contractor and Supervision waste to be included in the Engineer contract documents. Construction waste Clear site management plans and Contractor Municipality generated. dumping at proper and approved and Supervision sites Engineer Post- Regular maintenance of Monitor the clogging or breakage Municipality Municipality constructi networks in the network and respond on immediately to maintain it. Ensure that disposal of wastewater is done properly. 4 Road Constructi Risks during maintenance Maintenance activities should be Consultant and Municipality Lighting on activities (electric shocks, carried out in off-peak periods. Contractor and Supervision and/or fallen objects, cutting wires). Engineer Furnishing Sub- projects (2) Electricity cut off due to Follow safety measures and Consultant and Municipality maintenance activities. conditions. Contractor and Supervision Engineer Post- Electricity poles hinder the Relocate electricity poles. Consultant and Municipality constructi movement and traffic. Contractor and Supervision on Engineer The cables, which are very close Consultant and Municipality to houses, should be replaced and Contractor and Supervision insulated. Engineer Routine checks to installed poles. Municipality Municipality Maintenan Project Negative impact on ground Ensure the follow up of proper Municipal Municipality 5. water. procedure of disposal of Maintenance and Supervision ce and Implemen Replaceme tation transformers especially those with Department Engineer nt of PCBs content. Electric a. the transformers should be Transform cased off tightly in a non degradable plastic bags and ers land-filled in the approved locations by the municipality. b. Procurement of all new transformers should be non- PCBs to the extent that the market provides alternatives at competitive cost. 6. Use of Project Negative impacts on human Ensure that only WHO approved Municipality MDF / Pesticides Implemen health especially those with pesticides is used. Supervision tation Asthma or due to over dose Engineer application. Ensure that residents are alerted in Municipality Supervision advance on the location and Engineer timing of spaying the pesticides. Application should be carried out Municipality Supervision during low activity hours. Engineer Ensure that pesticides are Municipality Supervision packaged, labeled, handled, Engineer stored, disposed of, and applied according to standards acceptable to the Bank. 1 Uncovered Accidental Stop construction activities. Contractor MOTA & LTC Historical excavation Immediately notify Ministry of and of cultural Tourism and Antiquities. 7. Cultural heritage Heritage and Assets archaeologi cal assets. General Comment: The contractor shall communicate closely with all relevant parties prior and during the construction phase including MUNICIPALITY, EQA and Department of Antiquities at the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities. 1 The FAO’s Guidelines for Packaging and Storage of Pesticides (Rome, 1985), Guidelines on Good Labeling Practice for Pesticides (Rome, 1985), and Guidelines for the Disposal of Waste Pesticide and Pesticide Containers on the Farm (Rome, 1985) are used as minimum standards. Table 2: EMP Cost Estimates: Activity Quantity Unit Rate in By Whom Total in US$ US$ 1) Environment Specialist at MDLF (@ 50% 1 1,500/month MDLF 29,250 over 3 year period) cost to be shared with other donors. 2) Capacity Building and Training (workshops) 10 2,000 LTC 20,000 3) Environment Assessments for subprojects 4 5,000/assessment LTC 20,000 were needed (local consultancy) 4) Random Environmental Audits through 3 10,000/year LTC 30,000 consulting firm 5) Miscellaneous 5,000 MDLF 5,000 Total 104,250 NOTE: The above budget is exclusively devoted to environmental monitoring. Items 1 and 5 will be part of the MDLF’s budget while Items 2, 3 and 4 will be part of the TORs for the Local Technical Consulting firms (LTC) who will be contracted by the MDLF for the life of the project. Cost of design and implementation of mitigation measures will be financed from the grants issued to the municipalities and not from the above budget. It is estimated that such costs would be on average around 3-5% of the municipal grants. Annex 1 Pest Management Plan Introduction Many municipalities in the West Bank and Gaza are responsible for providing the necessary services for protecting and controlling the public health from pests and other kinds of reptiles. A number of these muncipalities have indicated, when asked, that the used pesticides must be certified by the Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH). MOH conducts the needed inspection arrangements and licensing on regularly basis on materials purchased by the municipalities or purchased directly by the MOH and distributed to municipalities for use under special arrangements and consideration of specific mitigation measures. The developed Palestinian standard used by the MOH and approved by the National Standards Institute is based on the WHO standard. The MDLF has developed the following environmental instructions that should be used during procurement of goods, using and storing of pesticides for those sub-projects aiming at purchasing pesticides. However, the MDLF mitigation measures are based on the international practices accepted by the World Bank and based on the Palestinian environmental policies and standard. Purchasing of Pesticides Based on the FAO’s Guidelines for Packaging and Storage of Pesticides (Rome, 1985), the procurement of any pesticide in a Bank-financed project is contingent on an assessment of the nature and degree of associated risks, taking into account the proposed use and intended users. With respect to the classification of pesticides and their specific formulations, the Bank refers to the World Health Organization’s Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification (Geneva: WHO 1994-95). The following criteria apply to the selection and use of pesticides in Bank- financed projects and sub-projects: (a) They must have negligible adverse human health effects. (b) They must be shown to be effective against the target species. (c) They must have minimal effect on non-target species and the natural environment. The methods, timing, and frequency of pesticide application are aimed to minimize damage to natural enemies. Pesticides used in public health programs must be demonstrated to be safe for inhabitants and domestic animals in the treated areas, as well as for personnel applying them. (d) Their use must take into account the need to prevent the development of resistance in pests. The Bank requires that any pesticide it finances be manufactured, packaged, labeled, handled, stored, disposed of, and applied according to standards acceptable to the Bank. In reference to the Local Council Law no.1 for year 1997/Article (15) municipalities in West Bank and Gaza Strip are responsible for protecting and controlling the public health within their villages and cities and conducting the needed arrangements to clean and kill insects, pests, and other reptiles. Those municipalities responsible for purchasing needed pesticides should follow special arrangements specified by the Palestinian Ministry of Health, these instructions are as following: 1. The contractor and pesticide provider should include in the bidding documents a certification indicating that the offered material is licensed by the MOF as material accepted to be used with no effect on public health; 2. Certifications should be original and written in English or Arabic; 3. The material should include a data sheet clarifying the production date and expiry date clearly, which should not be less than two years from the date of purchasing the material by the municipality; 4. The materials should be inspected by a licensed laboratory (usually it is inspected by the laboratory at the MOH) and the cost of inspection should be covered by the provider; 5. Supply only pesticides of adequate quality, packaged and labeled as appropriate. 6. Pay special attention to formulations, presentation, packaging and labeling in order to reduce hazard to users, to the maximum extent possible consistent with the effective functioning of the pesticide in the particular circumstances in which it is to be used; and 7. Provide, with each package of pesticide, information and instructions in a form and language adequate to ensure safe and effective use. Measures for Using and Storing of Pesticides Municipalities are used to use the pesticide during the summer semester starting in May till September on a daily basis and at specific time shortly before the sun set. Large municipalities with different residential areas are usually designated into sections for easy access and within the capacity of the municipality and availability of pest-control spraying machines. The following is a set of mitigation measures that shall be considered before and during spraying process of the pesticides: 1. Specify and inform citizens in advance about the spraying time and nominate in advance the number of workers responsible for the spraying. 2. Supervision of the spraying process should continue during the whole designated spraying period which usually during summer semester. 3. Storage of pesticide should be in a well identified storage space with limited access to those other than municipal staff and inspection teams. 4. Disposal of used canisters or containers should be follow proper procedures as not to mix it with daily municipal waste. In addition the municipality should comply with the instructions provided in the pesticide package and those instructions promoted by MOH. Annex 2 Maintenance and Replacement of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) based Electrical Transformers Safety instructions and mitigation measures for participating municipalities Introduction The safety instructions and mitigation measures are presented in this section for sub- projects involved in maintenance and/or supply and installation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)1 based electrical transformers at participating municipalities. The MDLF and based on data collected from a sample municipalities in West Bank and Gaza is hereafter highlighting the main safety factors that designated departments at the municipalities should be aware of and the special procedures and precautionary measures required when dealing with PCBs based electrical transformers. The collected information indicated that replacing the oil is seldom carried out but when necessary the transformer suppliers are responsible to carryout such maintenance work. Nonetheless, the MDLF has concerns over the toxicity and persistence in the environment of Polychlorinated that is used in these transformers. A number of municipalities especially those that provide electricity services, Nablus municipality to name one, have PCBs based electrical transformers that have been in operation for more than 30 years. The MDLF is therefore is presenting hereafter the mitigation measures for maintenance or replacement of transformers sub-projects. In case of purchasing of new transformers the MDLF would approve and finance only those transformers that are PCBs free after insuring the availability of suppliers in the local market at relatively competitive price. Replaced transformers will need to comply with the procedures for proper disposal also highlighted in this Annex. Purchasing of Transformers Based on the information collected by the MDF from municipalities the following transformers are usually purchased by the municipalities. All these transformers follow the country law that prohibits the importing of transformers with PCB's. 1. Oil immersed transformers. 2. Transformers with mineral oil. 3. Dry type transformers (indoor used for residential area i.e buildings, 50% expensive from the oily one) 4. Transformers with FR3 (vegetarian oil, 15% more expensive from the oil transformers and its not always available) 1 PCBs are mixtures of man-made chemicals with similar chemical structures. PCBs can range from oily liquids to waxy solids. Due to their non-flammability, chemical stability, high boiling point and electrical insulating properties, PCBs were used in hundreds of industrial and commercial applications including electrical, heat transfer, and hydraulic equipment; as plasticizers in paints, plastics and rubber products; in pigments, dyes and carbonless copy paper and many other applications 5. Transformers with silicon oil. (rarely used) Replacement of transformers EMSRP II sub-projects will only finance the purchase of new transformers that are PCBs free with consideration of competitive value market. However, the municipality should realize that installation of transformers is forbidden. in the dangerously explosive and aggressive medium, containing gases, vapors, dust of high concentration, etc.; at the places subject to vibration and jolting; when frequent switching on-and-off (systematically over 10 times a day) are required. Uses of Existing Transformers Most transformers containing PCBs may continue to be used for their remaining useful (active) or normal lives. There are, however, several exceptions under which PCBs transformers (containing 500 ppm or more PCBs) should not be kept in place: 1. The use or storage of PCBs based transformers is prohibited in any location where human food or animal feed products could be exposed to PCBs released from the transformer. 2. Combustible materials may not be stored within 5 m (16.4 ft) of a PCBs-based transformer enclosure. 3. Use of higher, secondary-voltage (480 V or greater), network PCBs transformers in or near commercial buildings is prohibited. 4. Higher, secondary-voltage (480 V or greater), radial PCBs based transformers used in or near commercial buildings shall be equipped with electrical protection to avoid transformer ruptures caused by high-current faults and those caused by sustained, low-current faults. 5. Lower, secondary-voltage (less than 480 V), network PCBs based transformers that are not located in sidewalk vaults shall be equipped with electrical protection to avoid transformer ruptures caused by high-current faults, or they shall be removed from service. 6. Lower, secondary-voltage (less than 480 V), network PCBs based transformers that are located in sidewalk vaults near commercial buildings shall be removed from service. 7. All lower, secondary-voltage (less than 480 V), radial PCBs based transformers shall be equipped with electrical protection to avoid transformer ruptures from sustained, high-current faults. Maintenance and Inspection of Transformers Maintenance and servicing of PCBs based transformers is allowed with a dielectric fluid at any concentration. However, if the oil needs to be removed to service the transformer, it shall not be re-used but shall be disposed of by calling the original equipment provider or specialized environmental companies. If the availability of such services does not exist then the municipality trained workers should replace the oil with considering the MDF mitigation measures. PCBs based transformers shall be visually inspected routinely for leaks by the designated department at participating municipalities. Visual inspections may be carried out at any time as long as there are at least 30 days between inspections. Monthly inspections are recommended. Logs of such inspections are highly recommended. All leaking transformers shall be repaired immediately, or the transformer shall be replaced by the responsible department or agency. A leak shall be cleaned up within 24 hours from discovery. All active leaks shall be contained in a drip-pan or by other appropriate methods. Daily inspections are required until the leak is properly addressed. Mitigation and Safety Precautions The following instructions will be adhered to by the designated department staff at participating municipalities: 1. lift the transformers and its active parts with care and using only the parts (hoisting staples) specially intended for this purposes. 2. do not change over the transformers under voltage. 3. fence the draining zone while drying or warming up the transformer by electric heaters or by allowing drains to leak into a steel tank. Ground the tank in which the drying is performed. Ventilate the premises in which transformers and transformer oil are being dried. Do not use highly inflammable materials (felt, wood shavings, tow, paper, etc.) for heat insulation of the tank while drying. 4. in the process of repairing the transformer you should remember that the transformer oil is a highly inflamed substance which has a high combustion temperature and difficult to be extinguished. Therefore, all jobs, especially those dealing with welding and drying are to be performed very carefully, in accordance with the fire-prevention rules in force. 5. do not store the highly inflammable fluids in he premises where the transformer in installed, do not smoke, do note strike matches and do not use he heating devices with open flame. Disposal of PCBs based Transformers The municipalities who still own PCBs transformers usually sell them in auctions for the salvage venders. The municipalities do not handle these equipments and the buyers have trained workers to do this job. Workers Health safety Inhalation of vapors and/or mists might irritate respiratory tract. Prolonged skin contact will cause skin rash, brown-grey pigmentation and possible irritation. Eye contact might cause irritation. In such case the first aid measures would be according to the following: Inhalation: if inhalation of mists, fumes or vapors occur causing irritation, move to fresh water air. If the symptoms persist, obtain medical advice. Skin contact: remove immediately adhering matter and wash off with soap and plenty of water. Eye contact: rinse with plenty of water. Ingestion: clean mouth with water. Obtain medical advice if a large amount has been swallowed. Do not induce vomiting. The workers should read the Material Safety Data Sheet for PCB's prior to working on equipment where PCB's are known/likely to be present. The Personal protection equipments below should be used for handling PCB contaminated material: - gloves-splash proof-mid arm. Suitable material for gloves. - Full face shield and hair protection if working overhead (eg light fixtures). If not working overhead safety glasses shall be used as minimum. Personal hygiene is very important after handling PCB's, even if gloves are worn, wash hands well before eating, drinking, smoking or using the toilet.