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NORMAL DEFENCES AGAINST UTI s Colostrum

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NORMAL DEFENCES AGAINST UTI s Colostrum

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									NORMAL DEFENCES AGAINST UTI's
*normal micturition
*Normal Bac flora in distal urethra
*Mucoproteins un urine bind to bacterial adhesions and
prevent attachement
*Urinary antibodies (IgG adn IgA)
*Urine sugars detach bacteria
*mucopolysaccharides in bladder mucosa inhibit
adherence
*urine is antibacerial due to low pH, high urea, high
osmolality.

KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE
*Opurtunistic infec
*Commensal of intestine
*Environment= woodshavings
*Mare-infertility
*Cow-mastitis
*Bitch-UTI
*Nosocomial infect in SA hospitals

ENDOMETRITIS AND INFERTILITY IN MARE
*Streptococcus zooepidemicus
*E.coli
*Klebsiella pneumoniae
*Pseudomonas aeruginosa
*Candida
*Aspergillus

CANINE CYSTITIS
*E.coli
*Staph intermedius
*Proteus mirabilus
*Pseudomonas aeruginosa
*Streptococcus sp.

CANINE OTITIS EXTERNA
*E.coli
*Staph intermedius
*Proteous mirabilus
*Pseudomonas aeruginosa
*Malassezia pachydermatis

Proteus mirabilus
*Swarms-highly motile
*Ureas+
*Otitis externa in UTI in K-9
*diarreaha in young
*Spoilage of foods- grow in moist low temps

SALMONELLA Classification
*Serological
 O antigens- somatic-A,B,C1,C2,D,E, etc
 H antigens-flagella
 Kantigens- capsule
*biochemical
 Salmonella sntera serovar
 Salmonella typhi
 Salmonella cholerasuis

Charcacteristics of Salmonella
*inhabit the GI tract most assymnptomatic
*Poultry and swine main resorvoirs of infection
*Fecal contamination of feed
*egg transmition
*Stress and carrier states
*More serious in young b/c of high gastric pH, ansence
of stable intestinal flora, and limited immunity

Salmonella Enteritis/Septicemia
*Cattle- S.typhimurium,dublin,and newport
*Sheep and goeats-S.typhimurium, dublin and anatum
*pigs-S.typhimurium, and cholerasuis
*horse-S. typhymurium,anatum,newport
*dog and cat- assymptomatic carriers

Salmonella in reptiles
*high % of companion pet reptiles are carriers
*Public health risk
*Problem w/ pet reptile industry esp iguanas

TRANSMISSION of Salmonella
*fecal-oral
*high carrier rates
*Bone-meal, fish meal, soybean meal
*RAts & mice
*Survives in manure, feces, and pond sediment
*killed at 56C for 10-20min

PRESDISPOSING CONDITIONS-Salmonellosis
*Young more susceptible
*Poor sanitation
*Overcrowding
*Stress of hospital
*Parturition
*Parasitesand concurrent viral infec
*over training

Pathogenesis:
*colonization of sistill SI and Colon. Indigenous
normal flora produces organic acids that inhibit
SAlmonella and block attachment
*Invasion of intestinal epithelium
*Fluid exsorption. Secretion of H20, bicarb, and Cl
ions into intestinal lumen
*Endotoxin, assoc w. Salmonellasepticemia and shock
*severity related to # of organisms in intestine

SHIGELLA
*enteritis in humans and other primates
*Colon involved

YERSINIA pestis- BLACK DEATH Bubonic plague
*Forms: Bubonic- swelling of LN of head neck,nasal
discharge,conjunctivitis,phayngitis.
    Pneumonic- cough,ocular and nasal discharge
*produces an exotoxin- cardiotoxic and endotoxin

PLAGUE
*not a dz of domestic animals
*present in ground rodents of western USA
*transmission by contact with wild rodents or fleas
*control- rodent/flea pop
*mimics abcess in cats
*cats are public health problem

OTHER YERSINIA
*Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
*Yersinia enterocolitica- humans, cattle, swine, meat,
shellfish, and icecream. heatstable enterotoxin.
diarrhea from contaminated food and h20.

Clostridium botulinum- Botulism
*Neurotoxin produced in decomp animal and plant tissue
*Fatal motor paralysis
*Toxin prevents release of ACH at motor end plates
Susceptibility to Botulism
*Chickens, adn and ducks- most
*horse, cattle, adn mink
*dog, cat, pig
*turkey buzzard- least
Signs:
*blurred vision, ataxia, difficult chewing and
swallowing.
*paralyses of eyelids, toungue and throat.
*progressive weakness
*resp paralysis
*death due to resp adn cardiac paralysis
TOXICOINFECTIOUS BOTULISM
*shaker foal syndrome
*human infats and honey

Clostridium novyi- Malignant edema- like in CO and
Montana. assoc with liver flukes

Clostridium difficile- colic in horses???

Bacillus anthracis- ANTHRAX
Large G+ Aerobic, Spore-forming rod
*Cattle, Sheep and horses- spring and summer on
pasture. Peracuteor acute.
*Swine, dogs, cats: more resistant
*mink- acute
*humans: pulmonary or "wool sorters' dz"-fatal
       cutaneous-95% of cases
       intestinal
       meningitis
SIGNS:
*high fever
*bleeding from body openings
*shock and death
ENZOOTIC anthraz areas:
*Alkaline soil w/ High N levels from decaying Vegit.
*rain- spore germination and multiplecation
*dry- sporulation occurs
*alternate periods of rain and drought or flooding
followed by drought
*Temp>15.5 degrees C
SOURCES of Bacillus anthracis:
*soil
*Imprted bone meal
*Vegtable protein
*Wool and hair
*Tannery effluent
*floods
*blood sucking insects
*affected animals shed large # of org.
TRANSMISSION:
*oral
*Resp
*Skin lesions
ANTRAX TOXINS:
*2 large plasmids encode for capsule and exotoxin
*toxin actions: kills phagocytes, ^ cap permeability,
damages clotting mech, inhib complement. Resulsts in
shock from hemorrage, suppression of CNS, myocardial
hypoxia and death.
DX ANTHRAX:
*Culture
*FA
*Serological tests
PREVENTION:
*Spore immunization

NON-SPOREFORMING G- ANAEROBIC RODS

Fusobacterium necrophorum- NECROBACILLOSIS
*2ndary infectious due to filth
*Cattle: calf diptheria
*Foot Rot in assc w/ Dichelobacter nodosus and
Arcanobacterium(Actinomyces)pyogenes.
*Swine: soremouth and bullnose
*Sheep: footrot and mouth lesions
*Horse: thrush

Dichelobacter nodosus- suppurative and necrotic.

G- NON SPORE FORMING RODS:
-E-coli
-Proteous sp.
-Salmonella sp.
-Shigella sp
-Enterobacter sp.
-Serratia sp.

Escherichia coli:
*Normal inhabitant of lower GI in warm blooded animals
*antigens: O-somatic H- flagellar K-capsular
F-fimbrial(attachment)
*2 dz catergories: oppurtunistic enteropathogenic
*Enterotoxins and pilus antigens (K Antigens) are the
2 most important virulence factors
*enterotoxins assoc w/ colonizing antigens: K-88 and
K-99

Neonatal Enteritis in Swine- E.coli
*1st 4 d of life
*high morbidity and mortality
*specific serotypes: 08,09,020
*Enterotoxin released=>profuse h2oery diarreha=>fatal
dehydration in 18 hrs
*stress induced

Weaning Enteritis-E.coli
*Hemolytic Escherichia coli, serotypes 08,09,020
*Complication of weaning pigs at4-5 wk of age on heavy
grain diet
*diarrhea, depression,anorexia
*low mortality
*persists2-3d

Edema DZ in Swine- E.coli
*occurs 1-2 wk after weaning
*organism from sow or environment
*lack of colostrum important
*Toxin acts on small arteries=>EDEMA
Signs of EDEMA DZ:
-staggering gait
-tremors
-edema of eyelids, face, stomach, and gallbladder
-morbidity 30-40%
-mortality 50-90%

E.coli in Cattle
= White scours or colibacillosis
= mastitis-environmental

WHITE SCOURS=COLIBACILLOSIS
*specific serotypes:08,09,020,0101
*colostrum deprived
*large # raised in confinement
*Unsanitary conditions
*SIGNS: weakness, diarrhea, comotosed

E.coli in DOGS
* #1 cause of UTI
*pyometra
*fading puppy syndrome
*enteritis in young

E. coli in other species:
HORSE: foal deaths, usually colostrum deprived
LAMBS: enteritis
CATS: see in high density populations along w/ poor
sanitation. enteritis and septicemia

								
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