Carbohydrates abdominal distention by benbenzhou


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									Chapter 4: Carbohydrates
  1. Which of the following is not a monosaccharide?

         A.   Galactose
         B.   Fructose
         C.   Lactose
         D.   Glucose

  2. Major fructose sources include

         A.   milk and cheese.
         B.   fruits and honey.
         C.   fruits and vegetables.
         D.   breads and cereals.

  3. After absorption, galactose is

         A.   converted to glucose in the liver.
         B.   converted to fructose in the liver.
         C.   converted to glycogen in the liver.
         D.   converted to lactose in the liver.

  4. A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of

         A.   two monosaccharides.
         B.   two polysaccharides.
         C.   one monosaccharide and one polysaccharide.
         D.   two oligosaccharides.

  5. Simple sugars in large quantities have been shown to

         A.   cause obesity.
         B.   promote tooth decay.
         C.   cause diabetes mellitus.
         D.   cause hyperactivity.

  6. In the U.S. diet, carbohydrate supplies approximately what percent of total kcalories?

         A.   15
         B.   35
         C.   50
         D.   60

  7. The process that plants use to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of the sun's
     heat and light is called

         A.   biosynthesis.
         B.   anabolism.
         C.   photosynthesis.
         D.   glycogenesis.
8. What is the major monosaccharide found in the body?

       A.   Glucose
       B.   Fructose
       C.   Galactose
       D.   Sucrose

9. Glucose also is known as

       A.   levulose.
       B.   ribose.
       C.   maltose.
       D.   dextrose.

10. Which of the following products of digestion are not normally released into the bloodstream?

       A.   Sucrose
       B.   Glucose
       C.   Fructose
       D.   Galactose

11. Which of the following is true?

       A.   Glucose and glucose form sucrose
       B.   Glucose and fructose form lactose
       C.   Glucose and galactose form lactose
       D.   Glucose and galactose form maltose

12. The term "simple carbohydrates" refers to

       A.   monosaccharides.
       B.   monosaccharides and disaccharides.
       C.   disaccharides.
       D.   polysaccharides.

13. Of the following, which is a major source of sucrose?

       A.   Alcohol
       B.   Fruits
       C.   Grains
       D.   Sugar cane

14. Which of the following is a major source of lactose?

       A.   Buttermilk
       B.   Broccoli
       C.   Apples
       D.   Honey

15. The monosaccharides important in nutrition are

       A. glucose, fructose, lactose.
       B. fructose, glucose, galactose.
       C. fructose, glucose, maltose.
       D. sucrose, fructose, glucose.

16. Which of the following is true about carbohydrate digestion?

       A.   Carbohydrate digestion is assisted by cooking; softens tough skins
       B.   Carbohydrate digestion begins in the stomach
       C.   Chewing food does not assist in carbohydrate digestion
       D.   Saliva production does not influence starch digestion

17. What enzyme is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine?

       A.   Salivary amylase
       B.   Bicarbonate
       C.   Pancreatic proteases
       D.   Pancreatic amylase

18. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the

       A.   stomach with gastric lipase.
       B.   stomach with salivary amylase.
       C.   mouth with salivary amylase.
       D.   small intestine with pancreatic amylase

19. Amylase is

       A.   an enzyme that digests protein.
       B.   branched chain of glucose units.
       C.   an enzyme that digests starch.
       D.   a straight chain of glucose units.

20. What is the fate of disaccharides not digested in the small intestine?

       A.   They pass into the colon and are absorbed
       B.   They pass into the colon and are fermented by bacteria
       C.   They are absorbed and converted to glycogen
       D.   They are absorbed and converted to fat

21. Which of the following shows the process of starch digestion?

       A.   Starch to lactose to galactose
       B.   Starch to maltose to glucose
       C.   Starch to glycogen to glucose
       D.   Starch to sucrose to fructose

22. Glucose is absorbed via

       A.   passive absorption.
       B.   facilitated absorption.
       C.   active absorption.
       D.   participatory absorption.

23. Which of the following is not true of carbohydrate absorption?
       A.   Monosaccharides can enter the villi
       B.   End products of carbohydrate digestion are transported through the portal vein to the liver
       C.   Maltose is transported through the portal vein to the liver
       D.   Disaccharides are digested to monosaccharides by enzymes attached to intestinal cells

24. Lactose intolerance is caused by

       A.   a milk allergy.
       B.   lactase deficiency.
       C.   milk bacteria.
       D.   intestinal bacteria.

25. The major symptoms of lactose intolerance are

       A.   gas, abdominal pain, and distention.
       B.   a rash, sneezing, and stuffy nose.
       C.   a headache and chest pain.
       D.   nausea and vomiting.

26. Those with lactose intolerance usually can consume all the following except

       A.   small servings of milk products.
       B.   some cheeses.
       C.   yogurt containing active cultures.
       D.   milk shakes made with skim milk.

27. The main function of glucose is

       A.   to serve as raw material to build tissue.
       B.   to work with enzymes to carry out chemical reactions.
       C.   to repair tissue.
       D.   to supply energy.

28. Which organ will first receive sugars after they are absorbed into the blood?

       A.   Kidney
       B.   Heart
       C.   Liver
       D.   Pancreas

29. Which of the following hormones corrects a hyperglycemic state?

       A.   Insulin
       B.   Epinephrine
       C.   Cortisol
       D.   Glucagon

30. When insulin is released it causes

       A. the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood.
       B. muscle and fat cells to increase glucose uptake.
       C. fat breakdown in fat tissue.
       D. the liver to make glycogen from protein.

31. Which of the following hormones is released to correct a hypoglycemic state?

       A.   Insulin
       B.   Testosterone
       C.   Estrogen
       D.   Glucagon

32. Which of the following hormones is released during stressful times to increase blood glucose levels,
    making more energy available for use?

       A.   Insulin
       B.   Epinephrine
       C.   Glycogen
       D.   Progesterone

33. You would like to sweeten your iced tea. Which of the following could be added in the smallest amount
    to provide appropriate sweetness?

       A.   Maltose
       B.   Fructose
       C.   Sucrose
       D.   Glucose

34. For which of the following is glucose most critical as an energy source?

       A.   Muscles
       B.   Brain
       C.   Liver
       D.   Heart

35. You are on a diet, eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrate per day. The claim made in the educational
    materials is that carbohydrate is the main culprit in being overweight, so it must be restricted. Which of
    the following will happen as a result of this low carbohydrate diet?

       A. Proteins in muscles, heart, and other vital organs will be broken down into amino acids to make
          needed glucose, over time weakening them
       B. Fat will be broken down and used as the exclusive fuel, leading to considerable fat loss and little
          health risk
       C. Ketones will be produced from partial protein metabolism to be used for energy
       D. Fat will be broken down, converted to glucose, and will be used as the primary energy source

36. Glycogen is

       A.   a highly branched polysaccharide.
       B.   stored in the absence of dietary carbohydrate.
       C.   a straight chain of glucoses linked together.
       D.   a hormone for blood glucose regulation.

37. Starch is comprised of hundreds and perhaps thousands of which molecule?

       A. Fructose
       B. Glycerol
       C. Glucose
       D. Galactose

38. Which of the following has the most starch?

       A.   Orange
       B.   Kidney beans
       C.   Milk
       D.   Meat

39. The major storage sites for glycogen are

       A.   muscles and liver.
       B.   kidney and muscles.
       C.   liver and kidney.
       D.   liver and pancreas.

40. Dietary fibers primarily are

       A.   polysaccharides.
       B.   polypeptides.
       C.   disaccharides.
       D.   monosaccharides.

41. Which of the following is not true of dietary fibers?

       A.   They are mostly polysaccharides
       B.   The bonds between sugar units cannot be broken by human digestive enzymes
       C.   They cannot be absorbed by the small intestine
       D.   They are absorbed in the large intestine

47. Dietary fiber may play a key role in the prevention of which cancer?

       A.   Colon
       B.   Liver
       C.   Pancreatic
       D.   Stomach

48. A reasonable goal for daily dietary fiber intake is how many grams?

       A.   10 to 12
       B.   15 to 30
       C.   20 to 34
       D.   25 to 38

49. John Fibernugget wants to increase his fiber intake. Which of the following would help him do this?

       A.   Eating enriched grains such as Rice Krispies and Saltines
       B.   Buying bran and fiber supplements to add to his current diet
       C.   Reading the label of grain products and buy those labeled "wheat flour"
       D.   Eating more fruits and vegetables and not removing the edible peels
50. Which of the following foods would have the most fiber?

       A.   Kidney beans
       B.   English muffins made with enriched flour
       C.   Orange juice
       D.   Corn flakes

51. When eating a high-fiber diet one should

       A.   restrict fluid intake.
       B.   not be concerned about consuming large amounts.
       C.   avoid foods that are not whole grain.
       D.   increase fluid intake.

55. Which of the following lunches has the most fiber?

       A. Ham sandwich with whole wheat bread, broccoli salad, orange, whole wheat fig bars, soda
       B. Grilled chicken sandwich with enriched hamburger bun, lettuce salad with low-fat salad
          dressing, pear, whole wheat fig bars, iced tea
       C. Chef's salad with lettuce, ham, cheese, tomatoes, shredded carrots, boiled egg; small hamburger
          with enriched hamburger bun; soda
       D. Chicken noodle soup, whole wheat crackers, lettuce salad with fat-free salad dressing, mixed
          fruit salad, iced tea

56. Which of the following is not characteristic of Type 1 diabetes mellitus?

       A.   Arises most commonly in adulthood
       B.   Associated with a tendency to develop ketosis
       C.   Sometimes caused by viral infection
       D.   Has a genetic link

57. All of the following are characteristic of Type 2 diabetes mellitus except

       A.   arises most commonly in adulthood.
       B.   caused by insensitivity of fat cells to insulin.
       C.   often associated with obesity.
       D.   the least common form of diabetes.

58. The most important dietary approach for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus is to

       A.   lose body fat.
       B.   eat regular meals.
       C.   maintain a constant ratio of carbohydrate to protein to fat throughout the day.
       D.   avoid sugar.

59. If you had the condition phenylketonuria, which should you not use?

       A.   Acesulfame-K
       B.   Aspartame
       C.   High fructose corn syrup
       D.   Saccharin

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