12 Feedstuffs, September 8, 2008 Bottom Line of Nutrition: Dairy Composition of bovine I T has been 30 years since the classic comprehensive review of Bottom Line 1. Physical characteristics and composition of mostly colostrum by Foley and Otterby (1978). Perhaps the most utilized with Holstein colostrum and whole milk part of this review is the change AL KERTZ* Postpartum milking 1 2 3 4 5 Milk in composition over the ﬁrst ﬁve Specific gravity 1.056 1.040 1.035 1.033 1.033 1.032 milkings compared to regular milk pH 6.32 6.32 6.33 6.34 6.33 6.50 (Table 1). Total solids, % 23.9 17.9 14.1 13.9 13.6 12.9 among trace minerals but had similar Fat, % 6.7 5.4 3.9 4.4 4.3 4.0 Given the span of time since the variability to copper. Manganese was Solids-not-fat, % 16.7 12.2 9.8 9.4 9.5 8.8 values in Table 1 were developed, not only the lowest, but it also had Total protein, % 14.0 8.4 5.1 4.2 4.1 3.1 Kehoe et al. (2007) developed the greatest variability. Casein,% 4.8 4.3 3.8 3.2 2.9 2.5 a protocol to collect colostrum Correlations between nutrients Albumin, % 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.4 0.5 management information and and survey questions resulted in few Immunoglobulins, % 6.0 4.2 2.4 — — 0.09 samples to establish more current statistically signiﬁcant correlations. IgG, % 3.2 2.5 1.5 — — 0.06 information. Samples were collected However, herds with somatic cell NPN, % of total nitrogen 8.0 7.0 8.3 4.1 3.9 4.9 between July 2004 and March 2005. counts greater than 200,000 in the Lactose, % 2.7 3.9 4.4 4.6 4.7 5.0 A single interviewer used a 33-item month before samples were collected Ash, % 1.11 0.95 0.87 0.82 0.81 0.74 questionnaire that took about 15 had colostrum with signiﬁcantly minutes to complete. greater tocopherol, vitamin A, Fifty-ﬁve Holstein herds were potassium, IgG2 and total solids, 2. Average colostrum composition with variance and range selected in 15 Pennsylvania counties indicating that such cows may Item Foley & Otterby Mean CV, % Minimum Maximum to represent nearly 90% of all dairy produce colostrum with greater Fat, % 6.7 6.7 62 2.0 26.5 operations in the state. Colostrum nutrient content. Protein, % 14.0 14.9 22 7.1 22.6 samples were taken from one cow per Forty-three percent of 28 larger Lactose, % 2.7 2.5 26 1.2 5.2 farm within four hours of calving and farms (more than 201 cows) used Total solids, % 23.9 27.6 21 18.3 43.3 were refrigerated and transported on Ash, % — 0.05 20 0.02 0.07 a colostrometer, while only 10% of ice, and then aliquots were taken for IgG, mg/mL 32.0 — — — — 10 medium (101-200 cows) and 12% IgG1 — 35.0 35 11.8 74.2 storage at -20°C for later analysis. of 17 small farms (fewer than 100 IgG2 — 6.0 47 2.7 20.6 Data in Table 2 are shown relative cows) did. The only farms using a IgA — 1.66 60 0.5 4.4 to the Foley and Otterby data. The pasteurizer were 11% of large farms. IgM — 4.32 66 1.1 21.0 main components are similar between Seventy-nine percent of large farms Lactoferrin, mg/mL — 0.82 66 0.1 2.2 the two sources, with variability stored colostrum, while only 41% of Retinol, µ/g 2.8 4.9 37 1.4 19.3 (coefﬁcient of variation [CV]) being small farms did. Tocopherol, µ/g — 2.9 125 0.6 10.4 greatest for fat content, as is typical Other key parameters were: Βeta carotene, µ/g — 0.68 93 0.1 0.34 for milk composition in general. • Fifty-seven percent of herds fed Vitamin E, µ/g of fat 84.0 77.2 43 24.2 177.9 Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) is the 2-4 quarts colostrum in the ﬁrst Thiamin, µg/mL 0.58 0.9 31 0.3 2.1 largest immunoglobulin category feeding. Riboflavin, µg/mL 4.83 4.55 7 2.4 9.2 and had the least variability. Among • Seventy-four percent of calves Niacin, µg/mL 0.96 0.34 462 0.0 1.6 fat-soluble vitamins, tocopherol had received two feedings of colostrum. Vitamin B12, µg/mL 0.05 0.60 58 0.2 1.1 the most variability, but vitamin E • Eighty-seven percent of calves Calcium, % 0.26 0.47 40 0.18 0.86 had the greatest level (still twice even Phosphorus, % — 0.45 38 0.18 0.86 were hand fed colostrum from a Magnesium, % 0.04 0.073 39 0.023 0.14 after adjusting for fat level). Among B bucket or bottle, and 11% were fed Sodium, % 0.07 0.106 50 0.033 0.297 vitamins, riboﬂavin had the greatest with an esophageal feeder. Potassium, % 0.14 0.28 41 0.01 0.55 content with the least variability. • Forty-four percent of heifer calves Sulfur, % — 0.26 35 0.09 0.41 Among the major minerals, calcium were fed colostrum within two hours Zinc, mg/kg 11.6 38.1 42 11.2 83.6 was the highest, followed closely by of birth, and 51% were fed within two Iron, mg/kg 1.9 5.3 58 1.7 17.5 phosphorus, then potassium and to six hours of birth. Copper, mg/kg 0.6 0.34 41 0.13 0.64 sulfur, with similar variability among • Fifty-three percent of calves were Manganese, mg/kg 0.2 0.10 110 0.0 0.36 these minerals. Zinc was the highest fed the second feeding of colostrum biofuels B UZZ on rail cars to the Erie-western Penn- efﬁciency. Overall, the data indicate Biofuel research sylvania port. Reports indicate that that it would be worthwhile to start the pipeline would follow the path of pilot programs to study growing cas- General Motors (GM) and Thai- an existing sewer line that extends sava and sweet potato for ethanol, land energy ﬁrm PTT agreed to col- Omega-3 from byproduct from the former International Paper especially on marginal lands. laborate on research into alternative Co. property, where the biofuels plant fuels, including ethanol production Zhiyou Wen, assistant professor from crops not used for food, hydro- of biological systems engineering in is located, to the city’s wastewater treatment plant and then to the port. Corn genetics gen fuel and low-cost hybrid engines. Virginia Tech’s College of Agriculture “The strategy will focus on alterna- & Life Sciences, and his colleagues The $60 million biofuels plant opened Identifying the corn genes involved in November 2007. Currently, up to 2 tive energy that is socially responsi- have developed a novel fermentation in plant cell wall generation and learn- ble, economic, environment friendly million gallons per month of biofuels ing their function will help develop process using micro-algae to produce and with practical technology,” GM are transported to the port by rail cars. new, more productive sources of omega-3 fatty acids from crude glyc- chief executive ofﬁcer Richard Wag- erol. Biodiesel plants leave behind transportation biofuel, according Pur- oner said. roughly 10% crude glycerol during the due University researchers Nick Carpi- production process. After growing al- Sweet potato potential ta and Maureen McCann. Their goal is gae in the crude glycerol, researchers In experiments, sweet potatoes to ﬁnd ways to produce more biomass Improving feedstock knowledge can use it as an animal feed. grown in Maryland and Alabama yield- containing more sugars that can efﬁ- ed two to three times as much carbo- ciently be processed into biofuels. Professor Kasiviswanathan Muthu- Wen has partnered with Steven kumarappan with South Dakota State Craig, senior research scientist at Vir- hydrate for fuel ethanol production as “The close evolutionary and genomic ﬁeld corn grown there, Agricultural relationships of maize or corn to other University’s department of agricul- ginia Cobia Farms, to use crude glycer- tural and biosystems engineering ol-derived algae as a ﬁsh feed. Results Research Service scientists reported. grasses will take us one step closer to The same was true of tropical cassava some new good sources of bioenergy,” recently received an award for his so far show that ﬁsh fed the algae had accomplishments in developing new signiﬁcant amounts of omega-3 fatty in Alabama. In Alabama, carbohydrate said Carpita, a geneticist in the depart- production was 4.2 tons for sweet po- ment of botany and plant pathology. data and models regarding the mois- acids. Research continues on whether ture relationships of plant-based agri- tatoes, 4.4 tons for cassava and 1.5 Researchers already know that most the algae could work as a chicken feed. cultural products. tons for corn, and in Maryland, it was plants use about 10% of their entire Kumar Mallikarjunan, associate profes- The American Society of Agricul- 5.7 tons for sweet potatoes, 1.2 tons genome for cell wall construction, but sor of biological systems engineering, for cassava and 2.5 tons for corn. very little is known about the speciﬁc tural & Biological Engineers has pub- is also working with Wen to determine The sweet potato carbohydrate yields functions of those genes. lished and maintained consensus the fate of omega-3s after they enter approached the lower limits of those of “Maize has the same genes arranged documents for nearly a century as a the food supply. sugarcane, the highest-yielding ethanol in the same order and on the same chro- service to academics and industry. crop. Another advantage is that sweet mosomes as the other grasses,” said Building on work by member Dr. Wade potatoes and cassava require much less McCann, associate professor of biologi- Yang, who began the update in 2000, Pennsylvania pipeline fertilizer and pesticide than corn. The cal science. “We’ll switch genes on and Muthukumarappan took over the task Lake Erie Biofuels is considering disadvantages are higher start-up costs, off as we identify them to see what they of revising the data in 2005. He also an- construction of a pipeline that would particularly due to increased labor at do. Once we know the genes and their ticipated industry needs by expanding carry its biofuel products to port planting and harvesting times. functions, then we can assess which the work to include additional informa- facilities at Lake Erie. The biodiesel- Further studies are needed to get ones might make good targets for modi- tion about moisture in new biomass maker is evaluating if it is cheaper to data on inputs of fertilizer, water and ﬁcation for enhanced biomass and sug- materials like corn stover, switchgrass pipe product compared to putting it pesticides and estimates of energy ars for processing into biofuel.” and other feedstocks.