Composition of bovine Colostrum

					12      Feedstuffs, September 8, 2008
                                                     Bottom Line of Nutrition: Dairy

Composition of bovine
   T has been 30 years since the
   classic comprehensive review of            Bottom Line
                                                                                            1. Physical characteristics and composition of mostly
   colostrum by Foley and Otterby
(1978). Perhaps the most utilized             with                                          Holstein colostrum and whole milk
part of this review is the change             AL KERTZ*                                     Postpartum milking            1            2           3          4        5       Milk
in composition over the first five                                                            Specific gravity           1.056        1.040       1.035      1.033    1.033     1.032
milkings compared to regular milk                                                           pH                          6.32         6.32        6.33       6.34     6.33      6.50
(Table 1).                                                                                  Total solids, %             23.9         17.9        14.1       13.9     13.6      12.9
                                             among trace minerals but had similar           Fat, %                       6.7          5.4         3.9        4.4     4.3       4.0
  Given the span of time since the           variability to copper. Manganese was           Solids-not-fat, %           16.7        12.2         9.8        9.4      9.5       8.8
values in Table 1 were developed,            not only the lowest, but it also had           Total protein, %            14.0          8.4        5.1         4.2      4.1       3.1
Kehoe et al. (2007) developed                the greatest variability.                      Casein,%                     4.8         4.3         3.8         3.2     2.9       2.5
a protocol to collect colostrum                Correlations between nutrients               Albumin, %                   0.9         1.1         0.9         0.7     0.4       0.5
management information and                   and survey questions resulted in few           Immunoglobulins, %           6.0         4.2         2.4         —        —       0.09
samples to establish more current            statistically significant correlations.         IgG, %                       3.2          2.5         1.5        —        —       0.06
information. Samples were collected          However, herds with somatic cell               NPN, % of total nitrogen    8.0          7.0         8.3        4.1      3.9       4.9
between July 2004 and March 2005.            counts greater than 200,000 in the             Lactose, %                   2.7         3.9         4.4         4.6      4.7      5.0
A single interviewer used a 33-item          month before samples were collected            Ash, %                      1.11         0.95        0.87       0.82     0.81      0.74
questionnaire that took about 15             had colostrum with significantly
minutes to complete.                         greater tocopherol, vitamin A,
  Fifty-five Holstein herds were              potassium, IgG2 and total solids,              2. Average colostrum composition with variance and range
selected in 15 Pennsylvania counties         indicating that such cows may                  Item                  Foley & Otterby       Mean       CV, %       Minimum      Maximum
to represent nearly 90% of all dairy         produce colostrum with greater                 Fat, %                       6.7              6.7        62           2.0         26.5
operations in the state. Colostrum           nutrient content.                              Protein, %                  14.0             14.9        22           7.1         22.6
samples were taken from one cow per            Forty-three percent of 28 larger             Lactose, %                   2.7              2.5        26           1.2          5.2
farm within four hours of calving and        farms (more than 201 cows) used                Total solids, %             23.9             27.6        21          18.3         43.3
were refrigerated and transported on                                                        Ash, %                       —               0.05        20          0.02         0.07
                                             a colostrometer, while only 10% of
ice, and then aliquots were taken for                                                       IgG, mg/mL                  32.0              —          —            —            —
                                             10 medium (101-200 cows) and 12%               IgG1                         —               35.0        35          11.8         74.2
storage at -20°C for later analysis.         of 17 small farms (fewer than 100              IgG2                         —                6.0        47           2.7         20.6
  Data in Table 2 are shown relative         cows) did. The only farms using a              IgA                          —               1.66        60           0.5          4.4
to the Foley and Otterby data. The           pasteurizer were 11% of large farms.           IgM                          —               4.32        66           1.1         21.0
main components are similar between          Seventy-nine percent of large farms            Lactoferrin, mg/mL           —              0.82        66            0.1          2.2
the two sources, with variability            stored colostrum, while only 41% of            Retinol, µ/g                 2.8              4.9        37           1.4         19.3
(coefficient of variation [CV]) being         small farms did.                               Tocopherol, µ/g              —                2.9       125           0.6         10.4
greatest for fat content, as is typical        Other key parameters were:                   Βeta carotene, µ/g           —              0.68        93            0.1         0.34
for milk composition in general.               • Fifty-seven percent of herds fed           Vitamin E, µ/g of fat       84.0            77.2         43          24.2        177.9
  Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) is the            2-4 quarts colostrum in the first               Thiamin, µg/mL              0.58              0.9        31           0.3          2.1
largest immunoglobulin category              feeding.                                       Riboflavin, µg/mL           4.83             4.55         7           2.4          9.2
and had the least variability. Among           • Seventy-four percent of calves             Niacin, µg/mL               0.96             0.34       462           0.0          1.6
fat-soluble vitamins, tocopherol had         received two feedings of colostrum.            Vitamin B12, µg/mL          0.05             0.60        58           0.2          1.1
the most variability, but vitamin E            • Eighty-seven percent of calves             Calcium, %                  0.26             0.47        40          0.18         0.86
had the greatest level (still twice even                                                    Phosphorus, %                —              0.45        38           0.18         0.86
                                             were hand fed colostrum from a
                                                                                            Magnesium, %                0.04            0.073       39          0.023         0.14
after adjusting for fat level). Among B      bucket or bottle, and 11% were fed
                                                                                            Sodium, %                   0.07            0.106        50         0.033        0.297
vitamins, riboflavin had the greatest         with an esophageal feeder.                     Potassium, %                0.14             0.28        41          0.01         0.55
content with the least variability.            • Forty-four percent of heifer calves        Sulfur, %                    —               0.26        35          0.09         0.41
  Among the major minerals, calcium          were fed colostrum within two hours            Zinc, mg/kg                 11.6            38.1        42           11.2         83.6
was the highest, followed closely by         of birth, and 51% were fed within two          Iron, mg/kg                  1.9              5.3        58           1.7         17.5
phosphorus, then potassium and               to six hours of birth.                         Copper, mg/kg                0.6             0.34        41          0.13         0.64
sulfur, with similar variability among         • Fifty-three percent of calves were         Manganese, mg/kg             0.2             0.10       110           0.0         0.36
these minerals. Zinc was the highest         fed the second feeding of colostrum

  biofuels B
                                             on rail cars to the Erie-western Penn-      efficiency. Overall, the data indicate              Biofuel research
                                             sylvania port. Reports indicate that        that it would be worthwhile to start
                                             the pipeline would follow the path of       pilot programs to study growing cas-                 General Motors (GM) and Thai-
                                             an existing sewer line that extends         sava and sweet potato for ethanol,                 land energy firm PTT agreed to col-
  Omega-3 from byproduct                     from the former International Paper         especially on marginal lands.                      laborate on research into alternative
                                             Co. property, where the biofuels plant                                                         fuels, including ethanol production
     Zhiyou Wen, assistant professor                                                                                                        from crops not used for food, hydro-
  of biological systems engineering in       is located, to the city’s wastewater
                                             treatment plant and then to the port.       Corn genetics                                      gen fuel and low-cost hybrid engines.
  Virginia Tech’s College of Agriculture                                                                                                    “The strategy will focus on alterna-
  & Life Sciences, and his colleagues        The $60 million biofuels plant opened         Identifying the corn genes involved
                                             in November 2007. Currently, up to 2                                                           tive energy that is socially responsi-
  have developed a novel fermentation                                                    in plant cell wall generation and learn-           ble, economic, environment friendly
                                             million gallons per month of biofuels       ing their function will help develop
  process using micro-algae to produce                                                                                                      and with practical technology,” GM
                                             are transported to the port by rail cars.   new, more productive sources of
  omega-3 fatty acids from crude glyc-                                                                                                      chief executive officer Richard Wag-
  erol. Biodiesel plants leave behind                                                    transportation biofuel, according Pur-             oner said.
  roughly 10% crude glycerol during the                                                  due University researchers Nick Carpi-
  production process. After growing al-
                                             Sweet potato potential                      ta and Maureen McCann. Their goal is
  gae in the crude glycerol, researchers       In experiments, sweet potatoes            to find ways to produce more biomass                Improving feedstock knowledge
  can use it as an animal feed.              grown in Maryland and Alabama yield-        containing more sugars that can effi-
                                             ed two to three times as much carbo-        ciently be processed into biofuels.                   Professor Kasiviswanathan Muthu-
     Wen has partnered with Steven                                                                                                          kumarappan with South Dakota State
  Craig, senior research scientist at Vir-   hydrate for fuel ethanol production as        “The close evolutionary and genomic
                                             field corn grown there, Agricultural         relationships of maize or corn to other            University’s department of agricul-
  ginia Cobia Farms, to use crude glycer-                                                                                                   tural and biosystems engineering
  ol-derived algae as a fish feed. Results    Research Service scientists reported.       grasses will take us one step closer to
                                             The same was true of tropical cassava       some new good sources of bioenergy,”               recently received an award for his
  so far show that fish fed the algae had                                                                                                    accomplishments in developing new
  significant amounts of omega-3 fatty        in Alabama. In Alabama, carbohydrate        said Carpita, a geneticist in the depart-
                                             production was 4.2 tons for sweet po-       ment of botany and plant pathology.                data and models regarding the mois-
  acids. Research continues on whether                                                                                                      ture relationships of plant-based agri-
                                             tatoes, 4.4 tons for cassava and 1.5        Researchers already know that most
  the algae could work as a chicken feed.                                                                                                   cultural products.
                                             tons for corn, and in Maryland, it was      plants use about 10% of their entire
  Kumar Mallikarjunan, associate profes-                                                                                                        The American Society of Agricul-
                                             5.7 tons for sweet potatoes, 1.2 tons       genome for cell wall construction, but
  sor of biological systems engineering,     for cassava and 2.5 tons for corn.          very little is known about the specific             tural & Biological Engineers has pub-
  is also working with Wen to determine        The sweet potato carbohydrate yields      functions of those genes.                          lished and maintained consensus
  the fate of omega-3s after they enter      approached the lower limits of those of       “Maize has the same genes arranged               documents for nearly a century as a
  the food supply.                           sugarcane, the highest-yielding ethanol     in the same order and on the same chro-            service to academics and industry.
                                             crop. Another advantage is that sweet       mosomes as the other grasses,” said                Building on work by member Dr. Wade
                                             potatoes and cassava require much less      McCann, associate professor of biologi-            Yang, who began the update in 2000,
  Pennsylvania pipeline                      fertilizer and pesticide than corn. The     cal science. “We’ll switch genes on and            Muthukumarappan took over the task
    Lake Erie Biofuels is considering        disadvantages are higher start-up costs,    off as we identify them to see what they           of revising the data in 2005. He also an-
  construction of a pipeline that would      particularly due to increased labor at      do. Once we know the genes and their               ticipated industry needs by expanding
  carry its biofuel products to port         planting and harvesting times.              functions, then we can assess which                the work to include additional informa-
  facilities at Lake Erie. The biodiesel-      Further studies are needed to get         ones might make good targets for modi-             tion about moisture in new biomass
  maker is evaluating if it is cheaper to    data on inputs of fertilizer, water and     fication for enhanced biomass and sug-              materials like corn stover, switchgrass
  pipe product compared to putting it        pesticides and estimates of energy          ars for processing into biofuel.”                  and other feedstocks.

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Description: Composition of bovine Colostrum