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GE207_11ppt - Development in Practice components of development

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					               Urbanisation
                   and
                Migration



Various Forms of Migration




                             GE207 2010
           Types of Migration

                    • Emigration and immigration
      Problems or      – Change in residence.
  A                    – Relative to origin and destination.
      benefits?
                    • Requires information on:
Emigrant
                       – People and conditions.
                       – Two different places.
                       – Two different times.
                    • Duration:
Immigrant              – Permanent.
                       – Seasonal / Temporary.
      Problems or
  B                 • Choice / constraint:
      benefits?
                       – Improve one’s life.
                       – Leave inconvenient / threatening
                         conditions.
                                   • Gross migration
                                      – Total number of people
                                        coming in and out of an
                                        area.
         Gross migration              – Level of population turnover.
                                   • Net Migration
Immigration                           – Difference between
                                        immigration (in-migration)
                      Emigration        and emigration (out-
                                        migration).
                                      – Positive value:
                                          • More people coming in
                                          • Population growth.
                                          • 44% of North America
                                            and 88% of Europe.
                                      – Negative value:
                                          • More people coming out.
              Net migration               • Population decline.
           Types of Migration
• International Migration
  – Crossing of a national boundary.
  – Easier to control and monitor.
  – Laws to control / inhibit these movements.
• Before World War I
  – Open policy.
  – Many countries welcomed immigrants as a source
    of labor.
  – Most migration was from developed to developing
    countries.
• The 1920s and 1930s
  – Closing the doors.
  – Years of economic depression.
  – Deportation of immigrants.
         World Migration Routes Since 1700




European
African (slaves)
Indian
Chinese
Japanese

Majority of population descended from immigrants
        Annual Net International Migration Totals and
           Migration Rates by Continent, 1990-95

                                Oceania


                          North America


                       Latin America and
                           Carribean


                                 Europe


                                   Asia

                                               Rate (per 100,000 population)
                                  Africa       Number (thousands)


-1500        -1000     -500                0             500               1000
           Types of Migration

                  • Local Migration
                    – No state boundaries are
                      crossed.
                    – Buying a new house in the
Central City          same town or city.
                    – Difficult to research since they
                      are usually missed in census
  Suburb              data.
                    – Based on change of income or
                      lifestyle.
                    – Often very high levels of local
                      migration.
                  Types of Migration
                                    • Temporary migration
                                      – The mover still maintains
       Shopping                         roots at the source.
                  Leisure
                                      – Activity space.
  Work                                – Difficult to quantify.
                        Education     – Commuting.
                                         • Cyclical migration.
                                         • Usually done on a daily
                                           basis.
Vacation
                                      – Shopping.
                                      – Students/military.
             Permanent place             • Periodic migration.
             of residence
                                      – Tourism or business
                                        travel.
                 Types of Migration
                            • Circular migration
                              – A type of temporary migration.
Spring             Summer     – Associated with agricultural
                                work.
                              – The migrant follows the
                                harvest of various crops,
                                moving from one place to
                                another each time.
                              – Very common in the US
                                Southwest (Mexican farm
                                workers) and in Western
         Fall / Winter          Europe (Eastern European
                                farm workers).
                Types of Migration
• Voluntary migration
  – The migrant makes the decision to move.
  – Most migration is voluntary.
• Involuntary
  – Forced migration in which the mover has no role in
    the decision-making process.
  – Slavery.
     • About 11 million African slaves were brought to the
       Americas.
  – Refugees.
  – Military conscription.
  – Children of migrants.
  – Situations of divorce or separation.
                  Selective Migration
• Context
  – Many migrations are selective.
  – Do not represent a cross section of the source population.
  – Especially true in the early stages of a migration process.
• Age-specific migrations
  –   One age group is dominant in a particular migration.
  –   International migration tends to involve younger people.
  –   The dominant group is between 25 and 45.
  –   Studies and retirement are also age-specific migrations.
• Education-specific migrations
  – May characterize some migrations (having or lacking of).
  – High level of education attained by most contemporary Asian
    immigrants to the USA and Canada
               Selective Migration
• Sex-specific migrations
  – Migrations may be predominantly male or female.
     • Chinese men to build the railroads in the western US
       during the late 1800s.
  – Females often dominate rural to urban migrations.
     • Find jobs as domestic help or in new factories.
     • Send remittances back home.
     • Filipino females 17-30 to Hong Kong and Japan.
  – “Mail-order bride”.
     • 100,000 – 150,000 women a year advertise themselves
       for marriage.
     • About 10,000 available on the Internet at any time.
     • Mainly from Southeast Asia and Russia.
     • Come from places in which jobs and educational
       opportunities for women are scarce and wages are low.
              Selective Migration
• Immigration and jobs
  – Related to the economic sector.
  – Two major classes, high level and low level.
  – Not enough highly trained personnel in the US.
  – Result in recruiting abroad (see brain drain).
  – Others are filling low paid jobs (minimum wages)
    that most people do not want (agriculture and
    services).
• Costs of immigration for host country
  – On the long run, immigrants contribute more than
    they cost.
  – Higher costs at start.
                       Brain Drain
• Definition
  – Relates to educationally specific selective migrations.
  – In 1999, 340,000 skilled positions remained unfilled in the
    US.
  – Can be both a blessing and a problem.
• Positive aspects
  –   For the receiving nation or region.
  –   Getting highly qualified labor.
  –   Not having to pay education and health costs.
  –   Often begins with one’s experience as a foreign student.
• Negative aspects
  – Education and health costs not paid back.
  – Losing potential leaders and talent.
  – Long term impact on economic growth.
                        Brain Drain
  – Many brain drain migrants possess special skills
    which they can’t use at home.
    • The resources and technology may not be available there.
    • The specific labor market is not big enough.
• Education factors
  – Major factor behind brain drain.
  – Many foreign students do not return to their home
    countries after their education.
    • Often cannot utilize what they have learned.
    • Since 1978 some 130,000 Chinese overseas students
      have returned while some 250,000 have remained
      abroad.
  – Most research-oriented graduate institutions have
    around 40% foreign students.
          Migration Theory
• 1. Push - Pull Theory
• 2. Economic Approaches
• 3. Behavioral Explanations to Migration
• Context                       Push - Pull Theory
  – Migrations as the response of individual decision-
    makers.
  – Negative or push factors in his current area of
    residence.
     •   High unemployment and little opportunity.
     •   Great poverty.
     •   High crime.
     •   Repression or a recent disaster (e.g., drought or
         earthquake).
  – Positive or pull factors in the potential destination.
     • High job availability and higher wages.
     • More exciting lifestyle.
     • Political freedom, greater safety and security, etc.
                Push - Pull Theory
• Intervening obstacles
  – Migration costs / transportation.
  – Immigration laws and policies of the destination country.


• The problem of perception
  – Assumes rational behavior on the part of the migrant.
  – This argument is not necessarily true since a migrant cannot
    be truly informed.
  – The key word is perception of the pull factors.
  – Information is never complete.
  – Decisions are made based upon perceptions of reality at the
    destination relative to the known reality at the source.
  – When the migrant’s information is highly inaccurate, a return
    migration may be one possible outcome.
             Push - Pull Theory


                    Intervening obstacles




Origin                                      Destination

 Positive factors
 Neutral factors
 Negative factors
 Economic
                     • Labor mobility
Approaches             – The primary issue behind
                         migration.
                       – Notably the case at the national
   Labor shortages       level.
     High wages        – Equilibrate the geographical
                         differences in labor supply and
                         demand.
Migration              – Accelerated with the globalization
                         of the economy.
                     • Remittances
    Surplus labor      – Capital sent by workers working
     Low wages           abroad to their family / relatives at
                         home.
                       – $58 billion in 1996.
Behavioral Explanations of Migration
                             • Life-cycle factors
       Stay with parents
                               – Migration linked to events in
                                 one’s life.
       Move to college         – People in their 30s are the
       First job                 most mobile.
  25   Marriage                   • Education, career, and family
       Promotion                    are being established.
                               – Later in life, flexibility
                                 decreases and inertia
  50   Children leave home       increases.
       Retirement              – Retirement often brings a
                                 major change.
                               – Large migrations of retired
  75   Loss of mobility          people have been occurring
                                 in the direction of amenities-
                                 oriented areas.
Age profile of migration and the life course
 Behavioral Explanations of Migration
• Migrants as risk-takers
  – Why, among a population in the same environment (the
    same push factors), some leave and some stay?
  – Migrants tend to be greater risk-takers, more motivated,
    more innovative and more adaptable.
  – Non-migrants tend to be more cautious and conservative.
  – Can be used to explain the relative dynamism in some
    societies, like the USA since the 1800s.
• Summary
  – No one theory of migration can adequately explain this huge
    worldwide phenomenon.
  – Each brings a contribution to the understanding of why
    people move.
                  Migration to Australia

• End of “White Australia Policy” in 1972/73
• Current migration streams for permanent settlement
  (appr. 80,000 p.a.):
   – Skill migration
   – Family migration
   – Humanitarian

• Trans-Tasman migration

• Some migration streams for temporary migrants:
   – Student migration
   – temporary skilled migration (457 visa)

• Some undocumented migration
             Pacific Islander migration

- Opportunity to move internationally (proximity, constitutional
  relationships with former colonial power)
- Polynesians have migrated in substantial numbers to the
  metropolitan countries of the Pacific Rim, particularly to New
  Zealand, Australia and the United States
- More than half of Cook Islanders, Niueans, Samoans,
  Tokelauans and Tongans live abroad
- Melanesians have no easy gateway to residency elsewhere
- The main exception substantial migration flow from
  Melanesia is that of Indo-Fijians migrating to the Pacific Rim:
  between 1987 and 2001, Fiji lost 75,800 citizens, some 90%
  of which were Indo-Fijians
- circulation: population movements that involve moderately
  long durations of stay at a destination followed by return to
  the places of origin

				
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