GE207_11ppt - Development in Practice components of development by tyndale



Various Forms of Migration

                             GE207 2010
           Types of Migration

                    • Emigration and immigration
      Problems or      – Change in residence.
  A                    – Relative to origin and destination.
                    • Requires information on:
                       – People and conditions.
                       – Two different places.
                       – Two different times.
                    • Duration:
Immigrant              – Permanent.
                       – Seasonal / Temporary.
      Problems or
  B                 • Choice / constraint:
                       – Improve one’s life.
                       – Leave inconvenient / threatening
                                   • Gross migration
                                      – Total number of people
                                        coming in and out of an
         Gross migration              – Level of population turnover.
                                   • Net Migration
Immigration                           – Difference between
                                        immigration (in-migration)
                      Emigration        and emigration (out-
                                      – Positive value:
                                          • More people coming in
                                          • Population growth.
                                          • 44% of North America
                                            and 88% of Europe.
                                      – Negative value:
                                          • More people coming out.
              Net migration               • Population decline.
           Types of Migration
• International Migration
  – Crossing of a national boundary.
  – Easier to control and monitor.
  – Laws to control / inhibit these movements.
• Before World War I
  – Open policy.
  – Many countries welcomed immigrants as a source
    of labor.
  – Most migration was from developed to developing
• The 1920s and 1930s
  – Closing the doors.
  – Years of economic depression.
  – Deportation of immigrants.
         World Migration Routes Since 1700

African (slaves)

Majority of population descended from immigrants
        Annual Net International Migration Totals and
           Migration Rates by Continent, 1990-95


                          North America

                       Latin America and



                                               Rate (per 100,000 population)
                                  Africa       Number (thousands)

-1500        -1000     -500                0             500               1000
           Types of Migration

                  • Local Migration
                    – No state boundaries are
                    – Buying a new house in the
Central City          same town or city.
                    – Difficult to research since they
                      are usually missed in census
  Suburb              data.
                    – Based on change of income or
                    – Often very high levels of local
                  Types of Migration
                                    • Temporary migration
                                      – The mover still maintains
       Shopping                         roots at the source.
                                      – Activity space.
  Work                                – Difficult to quantify.
                        Education     – Commuting.
                                         • Cyclical migration.
                                         • Usually done on a daily
                                      – Shopping.
                                      – Students/military.
             Permanent place             • Periodic migration.
             of residence
                                      – Tourism or business
                 Types of Migration
                            • Circular migration
                              – A type of temporary migration.
Spring             Summer     – Associated with agricultural
                              – The migrant follows the
                                harvest of various crops,
                                moving from one place to
                                another each time.
                              – Very common in the US
                                Southwest (Mexican farm
                                workers) and in Western
         Fall / Winter          Europe (Eastern European
                                farm workers).
                Types of Migration
• Voluntary migration
  – The migrant makes the decision to move.
  – Most migration is voluntary.
• Involuntary
  – Forced migration in which the mover has no role in
    the decision-making process.
  – Slavery.
     • About 11 million African slaves were brought to the
  – Refugees.
  – Military conscription.
  – Children of migrants.
  – Situations of divorce or separation.
                  Selective Migration
• Context
  – Many migrations are selective.
  – Do not represent a cross section of the source population.
  – Especially true in the early stages of a migration process.
• Age-specific migrations
  –   One age group is dominant in a particular migration.
  –   International migration tends to involve younger people.
  –   The dominant group is between 25 and 45.
  –   Studies and retirement are also age-specific migrations.
• Education-specific migrations
  – May characterize some migrations (having or lacking of).
  – High level of education attained by most contemporary Asian
    immigrants to the USA and Canada
               Selective Migration
• Sex-specific migrations
  – Migrations may be predominantly male or female.
     • Chinese men to build the railroads in the western US
       during the late 1800s.
  – Females often dominate rural to urban migrations.
     • Find jobs as domestic help or in new factories.
     • Send remittances back home.
     • Filipino females 17-30 to Hong Kong and Japan.
  – “Mail-order bride”.
     • 100,000 – 150,000 women a year advertise themselves
       for marriage.
     • About 10,000 available on the Internet at any time.
     • Mainly from Southeast Asia and Russia.
     • Come from places in which jobs and educational
       opportunities for women are scarce and wages are low.
              Selective Migration
• Immigration and jobs
  – Related to the economic sector.
  – Two major classes, high level and low level.
  – Not enough highly trained personnel in the US.
  – Result in recruiting abroad (see brain drain).
  – Others are filling low paid jobs (minimum wages)
    that most people do not want (agriculture and
• Costs of immigration for host country
  – On the long run, immigrants contribute more than
    they cost.
  – Higher costs at start.
                       Brain Drain
• Definition
  – Relates to educationally specific selective migrations.
  – In 1999, 340,000 skilled positions remained unfilled in the
  – Can be both a blessing and a problem.
• Positive aspects
  –   For the receiving nation or region.
  –   Getting highly qualified labor.
  –   Not having to pay education and health costs.
  –   Often begins with one’s experience as a foreign student.
• Negative aspects
  – Education and health costs not paid back.
  – Losing potential leaders and talent.
  – Long term impact on economic growth.
                        Brain Drain
  – Many brain drain migrants possess special skills
    which they can’t use at home.
    • The resources and technology may not be available there.
    • The specific labor market is not big enough.
• Education factors
  – Major factor behind brain drain.
  – Many foreign students do not return to their home
    countries after their education.
    • Often cannot utilize what they have learned.
    • Since 1978 some 130,000 Chinese overseas students
      have returned while some 250,000 have remained
  – Most research-oriented graduate institutions have
    around 40% foreign students.
          Migration Theory
• 1. Push - Pull Theory
• 2. Economic Approaches
• 3. Behavioral Explanations to Migration
• Context                       Push - Pull Theory
  – Migrations as the response of individual decision-
  – Negative or push factors in his current area of
     •   High unemployment and little opportunity.
     •   Great poverty.
     •   High crime.
     •   Repression or a recent disaster (e.g., drought or
  – Positive or pull factors in the potential destination.
     • High job availability and higher wages.
     • More exciting lifestyle.
     • Political freedom, greater safety and security, etc.
                Push - Pull Theory
• Intervening obstacles
  – Migration costs / transportation.
  – Immigration laws and policies of the destination country.

• The problem of perception
  – Assumes rational behavior on the part of the migrant.
  – This argument is not necessarily true since a migrant cannot
    be truly informed.
  – The key word is perception of the pull factors.
  – Information is never complete.
  – Decisions are made based upon perceptions of reality at the
    destination relative to the known reality at the source.
  – When the migrant’s information is highly inaccurate, a return
    migration may be one possible outcome.
             Push - Pull Theory

                    Intervening obstacles

Origin                                      Destination

 Positive factors
 Neutral factors
 Negative factors
                     • Labor mobility
Approaches             – The primary issue behind
                       – Notably the case at the national
   Labor shortages       level.
     High wages        – Equilibrate the geographical
                         differences in labor supply and
Migration              – Accelerated with the globalization
                         of the economy.
                     • Remittances
    Surplus labor      – Capital sent by workers working
     Low wages           abroad to their family / relatives at
                       – $58 billion in 1996.
Behavioral Explanations of Migration
                             • Life-cycle factors
       Stay with parents
                               – Migration linked to events in
                                 one’s life.
       Move to college         – People in their 30s are the
       First job                 most mobile.
  25   Marriage                   • Education, career, and family
       Promotion                    are being established.
                               – Later in life, flexibility
                                 decreases and inertia
  50   Children leave home       increases.
       Retirement              – Retirement often brings a
                                 major change.
                               – Large migrations of retired
  75   Loss of mobility          people have been occurring
                                 in the direction of amenities-
                                 oriented areas.
Age profile of migration and the life course
 Behavioral Explanations of Migration
• Migrants as risk-takers
  – Why, among a population in the same environment (the
    same push factors), some leave and some stay?
  – Migrants tend to be greater risk-takers, more motivated,
    more innovative and more adaptable.
  – Non-migrants tend to be more cautious and conservative.
  – Can be used to explain the relative dynamism in some
    societies, like the USA since the 1800s.
• Summary
  – No one theory of migration can adequately explain this huge
    worldwide phenomenon.
  – Each brings a contribution to the understanding of why
    people move.
                  Migration to Australia

• End of “White Australia Policy” in 1972/73
• Current migration streams for permanent settlement
  (appr. 80,000 p.a.):
   – Skill migration
   – Family migration
   – Humanitarian

• Trans-Tasman migration

• Some migration streams for temporary migrants:
   – Student migration
   – temporary skilled migration (457 visa)

• Some undocumented migration
             Pacific Islander migration

- Opportunity to move internationally (proximity, constitutional
  relationships with former colonial power)
- Polynesians have migrated in substantial numbers to the
  metropolitan countries of the Pacific Rim, particularly to New
  Zealand, Australia and the United States
- More than half of Cook Islanders, Niueans, Samoans,
  Tokelauans and Tongans live abroad
- Melanesians have no easy gateway to residency elsewhere
- The main exception substantial migration flow from
  Melanesia is that of Indo-Fijians migrating to the Pacific Rim:
  between 1987 and 2001, Fiji lost 75,800 citizens, some 90%
  of which were Indo-Fijians
- circulation: population movements that involve moderately
  long durations of stay at a destination followed by return to
  the places of origin

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