Annexes WWC - part 1_Mise en page 1_1_

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                            5      1. Summary Introduction

                            9      2. Istanbul Declaration of Heads
                                   of States on Water

                            11     3. Istanbul Ministerial Statement

                            15     4. Istanbul Water Guide

                            33     5. Ministerial Roundtable Reports

                            48     6. Parliamentarians for Water Statement
                                   & Helpdesk document

                            51     7. Istanbul Water Consensus and list
                                   of signatories and champion cities

                            59     8. Thematic Outcomes,
                                   based on a collection of commitments,
                                   initiatives and proposals

                            67     9. Regional Outcomes

                            103 10. Children’s Declaration

                            105 11. Youth Declaration

  Outcomes of the
  5th World Water Forum
  Istanbul 2009

Water is at the heart of today’s global challenges, including rapid population
growth and mass migration, the effects of the financial crisis on infrastructure
investment and the impacts of climate change and variability on development.
The World Water Forum is a key factor in our collective response--as a global
water community--to addressing these challenges and finding solutions that
work for the benefit of all. This publication represents a compilation of the
collective action of thousands of participants leading up to and during the 5th
World Water Forum, held in Istanbul, Turkey, 16-22 March 2009. It will
provide a benchmark for continued progress.

Istanbul Declaration of Heads of States on Water                action to be implemented to improve water security and
                                                                management at all levels. It was inspired by about 30
For the first time in the Forum’s history, Heads of             international declarations and was developed with the
States/Governments from a number of selected countries          contributions of thematic and regional coordinators and
met and launched a broad-based Appeal for Action, a call        representatives of major groups.
that seeks water security, climate adaptability and interna-
tional solidarity through a more strategic use of the world’s   Ministerial Roundtable Reports
most precious resource, water.
                                                                Eight ministerial roundtable discussions were organized
Istanbul Ministerial Statement                                  with a variety of stakeholders on 21 March 2009 in Istanbul,
                                                                the outcomes of which independently mirrored those of the
Distilled from one year of discussions and negotiations, the    thematic process. The roundtable subjects covered water-
Ministerial Statement was adopted by more than 160              related disasters, water and climate, financing, coastal
governmental delegations. It includes many commitments,         zones, sanitation, water and energy, Africa, and water for
for example to intensify efforts to achieve MDG targets,        food and poverty eradication.
implement IWRM and information sharing at the river-
basin level and prevent and respond to water-related disasters. Parliamentarians for Water Statement & Helpdesk
In addition, it also encourages appropriate infrastructure, document
better scientific research, education, technologies and use
of financial resources, while emphasizing the need to share The 5th World Water Forum gathered an unprecedented
experiences and best practices.                                 assembly of 263 Parliamentarians from 57 countries.
                                                                Following discussions around four central themes, the
Istanbul Water Guide                                            Parliamentarians drafted a statement and launched the idea
                                                                of a permanent international Parliamentary “Helpdesk” to
An accompaniment to the Ministerial Statement, the Istanbul aid political cooperation on water legislation and its
Water Guide lists 140 recommendations for concrete implementation.                                                             05

     Istanbul Water Consensus and list of signatories and champion cities

     In Istanbul, 250 Local and Regional Authorities from 43 countries presented the
     Istanbul Water Consensus (IWC), a new compact for Local and Regional
     Authorities. In Istanbul, 58 signatories commited to prepare action plans to
     analyse and cope with the challenges they are facing and to report on their
     progress at the next World Water Forum. Since the Forum, over two hundred
     additional signatories have joined the ranks, and the list will continue to grow,
     fueled by the efforts of 10 major “champion cities.”its implementation.

     Thematic Outcomes

     This chapter is based on a collection of commitments, initiatives and proposals
     spanning over 100 sessions. One recurring message was that progress can only
     be achieved through an interdisciplinary approach, both at the international and
     national levels, due to the interrelatedness of water issues across so many
     different sectors. There is therefore a need to reinforce the preliminary linkages
     made at the 5th World Water Forum and continue to think “out of the box.”
     In addition, education, capacity development and financial support need to be
     enhanced in virtually every domain to support further progress. Finally,
     solutions must be sustainable and flexibly adapted to specific local or regional
     circumstances: no “one size fits all” approach can be applied to water

     Regional Outcomes

     This compilation of seven regional processes presents many important
     statements taking into account regional specificities, in both thematic and
     political arenas. These processes were important catalysts for mobilizing
     stakeholders, promoting cooperation and impacting political action in their
     regions. Organisers and participants committed to organize regional preparatory
     fora in the future to support continued progress on water issues in local contexts.

     Children’s Declaration

     Held just prior to the Forum, the Children’s Forum welcomed 135 children from
     21 countries who discussed and agreed on the Children’s Declaration.

     Youth Declaration

     An assembly of over 200 young people from all over the world, the Youth Forum
     encouraged youth to become vectors of that much needed change for the better.
     The Youth Declaration that they produced was read during the Forum’s closing.


                                                                                                                                       OF STATE
  Outcomes of the                                                                                                                  DECLARATION
  5th World Water Forum
  Istanbul 2009

16 March 2009
                                                                     Water resources cannot be managed without appropriate capacity

                e, the Heads of States, Governments and
                International Organizations, gathered in Istanbul    and properly designed and maintained infrastructure. Thus,
                on 16 March 2009 on the occasion of the 5th          investment in these areas should be given the highest priority.
                World Water Forum, under the theme "Bridging
Divides for Water", appeal to all national governments,              Many decisions taken at all levels of government both influence
international organizations and other stakeholders to generate a     and depend significantly on water. Yet this connection is rarely
common vision and framework to develop and manage water              recognized and much less acted upon.
resources in a sustainable manner and to guarantee access to safe
water and sanitation for all.                                        Therefore, we urgently need new policies, adaptation strategies,
                                                                     institutional reforms with the effective contribution of local
Water sustains human life and the environment; it connects people,   elected administrations and water users, international commitments,
cultures and economies. Water is indispensable for all economic      financial mechanisms, technology and innovation in order to
and social development, food security, and ending poverty and        address global water issues and adapt water management
hunger. It is also essential to achieve the Millennium Development   strategies to the global changes.
Goals and other internationally agreed development goals.
                                                                   We affirm our political will to take rapid action bearing in mind
The world is facing major global changes, such as rapid population the key elements of success: Solidarity, security, adaptability
growth, migration, uncontrolled and unhealthy urbanization, and useful dialogue and cooperation on transboundary waters
land-use changes, economic expansion, changes in trade patterns, between neighbours. Working together with a participatory, inter-
climate change, which have a direct negative impact on water sectoral and multi-disciplinary approach to manage water
resources. These global changes are seriously threatening water resources, the world can and will attain greater prosperity and
availability and quality and encourage overextraction. The recent increased stability through the sharing of the many benefits of water.
economic and financial crisis also must be acknowledged and its
consequences on integrated water resources management and To achieve this, we call on all nations to join efforts in order to
services urgently need to be evaluated.                            develop a global framework for addressing the world’s water
                                                                   issues and to implement tools that will help us accomplish
Water also has a power to destroy lives and livelihoods as has solidarity, security and adaptability.
been experienced through floods, hurricanes and droughts, and
climate change is expected to exacerbate these already disastrous We, the Heads of States, Governments and International
events.                                                            Organizations gathered in Istanbul, pledge to create a more
                                                                   sustainable and water safe world in the 21st Century and, in this       07
                                                                   context, appeal to everyone to join us in meeting this challenge. ■




  Outcomes of the                                                                                                                    STATEMENT
  5th World Water Forum
  Istanbul 2009

22 March 2009

                                                                        Therefore, we the Ministers and Heads of Delegations, present at

                e the Ministers and Heads of Delegations assembled
                in Istanbul, Turkey, on 20-22 March 2009 on the         the Ministerial Conference of the 5th World Water Forum, share
                occasion of the 5th World Water Forum,                  the view on the following:
                ‘Bridging Divides for Water’, are determined to
address the global challenges related to water within the context       1.We will intensify our efforts to reach internationally agreed
of sustainable development. We, therefore:                              upon goals such as the MDGs and to improve access to safe and
                                                                        clean water, sanitation, hygiene and healthy ecosystems in the
Reaffirm the prior commitments made by national governments             shortest possible time through appropriate policies and
to achieve the internationally agreed upon goals on water and           adequate financial resources at all levels.
sanitation, including those in Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg
Plan of Implementation, and acknowledge the decisions of the            2.We will further support the implementation of integrated
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development                    water resources management (IWRM) at the level of river basin,
(UNCSD), the multilateral agreements relevant to water, water           watershed and groundwater systems, within each country, and,
use, sanitation and health.                                             where appropriate, through international cooperation to meet
                                                                        economic, social and environmental demands equitably, inter alia
Recognize the need to achieve water security. To this end it is vital   to address the impact of global changes, taking into account the
to increase adaptation of water management to all global changes        interests of all stakeholders, using a participatory process in
and improve cooperation at all levels.                                  decision making and planning while creating better links between
                                                                        relevant sectors to achieve solutions that benefit all parties.
Recognize that the world is facing rapid
                                               and unprecedented
global changes, including population growth, migration, 3.We endeavour to improve water demand management,
urbanization, climate change, desertification, drought, degradation productivity and efficiency of water use for agriculture including,
and land use, economic and diet changes.                            where appropriate, building irrigation networks and also improve
                                                                    rain-fed agriculture to increase crop productivity and conserve
Recognize, in particular, the specific challenges facing different water with a view to achieving sustainable production of sufficient
parts of the world, especially Africa, in meeting the MDGs and food for rapidly increasing populations, and changing consumption
attaining an acceptable level of water security for socio-economic patterns, improving living standards, especially in rural areas,
development.                                                        and ending poverty and hunger consistent and in harmony with
                                                                    internationally agreed development goals and other relevant
                                                                    international obligations/agreements.

ISTANBUL      4. We support country-led development projects in different sectors related to water,
              especially with regard to energy and food security and poverty eradication. We will work
              to build new and maintain, strengthen and improve existing infrastructure for multiple
              purposes including water storage, irrigation, energy production, navigation and disaster
              prevention and preparedness that are economically sound, environmentally sustainable
              and socially equitable.

              5. We will strengthen our understanding of the impacts of global changes on water
              resources, natural hydrological processes and ecosystems. We will work to preserve
              environmental flows, increase the resilience of and restore degraded ecosystems, taking
              advantage of new mechanisms as well as partnerships with foresters to enhance water-
              related forest services.

              6. We will strengthen the prevention of pollution from all sectors in surface and ground-
              water, appropriately applying the polluter pays principle, while further developing and
              implementing wastewater collection, treatment and reuse.

              7. We will consider the need of water-short areas to invest in desalination and wastewater
              treatment for reuse and provide technological support and know-how to make them
              sustainable and affordable.

              8. We will respect international law providing protection for water resources, water
              infrastructure and the environment in times of armed conflict and cooperate in its further
              development, as necessary.

              9. We resolve to develop, implement and further strengthen transnational, national and/or
              sub-national plans and programmes to anticipate and address the possible impacts of
              global changes. Assessments of varying hydrological conditions, extreme water events
              and the shape and functionality of existing infrastructure are essential in this context.
              Investment efforts to establish necessary infrastructure, to increase storage and drainage
              capacity in particular, needs to be scaled up, taking into account water efficiency.

              10. We resolve to work to prevent and respond to natural and human-induced disasters,
              including floods and droughts. We resolve to proceed, where possible, from crisis
              management to disaster preparedness and prevention of human-induced disasters
              and risk management by developing early warning systems, implementing structural and
              nonstructural measures, both for water resources and access to water and sanitation,
              and building capacity at all levels. We resolve to also take necessary post-disaster
              mitigation and rehabilitation measures for affected people and hydrological systems.

              11. We will strive to improve water-related monitoring systems and ensure that useful
              information is
                                   freely available to all concerned populations, including neighbouring

              12. We will clarify at all levels, as appropriate, the roles, rights and responsibilities of all
              actors and promote cross-cutting coordination and policies, in particular to provide people
              with access to water and sanitation as a key to achieve sustainable development while
              maintaining responsibility in line with social considerations, with national governments
              and local authorities, and support various forms of partnerships.


13. To improve at the national level the governance of the water sector, we will, as                ISTANBUL
appropriate, aim to:                                                                             MINISTERIAL
         a) Promote institutional water management reform,
         b) Strengthen water sector laws and regulatory frameworks, increase political
         and administrative accountability for their implementation, and ensure their
         effective enforcement,
         c) Prevent corruption and increase integrity in implementing water-related
         policies, plans and practices,
         d) Ensure transparency in decision making processes,
         e) Strengthen public participation from all water stakeholders.

14. We will support scientific research, education, development and adoption of new
technologies and broadening of technological choices in the field of water and promote
their utilization towards sustainable use and management of water resources and to
increase the adaptive capacities and resiliency of societies. We will make efforts to
promote international cooperation in the development, application and diffusion,
including dissemination of technologies, practices and processes in water issues, as well
as in scientific, technological, socio-economic and other research, towards improving
universal access to water and sanitation.

15. We acknowledge the discussions within the UN system regarding human rights and
access to safe drinking water and sanitation. We recognize that access to safe drinking
water and sanitation is a basic human need.

16. We will take, as appropriate, concrete and tangible steps to improve and promote
cooperation on sustainable use and protection of transboundary water resources through
coordinated action of riparian states, in conformity with existing agreements and/or other
relevant arrangements, taking into account the interests of all riparian states concerned.
We will work to strengthen existing institutions and develop new ones, as appropriate and if
needed, and implement instruments for improved management of transboundary waters.

17. We invite international organizations and institutions to support international efforts
to enhance the dissemination of experiences and sharing of best practices on sustainable
water resources rehabilitation, protection, conservation, management and utilization.

18. We strive to prioritize water and sanitation in national development plans and strategies;
develop local and national/regional water management plans; allocate adequate budgetary
resources to water management and sanitation service provision; to lead donor coordination
processes, and create an enabling environment for water and sanitation investments.
We strive to mobilize resources from all sources, including public and private.

19. We will promote effective use of financial resources from all sources, including
encouraging international financial institutions, development partners and beneficiary
countries to increase support for water management, water supply and sanitation.
We also will resolve to support more effective and diversified support, credit and financial
management systems that are easily accessible and affordable.

20. Acknowledging that new and adequate resources are needed to achieve the MDGs,
we call upon the international community, development partners and private sources of
financingto invest resources to complement the efforts made by developing countries
and countries with economies in transition, to develop sustainable water resources
management and to build the infrastructure base for a sustained socio-economic growth,
especially in Africa and least developed countries.

ISTANBUL      21. We acknowledge the need of fair, equitable and sustainable cost recovery strategies
MINISTERIAL   and we will therefore promote and implement realistic and sustainable financing
              strategies for the water sector, especially water supply, good water quality and sanitation
              sectors. We acknowledge that exclusively economic approaches and tools cannot
              capture all social and environmental aspects in cost recovery. Financing strategies should
              be based on a best possible use and mix of tariffs for all forms of water services,
              taxes and transfers to cover needs related to infrastructure development and extension,
              operation and maintenance.

              22. We finally acknowledge that water is a cross-cutting issue. Thus, we will communicate
              our message to those outside of the water sector including the highest political levels.
              We will make our best efforts to follow this issue in order to develop innovative
              governance, integrated water policy management, legal frameworks, cross-sectoral policies,
              financing mechanisms and technologies in combination with capacity development.

              Therefore, we the Ministers and Heads of Delegations, present at the 5th World Water
              Forum Ministerial Conference share the view to:

              (A) Convey the results of the 5th World Water Forum Ministerial Process to relevant
                  international and regional processes,

              (B) Challenge ourselves and call upon all stakeholders to take into account this Ministerial
                  Statement and its recommendations to be incorporated, as appropriate, into our
                  national policies related to water resources management and services and link these
                  results to the 6th World Water Forum, and take note of the Istanbul Water Guide and
                  its recommendations.

              (C) Continue to work together with Parliaments and Local Authorities, to address water
                  and sanitation issues in a mutual fashion,

              Finally, the Ministers and Heads of Delegations present at the 5th World Water Forum
              Ministerial Conference would like to:

              (D) Thank the Government of Turkey, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and the World
                  Water Council for their organization of the 5th World Water Forum and the Ministerial

              (E) Note with appreciation the participation of National Governments, Regional and
                  International Organizations and stakeholder groups in the Ministerial, Regional and
                  Thematic Processes of the 5th World Water Forum. ■



                                                                                                                                           WATER GUIDE
  Outcomes of the
  5th World Water Forum
  Istanbul 2009

Table of Contents
                               WATER GUIDE


THEME I: Global Changes and Risk Management                          THEME IV: Governance and Management
     Element 1: The Role of Water in Adapting to Climate Change          Element 1: The Right to Water and Sanitation for Improved Access
     Element 2: Water-related Migration, Changing Land Uses,             Element 2: Water institutions and water reforms
                Human Settlements and Water                              Element 3: Ethics, Transparency and Empowerment of Stakeholders
     Element 3: Managing Risks and Disasters                             Element 4: Optimizing Public and Private Roles in Water Services

THEME II: Advancing Human Development and the Millennium             THEME V: Finance
Development Goals (MDGs)                                                 Element 1: Sustainable Financing in the Water Sector
     Element 1: Ensuring Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All           Element 2: Cost Recovery Strategies as a Tool for a Sustainable
     Element 2: Water for Energy, Energy for Water                                  Water Sector
     Element 3: Water and Food for Ending Poverty and Hunger             Element 3: Pro-poor Financing Policies and Strategies
     Element 4: Multiple Use and Functions of Water Services
                                                                    THEME VI: Education, Knowledge and Capacity Development
THEME III: Managing and Protecting Water Resources and their            Element 1: Education, Knowledge and Capacity Development
Supply Systems to Meet Human and Environmental Needs                    Element 2: Water Science and Technology -
    Element 1: Basin management and transboundary water cooperation                Appropriate and Innovative Solutions
    Element 2: Planning to ensure adequate water resources              Element 3: Professional Associations and Networks
               and storage infrastructure to meet human                 Element 4: Access to Data
               and environmental needs                                  Element 5: Water and Culture
     Element 3: Preserving natural ecosystems
     Element 4: Managing and protecting surface, ground, rainwater   ANNEX I: Contributing Documents
                and soil                                                                                                                          13

ISTANBUL                                                              4 In the context of this 5th World                           degree. The population of the planet is
WATER GUIDE                                                         Water Forum Ministerial Process, the                           estimated to increase by 50%, meaning

         ISTANBUL                                           1
                                                                    term "Global Changes" is referred to
                                                                    as including, but not limited to popu-
                                                                    lation growth, migration, urbanization,
                                                                                                                                   3 billion additional inhabitants, by
                                                                                                                                   2050. More than half of the world's
                                                                                                                                   population now lives in cities, and this

       WATER GUIDE                                                  climate change and land-use,
                                                                    consumption and economic changes,
                                                                    and therefore increasing pressures on
                                                                                                                                   increasing urbanization is set to continue.
                                                                                                                                   Population will continue to increase as
                                                                                                                                   will rural-urban migration, adding
                                                                    natural resources and ecosystems.                              difficulty to reach the agreed Millennium
                                                                                                                                   Development Goals (MDGs) on access
      BACKGROUND                                                      5 The Istanbul Water Guide is
                                                                    configured to "mirror" the Thematic
                                                                                                                                   to water and sanitation and increasing
                                                                                                                                   pollution at the same time. The demand,
        1 The Ministerial Declarations of                           Programme of the 5th World Water                               and probably prices, of natural
                                                                    Forum to make the connection                                   resources and energy will increase as
      the past World Water Fora have been
                                                                    between the technical side of the                              the planet's inhabitants grow in number
      important contributions in laying
                                                                    Forum and the political, "Bridging                             and consumption increases. Humans
      down the world's priorities concerning
                                                                    Divides for Water", the over-arching                           are altering global systems at a rate not
      water resources and services. Yet,
                                                                    theme of the 5th World Water Forum.                            previously experienced. These drivers,
      water-related problems still persist,
                                                                    Contributions were made directly by                            and the constraints that limit the ability
      and are even becoming more significant
                                                                    the Thematic, Topic and Regional                               to adapt to them, affect the developed
      as a result of global changes affecting,
                                                                    Coordinators of the 5th World Water                            and developing world in different
      in particular, the economy, the demo-
                                                                    Forum and other significant interna-                           ways.
      graphy and the state of natural
                                                                    tional meetings and Regional Summits
      resources. There is thus a need to
                                                                    and consolidated into a single text                              7 Critical issues have recently been
      accelerate action by all actors to make
                                                                    which outlines the issues the world                            the focus of politicians and media
      progress towards creating a water-safe
                                                                    is facing with regards to water and                            alike. Oil prices, food prices, global
      environment for the world's citizens.
                                                                    sanitation as well as objectives to                            economic turbulence and water-related
       2 The goal of the Istanbul Water                             address those issues.                                          disasters feature high on the list. What
                                                                                                                                   the world is not talking about is how
      Guide is to go beyond those statements
                                                                                                                                   these are related to, impact on and are
      and create an agenda for action by
                                                                                                                                   affected by water. There is an inextri-
      national governments in partnership
                                                                                                                                   cable link between all of these issues
      with stakeholders to address the critical
                                                                                                                                   and water yet the connection is not
      areas of water resources management,
      governance and finance.

        3 T h e I s t a n bu l Wa t e r G u i d e
                                                                    THE PROBLEM                                                    being made at a higher level, which
                                                                                                                                   endangers not only water resources
                                                                                                                                   and ecosystems, but humans and their
                                                                    6 The world is facing changes at a                             livelihoods as well. It is not well
      represents recommendations from
                                                                   faster rate than ever seen before. These                        understood within political arenas that
      experts from throughout the world and
                                                                   changes such as population growth,                              water resources are among the important
      is not intended to be a binding document
                                                                   migration, urbanization, land-use                               factors that drive the current changes,
      for governments but has two major
                                                                   changes and climate variability/                                affecting nations as well as local
                                                                   change will drive the way in which                              communities. This adds to the already
                                                                   water resources need to be managed in                           high impact of polluted water affecting
        • To help and guide governments
                                                                   the future. They also call for concrete                         billions of people as well as ecosystems.
        to adjust their priorities and                
                                                                   contributions from water policies and                           With the onset of global changes, the
        actions plans according to the
                                                                   actions to help the world cope with                             world must confront these issues
        difficulties they face; and
                                                                   these changes. While climate change                             urgently so as not to let both lives and
        • To inform relevant intergovern-                          has been the most talked about topic,                           economic well-being slip through our
        mental processes of the results                            other changes taking place will likely                          fingers.
        of the 5th World Water Forum                               affect water resources and services and
        Ministerial Process.                                       their management to a much greater

      1 This Istanbul Water Guide was prepared through a series of Preparatory Committee Meetings (PrepComs) with the attendance of representatives of national governments as well as major
14    and stakeholder groups and the Thematic and Regional Coordinators of the 5th World Water Forum. This document is based on the broad views of the participants of the PrepCom series
      and the outcomes and recommendations of a number of technical and political meetings, such as symposia, conferences, summits and regional water fora held until early 2009 (see list in
      Annex 1).

  8 These messages have to be taken           9 Throughout history, water actions       national and local governments      ISTANBUL
to those outside of the "water box",         have been societies' main activity to      are not prepared for the changes WATER GUIDE
which include the highest political          adapt to changes in climate and            that will occur, potentially
levels. The cross-cutting nature of the      nature. They have been the means by        making a worse situation. Let
water sector makes it an important           which decision makers create ways to       us set the agenda now while we have
resource for other interests. Often,         avoid social disruption and violence       the opportunity.
decisions affecting water are not in the     under the shock of events with too
hands of water professionals but in the      much or too little water. The 5th World
hands of decision makers in related          Water Forum offers the opportunity to
sectors. The water sector must help          help create a framework for assisting
inform these decision makers in order        nations and communities to mitigate
for them to make more sound choices          for and adapt to those global changes
about how they utilize water in their        in a sustainable way. The situation has
activities.                                  already been critical for decades, but

       THEME I: Global Changes and Risk Management
Element 1: The Role of Water                 into consideration the impacts of their  be seen not only as part of the
in Adapting to Climate Change                policy choices on the hydrological cycle problem, but part of the solution with
                                             that affects rural, populated and urban  regards to climate change. Groundwater
 10 Think outside the "water box".           areas. The strategic impact assessment   carries a buffering capacity against
Climate change/variability affects not       is a tool that can add value with        climate change; therefore sustainable
only the hydrological cycle, but areas       thinking "outside the water box" for     groundwater management, desalination
that are closely related to water, forest    the development of high level policies   and wastewater treatment should be
and land. An integrated approach to          and identification of hot spots.         part of the national strategies.
adapt to these changes through better                                                 Hydropower development and inland
management of space, land and water           11 Develop national and/or sub- navigation needs to be revisited and
as media for mitigation, adaptation          national water-related adaptation developed as an adaptation measure.
and disaster preparedness and to             strategies. National and sub-national Non-structural adaptation measures
ensure food security, energy security,       strategies need to be developed for such as spatial planning, ecosystem
economic development, environmental          adaptation to climate change/variability protection, social concerns, communi-
protection and equity is required.           taking into account international cation, awareness-raising and risk
Water is more affected by food, energy       adaptation programmes. These need to management plans are essential.
and other policies than by water policies    be integrated in existing and national Support rural areas as they are the
themselves. It is recommended that           IWRM plans and strategies. Assess- foundation of agriculture and are
the water community finds ways to            ments of needed infrastructure for extremely sensitive to global changes.
help politicians and experts of other        adaptation should be carried out and Projections of climate change impacts
sectors to understand these broadened        then required infrastructure planned should be developed at a smaller scale
perspectives and their implications for      and financed. Adequate approaches, and localized to provide relevant
policies. It is also recommended that        such as climate-friendly small-scale information to policy makers and
national governments, including              technologies, besides large-scale water managers responsible for
ministries of agriculture, forestry,         infrastructure should be taken into major urban areas. The importance
interior, public works, industry, finance,   consideration, not only because of of collection and dissemination of
energy, health, education and other          potential impacts, but also the long climate and hydrological information
sectors "outside the water box", take        time frame for construction. Water can is stressed.


ISTANBUL       12 Apply the IWRM approach         including the uncertainties, a longer-       that is related to population dynamics
WATER GUIDE    to address adaptation to           term horizon is required for community       especially between rural areas and
               climate change. The impact of      development and involvement and              urban areas in developing countries.
               climate change on the water        large infrastructural investments,
      cycle should be assessed and communi-       beyond the planning horizon adopted            19 Strengthen institutions and
      cated. Capacity development to support      by the Millennium Development                policies, which bolster resilience in
      better management of water resources at     Goals (2015).                                populations. Policies are needed,
      all levels, national, regional and local,                                                which strengthen resilience, systema-
      including river basin organizations          16 Incorporate climate change               tically reduce incentives that drive
      (RBOs) should be supported to build         assessments in National Plans                environmental degradation, improve
      resilience to climate change. Application   related to water. At the national level,     livelihood opportunities and provide
      of the IWRM approach will balance social    integrate an assessment of climate           enhanced risk management capacity.
      and economic impacts, minimise environ-     change impacts into National Water           These policies should include input
      mental impacts and preserve ecosystems.     Plans and create adaptation measures         from all major groups/stakeholders
                                                  in line with those impacts for sustainable   and address cultural and gender
       13 Identify the countries and              water security in social, environmental      concerns as to strengthen civil society
      communities that are most vulnera-          and economic needs.                          and major group roles.
      ble to the hydrological impacts of
      climate change. Areas identified by          17 Close the financial gap for               20 Increase awareness about the
      the IPCC as most vulnerable to the          adaptation. While it is a nation's           impact of environmental degradation.
      impacts of climate change include           responsibility to finance their national     Knowledge about degradation of
      the least developed countries and           water management programmes,                 water resources and climate change
      small island developing States (SIDS),      climate change may add additional            can guide governments, migrants, and
      low lying densely populated coastal         challenges within the overall develop-       potential migrants to take necessary
      areas, areas affected by glacier melt,      ment/sustainability agenda, resulting        precautions for the safety of populations.
      and arid areas with fragile populations,    in the need of additional external
      economies and environments. Interna-        financial resources for developing            21 Develop sound monitoring
      tional efforts to identify "hot spots"      countries to implement adaptation            systems. Take stock of and improve
      and make accessible operational tools       measures. While recognizing that             existing monitoring systems and
      to further identify areas and groups        several financial initiatives are being      develop new and innovative ones.
      that are at highest risks from the          launched recently on mitigation and
      hydrological impacts of climate             adaptation, the additional needs              22 Improve legal frameworks.
      change should be scaled up. Strategic       cannot be met with the present               Include environmentally induced
      Environmental Assessments can help          (inter)national adaptation funding           migrants, environmentally displaced
      identifying vulnerable locations and        instruments alone.                           people and internally displaced
      systems, to be followed by factoring                                                     populations due to water related effects
      in climate proofing into water resources                       ■                         within international legal instruments.
      management and water services.                                                           Improve the existing international
                                                  Element 2: Water-related                     legal instruments to protect the rights
       14 Design infrastructure projects to Migration, Changing Land Uses,                     of displaced individuals and/or
      better manage hydrologic variability, Human Settlements and Water                        communities.
      including the likely effects of climate
      change. Infrastructure projects should       18 Improve the knowledge base on             23 Provide adequate humanitarian
      anticipate the likely affects of climate the change of water-related popula-             response. Environmental changes and
      change as well as hydrological variations. tion dynamics. As the window for              armed conflict may result in substantial
      Infrastructure should be redesigned identifying appropriate adaptation                   human movements, which will require
      and re-engineered as necessary to pathways to global changes narrows,                    adequate humanitarian efforts to avoid
      withstand extreme events and to perform it is imperative to address how changing         escalating tensions. Natural disasters
      under changed circumstances.                climatic and environmental conditions        and armed conflict will displace large
                                                  affect individual and group decisions        numbers of people temporarily, while
       15 Develop long-term scenarios and to migrate. Assemble data and relevant               the steady and continuous impact of
      strategies for action in all planning scientific information on the subject is           climatic stressors will permanently
      activities. To cope with the impacts pertinent in order to develop strategies            displace many more people over
16    of increasing climate variability and to manage migration. Understand the                an extended period. In the face of
      climate change on water and livelihoods, dynamics of agricultural development            environmental stress, assistance must

be in place to prevent crisis and maintain    should be comprehensively studied            Assist rural areas and cities           ISTANBUL
peace among resource-stressed and             and understood.                              in instituting structural and WATER GUIDE
possibly poverty stricken groups on                                                        non-structural risk manage-
the move as well as assess impacts of          25 Integrate water-related Disaster         ment plans/measures to reduce
sanitation and waste creation of those        Risk Reduction into national deve-           damage from water-related disasters.
migrating and address them.                   lopment plans and finance. Within            National governments should ensure
                                              this remark, it must be recognized that      that urban centres develop and enforce
                    ■                         adaptation to climate change must            appropriate spatial planning and
                                              take on a high priority for national         bylaws that reduce risks of water-related
Element 3: Managing Risks                     governments while establishing national      disasters that take into account the
and Disasters                                 and local goals targets for water-related    various impacts on different major
                                              Disaster Risk Reduction. International       groups.
 24 Assess the risks and possible             and regional strategies and action
consequences of water-related                 plans also need afforded priority,            28 Protect the access to drinking
disasters. Water-related natural disasters,   especially in cases of transboundary         water and sanitation services during
namely droughts and floods, are the           risks. Public and private investment in      and after disaster and in situations
primary killers, and heavily affect           infrastructure, non-structural measures      of armed conflict and occupation.
millions of people, especially among          and human resources are needed with          All parties to the conflict must respect
the poorest. These disasters are serious      safety of populations as a priority.         International Humanitarian Law
impediments to sustainable development                                                     protecting objects that are indispensable
and poverty reduction. Huge economic           26 Increase preparedness level of           to the survival of civilian population,
losses can also be ascribed to water-         afflicted populations. Through the use       such as drinking water installations
related disasters, including massive          of raising public awareness, increasing      and supplies and irrigation works.
impacts to infrastructure, shelter,           the human capacities of nations, from        Humanitarian response to the civilian
health and food production. The               local to national levels, to confront        population in general, to women and
influence of climate variability/change       water-related disasters, the strengthening   children, elderly, refugees, sick and
with the likely increased frequency of        and development of early warning             wounded in particular must be granted
droughts and floods will increase the         systems considering vulnerable areas         aiming at re-establishing or upgrading
vulnerability of populations. Demogra-        and groups of people, and the creation       drinking water and sanitation installa-
phic changes, urbanization, migration         preparedness indices, to make nations        tions and supplies disrupted by the
and lack of adequate infrastructure are       more prepared to confront water-related      disasters or the direct or indirect effects
also putting higher numbers of people         disasters.                                   of armed conflict and/or occupation.
at risk than ever before. Therefore,                                                       Combine measures and efforts to prevent
assessment of the risks and possible           27 Institute risk management                any appearance and spread of water-
negative consequences of water-related        plans/measures. Shift from crisis            related diseases.
disasters encountered by global changes       management to risk management.

        THEME II: Advancing Human Development and
         the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Element 1: Ensuring Water,                    necessary actions in order to expand         medium- and long-term targets and
Sanitation and Hygiene for All                access to water and sanitation. Such         timelines, going beyond the MDG
                                              plans need to include aspects related        and Johannesburg Programme of
 29 Develop national and sub-                 to appropriate sanitation technologies,      Implementation targets. National and
national plans of action. Each country        wastewater collection and treatment          sub-national plans should take into
should develop national and sub-              and be tailored to the economic, social      account preservation of all ecosystem
national plans of action, along with          and environmental conditions and             services. The requirements of under-          17
appropriate policies, outlining the           needs. The plans need to specify short-      served urban and rural populations,

ISTANBUL       residents of arid and semi-arid     sanitation and hygiene. Strengthen           poor and disadvantaged. Use modern
WATER GUIDE    areas and informal settlements,     local water services through Water           approaches such as community-led
               should be addressed appro-          Operators Partnerships (WOPs).               total sanitation, marketing for behaviour
               priately in the development of      Establish regional, North-South,             change, educational programs to change
      these plans, while incorporating indige-     South-South North-South-South part-          behaviour towards water, sanitation
      nous knowledge, women's and children's       nerships to build capacity, exchange         and hygiene. In addition, using such
      knowledge and needs and give specific        best practices, transfer knowledge,          strategic processes as Poverty Reduction
      attention to vulnerable groups. Priority     strengthen local cooperation and             Strategy Papers, raise the profile
      should be given to schools, health           finance projects.                            of water, sanitation and hygiene so
      centres, public centres and emergency                                                     development agencies take more robust
      preparedness. Identify one accountable        32 Mobilise resources for water,            action towards meeting the needs of
      institution to takes clear leadership of     sanitation and hygiene. Develop              those without these services.
      the national sanitation portfolio and        sustainable financing strategies to enable
      establish one coordinating body with         implementation of national and sub-            36 Consider the full impact of
      specific responsibility for sanitation       national action plans for water and          sanitation on health, environment
      and hygiene that would work in               sanitation. National governments are         and the economy. Better take into
      conjunction with the health and              responsible for defining appropriate         consideration the sanitary, environ-
      education sectors.                           budgetary allocations to water, sanitation   mental and economic benefits of
                                                   and hygiene. Authorities responsible         improved sanitation, in both developing
       30 Improve monitoring of access             for delivering water and sanitation          and developed countries. The Interna-
      to sanitation and water. Monitoring,         services should implement sustainable        tional Year of Sanitation 2008 has raised
      based on data provided by national           cost recovery through a mix of tariffs,      awareness about the direct relation
      governments, of access to safe and clean     taxes and transfers, including Official      between poor or lack of sanitation and
      water and sanitation is essential. Exis-     Development Assistance. Contributions        slow progress against health targets,
      ting WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring             from international financing institutions    environmental degradation, low
      Programmes should be further                 and development partners should              productivity and economic activities.
      supported and expanded to include            respond to demands expressed by
      additional indicators, including gender      recipient countries.                           37 Improve Integrated Sanitation
      and age-segregated data, such as                                                          Management. Recognise wastewater
      connection to sewerage networks and        33 Build capacity in water, sanitation         as a resource and develop its use,
      wastewater treatment, to measure and hygiene. Mobilise more technical                     whenever and wherever appropriate
      global progress towards meeting the resources and build institutional,                    and properly controlled. Wastewater
      internationally agreed upon goals technical, managerial and planning                      may be used for irrigation and solids,
      on water and sanitation. Develop capacity at all levels, but especially at                suitably treated, may be used as ferti-
      monitoring of the quality of water, the local level.                                      lisers and for energy production from
      the continuity of water supply, hand                                                      biomass and heat. Integrated Sanitation
      washing programmes and segregated          34 Use appropriate, acceptable and             Management should be considered as
      sanitation facilities in schools and economically available technology.                   part of IWRM.
      health centres. At national level, With the full participation of commu-
      analyse the discrepancies between the nities, design, implement and evaluate                                 ■
      various national datasets describing sustainable technical solutions to
      the types of access to water and water and sanitation problems using                      Element 2: Water for Energy,
      sanitation in order to strengthen the appropriate, innovative, and economi-               Energy for Water
      base and the monitoring of national cally available as well as indigenous
                                                      38 Improve the knowledge of the
      policies.                                 technologies.
                                                                                                water-energy nexus. There is too little
       31 Build cross-cutting local, regional       35 Raise awareness on sanitation            thought and planning being introduced
      and international partnerships.              and hygiene. Inform both the public          to the water-energy nexus in most
      Increase the efforts and means of            and decision makers on the benefits of       parts of the world, especially developing
      governments (local, regional and             water, sanitation and hygiene to the         countries. With fluctuating costs, rapid
      national), water operators, civil society,   economy, health and the environment          decisions have to be made about how
      NGOs, water users and the private            and make them aware of the sense of          these two sectors will be interrelated.
      sector to partner together to assume         urgency of the issue. Promote and            It is therefore important to develop
18    and share the costs, risks, results and      make available sustainable, affordable       a good understanding of the water-
      impacts of investment in water,              and appropriate technologies to the          energy nexus at the local, national,

regional and international levels as           countries and water institutions in           45 Conduct more research to            ISTANBUL
both water and energy actions place at         order to reduce these impacts. In addition   better evaluate impacts of WATER GUIDE
the global level all the way down to           to compensation, options for investing       biofuels on water resources.
individual communities where water             in water conservation, energy efficient      Biofuels may play a significant
and energy choices take place on the           pumping and transport mechanisms             role during the 21st Century. Impact
ground. Wide participation from relevant       should be considered.                        assessments, risk and benefit studies on
stakeholders is necessary from both                                                         the production and use of biofuels will
sectors to include users and user               42 Use efficient and appropriate            contribute to optimize water use taking
associations, professional associations,       technologies in both water and               into account aspects of quality, quantity
business and the private sector, regulators,   energy sectors. There is an extraordi-       and food production.
governments, NGOs, scientists, the             nary amount of technological innovation
academic community and workers and             that seeks to reduce interrelated                               ■
trade unions, farmers' organizations and       energy and water footprints in the
civil society.                                 delivery of these essential services.        Element 3: Water and Food for
                                               Increasing efficiency in energy use          Ending Poverty and Hunger
 39 Enhance the coordination of                in the water sector, irrigation and
water and energy policies. Water and           desalination in particular, and water         46 Introduce policies to promote
energy policies are rarely well coordi-        use in the energy sector is crucial for      the "more crop per drop". Increasing
nated. Increasingly, agencies are              reducing the footprints of both sectors      the prevailing low yields - in both rain-
taking a boarder approach to the impacts       on the other.                                fed and irrigated crop land - has
of water on energy policy and vice-                                                         the largest effect on the reduction of
versa. Far better coordination is required      43 Invest in sustainable and                water use per kilogram of produced
to establish markets and investment            socially responsible hydropower              food. The increase in water use effi-
conditions and regulatory mechanisms,          and water storage. There is an acute         ciency/productivity is mainly caused
which optimize water and energy use            lack of infrastructure in some parts of      by reduction of evaporation from the
and re use.                                    the world for hydropower and storage.        soil, due to better cover of the plants
                                               Investments in small- and large-scale        and the resulting increased interception.
 40 Conduct national water energy-             infrastructure need to be made to            Higher food prices will incentivize
food sustainability assessments. Not           make energy production cleaner and           producing higher yields. Poor farmers
enough is known about how water,               greener while at the same time               generally achieve low yields due to
energy and food are inter-related and          take into consideration the possible         lack of resources and technology, and
even less about how new trends and             advantages these structures have for         will especially benefit from support to
climate change will impact the use of          water-related disaster mitigation,           improve yield per unit of water.
both resources. It is important to             inland transportation, agriculture,
conduct national water and energy              poverty eradication and other uses.       47 Promote small-, medium- and
resource sustainability assessments            Application and development should       large-scale agricultural development
considering agriculture and poverty            be encouraged, as hydropower is an       projects. Governments should promote
aspects and through these define               effective adaptation measure in the      development of small-, medium- and
sustainable water and energy                   context of climate change. Due           large-scale, affordable and sustainable
resources at regional, national and            concern to minimize social and           infrastructure and other agricultural
sub-national levels.                           environmental impacts of hydropower      projects suited to the intended
                                               should also be given.                    beneficiaries and pay due attention
 41 Changes in energy prices                                                            to market access, water cost recovery
should be addressed in all aspects of           44 Enhance inland waterborne issues in agriculture, resilience to and
water management. Energy costs                 transport. Inland waterborne transport managing risks of natural disasters,
will directly impact water pumping             is a model of transport that is more especially by small-scale farmers, and
and transportation costs, which may            energy efficient. It is necessary to the possible effects of climate change.
have consequences on water access,             promote navigational use of water-
especially by the world's poorest              courses in view of energy conservation, 48 Scale-up the modernization of
populations. Sustainable compensation          efficient energy utilisation and climate irrigation and drainage systems.
mechanisms by national, regional and           change mitigation, which contributes Development and modernization of
local governments need to be designed          to improvement of the water-energy irrigation and drainage system schemes
well in advance, changes in design             nexus.                                   in the broad sense (technical, managerial,
may need to be considered and                                                           financial and environmental) will be            19
experiences need to be shared among                                                     required at a large-scale to achieve the

ISTANBUL       required increase in food pro-       to reduce these losses on the demand           Multiple use systems consider also
WATER GUIDE    duction, eradication of poverty      side of the food chain would generate          support important cultural values and
               and hunger and protection of the     a significant diminution of the water          functions that are essential for local
               environment. Water can then be       footprint per capita and would probably        well-being and livelihoods and might
      saved for other uses or money saved to        as well facilitate access to food by the       provide ecological benefits which include
      further develop the source of water.          poorest yet should not take pressure           flood control, groundwater recharge,
      Irrigation is not the only means of provi-    off the efforts to improve system              water harvesting, water purification
      ding water for agriculture so that more       efficiency and efficient use of water in       and biodiversity conservation. Diver-
      focus on improving rain-fed agriculture       cities, businesses, power generation           sification of water sources and of
      and rain-water harvesting is also needed.     and agriculture.                               productive activities is instrumental in
                                                                                                   increasing local community resilience
       49 Strengthen and support water-                                 ■                          and management to global shocks and
      related institutions and associations.                                                       risks that may result from climate or
      Governments, especially in emerging           Element 4: Multiple Use and                    market crisis.
      economies and least developed countries,      Functions of Water Services
      accelerate the adoption of participatory                                                      54 Recognise the interrelationship
      management of irrigation/drainage              52 Acknowledge the wide-spread                between multiple uses, the functions
      infrastructure, the formation of              practice of multiple uses and functions        of water services and integrated
      professionally oriented farmer/water          in water systems. Historically people,         water resources management.
      user organizations, enhance legal systems     communities, and water managers have           Multiple use practices are an inherent
      and support financially irrigation/           been using man-made delivery systems           element of the Integrated Water
      drainage administration. Strengthen           or natural water systems deliberately for      Resource Management (IWRM)
      the transfer and dissemination of             more than a single use. In many rural          approach, which should be strengthened.
      irrigation/drainage technological and         and urban areas, domestic water                Management agencies of large irrigation
      management skills from professional           networks are used for small-scale              systems are often the only water
      experts in governments and international      productive activities. Similarly, irrigation   services providers, notably during dry
      organizations to the farmers' irrigation/     systems are often de facto providing           periods. Sound governance of these
      drainage management organizations;            large amounts of water within their            systems should be ensured to encompass
                                                    command areas that facilitate access           the principles of IWRM and to
       50 Understand the changes in                 to water for many other uses through           recognize the needs of all stakeholders.
      nutrition and diets in the context            recharge of surface streams and
      of supply and demand. With the                groundwater. Lastly aquatic systems             55 Capitalize on the sustainability
      increase in the standard of living, caloric   (wetlands including rice-based systems)        of multi-services water management.
      intake in emerging countries rises            provide many critical productive and           Multi-service water management
      along with the type of food consumed.         ecosystem services to nearby popula-           provides the opportunity to increase
      This has a direct affect on water used        tions. Under appropriate stakeholder           the sustainability of water system
      in the production of meat and dairy           management processes, the practice of          management by sharing the operational
      products and crops, which contribute          multiple uses and functions can prove          costs and benefits among several uses
      most to the change in diets, are some-        to be sustainable and very efficient for       and users. All water-use sectors need
      times water intensive. Understanding          the community.                                 to be taken into consideration. The
      these trends, especially the importance                                                      challenge is to move away from a
      of livestock, will help develop with the     53 Recognize the multiple benefits              sector-silo approach to water system
      conservation, re-use and allocation of      of multiple uses and functions of                management and administration.
      water resources.                            water services including for the                 Service oriented management needs
                                                  most vulnerable users. Multiple use              to take a broader approach in order
                                                  systems can provide the more vulnerable          to encompass all realms including
       51 Re-engage in the reduction of users with low cost services for domestic                  sustainable cost recovery, subsidies
      food losses "from field to fork". water, water for agriculture (irrigation,                  and to work in an integrated way to
      Food losses along the production- rain fed), homestead, garden, water for                    develop and manage community water
      consumption chain are considerable cattle, habitats for fish and other aquatic               resources at the local level. It should
      and equivalent to a great waste of resources and rural enterprise water                      encompass social aspects, women's
      water resources mobilized at field supplies. The same infrastructure may                     and men's priorities and ecosystem
      level. This represents by far the greatest be used for these services as well as             services.
20    losses in water in agriculture and animal for hydroelectric power and, in some
      husbandry. Developing programmes cases, to aid inland waterway navigation.

 56 Develop country visions and             reviewed continually in the light             irrigation and other water use        ISTANBUL
promote local strategies. All stake-        of changing circumstances. Local              agencies should consolidate WATER GUIDE
holders at the national level should        governments should be empowered               and conserve their water
develop a consistent vision of multiple     to overcome sectoral boundaries by            services to achieve integration
use and functions of water, including       integrating elements of long-term             and coordination of groundwater,
domestic, agricultural, ecosystem and       technical, financial and cost sharing,        surface water, rainwater, wastewater,
industrial, with a thorough analysis of     and institutional support packages            recycled water and other sources of
opportunities and constraints. This         according to the agreed multiple water        water supply for urban and rural areas.
vision and these decisions should be        use needs. Municipalities and cities,

  THEME III: Managing and Protecting Water Resources
              and their Supply Systems
     to Meet Human and Environmental Needs
Element 1: Basin management                 than a source of conflict and a constraint    and data exchange and management
and transboundary water                     for development. Nevertheless, there          and use of transboundary water
cooperation                                 exists wide diversity of political, social,   resources.
                                            economic, cultural and environmental
 57 Prepare adaptive strategies. As         challenges to confront in addition to      60 Increase the number of river
potential climate and other global          those arising from hydrological factors.  and lake basin and groundwater
changes increase, they will put at risk     Thus, in order to harness sustainable     organizations, their strength and
food and energy production, social and      benefits of transboundary water           capacity. Where river and lake basin,
economic welfare, public health that will   resources for all riparian countries,     coastal, marine and groundwater
require adaptive strategies to manage       joint efforts need to be made. However,   institutions or organizations do not
water resources, both surface and           this necessitates first the willingness   exist, they are encouraged to be
groundwater, equitably in light of the      to cooperate which can only come out      established, especially in the cases of
agreed principles of international law.     through extensive dialogue, mutual        transboundary river basins and aquifers.
There is also currently a weakness          trust and understanding among riparian    River basin organizations promote
of legal, political and institutional       states.                                   cooperation, mutual understanding
infrastructure that is capable of dealing                                             and confidence building, as well as
with the international complexities          59 Improve the legal and institu- improve coordination and exchange of
of transboundary water resources which      tional framework of transboundary data and information, set up fact-finding
are related to issues such as national      waters. In the last 50 years, over 200 procedures and support implementation
sovereignty, security, water rights,        bilateral and multilateral agreements of joint programmes and projects.
population, economy, culture and            have been signed on the use of trans- Where river basin organizations do
ecosystems.                                 boundary water resources. There are exist, to strengthen their capacity to
                                   the complexities of changing
                                            several regional and international
 58 Improve understanding and               conventions in force related to circumstances, including global changes.
strengthen cooperation in the               transboundary waters. They often
transboundary context. Optimal              form part of cooperative endeavours 61 Nations are encouraged to seek
utilization and effective protection of     and a basis for the definition of fair, equitable and win-win solutions
the transboundary surface and ground        principles and responsibilities that are in negotiations over transboundary
water resources are only possible if        considered in international law. National water. All parties are not equal in
riparian states cooperate in line with      laws should be established or improved strength, yet are in equal need to address
internationally agreed principles.          to reflect these principles with regards water-related issues for their human
Transboundary water resources present       to transboundary waters, where and environmental needs. The solution                    21
an opportunity for collaboration rather     appropriate, in terms of information for sustainable and integrated water

ISTANBUL     management is to pursue equity,       and stability at the national and sub-     Element 2: Planning to ensure
WATER GUIDE  economic efficiency and envi-         national levels. Promote IWRM at the       adequate water resources and
             ronmental sustainability where        basin level, wherever appropriate,         storage infrastructure to meet
             all parties win, including            and clearly define the roles and           human and environmental
      stakeholders.                                responsibilities of coordinating and       needs
                                                   coordinated sides.
       62 Develop harmonized integrated                                                        68 Encourage a holistic approach
      water management plans. Water                 64 Take into account the interests        within a sustainable development
      resources ought to be managed at the         of stakeholders. In order to manage        framework. Decisions to build infra-
      basin level with a holistic approach         basins and build sustainable and equi-     structure should be made on the basis of
      considering their availability and the       table agreements when negotiating          an assessment of the full range of
      competing demands, including the             over water issues, it is very important    options available to meet specific needs,
      demands of ecosystems. Equitable,            to include all stakeholders and ensure     based on the principles and approach
      reasonable and optimal utilization and       a participatory process. Stakeholder       of IWRM. Storage types have to be
      protection of transboundary water            inclusion can reduce the risk of future    adapted to their purposes in size, from
      resources as well as protection from         disputes.                                  small- to large-scale, and type (water
      water-related disasters with assessment                                                 harvesting, small dams, large dams,
      and management of flood risks and             65 Promote cross-border monito-           desalination, and surface and ground-
      accidental pollution is only possible in     ring and data exchange. Through the        water management). Recognize the
      this way. Development of long-term           sharing of technical knowledge and         value of soil, groundwater, surface
      management plans at the basin level          data and information exchange and          water, wetlands, snowpack and food
      are imperative for reflecting the position   coupled with joint monitoring/data         stocks as storage.
      and needs of all major stakeholders of       collection schemes, nations can work
      a river basin, including the preparation     closer together, build relationships and    69 Develop frameworks and
      of contingency plans for mitigating          improve understanding between one          approaches to determine and
      effects of accidental pollution. Riparian    another.                                   prioritize needs. The biggest difficulty
      states should harmonize both their                                                      of decision makers is to arbitrate
      water supply and water demand                 66 Share infrastructure and their         between often competing needs. Take
      management plans for the purpose of          benefits, and jointly finance. To          into consideration spatial planning,
      making the best possible use of water        increase the cooperation of nations on     protection of natural resources and
      resources and sustainable water cycle        one another and find more benefits         ecosystems, social priorities, particu-
      management within the interest of all        that sometimes may not be readily          larly protecting and improving human
      riparian countries taking into account       apparent, governments should pursue,       health, and adaptation to climate
      Principle 2 of the Rio Declaration on        sharing benefits, jointly financing        change when determining water needs.
      Environment and Development.                 projects, seeking also third party-        Supporting developing countries in their
                                                   international financing and sharing        choices by taking account of their
       63 Support the implementation               infrastructure to meet basic human         unique situations and learning from
      of Integrated Water Resources                needs and create other benefits such as    the experiences of their peers would
      Management process. Support the              energy production, irrigation and          be very helpful.
      implementation of integrated water           transportation.
      resources management into national and                                                    70 Expand storage and integrate
      sub-national policies on water resources  67 Encourage research, education              downstream infrastructure indeve-
      management as well as the management and training on transboundary water                loping countries. In many regions of
      of surface and groundwater basins. cooperation. Education on water                      the world, storage infrastructure for
      Critically analyze cases of IWRM to resources, especially transboundary                 surface water and natural and artificial
      share lessons and encourage replication waters, is lacking among water                  recharge of groundwater is lagging
      of good practices. Ensure stakeholder managers, decision makers and other               behind and therefore putting at risk the
      participation in local river basin stakeholders. Increased opportunities                populations that depend on water for
      processes and IWRM partnerships. for such training should be provided                   irrigation as well as protecting them
      Representation of local governments at different scales, from local to                  from floods. In particular the needs of
      should be included in local river basin international. Develop joint research           Africa must be addressed in the
      processes and IWRM organizations. projects to improve collaboration and                 context of lack of infrastructure. This
      Cooperation and the inclusion of understanding.                                         expansion is justified by storage infra-
22    principles of sustainable development                                                   structure's contributions to economic
      and IWRM help promote synergy                            ■                              and social development, but must be

carried out without compromising            sustainable development, such as            Element 4: Managing and                ISTANBUL
environmental integrity, social justice     sustainable forest and wetland              protecting surface, ground,         WATER GUIDE
and international law.                      management, including the non-              rainwater and soil
                                            market value of ecosystems.
 71 Integrate social and ecological                                                      79 Integrate water quality mana-
sustainability. Within the framework         75 Use ecosystems as a buffer              gement. Integrate water quality
of IWRM, social and ecological              to climate change. Consider the             management in order to protect all
sustainability should be integrated into    uncertainty climate change may bring        water resources from all pollutant
storage infrastructure projects with a      to the ecosystem's functioning and          sources and pressures.
particular focus on building overall        acknowledge the value of ecosystems
water resilience from the local level to    to reduce the risk of non-linear             80 Understand groundwater rights,
regional river basin scales. This will      changes, hazards, and the exacerbation      laws and policies and develop new
require a holistic approach concentrating   of poverty.                                 ones, with regulation and enforce-
on water to sustain economic sectors                                                    ment, where there are gaps. Such
such as energy, agriculture, industry        76 Mitigate the degradation of             information, including social forces
and water supply systems, as well as        ecosystems and their services. Create       and incentives that drive present-day
water to sustain other ecosystem            the necessary enabling institutional        water management practices, will help
services such as carbon sinks and           and social environment for achieving        in the formulation of policies and
biodiversity for water flow regulation,     reversal of the degradation of ecosystems   incentives to stimulate socially-and
which are key for water partitioning        while meeting the increasing demands        environmentally-sound groundwater
and long-term human well-being.             for their services. Cooperate with the      management practices. This is
                                            forest and land management experts          particularly relevant in those situations
                   ■                        working with international initiatives      where aquifers cross boundaries and
                                            and organizations with a view to            is therefore important to promote
Element 3: Preserving natural               jointly enhance forest and wetland          cooperation for the management of
ecosystems                                  services, in particular the water-related   water resources. Many groundwater
                                            services from forests.                      resources across the globe do not have
 72 Promote ecological corridors                                                        laws and policies that govern them
and networks. In view of global              77 Support programs for biodiver-          either because of a lack of institutional
changes including climate change, it is     sity, water body restoration and            capacity or scientific knowledge.
critical to strengthen the resilience of    ecosystem enhancement. Actions to
ecosystems for change by reducing           protect and rehabilitate ecosystems      81 Develop policies and institutions
and/or undoing their fragmentation, by      and natural hydraulic processes are     to protect and to integrate the
promoting ecological corridors such as      a strong element of adapting to         management of aquatic ecosystems.
wetlands and forests, and by sustainable    climate change, reducing water-related  Manage basins not just with a view
water cycle management and sharing          disaster risks, and balancing populationtowards surface waters, but to integrate
their economic and social benefits.         pressures.                              each basin's surface, ground, rainwater
                                                                                    and soil into management practices
 73 Consider the impacts of water            78 Preserve surface and subsurface taking a holistic approach with a view
infrastructure on ecosystems and            environmental flows. Adherence to towards sustainable utilization and
take mitigation measures, if needed.        environmental flows is the obligatory environmental protection. All four
Growth of population and the resulting      priority vector of surface water use; sources are inter-related and affect one
new infrastructure for production of        therefore ecological flows should be another, so they need to be appropriately
food and hydropower, navigation and         given appropriate importance in the addressed in cross- sectoral policies
flood protection will have impacts          strategy of transboundary and national governing water management practices.
on ecosystems and the natural environ-      basins' water use as well as in annual
ment. Take appropriate measures to          planning. Conduct comprehensive 82 Incorporate ecological approaches
mitigate any potential negative impacts.    inventory studies on environmental into urban water management. Such
                                            flow needs as a large majority of an approach is instrumental in searching
 74 Valuate ecosystem services and          freshwater ecosystems have not been for more sustainable solutions that are
integrate ecosystems into planning          assessed and then establish, implement increasingly characterized by local
and decision making of development          and enforce standards on limitations to approaches with reduced environmental
projects. Plan and incorporate the          the reduction or alteration of flows.   flows that avoid large imports of
integration of ecosystem management                                                 water, energy and materials, exports of         23
goals in other sectors, in the context of                      ■                    pollution and that minimize ecological

ISTANBUL      disruption. Examples include        management. Promote, disseminate            increase supply in agriculture and
WATER GUIDE   rainwater harvesting, reducing      and upscale successful examples             water security in the context of changing
              unaccounted for water, waste-       of small and medium-scale water             rainfall patterns associated with climate
              water reclamation and reuse,        resources management on the national,       change. Builds skills and capacity
      which reduce both the need for              regional and global scales.                 to share knowledge on rainwater
      importation of high-quality water and                                                   management strategies among all
      the discharge of pollution into receiving    84 Afford more attention to                water users.
      waters, and can reduce infrastructure       rainwater. Include rainwater manage-
      costs.                                      ment in national water management
                                                  plans, where possible, that support
       83 Upscale good practices in small         social and economic development
      and medium-scale water resources            outcomes and referencing its utility to

                   THEME IV: Governance and Management
      Element 1: The Right to Water               independent and easily accessible           coordination and policy development.
      and Sanitation for Improved                 complaints mechanisms to address            Special attention should be given to
      Access                                      denials of, or interferences with, any      defining policies that incorporate the
                                                  citizen's right to water and sanitation.    specific needs of and opportunities for
       85 Review and revise national laws                                                     the poor, as expressed by them, for
      and policies to reflect the principles       88 Promote information and                 enhancing living standards through
      of the right to water and sanitation.       training available to all. Require          access to water supply and safe, gender-
      Review and revise all relevant national     that all water and sanitation authorities   sensitive sanitation, irrigation and to
      laws and policies relating to water         provide all relevant information in an      ensuring that water allocations are
      supply and sanitation, water resource       accessible form to the people, including    sustainable within hydrological limits
      management, public health, land use,        on their rights and duties, and that        in accordance with the principles of
      irrigation and related areas to reflect     people are given an opportunity to          IWRM. Reform efforts should come
      the principles of the right to water and    participate in decision-making affecting    from all stakeholders, both the high
      sanitation to ensure progressively          their rights. Training, as necessary and    political level as well as from the
      access to sufficient, safe and affordable   requested, should be provided for the       grassroots level while thinking
      water for personal and domestic uses,       representatives of marginalized and         "outside of the box".
      educational institution or health           vulnerable groups in order to ensure
      centre, as well as access to culturally     that they can participate on an equal        90 Couple institutional reform
      acceptable, safe and adequate sanitation    footing with other groups and advocate      with capacity development. Reform
      within each household.                      for their rights.                           should include capacity building,
                                                                                              the introduction of more appropriate
       86 Promote access to water and                             ■                           management systems, and more effective
      sanitation. At the global level, work                                                   institutional coordination between all
      to mobilize resources from all sources Element 2: Water institutions
                                                   players, especially at the basin level.
      to ensure basic access to clean and and water reforms                                   This is particularly the case among
      safe water and sanitation for all within                                                government agencies, but there is also
      the shortest possible time.                89 Carry out policy, legal and               a need to build better links between
                                                regulatory reform. Reform is an               government, the private sector,
       87 Establish clear roles, responsi- essential condition for sustainable and            civil society, and community-level
      bilities and coordination mechanisms effective change. Governments should               organizations.
      to settle disputes. Ensure that there ensure that a supportive environment
      is a clear allocation of responsibility exists for sustained efforts in all sectors     91 Improve the relationship between
      between relevant government actors related to water and should clearly define           national and local water institutions
24    responsible for water and sanitation the roles, rights, and responsibilities of         at the basin level. Strengthen
      and ensure that there are effective, all actors and promote cross-cutting               coordination between national, basin

and local water institutions to create        94 Institutionalize pollution pre-             decisions that relate to water         ISTANBUL
a balance in the oversight and               vention. Provide clear and enforceable          management in the broadest WATER GUIDE
management of these institutions.            regulations at the government level to          sense. Participatory procedure,
Harmonize actions between the national       prevent pollution of water resources            including development of
and local levels to facilitate effective     by agricultural, industrial or domestic         indicators, dissemination of information
and efficient management at both             waste. Similarly, Mayors can rely on            and monitoring, have to ensure input
levels in order to maximize resources.       the regulators to prevent pollution by          from all stakeholders in disseminating
Incorporate a multi-sectoral approach        agriculture, industries or domestic             processes, resolving conflicts of
when necessary. Promote public-              waste from the city itself.                     interest, lead to equity and in general
private-partnerships, as appropriate.                                                        involve the voice of civil society.
Utilize civil society and the scientific      95 Recognise the need for clear
community to enhance these partner-          and sustainable allocation of water              98 Promote transparency and
ships.                                       for different uses and effective                prevent corruption. In all aspects of
                                             regulation of its application.                  related to the management of water,
 92 Recognize the role of small-             Governments at the appropriate level            support fully transparent processes of
scale water providers. Small scale           need to allocate the use of water between       decision-making. Open water-related
water providers, water boards, farmers       its many uses and users, having                 institutions, information and processes
associations and communities play a          respect to the sustainability of ecosys-        to transparency. Prevent corruption in
large role in extending water supply         tems, societies and economies. This             the water sector through transparency,
delivery to poor communities and armers      requires attention to the levels of sus-        good governance, public accountability
in urban, peri-urban and rural areas.        tainable abstraction from the natural           and access to justice.
Facilitate regulatory and monitoring         resource. The application of these
mechanisms for these providers. Ensure       allocation decisions and laws and                99 Incorporate good governance
affordability and that the poor and low      regulations need to be appropriate,             into water management policies and
income people are not paying excessive       enforceable and enforced. This                  practices. Include participation, equality,
prices for water.                            requires appropriately empowered,               accountability, from both development
                                             resourced and informed regulators.              partner and recipient nation,
 93 S t re n g t h e n a n d s u p p o r t                                                   transparency, the rule of law and
decentralization efforts. Empower             96 Create effective regulation,                consensus-based decision-making
local and basin-level institutions           monitoring and enforcement.                     in the governance structure of water
by strengthening and carrying out            Ensure effective regulation and moni-           resources management.
decentralization from central govern-        toring of service provision relating to
ments according to basic recognized          compliance with access targets, tariff          100 Promote a water ethic. Encourage
principles, as water services are best       structures, service and performance             a "water ethic" in policies of water
provided at the local level while            standards of water resource use,                management where there is, for humans,
having a connection with the national        including prevention of pollution and           equity in the accessibility to water for
level through coordinated activities.        limits on abstraction. Informal service         future generations.
Before decentralization is carried out       provision should be regulated at least
at a local level, research in order to       in relation to quality and price                                    ■
comprehend the local context under           of service. Establish enforcement
which the reforms will take place and to     mechanisms where necessary to aid               Element 4: Optimizing Public
avoid unexpected and bad consequences.       with compliance.                                and Private Roles in Water
Central governments should create an                                                         Services
enabling environment for decentralized                            ■
institutions to ensure that they have                                                        101 Improve public sector providers/
financial, technical, legal and human        Element 3: Ethics, Transparency                 utilities. Increase the efficiency and
capacities for effective local management,   and Empowerment of                              reach of public sector providers, rural
including coping with rapid urban            Stakeholders                                    and urban, through capacity building,
expansion, poverty and global changes.                                                       cooperation between water operators
Strengthen existing local institutions        97 Engage with a wide range of                 through partnerships and increased
and where local institutions do not          stakeholders. In order to achieve               financial and technical resources.
exist, establish them while incorporating    sustainable, resilient and effective policies   Develop, support and expand the public
civil society, user groups, water            and practices, all stakeholders including       sector water providers and authorities
professionals and other stakeholders         governments and representatives of all          through rational investments. Decen-          25
in their functioning.                        major groups have to collaborate to reach       tralize the ability to raise funds to the

ISTANBUL      local levels and strengthen         the establishment of an agreement with        105 Strengthen the capacity and
WATER GUIDE   decentralized cooperation so as     clear targets, mutual commitments and        efficiency of public authorities.
              not to depend on purely govern-     clear differentiation of respective roles,   Public communities should carry out
              ment finances where applicable.     duties and responsibilities between the      competitive tendering of projects in a
                                                  authority and each of its operators,         transparent, inclusive manner, perform
       102 Facilitate the choice of the best      public or private.                           progressive assessments to chart
      service providers, regardless of                                                         changes over time between operators
      sector. Utilize all available providers     104 Raise awareness about and                in order to monitor compliance with
      in order to achieve coverage for all        promote public and private roles and         standards and regulations, and create
      under the supervision of government         public-private and public-public             benchmarks to compare operator
      or public water authorities. Stakeholder    partnerships. Lack of knowledge and          performance with other operators
      involvement in these processes keeps        understanding of public and private          taking into consideration contextual
      both public and private providers           provision of services has hindered the       differences. When the possibility of
      accountable to the greater public.          provision of those services themselves.      private sector participation of water
                                                  Efforts must be made to raise awareness      services occurs, conduct socio-political
       103 Clearly define and formalize           about the benefits of the roles of the       assessments to determine the feasibility
      roles. For all actors, delineate roles of   public and private sector provision of       of such a change in provider and take
      water, sanitation and agricultural          water and sanitation services as well        necessary measures to eliminate
      services provision and then formalize       as how public-private partnerships           corrupt practices.
      these roles into contracts, otherwise       carry out these activities.
      known as "contractualization", which is

                                                  THEME V: Finance
      Element 1: Sustainable                      are considerable potential benefits that      108 Ensure operational capacity by
      Financing in the Water Sector               are still untapped. National governments,    coupling "soft" investment and
                                                  local authorities, development               "hard" investment. Investment in
       106 Urgently increase and better-          partners and international financial         infrastructure needs also investment in
      target investments and finance              institutions need to act urgently, not       institutional frameworks and develop-
      to bridge the gap in financing. The         only to increase the finance for the         ment and the human capacity to
      financial needs of the sector, from         sector but also to improve the targeting     manage, operate and maintain the
      water and sanitation, irrigation            and effectiveness of the financing and       infrastructure, and vice versa. There is
      networks, river basin management,           to create an enabling environment.           a need to build the technical, financial
      flood risk management, hydropower,                                                       and managerial and planning capacity
      wastewater management, rehabilitation 107 Mobilize political will with sound             of sector stakeholders at all levels,
      of polluted and/or degraded water economic and social arguments.                         especially local, in order to ensure
      sources, reservoirs and aquatic systems, Facilitate a better understanding of the        successful operational outcomes.
      data collection and climate change water/poverty eradication/economic
      adaptation, are enormous and increasing. growth nexus for decision makers and             109 Strategic financial planning is a
      Investments in the water sector are political leaders. The water sector is               means to establish consensus and
      crucial to meet the broader MDG fundamental to the poverty reduction,                    build a sustainable cost recovery
      targets of reducing poverty, hunger, economic development and environ-                   strategy. An approach to address the
      child and maternal mortality, and the mental sustainability agendas; yet it              challenges is through strategic financial
      incidence of major diseases, to only manages to attract a fraction of                    planning for the water sector. Such
      improve environmental sustainability the financing that is needed. Improving             plans establish realistic policy objectives
      and realize economic benefits. In spite decision makers' and political leaders'          regarding access to water and sanitation
      of recent year's efforts to increase the understanding of the economic, social,          services that are affordable to public
      amount of financing for the sector, the health, and environmental benefits of            budgets and households. They consider
26    gap between needs and actual invest- investing in water will encourage the               ways of mobilising more financial
      ments is actually widening while there flow of sustainable financing.                    resources, reducing excessive demand,

and improving the cost-effective use          Official Development Assistance to build     affordability as seen by these          ISTANBUL
of resources. Strategic financial planning    institutions to prepare for infrastructure   users.                               WATER GUIDE
helps to reach consensus on policy            projects and build the capacity of
choices and the way they can be               water operators to be better prepared        115 Empower local authorities
achieved. Such planning processes             to attract new financial resources.          in implementing sustainable cost
should engage all relevant stakeholders.      Also, improve the modalities for             recovery systems. Where local
This can lead to a more rational use of       national governments and ODA                 authorities are responsible for service
existing financial resources and facilitate   investment in infrastructure and capacity    provision, national governments must
access to additional ones.                    development of regional importance.          provide them the necessary authority
                                                                                           to implement appropriate and sustainable
 110 Diversify the sources of finance                                                      cost recovery systems, through tariffs,
to bridge the gap in financing. The                              ■                         budget subsidies, consistent with
water sector's capital expenditure                                                         international obligations under the
requirements are enormous. No single          Element 2: Cost Recovery                     World Trade Organization and respective
source of finance is large enough to          Strategies as a Tool for                     agreements. They should be predictable
meet its financing needs in the short to      a Sustainable Water Sector                   in order to allow for investment, while
medium term. In addition to optimizing                                                     ensuring affordability for all through
the financing from tariffs, taxes and         113 Adopt fair and equitable cost            subsidies and/or cross-subsidies that
transfers, access to debt and equity          recovery strategies. Achieve fairness        makes access to water affordable for
financing, from international financing       between all categories of water users        each category of water-user.
institutions, commercial sources and          while promoting universal access to
from domestic financial and capital           water and sanitation services. Ensure        116 Match cost recovery strategies
markets, can be used to bridge the            financial resources by appropriate cost      with sustainable development
financing gap for capital investments.        recovery mechanisms for good quality         objectives. Cost recovery strategies
                                              service, maintenance, infrastructure,        should reflect sustainable development
 111 Facilitate sub-sovereign access          social objectives and investment as          objectives. Ensure that tariffs are
to financial markets. Governments             needed. Such changes cannot be made          perceived as responding to principles
need to allocate adequate resources to        without appropriate institutional and        of fairness, equity and sustainability,
the sub-sovereign level, especially           technical reforms to carry out cost          access to and consumption of adequate
smaller and poorer towns, to finance a        recovery reform and to enable cost           levels of services remain affordable
critical mass of basic local infrastructure   recovery. Stakeholder participation is       for each category of user, poor and
services including water supply and           crucial in order to achieve consensus        low income level people in particular,
sanitation. These allocations can leverage    and a smooth transition.                     and cost recovery policies do not restrict
additional sources of financing from                                                       access to water and sanitation services.
development partner agencies and               114 Encourage sustainable cost              Review and analyze water and sanitation
lending institutions. Such payments/          recovery. The public authorities             cost recovery policies according to
transfers should be made more                 responsible for providing water services     their implementation in a realistic
predictable, performance- based and           should develop sustainable long-term         manner considering peculiarities of
better targeted. Governments and              cost recovery policies, anticipating all     poor and low-income people.
financial institutions should also help       future cash-flow needs of the service
local authorities and smaller communi-        and to support new investments by                          ■
ties to access national and international     combining revenues from tariffs that are
capital markets and enable better             affordable to each categories of user Element 3: Pro-poor Financing
flows and coordination of existing            with the budgetary resources from taxes Policies and Strategies
finances. Increase the efforts for both       and transfers that are predictable
functional and fiscal decentralization        enough to allow investment. Sustainable 117 Promote innovative pro-poor
and private sector involvement, where         cost recovery includes investment and financing policies and strategies.
suitable and in the context of an             operating costs as well as the cost of Promote such initiatives as microfi-
appropriate regulatory framework.             maintaining existing infrastructure. nance, output- and outcome-based aid,
                                              Include environmental costs of water the financing of local private sector
 112 Increase Official Development            services provision in cost recovery for providers and sharing the costs between
Assistance (ODA) to capacity deve-            maximum efficiency. Also create the public and private sectors, for
lopment and project preparation.              pro-poor incentives or alternative cost connecting the unserved. Subsidizing
Development partners and Multilateral         recovery mechanisms according to the initial connection charges is often                  27
Financing Institutions should increase        domestic circumstances to ensure more effective for increasing access

ISTANBUL    than subsidizing recurrent           marginalized and poor areas where           principle of common, but differentiated
WATER GUIDE consumption costs. Improve           public networked water systems do           responsibilities in this regard.
            investment environments by           not reach. It is important to recognize
            establishing more effective          their role and the gap they fill while       120 Reaffirm, in a period of global
      and diverse credit and financial           also defining their role, increasing        financial and economic crisis, the
      management systems that are                their regulation and their capacity as      importance of governments' conti-
      accessible and affordable to the           well as their financing to utilize their    nuous support to the water sector.
      poor.                                      unique niche markets while ensuring         Recognize that investments in water
                                                 affordable prices and their capacity.       infrastructure should be duly considered
       118 Recognize the role of small-                                                      for inclusion in national economic
      scale water and sanitation suppliers.      119 Facilitate technology transfer          stimulus packages. This could also
      Small-scale private water and sanitation   and the generation of additional            include the promotion of internationally
      suppliers provide water for many           financial resources. Incorporate the        coordinated financial instruments.

                            THEME VI: Education, Knowledge
                              and Capacity Development
      Element 1: Education,                        sector, and those that are marginalized   be identified and reviewed -decision
      Knowledge and Capacity                       by society yet have important roles to    makers need to learn from these
      Development                                  play in water resources management.       stakeholders and apply the lessons
                                                   Everyone needs opportunities to           learned, such that they use local
       121 Share information and know- access education on water resources                   capacity and knowledge, work with
      ledge. Free access to scientific literature such as non-traditional and vocational     local reformers, build capacity of local
      for professionals and researchers in training. Strengthen the role of the              institutions and civil society, and apply
      developing countries should become media in this regard. The concepts of               the subsidiary principle to empower
      an increasingly important factor in virtual water and water footprints are             the local actors. A balanced combination
      reducing the knowledge gap that now powerful communication tools. They                 is called for to incorporate top-down
      exists between the North and the should be further developed and used                  (often larger scale) and bottom-up
      South. Decision-makers should adopt to influence decision makers in                    (often smaller-scale) approaches and
      policies and set incentives for their governments and the private sector               procedures.
      organizations to overcome hurdles of so that the imports on water scarce
      communication, lack of data and skills regions are taken into account in trade,         124 Build learning networks.
      training, to improve knowledge and agriculture and industry policies.                  Networks are also becoming very helpful
      know-how and remove limits on the These concepts should also be used to                to disseminate and share informal
      private sector to engage in information educate consumers about the impacts            knowledge, identify common problems,
      and communication services. Deve- of consumption of food and other                     build attitudes and confidence, and
      lopment partners should provide more commodities on water resources. It is             generate new knowledge. South-South
      fellowships dedicated to e-learning.         also necessary to give attention to       and North-South triangular cooperation
                                                   providing water education to children     and networks provide platforms to
       122 Educate all water users and on the conversation of water.                         share lessons and adapt them from one
      decision makers. Concerted global                                                      place to another. In addition to these
      action should be taken to educate and 123 Build on existing local knowledge.           horizontal networks of peers, the need
      enhance the knowledge of water, Local actors are at the front line as they             is growing for "vertical" connectivity
      sanitation, ecosystems, water production are the first in addressing local problems.   from networks through which local
      technology and water-related issues They hold valuable knowledge and                   stakeholders can access global networks
      to all water users, but especially to experience and this still too often goes         and knowledge.
28    decision makers at national and local unrecognized. Their knowledge and
      levels, both in and outside of the water experience, as well as technology, should

 125 Promote integrated approaches.         others can be utilized in any part of the   careers in areas where such             ISTANBUL
Multi-disciplinary problem-based            world. International cooperation should     advances are made. Such oppor-       WATER GUIDE
learning and demand-driven research         be promoted in not only the transfer        tunities and participation in such
agendas should be promoted to over-         of technology between countries,            programs should be encouraged
come the lack of capacity to tackle         but also in the access to data related to   at the national and local levels.
with global challenges. Educational         technology.
and other knowledge institutions
should play active roles in multi-          129 Broaden technological choices.                             ■
stakeholder partnerships for water          The range of technology choices for
resources management. This will             agricultural, domestic and industrial       Element 3: Professional
allow more effective problem solving        consumption must be broadened to            Associations and Networks
and better sharing of traditional and       include the improvement of current
formal knowledge.                           technologies and overcome limitations,      132 Support regional and national
                                            for instance desalination, water            and professional associations. Where
 126 Create "learning" organizations.       harvesting, water reuse and recycling       national and professional associations
The best organizations in public            and risk management and disaster            exist, for governments to give further
administration are "learning" organi-       preparedness as well as the development     support to achieve goals and mandates,
zations, just as knowledge-driven           of innovative, low-cost technical           especially in Africa. Where no national
corporations in the private sector tend     approaches, such as local household         associations exist, to partner with inter-
to be the more successful businesses.       technologies, that can be implemented       national professional associations to
They allow themselves to change in          in poor communities. Where possible,        support the formation of nascent
response to new challenges and to new       appropriate technologies and their          national associations.
knowledge.                                  responsible use should be given
                                            precedence. How technology and              133 Carry out human resources
                                            technological options can be used by        assessment. It is not currently clear
                   ■                        communities and the participation of        how many people are working in water
                                            those communities in the planning           around in the world, how are their living
Element 2: Water Science and                process should always be taken into         and working conditions and, where and
Technology - Appropriate and                consideration.                              what are the precise needs of the sector.
Innovative Solutions                                                                    An urgent requirement is for a periodic
                                             130 Support and promote global             assessment of the state of the sector's
 127 Combine advanced technology            water science programmes. In order          human resources in order to globally
with capacity development. While it         to understand complex interactions bet-     monitor the state of the "professional
is necessary to be innovative and           ween the hydrological cycle, associated     infrastructure" and help develop a high
create new technologies, and especially     biogeochemical cycles and the global        performance workplace whereby
information technologies, that are          drivers, scientific research in these       workers have access to the skills
cutting edge, this should be combined       areas needs to be intensified and           required of their jobs, including social
with the use of indigenous knowledge.       extended. It is of particular importance    priorities.
Sophisticated technology can only           to build relevant capacities in developing
work if it is accompanied with capacity     countries and have the local research 134 Strengthen umbrella bodies.
development. Sustained operations,          community participate in relevant Numerous professional associations
maintenance and skills training must        global research programmes. The role and networks exist without a strong,
coincide with the use of high-tech          of international water education developed umbrella body with the aim
solutions. Raising awareness is the         institutions is extremely important in of facilitating stronger synergies
first step, however, in making urban        this regard. Appropriate scholarship between these associations and
water managers, farmers and other           programmes for developing countries networks.
water professionals aware technology        need to be developed and implemented.
that is available to them. Considering                                                 135 Engage professional associations
the cost of energy and food, this is         131 Promote science and technology in policy and investment. Professional
especially true for the use of irrigation   in tertiary education. In order to associations including trade unions,
technology.                                 properly advance scientific and farmers associations, business asso-
                                            technological solutions to water ciations, chambers of engineers provide
 128 Promote national, regional and         resources problems, quality educational a wealth of knowledge and expertise
international cooperation. While            opportunities need to be in place in on various issues related to water,                 29
some technologies are local in nature       order to attract students to pursue depending on their central focus, from

ISTANBUL      the local. These associations and                       ■                         gement and dissemination, which
WATER GUIDE   networks can be more involved                                                     constitute the foundation of all IWRM
              and engaged in capacity buil-         Element 4: Access to data                   processes. The United Nations, the
              ding, at the earliest of stages of                                                World Bank and other international
      implementation, to influence policy           139 Invest in data. The collection,         agencies and development partners should
      and investments related to their expertise.   analysis and compatibility of critical      assist countries with comprehensive
                                                    data and information should not be          projects, in order to improve their data
       136 Promote governments and                  regarded as an expenditure, but as a        collection networks and build the
      professional associations working             creditable investment, often financed       knowledge and information bases that
      together to develop human resources.          by tax payers, with high-quality future     are needed to develop and manage
      Professional associations and networks        returns. In particular, the number of       water resources in a sustainable manner.
      offer a large amount of sectoral and          basic hydrological stations in many
      career knowledge that can prove               countries is inadequate to satisfy even      142 Include monitoring and assess-
      useful to the development of human            the minimum needs and yet National          ment in data collection. Simple data
      resources in the water sector. These          Hydrological Services have seen the         collection is not enough and monitoring
      associations, in partnership with national    budgetary allocations for hydrological      and assessing the data for trends is
      and local governments, should promote         services systematically cut. National       necessary for proper adaptation and
      training and education related to careers     governments should take urgent              mitigation measures of water-related
      in water resources management. Water          measures, when appropriate, directed        problems, floods and droughts in
      Operators Partnerships (WOPS) and             at reversing the growing decline of         particular. Urgent issues requiring an
      private educational institutions can assist   these networks and should increase          influx of data collection, monitoring
      with these initiatives. Concentrated          support for operational hydrological        and assessment include climate
      efforts should be to involve farmers, to      and relevant meteorological observation     change, sanitation, access to water,
      gender mainstream human resource              networks. This is especially crucial in     water-related disasters, groundwater
      policies and practices and encourage          developing countries.                       and the interface between groundwater
      professional career opportunities for                                                     and surface water. Assessment should
      women and young professionals. With          140 Understand and assess vulnera-           be carried out at local, basin, regional,
      youth being the future, young professio-     bility. A better understanding of the        national and global levels and include
      nals' associations need to be encouraged,    impacts of global changes, including         a peer review process for performance
      supported, guided and promoted               climate change and variability, on           for those who ascribe to the idea.
      throughout the world. Moreover, help         water resources and their availability       Reliability, consistency and compati-
      technical people to understand social        and quality for multiple uses is necessary   bility of data coming from different
      priorities.                                  in order to prepare the required             sources ought to be ensured.
                                                   response strategies. Resources should
       137 Create better links between be provided and efforts intensified to                    143 Promote international and
      sectors. Coupled with the strengthening improve information and data collection           interstate data exchange and
      of professional associations, it is also at first and promote research regarding          cooperation between countries.
      essential to create better links with the potential impacts of climate varia-             For a better understanding of the
      those associations and government, bility and change on freshwater                        hydrological cycle under the changing
      the private sector, civil society, com- resources in river basins. Activities             climate, international data exchange
      munity-level organizations and other should include new investments in                    should be encouraged. International
      stakeholders.                                observations and measurements,               and national policies should be reviewed
                                                   capacity building, operation and             and efforts needs to be directed in
       138 Involve professional associations maintenance of existing monitoring                 order to facilitate the international
      in national commissions. Using the systems, including the redevelopment                   exchange of hydrological and related
      experience of international professional and upgrading of the existing hydro-             data and products, so that regional and
      associations, governments should invite logical networks.                                 global studies of freshwater resources
      representatives from these associations                                                   and climate change and variability can
      to serve in a standing capacity on national 141 Support from international                be conducted and useful results
      science, research and development organizations and development                           produced for the benefit of mankind.
      commissions in order to link effectively partners. The international development
      research to policy developments.             partner community should support              144 Strengthen the use of data in
                                                   comprehensive projects to improve            decision making. The role of the
30                                                 data collection, including improvement       water manager is essential to water
                                                   of hydrological networks, data mana-         security in that it includes proposing a

comprehensive range of options to            organizations' structures to reflect                                                         ISTANBUL
                                                                                           MINISTERIAL PROCESS
meet the desired societal objectives         cultural diversity, establishing national-                                                WATER GUIDE
                                                                                           Ministerial Conference
and needs for water security. Data in        local partnerships to monitor
                                                                                           Discussion Paper
the hands of water managers enhances         changes promoting cultural diversity,
their capacity to develop practical          and understanding, respecting and             ANNEX I:
solutions. At the same time, decision        documenting effective traditional             CONTRIBUTING DOCUMENTS
makers should be sensitized to the           water management adaptation strategies,
importance of data so that quality data      more resource sustainability will exist
                                                                                           Alicante Declaration: The Global Importance
can influence policy decisions.              and help in realizing the Millennium          of Ground Water
                                             Development Goals.                            Beppu Policy Brief 2007 (1st Asia-Pacific Water
                   ■                          148 Evaluate the relationship between        Brisbane Declaration: Environmental Flows are
                                             cultural diversity, biodiversity              Essential for Freshwater Ecosystem Health and
                                                                                           Human Well-being
Element 5: Water and Culture                 and water resource management.
                                             Recognizing marked decline in cultural        Civil Society Statement - AfricaSan + 5

 145 Ensure cultural diversity.              and biodiversity, governments and             Commission on Sustainable Development -
                                                                                           Thirteenth Session: Freshwater management:
Incorporating traditional and local          development financial institutions            policy options and possible actions to expedite
knowledge about the use, management          should add to their social and environ-       implementation
and conservation of water in water           mental safeguards an explicit concern         Dushanbe Declaration on Water-related
policies, reforms and scientific research    for cultural diversity and therefore          Disaster Reduction
will make actions on the ground more         should evaluate the inter-linkages            eThekwini Declaration (AfricaSan Conference
sustainable, effective and engaging for      between cultural diversity, biodiversity      on Sanitation and Hygiene)

those who carry out the work.                and water resource management at the          Financing Water for All: Report on the World
                                                                                           Panel on Financing Water Infrastructure
Through adopting processes and               project specific, local, national, regional
strategies that recognize traditional        and global levels.                            First African Water Week: Summary of Pro-
                                                                                           ceeding and Outcomes
and local knowledge, and crediting
                                              149 Protect water and its cultural           Geneva Conventions
ownership of those to specific cultural
groups, this can ensure the viability of     value. Sacred water sites exist in every      Global Corruption Report 2008: Corruption in
                                                                                           the Water Sector
cultures and ecosystems.                     nation on every continent. There is the
                                             need to identify and then protect these       Hashimoto Action Plan

 146 Recognize, integrate and promote        sacred sites. In addition, water's cultural   International Symposium: Water for a Changing
                                                                                           World - Enhancing Local Knowledge and
cultural diversities and technologies        importance is also reflected through          Capacity
in water management. Through                 songs, stories, designs, dance, music,
                                                                                           Lisbon Congress and Kampala Conference:
recognizing the value of diverse cultural    sports, festivals and multimedia,             International Association of Hydrogeologists
practices and technologies in water          which should not only be protected as         (IAH)

management, integrating these practices      well, but should also celebrate water.        Manual on the Right to Water and Sanitation
and technologies with scientific know-
ledge and developing guidelines and           150 Improve the institutional                Marseille Statement (UNESCO Symposium on
                                                                                           Frontiers in Urban Water Management)
recommendations for incorporating            framework of water and culture.
them into water management, strategies       Inclusion of cultural diversity in water      Message from Beppu (1st Asia-Pacific Water
and policies can better achieve sustai-      projects and programmes can increase
                                                                                           Paris-2007 Statement (UNESCO International
nable water management.                      understanding and collaboration and           Symposium on New Directions in Urban
                                             facilitate their implementation. In           Water Management)
 147 Embed cultural diversity in             carrying out transparent participatory        Previous World Water Fora Declarations
water governance. Both national and          decision-making processes, taking             Sharm El-Sheikh Commitments for Accelera-
local governments should create an           into consideration the United Nations'        ting the Achievement of Water and Sanitation
enabling environment through appro-          guiding principles, cultural diversity        Goals in Africa

priate reforms of water policy and           aspects should be respected. ■                Third International Conference on Managing
                                                                                           Shared Aquifer Resources in Africa
legislation in such a way that customary
law, informal water use practices and                                                      Third United Nations World Water Develop-
                                                                                           ment Report (WWDR-3)
cultural diversity are formally recognized
                                                                                           Up to and Beyond 2015: Emerging Issues and
and accommodated. Through analyzing                                                        Future Challenges for the International Water
water policies and laws to see where                                                       and Sanitation Agenda
gaps are between the modern and                                                            Water for a Sustainable Europe - Our Vision        31
traditional, reforming water management                                                    for 2030

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