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What is Personality and how do we measure it

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					What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

What is Personality and How Do We Measure It?

The Big Picture: Understanding Personality

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

The Big Picture: Understanding Personality
• Personality: unique collections of attitude, emotions, thoughts, habits, impulses, and behaviors • These define how a person typically behaves across situations • James McBride’s The Color of Water: A Black Man’s Tribute to His White Mother – The story of a family of personality

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

The Psychoanalytic Approach: Sigmund Freud and the Neo-Freudian

• Sigmund Freud • Ideas based on case studies of patients, reading literature, and self-analysis • Personality is product of driving forces, often conflicting and sometimes unconscious

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

The Levels of Awareness
• Three levels of awareness; each level influences behavior • Conscious level: thoughts, perception, explanations of behavior; aware of these • Preconscious level: holding place for easily accessible memories, thoughts, impulses; could become aware, if necessary • Unconscious level: thoughts, impulses, memories, behaviors; not aware

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

The Structure of Personality
• Three major personality structures: id, ego, superego • Id: unconscious energy force, seeks pleasure and gratification; basic instincts • Ego: negotiator between id and demands of societal norms and expectations • Superego: moral conscience, judges right and wrong

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

How the Id, Ego, and Superego Work Together
• In healthy personalities all three serve different functions and work together • However, problems arise when one structure overwhelms the other(s) – Freudian slips: unconscious impulse from id expressed before ego can control – Defense mechanisms (coping mechanism): protect ego by reducing anxiety when faced with demands of id and superego

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Psychosexual Development • Five childhood psychosexual stages • Optimal gratification must be obtained or fixation occurs – Oral stage – Anal stage – Phallic stage • Oedipus and Electra complex – Latency stage – Genital stage

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Neo-Freudians: Alfred Adler, Karen Honey, Carl Jung

• Neo-Freudians agree with concept of unconscious but differ in role on sex and aggression • Erik Erikson is one famous neo-Freudian (psychosocial stages)

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Carl Jung and The Collective Unconscious
• Personal unconscious and collective unconscious • Personal unconscious: forgotten memories/repressed experiences from one’s past • Collective unconscious: collected images and ideas from human psyche; universal to all – Archetypes: mental representation or symbols of themes and responses to world; • Anima, animus, persona, shadow

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Alfred Adler and The Inferiority Complex
• Desire to overcome feelings of helplessness, master environment drives behavior • Inferiority complex • Affect of birth order on personality

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Karen Horney and Basic Anxiety
• Family environments and disturbances in early relationships lead to basic anxiety, feeling of helplessness • Culture plays a large role in personality development

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Criticisms and Contributions of the Psychoanalytic Approach
• Contributions: – Tremendous impact on psychology – Development of personality measures, therapy, recognition of role of childhood experiences affecting adult development • Criticisms: – Too much emphasis on sexual, aggressive instincts, emphasis on male development – Theories not based on scientific data; case studies, observations, not cross-cultural

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

The Trait Approach: Describing Personality
• Emphasizes personality as more biological • Internal traits: tendencies to behave in certain ways across most situations • Rather stable across lifespan

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory
• Three types of traits: – Central traits: tendencies displayed in most situations – Secondary traits: tendencies that are less consistent, more situation-specific (e.g. aggression towards others) – Cardinal traits: tendencies displayed across all situations

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Raymond Cattell’s Factor Analytic Trait Theory
• Used factor analysis use to find shared qualities or factors in personality • 35 basic traits were identified; later reduced to 16 • Source traits: basic, broad, and somewhat universal tendencies at core of personality • Individuals may differ in amount or quality of these traits

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Hans Eysenck Narrows Down the Traits
• Two factors of personality: extraversion/introversion and emotional stability/instability – Introversion: energy directed inward – Extroversion: energy directed outward – Emotional stability and instability: control directed over emotions • Mixed research support

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

The Five-Factor Trait Theory: The “Big Five”
• Five core traits measured in all individuals (OCEAN) • Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Genetic Contributions to Personality • Inherit certain aspects of personality • Moderate correlation between personality of parents and children; nature/nurture? • Adoption studies: adopted children more similar to biological parents than adopted parents • Identical twin studies: support for heritability of personality • Neurotransmitter differences contribute to personality differences

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Stability and Change to Personality
• Personality traits have been shown to be consistent and stable over time • Age, culture, and gender are factors to consider when judging stability and change • Situational factors may also influence stability – Person-situation interaction: when situation differs, trait may differ (e.g. speaking in front of a class vs. speaking to the media)

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

It’s a Diverse World: How Age, Culture, and Gender Influence Personality

• Change in personality more evident from childhood to young adulthood; other research shows more stability across lifespan • Cultural differences had little impact on age differences in personality • Different cultures value different personality traits • Gender and parenting roles impact personality traits

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Criticisms and Contributions of the Trait Approach

• Contributions – Provides common vocabulary – Help predict future behavior – Fostered research in biological aspects and stability of personality • Criticisms – Does not explain why we behave in a particular way – Simplistic view of personality

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

The Social Cognitive Approach: The Environment and Patterns of Thought

• Personality is construct influenced by both environment and one’s thoughts • Examines how individuals perceive and interpret events in environment • Thoughts influence behavior

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Reciprocal Determinism: Albert Bandura’s Interacting Forcers

• Reciprocal determinism: constant interaction of environment, behavior, and thoughts • Each of these influences, changes the others • Self-efficacy: cognitive element; expectation one has for success in a given situation; can differ from situation to situation

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Julian Rotter’s Locus of Control: Internal and External Expectations

• Locus (location) of control • Ranges from internal to external • Internal: attribute outcome of event to internal forces (i.e. studying hard) • External: attribute outcome to external forces (i.e. luck, behavior of others) • These expectations lead to differences in personality and behavior

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Criticisms and Contributions of the Social Cognitive Approach

• Contributions: – Role of cognitive processes on behavior; expanded view of personality – Research more objective • Criticisms: – Doesn’t recognize role of biological, unconscious, or emotional factors

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

The Humanistic Approach: Free Will and SelfActualization

• Individual, personal choice, and free will shape personality, not internal or external forces • Individual is active participant own development • Self-actualization: attainment of potential

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Abraham Maslow and the Hierarchy of Needs Theory

• Physical needs at bottom of hierarchy and psychological and social needs at top • Basic needs must be met before higher needs can be fulfilled • Self-actualized people share certain characteristics • Doesn’t explain how people whose basic needs aren’t met can and do reach self-actualization (e.g. Gandhi, Mandela)

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Carl Rogers and Self Theory
• Strive for fulfillment (actualizing tendency) • Tied to self-concept • Organismic valuing process: prefer experiences that enhance us • Worth and regard related to opinions of others • Unconditional positive regard: acceptance from others, no strings attached • Healthy personality - acts according to inner evaluations while considering impact on others

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Criticisms and Contributions of the Humanistic Approach

• Contributions – Ideas used in therapy – Encouraged self-awareness, helped in interactions with others • Criticisms – Naïve and optimistic view of behavior (not all have good intentions, capacity for evil) – Little research support

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Measuring Personality
• Tests must be both reliable and valid • Reliability: consistency, same results over period of time • Validity: is the test measuring what it professes to measure; does it really measure personality? • Measure of personality is tied to idea of nature of personality

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Personality Inventories: Mark Which One Describes You

• Objective paper and pencil self-report forms • Most commonly used - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) • Purpose: identify problem areas in functioning, perhaps requiring therapy • Compare to norm group (with and without psychiatric disorders) • Problem with MMPI-2: honesty of person in answering questions; validity scales built into test

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Projective Tests: Tell Me What You See • Projective tests: unstructured, subjective measures of personality • Derived from psychoanalytic perspective; unconscious urges/desires reflected on images • Most famous Rorschach Inkblot Test; describe what images are seen in 10 inkblots • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT); tell story about picture • Generally less reliable and valid in measuring personality

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Direct Observation and Rating Scales
• Rating scales: check off statements that apply – Completed by subject or someone else (teacher, parent) • Direct observation – Observe what happens before and after response – Can help determine what environmental factors are related to behavior – Could compare ratings with actual behavior

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Clinical Interviews
• Interviews can vary depending on orientation of interviewer • Psychoanalytic: focus on childhood, dreams, etc. • Humanist: client’s interpretation and perception of reality

What is Psychology? Ellen E. Pastorino and Susann M. Doyle-Portillo
Chapter 14

Are You Getting the Big Picture? • Four views of personality: psychoanalytic, trait, social cognitive, humanistic • Many forces shape our personality; unconscious motives, inherited characteristics, education, etc. • How would you evaluate your own personality? • No one theoretical framework can explain personality; how do these forces work together? • Helps with careers: working with others, bosses, customers; understanding personality helps


				
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