Chad Counter: _______________________________
CHAPTER FORTY-ONE, “AMERICA CONFRONTS THE POST-COLD WAR ERA, 1992-2004”
“Deeds, not stones, are the true monuments of the great.” – John L. Motley
MAIN QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER:
To what extent should George H. W. Bush deserve credit for ending the Cold War?
In 2003, the Supreme Court‟s majority held that “We expect that 25 years from now, the use of racial preferences will
no longer be necessary.” Is this a reasonable statement?
Word or phrase Meaning in context
excoriate (999) to censure scathingly
chicanery (1000) artful trickery
habeas corpus (1003) a writ issued to compel a person to go to court
preemptive (1004) taken before someone else can act
Relevant Identification Summary
1. H. Ross Perot was an independent presidential candidate in the 1992 election who
won 20 percent of the vote but no electoral votes. This was the strongest showing for a third
party or independent nominee since Teddy Roosevelt ran on the Bull-Moose Ticket. He is like
a junior nominated for prom queen competing with two seniors. She doesn‟t win any
committee votes (the only ones that matter) but some of the student body votes for her (Ariel).
2. During the election of 1992, a near record amount of seats in both the Senate and
House changed hands. This election, in which the Democrats racked up a clear majority, also
had the largest female contingent of women ever in the Senate thus far. Among the five
women was Carol Moseley-Braun, the first African-American woman elected to the US
Senate. She is like a single gold nugget among four silver nuggets; although all five of the
precious metals are rare and valuable, the gold nugget (Moseley-Braun) is the rarest and
most special (Jack).
3. Bill Clinton received harsh criticism when he made a liberal attempt at ending the ban
on gays and lesbians in the armed services. To appease conservative America, Clinton came
up with the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy in which gay and lesbian soldiers and sailors were
accepted, but their presence in the military was never officially acknowledged. This is like
when certain high school persons come back from their Spring Break trips to Cancun
because their parents don‟t ask about the crazy illegal stuff that went down and the kids don‟t
tell them about it (Stephanie).
4. Hilary Rodham Clinton was a lawyer, New York‟s first woman senator, the First
Lady, and the director of a government medical reform task force during her husband Bill
Clinton‟s presidency. Her medical reform plans fell through, but she is still senator of New
York, and many people think she might be the Democratic Party‟s presidential candidate in
2008. She is like June Carter Cash, a talented individual who is still overshadowed because
her spouse is (was) good at the same thing (Cara).
5. Bill Clinton passed the gun-control law titled the “Brady Bill” in 1993. The law was
named after presidential aide James Brady after he was shot and disabled by gunfire in a
1981 assassination attempt on President Ronald Reagan. This bill is like the Amber Alert
system because the government uses a tragic situation to pass laws and uses the victim‟s
name as the title of the bill (Stephanie).
6. The Oklahoma City bombing that occurred in 1995 destroyed a federal office building
and killed 168 people. The bombing was revenge for a 1993 standoff in Waco, Texas
between federal agents and a fundamentalist sect known as Branch Dravidians which ended
in the destruction of the sect‟s compound and death of many sect members. This brought
light to the secretive private “militias” who were against the US government, just as the Al
Qaeda attacks brought light to anti-America cells all over the world (Stephanie).
7. In April, 1999 two teenagers at Columbine High School in Colorado, shot 12 students
and 1 teacher on a rampage. The origin of the violence was thought to be the prevalence and
accessibility of guns in communities across America. Clinton, a gun-control supporter,
debated with the National Rifle Association. Michael Moore‟s documentary Bowling for
Columbine and the Million Mom March in D.C. also supported gun control measures.
Columbine is like the Roe v. Wade case in the U.S., since Columbine sparked heated
debates about a controversial issue (gun control) and the Roe v. Wade case also created
debate among people about another currently hot topic (abortion) (EDM).
8. The “Million Mom March” in Washington, D.C. in May 2000 demonstrated the
growing public support for antigun measures. The march is like when third graders picket
outside the cafeteria for healthier tater tots (Stephanie).
9. Georgia republican representative Newt Gingrich offered voters a “Contract with
America” that promised an all-out assault on budget deficits and radical reduction in welfare
programs. This campaign was a brilliant success for Republicans who were re-elected and
voted into offices all over the country. This is like when little Billy promises his third grade
class that he will get McDonald‟s for the school lunch and everyone loves the idea so much
that they vote him into student council and vote for his friends as class officers (Stephanie).
10. While attempting to dodge potential attacks by Republicans, Clinton took the political
middle ground when it came to affirmative action. His “mend it, not end it” stance on the issue
took a hit when Proposition 209 was passed. This legislation prohibited affirmative action
preferences in government and higher education. When California voters approved this in
1996, the number of minority students in the state‟s public universities temporarily
plummeted. Clinton criticized these assaults on affirmative action but never tried to reverse
them. This is like when the U.S. issued the Stimson Doctrine saying that the US would not
recognize territories taken by force. Both Japan‟s actions and the actions taken against
affirmative action were criticized; however, nothing was done to resolve the issue (Jack).
11. Republican Alan Greenspan was first appointed as Federal Reserve Chairman during
the Reagan Presidency and is credited with the prosperity of the economy during Clinton‟s
presidency. He led the Federal Reserve Board in carefully adjusting interest rates to control
inflation while promoting economic growth. He is like the accountant who makes your life
better by choosing all the successful stocks, making you a wealthy person (Stephanie).
12. The North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) created in 1993 a free-trade
zone encompassing Mexico, Canada, and the US. By supporting NAFTA, Clinton reversed
his 1992 stand in the election campaign. An opposition of protectionists grew within his own
party, which consisted mainly of labor leaders fearful of losing jobs to low-wage Mexican
workers. Free trade is like when you borrow a cup of sugar from your neighbor‟s house and
they don‟t make you pay interest on the sugar that you‟re taking (Stephanie).
13. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was strongly supported by Clinton after its
creation in 1994 and was another step of his toward a global free-trade system. Clinton
wished to continue the work of the previous free trade policy called the General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO, however, was not completely supported by the
American public as protests erupted over discontent with what people saw as the human and
environmental costs of economic “globalization.” This is like when the middle man is cut out of
a business deal as both ideas expedite business transactions (Jack).
14. Reversing his earlier stance in which Clinton denounced George Bush for not
imposing economic sanctions on China as a punishment for its poor record of human rights
abuses, Clinton passed the China Trade Bill in May 2000. This landmark bill opened a new
market bonanza by making China a full-fledged trading partner of the US. Clinton was forced
to ignore the human rights abuse records of China because he saw extreme benefits and
potential in the robustly industrializing country. This is like when someone buys clothing that
may have been made in a sweatshop. The buyer sacrifices his or her morals in exchange for
the economic benefit (a cheaper price) (Jack).
15. Following Bush‟s example, Clinton dispatched troops to Somalia in order to keep
peace. A group of Somali rebels killed more than a dozen soldiers and thus Clinton
strengthened the contingent of troops in 1993. In 1994, however, Clinton withdrew the troops
after not having accomplished much in the country. The situation in Somalia is like if the
police were sent in to control two warring gangs in a town but then one gang kills a group of
police men, so then more policemen were sent in to control the issue (EDM).
16. Adding to the chaos in the Balkans in 1999, Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic
began the process of „ethnic cleansing‟ by acting against Albanians in Kosovo. The NATO
forces started a bombing campaign that forced Milosevic to accept a peacekeeping force.
Milosevic was put on trial and charged in the International Criminal Court. Clinton then
realized that the US was the peacekeeping force in the Balkans. Slobodan Milosevic is like
Adolf Hitler who wanted ethnically to cleanse Germany of the Jewish people. The World War
Two forces had to intervene with Hitler just like the NATO forces had to intervene with
17. Scandal surrounding Clinton broke out in January 1998, when it was revealed that he
had had a sexual relationship with a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. Clinton,
however, lied about the affair while under oath in a case in which another woman accused
him of sexual harassment. At first he denied the affair but then was forced to admit to it which
caused him to be charged with a possibility of impeachment. Monica Lewinsky‟s situation is
like relationship between Mr. O and Paige on Degrassi. This relationship was unacceptable,
and he denied the relationship at first but when confronted by Paige and the principal he
confessed to his wrongdoing (EDM).
18. Al Gore nominated Joseph Lieberman as his running mate in the 2000 election,
partly because Lieberman often criticized the Lewinsky scandal, and Gore was trying to
distance himself from Clinton. Gore and Lieberman together were like a lichen – each could
have survived on his own, but Gore, like a fungus, provided structure and something for
Lieberman to latch on to, while Lieberman, like algae, gave Gore the fungus an opportunity to
colonize hostile environments (such as rooms full of citizens angry with Clinton) (Cara).
19. The Election of 2000, between George W. Bush and Al Gore, marked the first real
issue with the electoral system since 1876. Faulty voting machines caused scandal when
Florida ordered multiple recounts. The Republican Party took the election to the Supreme
Court, which ruled that Bush had won the election since Florida had not established a system
to recount the votes by hand in accord with the Fourteenth Amendment. This is like the
“corrupt bargain” of 1824 in which Henry Clay swayed the House to make Adams president
20. After being elected president, Bush opposed the Kyoto Treaty, a worldwide
agreement reducing greenhouse gas emissions, that had been negotiated under Clinton, but
never ratified in the Senate. This is like when a class petitions for a teacher to move a test,
because all of the kids (nations) get together and agree to do something, but when
one member ignores the decision (the US), the entire plan loses its effect. (Drew).
21. On September 11, 2001, terrorists from the Al Qaeda organization hijacked four
airliners and succeeded in flying three of them into the World Trade Center Towers and the
Pentagon. The leader of the Al Qaeda network, Osama bin Laden, had attacked American
embassies and the U.S.S. Cole in previous years, viewing America as an imperialist power
trying to control the Middle East. Afghani refusal to hand over bin Laden resulted in a
declaration of war, removing the Afghani government, but failing to find bin Laden. This is like
bombing raids in World War II in which air forces of both sides targeted cities of little or no
military importance to weaken morale (Drew).
22. In response to the new terrorist threat, Congress quickly passed the USA Patriot Act,
which permitted extensive surveillance of citizens‟ communications and the detention and
deportation of suspected terrorists. This act allowed the Justice Department to hold hundreds
of immigrants without habeas corpus in military bases such as Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. This
is like the comparatively mild Alien and Sedition Acts that also took away the rights of
immigrants since both authorized deportation and imprisonment of immigrants while limiting
freedom of speech (Drew).
23. Soon after the September 11th attacks, President Bush declared that the nations of
Iraq, Iran, and North Korea formed an “axis of evil” against America, alluding to the Axis
powers of World War II. The last two nations were known to be pursuing nuclear weapons
programs, and Iran had long supported terrorism in the Middle East, but information on Iraq
was murky at best. This is like Communist portrayals of Western nations as decadent and
corrupt to rally their people (Drew).
24. On May 1, 2003, President Bush celebrated the capture of Baghdad and Saddam
Hussein from an aircraft carrier declaring “Mission Accomplished” in Iraq and that “major
combat operations in Iraq have ended”. This is like the promises made throughout history
that „the soldiers will be home for Christmas” that invariably prove false (Drew).
25. In hopes of becoming reelected in 2004, President Bush enacted the No Child Left
Behind Act, passed in 2002, that put sanctions against schools that failed to meet the federal
performance standards. This is like Horace Mann‟s push for reformed schools, because both
worked to heighten the integrity of schools (Nukes).
Other Questions to Consider
A. To what extent is Clinton‟s theme “It‟s the economy, stupid” useful in explaining US history?
B. To what extent should we compare the impeachment of Andrew Johnson and that of Bill Clinton?
C. To what extent should we compare the Election of 1876 and the Election of 2000?
D. Is it fair to compare the USA Patriot Act and the McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950?
E. Is it fair to compare our current presence in Iraq and our presence in the Philippines after the Spanish-American War?
FOOD FOR THOUGHT! Is it fair to compare America‟s domestic situation and foreign policy in the 1990s and America‟s
domestic situation and foreign policy in the 1950s? To what extent have America and the rest of the