VitA Burkina

Document Sample
VitA Burkina Powered By Docstoc
					                                “VitA Burkina”

Improvement of Vitamin A contribution to women and children through
orange-fleshed sweetpotato production and consumption in Burkina Faso


Annual Report 2006-2007



Researchers:
      Ann Tarini, Resident Representative of HKI Burkina
      Jean-Celestin Somda, Coordinator of Nutrition Program, HKI Burkina
      Olivier Vebamba, Coordinator of Gardening Projects, HKI Burkina
      Kuilga Marc Yameogo, Coordinator of Community Nutrition Project, HKI Koupéla
      Jerome Belem, Researcher at CREAF INERA, Burkina




  Funding : The McKnight Foundation




  Ouagadougou, April 2007




                                            1
     Contents
Summary ..........................................................................................................................................3
Research Report ...............................................................................................................................4
1.     Authors .....................................................................................................................................4
2.     Introduction ..............................................................................................................................4
       Project Goal..............................................................................................................................5
       Project Objectives. ...................................................................................................................5
3.     Brief Report of Activities Conducted in the Second Year . .....................................................6
     3.1.      OFSP Variety Selection Activities ..................................................................................6
       3.1.1.         OFSP Variety Selection Activities in controlled Environment................................6
       3.1.2.         On farm Research Activities . ..................................................................................7
     3.2.      On farm Sensory Evaluation (table 7)..............................................................................9
     3.3.      OFSP Promoting Activities............................................................................................10
     3.4.      Project Baseline Survey Conduct...................................................................................10
4.     Research Output Implications ...............................................................................................11
Team Report...................................................................................................................................12
Conclusion......................................................................................................................................14




                                                                           2
Summary
Vitamin A Deficiency is a public health problem in many African countries, including Burkina Faso.
Several strategies to combat Vitamin A Deficiency have been established, one of which is to increase
the production and consumption of foods rich in vitamin A. Vit A Project activities fall into this
category. The project aims at increasing the production and consumption of orange-fleshed
sweetpotato (OFSP) with high dry matter content in two regions of Burkina Faso.

During the period 2006-2007, the ten best varieties from the 2005-2006 harvest were subject to
additional tests in research stations of Kouaré (Fada) and Kamboinsé (Ouagadougou) and on farm at
four locations. All the outputs show a more or less important variability of performances among the
various sweetpotato varieties and between environments. However, it is necessary to repeat these
tests at least over a second year so as to cancel the effect of one-off climate hazards.

The promotion of three traditional varieties (Tainung, Jewel and Caromex) is continued in
Komondjari with the commitment of new producers and new schools. All seeds were supplied by the
Fada site.

One of the activities which marked the project’s second year is the baseline survey on OFSP
production and consumption, which was conducted in three locations.

Among the other activities which were carried out, there is notably the participation in ‘‘Innovation
market place’’ organized by HarvestPlus in the United States, the participation in the Collaborative
Crop Research Program (CCRP) workshop of West African Community of Practices funded by
McKnight Foundation in Niger, exchange visits and supervision visits. A graduate trainee was
associated with the project’s activities.




                                                  3
Research Report
Research activities achieved in 2006 under ‘‘Improvement of Vitamin A contribution to women and
children’’ Project through orange-fleshed sweetpotato production and consumption in Burkina Faso

           1. Authors
-       Madame Ann Tarini, Country director of HKI Burkina: Responsible for overall activity
       Supervision.
-       Mr. Belem Jerome, Researcher at INERA: Research activities are under the responsibility of
       the INERA researcher, Mr. Jérôme Belem who is in charge of the development of protocols,
       supervision, and centralization of the data and analyzes and research activity report. He is also
       responsible for the monitoring of protocol application in research stations in Léo.
-       Mr. Olivier Vebamba, Coordinator of gardening Project, HKI Burkina: Responsible for the
       monitoring of the research protocol application in Gourma and Komondjari provinces. He is also
       in charge of continuing the promotion and dissemination of the selected orange-fleshed
       sweetpotato during the previous project through school and community gardening activities
       carried out by HKI with complementary funding in the Komondjari province.
-       Mr. Kuilga Marc Yaméogo, Coordinator of Community Nutrition Project, HKI Koupéla:
       Responsible for the monitoring of the research protocol application in the Kouritenga Province.
       He is also in charge of continuing the promotion and dissemination of the selected orange-fleshed
       sweetpotato during the previous project through school and community gardening activities
       carried out by HKI with complementary funding in the Kouritenga.
-       Mr. Jean-Celestin Somda, Coordinator of Nutrition, HKI Burkina. Mr. Somda is
       responsible for ensuring that activities are carried out and timely provision of the various partner
       reports. He is in charge of consolidating the reports (Research activity Report and OFSP
       promoting activity report) in only one.
-       Mr. Antoine Nabaloum, trainee at INERA : the trainee brought his contribution to the
       implementation of Project activities by participating actively in multi local tests of some
       genotypes of OFSP in controlled environment at the Kamboinsé and Kouaré Research Station.
       Theses works fall into the end cycle of practical traineeship in rural environment and the outputs
       will serve to draft his thesis for the fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Agricultural
       Engineer. The traineeship was done from May to October 2006.

           2. Introduction
In Burkina Faso, Vitamin A Deficiency is a problem of public health as demonstrated by the 2003
Population and Health Survey, which brought out an average rate of 7%1 of night blindness among
pregnant women. To face this situation, Burkina Faso implements several types of intervention
among which provision of additional vitamin A capsules during mass campaigns which enable to
reach at least 70% of the targeted groups1.
Food strategies are equally basic for this deficiency control. These include enriching in vitamin A
industrial oils and several other strategies which are only implemented at small scale (promoting red
palm oil, gardening…). One of these food strategies which has a very great potential is promoting
orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) whose content in β-carotene and in dry matter is high and
presents a good resistance to pests and diseases. The bio effectiveness of OFSP was demonstrated.2.



1
    HKI/Department of Nutrition (DN). 2004. National Micronutriments Days (NID). Bull HKI Burkina No 24: 1-4.




                                                                4
Though sweetpotato growing is not new in Burkina Faso, however, it still remains limited to some
regions in the country, and it is the white-fleshed varieties that are the most grown.
In fact, sweetpotato is grown in Burkina Faso in millet, sorghum, maize, and cassava farms in
gardens or orchards and in some low lands. Its production is regularly estimated every year, as in the
case of other food crops (cowpea, groundnut and yam), through a National Agricultural Survey. The
national sweetpotato production average, in 1994 and 2003, was estimated at 20,840 tons per year.
The annual production increase rate seems higher than that of yam despite the lack of promotion for
its popularization3 and research4. Sweetpotato production is concentrated in regions of High Basins,
Central Plateau, Southern Centre and Western Centre notably in Kénédougou, Nahouri and Sissili
Provinces.
The Project of promoting new OFSP varieties in Burkina Faso funded by McKnight Foundation and
implemented by HKI for a four year duration (2005-2009) aims at improving contributions in
Vitamin A for women and children through popularization of the production and consumption of
OFSP. Its implementation is conducted in several stages: tests in controlled environment in INERA
research stations, on farm or real multi local tests and finally a large popularization of the more
adapted varieties.
It will enable us to document the best strategies, identify difficulties and constraints and draw lessons
for scaling up.
Because of the similarity of agro climate conditions and farming practices linked to production and
consumption with those of the other Sahel countries, the Project outputs could serve other countries.
The Project intervenes in 3 Provinces of the Eastern Region (Gourma, Gnagna and Komondjari), 1
Province in the Western Centre Region (Sissili) and the Province of Kouritenga in the Southern
Centre Region. The direct beneficiaries are estimated at 51,140 women of procreation age and
22,440 children aged between 12 and 59 months from 70 villages. Indirect beneficiaries are primary
school pupils, teachers in the Project zone as well as neighboring village population.
The current report is assessing the second year implementation the Project - i.e., the activities from
March 1, 2006 to February 28, 2007.

Project Goal
Increase production and consumption of orange-fleshed sweetpotato with high content in dry matter
in at least two Regions of Burkina Faso (province Sissili Province in the Western Centre Region and
the Eastern Region).
Project Objectives.
         Promoting orange-fleshed sweetpotato production and consumption in organized school
         and village structures and teaching of technical and nutrition practices at national and local
         levels.
         Promoting OFSP solar drying by women groups and NGOs
         Increasing financial resources of the beneficiaries
         Adopting a participatory approach in promoting, monitoring and evaluating OFSP
         Developing and applying a more specific evaluation system of sweetpotato production and
         consumption in collaboration with the National Agricultural Statistics Division.
         Presenting, evaluating and disseminating high yield varieties with strong content in dry
 orange-fleshed sweetpotato matter.




2
 Van Jaarsveld PJ, Faber M, Tanumihardjo SA, Nestel P, Lombard CJ, and Benadé AJS. 2005. Beta-carotene-rich orange-fleshed
sweetpotato improves the vitamin A status of primary school children assessed with the modified-relative-dose-response test. Am J
Clin Nutr 81: 1080-7
                                                                 5
       3. Brief Report of Activities Conducted during the Second
          Year.
               3.1. OFSP Variety Selection Activities
           3.1.1. OFSP variety selection activities in controlled environment

In the framework of a memorandum of understanding signed between HKI and INERA through its
Market Gardening, Fruit, and Tuber Plant Farming Program (CMFPT), based at the Kamboinsé
Environmental, Agricultural Research, and Training Station, Orange-Fleshed Sweetpotato research
activities have been carried out since 2005.
For the 2006-2007 harvest, some additional tests were conducted on the ten best varieties from the
evaluation of the 2005-2006 harvest.

The ten following varieties from evaluation tests of the 2005 /2006 agricultural harvest were used for
the tests : Tainung 440215 N°65 ; Tiébélé 2; Kandee 440140; TIB 440060; CIP199062-1; Jewel
566638; Excel 440016; Japan tremessino 42009 ; Resisto 440001 et de Caromex Fada.

Two sites were selected to conduct the tests in the station; the INERA Research Station of Kouaré, in
the Eastern Region (Fada) and the INERA Research Station of Kamboinsé, in the Central Region
(Ouagadougou).

The system used to carry out these tests was that of Fisher Block with four (04) repetitions.

Various agronomic parameters were measured to evaluate the performance of the different varieties.
Quantitative parameters were analyzed thanks to PLABSTAT version1.2 software.

Number of healthy tubers per plant
For almost the totality of the varieties (9/10), the number of healthy tubers per plant is better in
Kouaré than in Kamboinsé. Only three varieties seem to stand out as much for the number of tubers
per plant as for the total yield as illustrated in Table 1. However, these differences among varieties
are not meaningful. In the two stations, the number of healthy tubers was very low compared to those
obtained on farm.

Number of saleable tubers
Sweetpotatoes considered saleable are those whose weight is above or equal to 100g and which were
not affected by disease. For almost the totality of varieties (9/10), the number of saleable tubers per
plant is equally better in Kouaré than in Kamboinsé. The best varieties concerning the number of
saleable tubers in the two stations are Tiébélé 2, Caromex Fada, Jewel 566638 and Excel 440016.

Damage Percentage
The weevil attacks were more important in Kouaré than in Kamboinsé during the early harvest (96
days after planting). The most sensitive varieties to attacks were: local Tiébélé 2 (25%) Excel
440016 (25%) ; Jewel 566638 (14,5%), Tainung 440215 N°65 (12,5%) and TIB 440060 with 7,3%
(Table 1)

Total Tuber Yield
On the whole, the yields are low for all the varieties. They vary from 0.1 to 15.45 Kg/ha in
Kamboinsé and from 0.06 to 7.22 Kg/ha in Kouaré. Yields being moreover better in Kouaré than in
Kamboinsé for seven (07) varieties out the 10 tested (except Caromex Fada, Japan tremessino
42009 and Tainung 440215 N°65).

                                                   6
Caromex Fada, local Tiébélé 2 and Jewel 566638 varieties provided the best yields in Kamboinsé
while in Kouaré the 3 best varieties are Jewel 566638, TIB 440060 and Excel 440016 (Table 2).

Yield in saleable tubers
Six varieties out of 10 have higher saleable yields in Kouaré than in Kamboinsé. Varieties like
Caromex Fada, Tainung 440215 N°65 and local Tiébélé 2 provided the best saleable yields in
Kamboinsé. In Kouaré it is TIB 4 440060; Excel 440016 and Jewel 566638) that distinguished
themselves as the best for this parameter.

Tuber Content in Dry Matter (table 2)
Eight varieties out 10 had dry matter content higher in Kouaré than in Kamboinsé. In Kamboinsé
Caromex Fada, Excel 440016 and Jewel 566638 varieties have the best contents in dry matter while
in Kouaré the best varieties on this level are Excel 440016, Jewel 566638 and Tiébélé 2.

Generally, all studied variables are better in Kouaré than in Kamboinsé.
This difference is basically due to a more regular rainfall in Kouaré.
From variety performance viewpoint, the synthesis of studied criteria enables to retain in decreasing
merit order the following varieties:
- Jewel 566638: 1st
- Caromex Fada: 2nd
- Tiébélé-2: 3rd
- Excel 440016: 3rd


           3.1.2. On farm Research Activities
After behavior tests in controlled environment during the 2005 season, the ten varieties (Kandee-
440140, Japan tremessino - 420009, TIB-4440060, Jewel- 566638, Tainung 440215 No65, Resisto-440001, CIP
199062-1, Tiébélé 2, Caromex (Fada), Excel-440016) pre selected out of twenty, were submitted to real
producer conditions to appreciate the different qualities of these ten clones. To this effect, four sites
at the country level were identified for conducting tests in rainy season. These sites are:
        • Pittenga in the Gourma Province
        • Léo in the Sissili Province
        • Koupéla in the Kouritenga Province
        • Gayéri the Komondjari Province.
In some sites, only five producers could conduct trials because of cutting inadequacy. In Pittenga in
the Gourma Province, 10 producers conducted the trials; 5 with fertilizers and 5 without fertilizers.
Comparisons of the three sites were made among producers who did not use fertilizers. Productions
of sites with fertilizers and without fertilizers will be compared further, data being available at
INERA, but not yet analyzed.

Experimental System and Farming Methods
Simple blocks designs without replication were used for the on-farm trials. However, in every site
each of the producers constitutes in himself a repetition.
In every site, producers used freely the usual farming techniques. Thus, in Léo, planting is done on
hillocks while in the three other zones raised ridges of earth were used.
A total of 900 m2 per site was used i.e. 180 m2 per producer.
Trials were conducted without manure contribution so as to verify the behavior of varieties in
conditions close to the field realities where most of the Burkina producers do not apply manure on
the sweetpotato.
                                                    7
Measured agronomic observations and parameters are identical to those carried in station.

Distribution of cuttings intended for trials
In the protocol each of the producers of the 4 sites should have 3 harvests, the first one in 90 days,
the second one in 105 days and the last one in 120 days. However, for climate or reasons, these
harvest periods were not respected.

Harvest periods for observation in the different sites
                                       90 days 115 days             127 days
Pittenga in the Gourma Province        X           X                X
Léo in the Sissili Province                        X
Gayéri in the Komondjari Province X                X (114)
Nakalbo in the Kouritenga Province ---             ---              ---

Harvests were done 90, 115 and 127 days after planting in Pittenga in the Gourma Province. In Léo
in the Sissili Province, difficulties in maintaining crops longer than planned because of drought and
possibly thefts compelled us to have only one harvest 115 days after planting. For the Gayéri zone,
harvest occurred 90 and 114 days after planting.
Nakalbo data exploitation was not possible, because a pocket of drought at transplanting moment
caused very important habitant losses in seedlings. The results of the three other sites are indicated
here.

       Agronomic Evaluation (Table 3)
The agronomic evaluation concerned foliar cover, resistance to diseases variety earliness.
     • Nine varieties have a very good foliar cover, except the Japan Tremessino 42009 variety;
     • Out of the ten varieties, only one presents an erect growth habit (Japan Tremessino 42009),
        four have semi climbing growth habit (CIP 199062-1, Tainung 440215 n°65, TIB 440060,
        Jewel 566638) and five have a climbing growth habit (Caromex (Fada), EXCEL 440016,
        Kandee 440140, Resisto 440001, Tiébélé 2).
     • The observed varieties had a good resistance to diseases, except the Japan Tremessino
        42009 variety which was attacked by virus;
     • The nine varieties were resistant to drought (except Japan Tremessino 42009);
     • The following six varieties are early (Caromex Fada, Excel 440016, Jewel 566638, Resisto
        440001, TIB 440060, Tiébélé 2) while the following varieties seem to have a longer cycle
        (CIP 199062-1, Kandee 440140 and Tainung 440215 N°65) according to producer views.


         Number of healthy tubers per plant
The term ‘‘healthy tuber’’ means that the sweetpotato is free from any deterioration due to pest or
disease attacks. The obtained on farm results are clearly better than those in stations. However, we
note meaningful differences according to the site for a harvest of the same number of days after
planting. In fact, 115 days after planting the average number of tubers per plant was 5 to 8 for
Pittenga zone, from 0 to 3 in Léo and from 1 to 3 in Gayéri (Table 4). That can be explained by the
agro climatic differences of the sites, but also by differences in planting dates because we waited for
at least one rain before planting.
The variety performance equally varies according to the site. For all the sites, the best varieties for
this parameter are as follows: Kandee 440140, Caromex Fada and Jewel 566638 (Table 4).



                                                    8
        Number of saleable tubers per plant
For most varieties, the number of saleable tubers per plant was more important in Pittenga than in
other locations as illustrated in Table 4. The zone of Gayéri was less interesting for this factor. The
varieties which distinguish themselves better are by decreasing order: Jewel 566638, Caromex Fada
et Tiébélé 2.

        Evaluation of the site effect on the yield (Table 5)
This evaluation is based on variety yield and commercial yield. The commercial yield is obtained
from the total yield minus the percentage of damages caused, and the number of tubers whose weight
is below 100g.
For the variety yield, the results are on the whole better in Pittenga than in Léo (10/10 cases) and
clearly bad in Gayéri. The three best varieties are for Pittenga: Excel, Tiébélé 2 and TIB 440060
while in Léo there are Caromex Fada, TIB 440060 are Jewel 566638 and in Gayéri there are
Caromex Fada, Jewel 566638 and TIB 440060. The average of the 03 sites gives the following 3
varieties as being the best: Jewel 566638, Caromex Fada and TIB 440060.
Concerning the saleable yield, the site of Pittenga equally presents the best performances for the ten
10 varieties and the best yields are obtained with the following varieties: Jewel 566638, Caromex
Fada and Excel 440016.

    Percentage of damages caused by the weevil (Table 6)
The site of Pittenga experienced more damages than those of Léo and Gayéri. In fact, in Pittenga all
varieties experienced attacks at various degrees while in Léo only one variety was attacked and 03
varieties in Gayéri. The most sensitive varieties were Caromex Fada, TIB 440060, Excel 440016 and
Kandee 440140.

    Conclusion.
At the end of these different trials, three varieties at the level of Pittenga sites and Léo attract the
admiration of producers with respect to the yield and the lack of damages. These varieties are:
    − Jewel 566638 with a saleable yield of 6,98 tons/ha and 0% damages,
    − Resisto 440001 with 6,50 tons/ha and 0% damages,
    − Excel 440016 with 5,7 tons/ha and 0% damages


    3.2. On farm Sensory Evaluation (Table 7)
Given that it is difficult to organize sensory evaluation of trials on all of the ten varieties, a brief
sensory evaluation test was carried out in the sites of Pittenga and Léo during the exchange visits to
select a smaller number for better structured tests. The different OFSP varieties were cooked by
steam and given for tasting to ten persons including women, men and youth.
The following three criteria were appreciated: taste (sweet or insipid), fiber presence and flesh
firmness.
        • 8 of the 10 varieties are judged sufficiently firm (except Excel 440016 and Japan
           Tremessino 42009) ;
        • Only 1 variety was judged fibrous (Tiébélé 2)
        • 2 varieties have a more sweet taste (Tainung 440215 n°65 and Japan Tremessino
           42009) ;
        • And no variety presents a really insipid taste




                                                     9
   3.3. OFSP Promoting Activities

    OFSP Production in the Komondjari Province
Jointly to HKI School and Community Gardening activities, the promotion of three traditional
varieties (Tainung n°64, Jewel and Caromex (Fada)) continued in the Komondjari, with the
commitment of 247 new producers. There is a total of 300 producers, 21 villages and 22 schools
(1600 students and 77 teachers) that are engaged in the production of OFSP in the Komondjari. Each
of the producers received 10 cuttings and each of the schools received 20 cuttings of the 3 varieties
for multiplication in nurseries.
Through 1900 planting hills on a 600 m2 surface area, the annual OFSP production is 7000 kg.
Compared to the first year we have an additional production of 4246 kg tubers irrespective on farm
sweetpotatoes trials which were carried out in the province. The OFSP is consumed by families and
sold in local markets. It also became hunger food for families that grow it. Finally, numerous
producers conserve OFSP seeds on small surfaces they water during the dry season. Some producers
committed themselves to producing seeds in sufficient quantities in order to sell them to new
interested producers.

    Supervision Missions
The August 2006 supervision enabled to note the evolution of OFSP crops in Pittenga, Bassiéri and
Gayéri. It transpired that following a number of technical errors and a poor rainfall, some plots were
abandoned. The growth of seedlings was not satisfactory in all plots.
Despite the technical difficulties encountered in the Gourma, and the drought which affected the
recovery in the Komondjari, we met enthusiastic producers willing to carry out the work on the field.
From 16 to 28 October 2006, the HKI Gardening Coordinator conducted a monitoring mission of all
Gardening/Nutrition activities carried out on the field. The field visit enabled to visit all the Project
beneficiary villages and meet the Province Education and Agriculture officers. The mission enabled
not only to supervise the promotion of OFSP production in schools and villages, but also to organize
a exchange visit followed by OFSP trial harvest.

    Exchange Visits
Two exchange visits were organized in two different sites which are that of Pittenga on October 12
2006 and in Bassiéri on October 27 2006. During these exchange visits more than sixty producers
went to another producer to discuss the techniques he used in his plot and the results he obtained. It
is an opportunity for producers to ask clarification questions, to make comments and proposals and
review the farming techniques. The supervisor takes advantage of the occasion to show them the
good farming practices, enquire about problems at the level of the different plots and finally see the
evolution of the OFSP seedlings. The visits were an occasion to organize sensory evaluation tests on
the different OFSP varieties.


    3.4. Project Baseline Survey Conduct
The project baseline survey was entrusted to Mr. Belem from INERA who must collect data in
December 2006 while sweetpotatoes were still available on markets. However, this data collection
could only be used from January ending to mid-February 2007 in three zones where tests are carried
out in farmer environment: Sissili, Gourma and Komondjari. Twenty villages per zone were selected
in the Gourma and the Komondjari (of which ten villages in which OFSP promoting was already
conducted and ten other control villages); in the Sissili 13 villages were surveyed of which 10
control villages, the OFSP promoting being less developed in this province. At each village level 10
producers selected in random to answer questions concerning sweetpotato production, marketing,
processing and conservation, while 10 women selected at random were asked to answer questions
relating to sweetpotato consumption and use. A total of 1,060 men and women were surveyed in the
                                                   10
three zones. Data statistic analysis operations are in progress and the first draft report is expected by
the end of April 2007.


       4. Research output Implications
At the end of the second year, it is difficult to identify sweetpotato varieties that are the most adapted
to different environments because the annual climate variations seem to have had an impact more
important than the location effect and that some errors in protocols application were made and
influenced yields. Some varieties seem all the same to distinguish themselves, but that needs to be
confirmed.

The sensory evaluation test must be resumed with a limited number of varieties and using a
systematic protocol developed according to the book so as to be able to draw conclusions enabling to
select the most appreciated varieties by populations and add this criterion to yield criteria in the
selection of varieties to be promoted.




                                                   11
Team Report

Research Activity Coordination
To conduct research activities, the team members met several times during the drafting of the
memorandum of understanding at the beginning of the year. Subsequently, regular contacts were
made among various team members on the field by telephone or during supervision visits by Mr.
Belem from INERA and during exchange visits. We must say that the different members are all in
different locations and all carry out other activities in parallel with this project, what makes almost
impossible meetings with the entire team in one place.

Presentation of a Poster at the CGIAR Innovation Marketplace
From 1 to 8 December 2006, HKI was invited to present a poster on OFSP promoting activities
implemented by HKI in collaboration with several partners as innovative activity of Vitamin A
Deficiency Control in Sub-Saharan Africa to ‘‘Innovation Marketplace’’ organized in Washington
by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The Coordinator of HKI
Gardening Project, Mr. Vebamba Olivier and the Vice- President of the Program, Victoria Quinn,
presented the poster for HKI. The presentation of HKI occupied the second place in the contest and
received a prize of 30 000 $US.

Participation in the CCRP Six Project Representation
From 5 to 9 March 2007, Mr. Vebamba Olivier, the Coordinator of HKI Gardening Project, Mr.
Jérôme Belem, Researcher at INERA and Mr. OUANGO Hamado, an experimenter farmer
participated in Niamey, Niger, in the workshop of the Collaborative Crop Research Program (CCRP)
of the West African Community of Practices funded by the McKnight Foundation. The objective of
this workshop was to gather the representatives of the six CCRP projects in Burkina Faso, Mali and
Niger so as to facilitate exchanges on strategies and plans of the projects and explore mutual interest
subjects of the Collaborative Crop Research Program in West African. A reflection was done on the
impact of Climate Changes.

Activities that were not carried out
On the whole, only three of all programmed activities could not be carried out :
        Undertaking a collection of samples to study the importance of virus attacks on different OFSP
        varieties selected on the sites and among producers. The virus attack issues are minimal. This
        activity was therefore judged not to be of high priority.
        Preparing an article project, to be submitted to Scientific Review on the outputs of farming
        trials. Data currently available are not sufficient to enable drafting a scientific article.
        Keeping a stand to present Orange-Fleshed Sweetpotato during an exhibition which will be
        organized in November (to see with the FIAB). The event which was targeted for this activity
        will not be organized this year for unknown reasons.
        Identifying and testing the different OFSP conservation techniques. These trials will be
        conducted in the Gourma in collaboration with the APRG Association.
        Sensory evaluation tests planned to be carried out by a trainee could not be conducted to the
        end.
Some activities are repeated in the 2007-2008 Action Plan.

Encountered Constraints and Difficulties
Lack of seed production structures or physical persons, rainfall whims and low technical level of
producers were the constraints which limit OFSP promoting. The lack of a full time coordinator for this
project poses a monitoring problem of research activities carried out with INERA and stage report
development.
                                                   12
Knowledge and Learned Lessons
At the end of the second year, it is difficult to identify sweetpotato varieties that are the most adapted
to different environments because annual climate variations seem to have had a more important
impact than the location effect. The trials should be therefore continued over several years to enable
identifying the adapted varieties we wish to promote across the country. However, despite the
different climatic issues, some varieties seem to distinguish themselves and could be used for
promotion actions during the upcoming years parallel to the agronomic tests.
Communication actions could therefore, from now, be reinforced because with the establishment of
seed producers, it will be now possible to make a greater promotion of the OFSP in the current
intervention zones.

This second year brought out once more clearly that the arrangement of this project, which does not
plan for a full time coordinator to monitor activities conducted in 4 different provinces, has
limitations. Reports consolidation and the monitoring and overall supervision of activities to ensure
consistency and a quick response to problems rising during the project cannot be assured effectively.
Some activities could not be carried out in time because of lack of monitoring. To ensure a better
monitoring and a better coordination, it appears now necessary to hire one person full time for the
project.
Thanks to the coordinator, systematic meetings could be organized among the different partners and
a support could be given to each of the partners, if necessary, to assure activities in the planned
deadlines. Given that several project activities can be carried on complementary funds from other
gardening projects, an amount could be released on the project budget in order to hire a full time
coordinator for the project. This possibility will be discussed.




                                                   13
Conclusion
Despite the multitude of constraints and difficulties found, most of planned activities were
successfully achieved. The end of the second year brings out that OFSP promoting is progressing as
certified by the increasing number of OFSP producers from one year to another, the quantity of
produced OFSP, its place among income generating activities of households and its consumption
frequency in rural environment. Though 3 or 4 OFSP varieties attracted producer attention with
respect to their performances, it would be premature to draw a clear conclusion with respect to
varieties to popularize in view of climate hazards and some errors made in test conduct. For the third
year, tests will be resumed with producers from the same zones with all ten varieties starting the
popularization of 3 varieties which seem to perform better.




                                                  14
Annexes




          1
2
3
4
            Table 1: Effect of the site on the number of healthy tubers by head ; the number of healthy tubers saleable and per head and the impact of
            weevils (Cylas sp) in agricultural research station

                                                Kamboinsé                                        Kouaré                        Kamboinsé         Kouaré
                                      Number of healthy tubers /head                Number of healthy tubers /head           Damages due to   Damages due to
                                                                                                                               weevil (%)       weevil (%)
Genotypes                                       96 DAP                                          96 DAP                          96 DAP           96 DAP
                                 Total per head      Saleable per head              Total per head     Saleable per
                                                                                                           head
CAROMEX Fada                          1.65a                    1.40a                    2.25a             2.25ab                  0.0               0.0
CIP Breeding line 199062-             0.75a                    0.75ab                   1.50a             1.50b                   0.0
1                                                                                                                                                   0.0
Excel n°1 440016                      1.75a                    0.75ab                    2.67a               2.67a                0.0              25.0
Japon Tremessino 420009               0.25a                    0.25b                     0.18a               0.18c                0.0               0.0
Jewel 566638                          1.75a                     1.50a                    2.68a               2.68a                0.0              14.48
Kandee440140                          0.90a                    0.90ab                    1.33a              1.33b                 0.0               0.0
Resisto440001                         1.25a                    1.25ab                    1.75a              1.75ab                0.0               0.0
Tainung440215 n°65                    1.33a                    1.08ab                    2.15a              2.15ab                0.0              12.50
Tib-4 440060                          1.68a                    1.35ab                    1.90a              1.90ab                0.0              7.30
Local Tiébélé-2                       1.90a                     1.65a                    2.25a              2.25ab                7.0              25.0

            *DAP : number of days after planting
            The averages in the same column with the same letters are not meaningfully different according to the ppds 5%.




                                                                                                                                                    5
            Tableau 2: Effect of the site on tubers yield in agricultural research stations

                                                                    Tubers yield                                                       Dry matter (%)
                                                   Kamboinsé                                       Kouaré                    Kambonsé               Kouaré
                                                    96 DAP                                           96 DAP
                                     Total yield        Saleable tubers yield             Total yield     Saleable tubers     96 DAP                96 DAP
Genotypes                                                                                                      yield



CAROMEX Fada                 15.45                    15.45a                       5.31                   5.31                11.10b                11.98abc
CIP Breeding line 199062-    0.92                     0.92b                        2.10                   1.44                 2.50c                 6.24d
1
Excel n°1 440016             3.54                     1.04b                        5.69                   5.69                18.93a                13.66ab
Japon Tremessino 420009      0.10                     0.10b                        0.06                   0.00                   -                      -
Jewel 566638                 4.31                     3.63b                        7.22                   7.22                11.13b                14.37ab
Kandee440140                 2.03                     2.03b                        2.21                   2.21                7.48b                 9.60bcd
Resisto440001                3.07                     3.07b                        4.85                   4.85                 9.43b               10.93abcd
Tainung440215 n°65           2.07                     5.07b                        1.86                   1.61                6.65b                  9.11cd
Tib-4 440060                 3.16                     2.91b                        6.19                   6.19                9.57b                12.05abc
Local Tiébélé-2              4.97                     4.85b                        4.59                   3.89                10.77b                 14.88a

            *DAP : number of days after planting
            The averages in the same column with the same letters are not meaningfully different according to the ppds 5%.




                                                                                                                                                        6
               Table 3: Agronomic evaluation of on-farm sweet potato clones before harvest


                                             Foliar       Diseases     Drought
                                                                                   Maturity/Earliness
                                            coverage     resistance    tolerance
         Varieties
         Caromex (Fada)                         5             4            4                 4
         CIP 199062-1                           5             4            4                 3
         Excel 440016                           5             4            4                 4
PITTENGA Japon tremessino 42009                 2             3            3                 2
         Jewel 566638                           5             4            4                 4
         Kandée 440140                          5             4            4                 3
         Resisto 440001                         5             4            4                 4
         Tainung 440215 N°65                    5             4            4                 3
         TIB 440060                             5             4            4                 4
         Tiébelé                                5             4            4                 4
         Caromex (Fada)                         5             4            4                 4
         CIP 199062-1                           4             4            4                 3
         Excel 440016                           5             4            4                 4
         Japon tremessino 42009                 3             4            3                 2
         Jewel 566638                           5             4            4                 4
   LEO
         Kandee 440140                          5             4            4                 3
         Resisto 440001                         5             4            4                 4
         Tainung 440215 N°65                    5             4            4                 3
         TIB 440060                             5             4            4                 4
         Tiébelé                                5             4            4                 4
                Caromex (Fada)                  5             4            4                 4
                CIP 199062-1                    5             4            4                 3
                Excel 440016                    5             4            4                 4
                Japon tremessino 42009          3             4            3                 2
AVERAGE         Jewel 566638                    5             4            4                 4
of two sites    Kandée 440140                   5             4            4                 3
                Resisto 440001                  5             4            4                 4
                Tainung 440215 N°65             5             4            4                 3
                TIB 440060                      5             4            4                 4
                Tiébelé                        5             4            4                  4
                Quotation: 1= very bas; 2= bad; 3= acceptable; 4= good; 5= very good




                                                                                                  7
      Table 4 : Effect of the site and harvest date on the number of healthy tubers per head and the number of saleable healthy tubers per head.

                                                        Pitenga                                           Léo
                                                                                                                                                    Gayéri
                                           Number of healthy tubers /head                               115 DAP                          90 DAP                  114 DAP
Genotypes                               Total per head                Saleable per head         Number of tubers/head
                               96 DAP     115 DAP 127 DAP           96      115      127   Total per head    Saleable per       Total per    Saleable   Total par     Saleable
                                                                   DAP DAP          DAP                          head             head       per head     pied        per head
CAROMEX Fada                  2.6b       7.20a       4.40b        2.6b    2.25    3.90a         3.0a      3.00                 1.77ab       0.30a        1.83ab        1.80a
CIP Breeding line 199062-1    2.8b       8.10a       2.44b        2.2b    2.75    2.44a        1.95a      1.75                 1. 37ab      0.97a        1.73ab        1.73a
                              2.2b       5.88a                    2.2b    1.75    3.38a        2.25a      2.25
Excel n°1 440016                                     8.10a                                                                     0.40b        0.40a        0.97b         0.53a
Japon Tremessino 420009       1.5c       6.58a       2.60b        1.4b    1.00   2.56a          0.50b       0.50               0.47b        0.10a        0.93b         0.93a
Jewel 566638                  6.8a       6.76a       4.62b        3.2a    3.00   4.58a          2.75a       2.75               1.90a        1.33a        2.53ab        2.43a
Kandee440140                  2.0b       8.10a       3.74b        1.8b    1.75   3.60a          2.00a       2.00               2.00a        0.77a        2.73a         2.17a
Resisto440001                 2.0b       5.58a       6.24ab       1.98b   1.50   5.70a          2.63a       2.63               0.43b        0.03a        1.40b         1.30a
Tainung440215 n°65            1.6c       7.96a       2.62b        1.3b    1.00   2.62a          1.90a       1.90               1.23ab       0.10a        1.97ab        1.80a
Tib-4 440060                  2.6c       5.80a       4.00b        2.16b   1.75   4.00a          2.50a       2.50               2.57a        0.83a        2.50ab        2.17a
Local Tiébélé-2               1.6c       6.02a       3.78b        1.46b   1.25   3.78a          2.15a       2.15               1.70ab       0.37a        3.17a         3.17a

      *DAP : number of days after planting
      The averages in the same column with the same letters are not meaningfully different according to the ppds 5%.




                                                                                                                                                             8
              Table 5 : Effect of the production site and harvest date on the total and saleable yields of ten genotypes of orange flesh sweet
              potato

       GENOTYPES                                            Pittenga                                               Léo                                       Gayéri
                                                                       -1
                                                        Yield (t ha )                                            115DAP                          90 DAP                 114DAP
                                                      -1                                       -1
                                       Total yield (tha )                   Saleable yield (t ha )                                      Yield (t ha-1)          Yield (t ha-1)
                                                                                                               Yield (t ha-1)
                             96 DAP        115 DAP     127 DAP 96 DAP              115       127     Total yield (t Saleable yield (t   Total yield Saleable Total yield Saleable
                                                                                   DAP       DAP         ha-1)             ha-1)          (t ha-1)  yield (t ha-   (t ha-1) yield (t ha-
                                                                                                                                                         1                       1
                                                                                                                                                          )                        )
                             8.44ab       12.12b      9.40b        7.44a          11.96       8.92      6.18a      5.78a                1.27bc      1.27b        2.10a
CAROMEX Fada                                                                                                                                                                     0.00
                             8.36ab       14.12b                   8.36a          13.64       6.60      1.72cd     1.72bc               3.27a       3.27a       1.80a
CIP Breeding line 199062-1                            7.44c                                                                                                                      0.00
Excel n°1 440016             7.60bc       16.04ab     10.48b       7.60a          12.68       8.56      4.30ab     3.84ab               0.53c       0.53b       0.40a            0.00
                             3.90c        5.80c       7.28c        3.70b          4.80        6.08      0.22d      0.18c                1.13bc      0.80b       1.03a
Japon Tremessino 420009                                                                                                                                                          0.00
Jewel 566638                 10.12a       13.00b      14.12bc      9.16a          12.52      11.60      4.80ab     4.80ab               2.80ab      2.80a       2.07a            0.00
Kandee440140                 6.00bc       12.08bc     8.48c        6.00ab         11.24       7.48      2.46bc     2.46bc               2.20abc     2.20ab      1.73a            0.27
                             9.92a        12.32b      15.08ab      9.88a          11.72      14.64      3.12ab     3.12abc              1.00bc      1.00b       1.50a
Resisto440001                                                                                                                                                                    0.67
Tainung440215 n°65           3.96c        6.84bc      4.88c        3.96b          6.32        2.76      3.10bc     3.10abc              0.67c       0.67b       0.60a            0.00
                             8.48ab       19.68a      15.88ab      7.68a          11.08       8.52      4.86ab     4.86ab               2.47ab      1.93ab      2.07a
Tib-4 440060                                                                                                                                                                     0.00
Local Tiébélé-2              7.72abc      14.40b      14.92ab      7.12ab         11.08       14.4      2.54bc     2.54abc              2.20ab      2.20ab      1.63a
                                                                                                                                                                                 0.00
      *DAP : number of days after planting
      The averages in the same column with the same letters are not meaningfully different according to the ppds 5%.




                                                                                                                                                                      9
      Table 6: Effect of the production site and harvest date on the impact of weevil attacks on tubers of OFSP.

                                                                Pittenga                           Léo                             Gayéri


                                                                                             Damages due to       Damages due to      Damages due to
Genotypes                                              Damages due to weevils (%)             weevils (%)         weevils (%)         weevils (%)

                                              96 DAP            115 DAP        127 DAP           115 DAP               90 DAP               114 DAP
CAROMEX Fada                                   12.0a              2.06b          7.28c             3.60a                 0.0c                0.17a
CIP Breeding line 199062-1                      0.0c             1.76b              7.84c          0.0a                  0.0c                0.0a
                                                0.0c             21.56b                            0.0a                                      0.0a
Excel n°1 440016                                                                14.88bc                                  0.0c
Japon Tremessino 420009                         0.0c             9.80b          13.68bc            0.0a                 12.82b               0.0a
Jewel 566638                                   4.60b             10.30b         39.74a             0.0a                  0.0c                0.0a
Kandee440140                                    0.0c             19.28b         30.90ab            0.0a                  0.0c                0.0a
Resisto440001                                  0.40c             11.00b         6.22ac             0.0a                  0.0c                0.0a
Tainung440215 n°65                              0.0c             6.26b          44.48a             0.0a                  0.0c                0.10a
Tib-4 440060                                  10.60a             51.12a         45.24a             0.0a                 35.71a               0.13a
Local Tiébélé-2                               5.80ab             18.74b             3.34c          0.0a                  0.0c                0.0a
      *DAP : number of days after planting
      The averages in the same column with the same letters are not meaningfully different according to the ppds 5%.




                                                                                                                                                     10
Tableau 7 : On-farm Sensor evaluation of 10 varieties of OFSP
                                                                       Taste       Presence of
   SITES                       Varieties                  Firmness
                                                                        Sweet        fibers
                Caromex (Fada)                                2            3            4
                CIP 199062-1                                  2            3            4
                Excel 440016                                  3            4            4
                Japon tremessino 42009                        4            2            3
                Jewel 566638                                  2            4            4
 PITTENGA
                Kandée 440140                                 2            3            4
                Resisto 440001                                2            4            4
                Tainung 440215 N°65                           2            2            3
                TIB 440060                                    2            2            4
                Tiébelé                                       2            4            2
                Caromex (Fada)                                2            3            4
                CIP 199062-1                                  2            4            4
                Excel 440016                                  2            3            4
                Japon tremessino 42009                        4            2            3
                Jewel 566638                                  2            4            4
    LEO
                Kandée 440140                                 2            4            4
                Resisto 440001                                2            4            4
                Tainung 440215 N°65                           2            3            3
                TIB 440060                                    2            2            4
                Tiébelé                                       2            3            2
                Caromex (Fada)                                2            3            4
                CIP 199062-1                                  2            4            4
                Excel 440016                                  3            4            4
                Japon tremessino 42009                        4            2            3
                Jewel 566638                                  2            4            4
 AVERAGE
                Kandée 440140                                 2            4            4
                Resisto 440001                                2            4            4
                Tainung 440215 N°65                           2            3            3
                TIB 440060                                    2            2            4
                Tiébelé 2                                     2           3.5           2
QUOTATION
Firmness: 1= very firm; 2= firm; 3= average; 4= not firm
Taste: 1= very sweet; 2= sweet; 3= average; 4= not sweet; 5= insipid; 6= very insipid
Fiber: 1= very fibrous; 2= fibrous; 3= average; 4= no fiber




                                                                                                 11