"Documentation on sites of LTER-Bulgaria"
Annex 3 Documentation on sites of LTER-Bulgaria Introduction LTER-Bulgaria is currently composed of 7 sites These sites widely represent the main ecosystems in Bulgaria – Forest sites – 2 (Petrohan – mainly beech and mixed forests and Yundola – coniferous forests); Wetland – 1 (Srebarna lake); Marine macro-site – 1 (Black sea); Coastal zone – 1 (Sozopol Bay); Freshwater body – 1 (Mesta river). They cover the major biogeographical regions. Two more places are considered to be potential LTER sites. At present there is some opportunity to develop one of them as LTSER Platform – site Belasitza Mountain. Bulgarian Antarctic Research station – Island Livingston, is outside Bulgarian national boundaries but it is fully managed by Bulgarian research staff. This site has a particular strategic and political importance and its scientific program strongly supports research on climate change effects on ecosystems. Each site has a responsible contact person – site coordinator. LTER-Bulgaria was developed according to ILTER criteria: • Long-term ecological data series (at least 5-10 years) • Ongoing ecological research activities • Research activities of global importance – ecosystem functioning, biodiversity, climate change • Ongoing funding at least 3-5 years • Principal agreement on data exchage The Bulgarian Network is open and will be further developed by including new sites in the near future. The basic criteria will be employed for evaluation of future candidates, but also: • Basic commitment of hosting institutions • Availability of information in English • Response time to requests – 10 days Proposed sites and hosting institutions are evaluated by The National Coordination Committee. There are 2 potential sites ready to be admitted: “Plana” – a site near big urban area and Belasitza Mountain – as LTSER Platform. LTER-Bulgaria also agreed on minimum common ecological parameters to be measured at every LTER site of the network, as they are required by LTER-Europe. 1 LTER – Bulgaria Forest sites 01 Petrohan 02 Yundola Wetland 03 Srebarna Marine sites 04 Black sea- macro-site Costal zone 05 Sozopol Bay Freshwater body 06 Mesta river Antarctica 07 Livingston Island – Bulgarian Antarctic research station 2 Map of LTER-Bulgaria Network 3 1 4 P1 5 2 Livingston 6 Island P2 7 LTER sites (1- Petrohan, 2- Yundola, 3-Srebarna, 4-Black Sea, 5- Sozopol Bay, 6-Mesta River, 7-Livingston Island) potential LTER sites (P1-Plana, P2-Belasitza) Belasitza – LTSER Platform Plana – near urban area 3 LTER-Bulgaria Dr Svetla Bratanova-Doncheva, ID 1286 National Key Stakeholder National Key Stakeholder Funding Body ID 0001 Funding Body ID 0002 ID 0002 Executive Agency of ID 0001 Bulgarian Academy Ministry of Environment Environment and Waters National Science Fund of Sciences and Waters Institute Institute Institute Institute ID 0001 ID 0002 ID 0003 ID 0004 Central Laboratory University of Institute of Sofia University of General Ecology Forestry Oceanology LTSER LTER Site Platform ID 006 LTER Site ID 001 ID 004 LTER Site LTER Site LTER Site ID 001 ID 007 ID 003 LTER Site ID 002 LTER Site LTER Site ID 005 ID P01 Federal Environment Agency 4 1 Petrohan Site general description The site “Petrohan” occupies the territory of the Training and Experimental Forestry Enterprise (TEFE) "Petrohan" is situated on the northeast slopes of the West Balkan range (Berkovsi Balkan) with a total area of 7192 ha. The relief of the region is typical mountain, steep, with deeply cut river valleys and secondary watersheds with lowest point at altitude 350 m, and highest at 1900 m. At the territory of TEFE "Petrohan" a ecological station is build situated between 23°04' N and 23°13' E at 1470m height. Ecosystem characterization The site “Petrohan” falls into the North-Bulgarian climatic zone with moderate continental climate. In the low mountain parts it is characterized by vegetation period of 5,5 months, mean annual temperature 8,9° С and mean annual precipitation between 600-750 mm. In the middle mountain part the vegetation period is 45 days, temperature is 5,57° С, and precipitation 850 to 1000 mm. The hydrological network in the studied region is dense (rivers Burzia, Kadiiska, Gavaneshtiza etc.) with constant water flow during the whole year. The prevailing soil type in the region is brown forest soil (Distric- Eutric-Cambisols), on granite, with mean depth up to 80 cm, pH of the soil solution is 4.5 to 6.0 рН, C/N - 12-14 and the contents of nitrogen in the soil over 1%. The main tree species Fagus silvatica L. cosists 81,7 % all area. The rest tree species are distributed as follows: Pinus silvestris L. - 5,8 %, Picea abies (L.) Karst - 4,0 %, Carpinus betulus L.- 3,7 %, and other broadleaves - 2,0 %. The part of protective forest are high - 74,4 %, which is differentiated as area for water resources. This beech forest ia one of the best measured and managed forest in Bulgaria. Its management began in 1893. The average parameters are as follows: total stock - 1 989 695 m3; stock per ha - 298 m3; total annual growth - 24271 m3; growth per ha - 3,64 m3. The investigated beech forests are one of the best forest in EU.They are unique with their productivity and multifunctional use. Available data and parameters Ecosystem investigations, such as hydrochemical, hydrological, soil, phytopathological, and investigations on bio-productivity and resumption have been carried out in ecological station “Petrohan” since 1986. 5 Hydrochemical investigations in this area include determination of bulk depositions, throughfall deposition of beech and spruce trees, steam flow as well as the flow of pollutants by soil solution and stream waters (Ignatova, 1989, 1994, 2007; Ignatova, 1991, 2001; Ignatova и Fikova, 2005; Dambrine et al., 1998; Ignatova & Dambrine, 2000; Ignatova et al., 2004; Ignatova & Myashkov, 2004; Fikova & Ignatova, 2002, Fikova, 2003). The following parameters are observed: water quantity, рН, concentrations of NO3-, SO42, Cl-, NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ ions, as well as some the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests operating under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (UN-ECE, 2005). Since 1996 the critical loads and their exedence for nitrogen, sulfur and acidity for forest soil and surface waters in the region have been determined and mapped, as a part of EMEP Bulgarian network (Ignatova et al., 1999; 2003, 2004; 2007), according methodology of the International Co-operative Programme on Modelling ang Mapping of Critical Loads and Levels (UBA, 1996, 2004). Critical loads for heavy metals for forest ecosystems and surface waters have been defined since 2001. (Ignatova et al., 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007). Expected additional parameters and indicators The site is perspective for studying relationships between key ecosystem parameters and global climatic changes. Map of site Legende: Forest with Fagus Silvatica Forest with Picea excelsa Site – meadow Site – river Petrohan 6 Catcment with Fagus silvatica L. cover– from 920 to 1558 m above sea level. Catchment with grass vegetation – from 1320 to 1414 m above sea level. Responsible Institution – University of Forestry, Sofia Site coordinator & reference person Prof. Dr Nadka Ignatova University of Forestry, 10 Kl. Ohridsky Blv., 1756 Sofia Phone: +359 2 91907/ 351 Fax: +359 2 8622830 E-mail: Nadia_ignatova@abv.bg Facilities The University of Forestry (Sofia) manages a field station with facilities and buildings. Research projects and funding institutions The study site is financed by the University of Forestry And: 200 ICP Modelling and maping of critical loads since 2000 ICP water 2006-2008 Evaluation and maping of critical loads of S, N, pH and heavy metals in forest ecosystems in Bulgaria 998/22.12.-MOEW) 200 2007-2009: Evaluation and maping of critical loads of acid pollution in Bulgaria – MOEW And 8 projects more funding by MOEW, 2 – funding by MES Main references Dambrine, E., B. Pollier, M. Bonneau, N. Ignatova, 1998. Use of artificial trees to assess dry deposition in spruce stands. Atmospheric Environment, vol. 32, N 10, pp. 1817-1824. Fikova, R. Ignatova, N. 2002. Output/input ratios of pH, nitrates and sulfates in soil solution under different vegetation types in a region with acid precipitation: a dynamics assessment by time series analysis. Ecology (Bratislava). Vol.21, 3, p. 283-297. Ignatova N., 2007. Hydrochemical monitoring in forested catchments in Bulgaria for assessment of the risk of stream water acidification. Proceedings of the 23 meeting of ICP Waters, Nancy, October, 2007, p. 11-17. 7 Ignatova, I., Dambrine, E., Fikova, R., 2004. Acidification of stream waters in forested catchments. Forest idea, 2 (30), 74-83 (in Bulgarian, English abstract). Ignatova, N., 1989. Comparative studies on the correlation between tree vegetation and precipitation water in the West Balkan Range. In: Verification of hypotheses on the mechanisms of damage and possibilities of recovery of forest ecosystems. E. Klimo and J. Materna (Eds.) Brno, p. 119-130. Ignatova, N., 1994. Augmentation recente du depot des polluants atmospheriques par les precipitations dans deux regions forestieres de Bulgarie. The Science of the Total Environment, 151, p. 167-179. Ignatova, N., 2006. Developments in calculation and mapping critical loads of acidifying pollutants and heavy metals for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Bulgaria. Proc. Of VII th Subregional meeting of ICP “Modeling and Mapping critical loads in Europe”, Baia Mare, p. 26-38. Ignatova, N., Damianova, S., Fikova, R., 2007. Sustainable management of surface waters by determination of heavy metals critical loads. Management and Sustainable development, 18: 3-4, 187-196 (in Bulgarian, English abstract). Ignatova, N., E. Dambrine, 2000. Canopy uptake of Nitrogen deposition in spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) stands. Annals of Forest Science, 57, p. 113-120. Ignatova, N., I. Myashkov, 2004. Using CORINE Land Cover classification to assess and map the sensitivity of forest ecosystems in Bulgaria. Proc. of workshop on CORINE Land Cover (B. Mohaupt-Jahr, M. Keil and R. Kiefl Eds.), 20-21 January, Berlin, 2004. Ignatova, N., K. Jorova, I. Myashkov, M. Grozeva, R. Fikova, 2004. Critical loads and Dynamic Modelling results. Bulgaria. CCE Progress Report (J.P.Hettelingh, J. Slootweg, M. Posch Eds.), 53-58. Ignatova, N., K. Jorova, I. Myashkov, R. Fikova, 2003. Modelling and mapping of critical thresholds in Europe. Bulgaria. UN/ECE Status report 2003 of Coordination center for effects N 259101013 (M. Posch, J.-P. Hettelingh, J. Slootweg, and R. J. Downing Eds.). RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands, p. 53-58. Ignatova, N., K. Jorova, M. Grozeva, R. Fikova, 2002. Preliminarymodelling and mapping of critical loads for cadmium and lead in Europe. Bulgaria. UN/ECE report of Coordination center for effects N 259101011 / 2002 (J.-P. Hettelingh, J. Slootweg, M. Posch Eds.). RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands, p. 69-75. Ignatova, N., K. Jorova, Е. Velizarova, R. Fikova, M. Broshtilova, 2005. Modelling and mapping of critical loads for cadmium and lead in Europe. Bulgaria. CCE Progress Report (J.P.Hettelingh, J. Slootweg, M. Posch Eds.), RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands, p. 69-75. Ignatova, N., R. Fikova, K. Jorova, M. Grozeva, 1999. Comparative calculations of critical loads, using depositions in coniferous and deciduous forests. Proceedings of Training workshop on critical loads calculations for air pollutants, 27 September-2 October 1999, Pushcino, Russia, pp. 100-110. Ignatova, N., S. Damyanova, K. Jorova, Е. Velizarova, R. Fikova, M. Broshtilova, Y. Yordanov, 2007. Critical loads of Nitrogen and Dynamic modeling. Bulgaria. CCE Progress Report (J. Slootweg, M. Posch, J.P.Hettelingh Eds.), RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands, p. 115-120 8 2. Yundola Site general description Experimental Watershed Study Site “Bazenishki dol” extends on an area of 321 ha and is a part of the Experimental Area (773.8 ha). The principal designation of the experimental area is conducting of long-term hydrological, ecological and forestry investigations. In fact the area of the entire Training and Experimental Forestry Enterprise is a subject of a variety of forestry studies since the establishment of the enterprise till the present. Year: 1965 Latitude/Longitude: 42o04’, 23o52’ Altitude: 1450-1650 m a.s.l. Area: 321 ha Forest: EUNIS habitat type code - G4.6 - Mixed [Abies] - Picea] - [Fagus] woodland Ecosystem characterization The Training and Experimental Forest “Yundola” is a center for long-term complex ecological, hydrological and forestry related studies in the mixed coniferous forests. The experimental watershed, the sites for two-store forest management, the permanent sample and experimental plots, the experimental plantations and provenance trials and other experimental sites are used in studies on ecology and management of mixed coniferous forest ecosystems. According to the climatic division in regions the area of the station falls entirely under the medium-mountainous part of the mountain climatic region of the transition continental sub-region of the European continental climatic region. Available data and parameters The Training and Experimental Forestry Enterprise “Yundola” and Experimental Watershed Study Site (EWSS) forests have been subject of different ecological studies. Among them are the studies on: site conditions and site classification; accumulation and decomposition of the forest litter; forest growth and development; floristic classification of the forests of TEFE; interaction between mineral fertilizers and forest ecosystems and assessment of the risk for environmental pollution as a result of nitrogen fertilizer application, and intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems. The studies of the parameters of the physical environment in the Experimental Area have been made and published immediately after its establishment (Florov and Donov, 1965). This investigation covers the 9 morphology and major water-related physical and chemical properties of the soil, as well as the main climatic parameters within the boundaries of the EA. The data from this study supplement the information about the site conditions under which mixed coniferous forests in this country emerge, grow and develop. Systematization of the available hydrological information at Yundola station was performed in a specially set up information database for almost 40 years, which contains data about the daily water quantities and precipitation, air temperature and annual sediment run-off. Beside the main purpose of the station - the study of the processes of liquid and solid run-off formation with a special emphasis on the role of forest ecosystems and the factors of coniferous forest management, many other investigations, experiments, student training and group study of all components of the forest ecosystems are carried out there. For example, studies were carried out on: the characteristics of soil and litter forest cover, the forest stands and their regeneration, the understanding of run-off chemistry and leaf mass biochemistry, fertilizing, the influence of logging technology on water supply, soil protection, growth functions of the forests, the precipitation. The results from the hydrological studies have been analysed and summarized by Kitin (1988), Rafailov & Kitin (1995) and Rafailova (2004). Some very important results and conclusions from this very important study have been made, as: the quantity and distribution of precipitation and the runoff (runoff module and coefficient) in the watersheds with southern and northern exposure component; the runoff dynamics depending on the precipitation regimes during the current year and previous years; the runoff parameters depending on the hydrographic characteristics of the partial watersheds; the water- retaining effect of soil floor. Since the beginning of 1997 intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems has been implemented on Experimental Area. The study is in the framework of the International Co-operation Program for “Assessment and monitoring of forest ecosystems” – level II (Intensive monitoring) under international methodology (ICP Manual, 1998). The study covers the meteorological parameters, air pollutants, depositions, soils, plant communities, foliar analysis, species indicators and defoliation of trees. 10 Characteristics Dimension Calculate with GIS Wateshed area Ha 780.75 Perimeter Km 17.19 Length Km 6 M 1508.4 Mean height above sea Degree 14.49 0 / Mean slope Km/km 4.48 Density of hydrographic 2 network 0 Mean slope of main water Degree 2.2 stream 0.31 Watershed symmetry Additional parameters and indicators The site is perspective for looking up the correlation of key parameters with global change. Beside the main purpose of the station - the study of the processes of liquid and solid run-off formation with a special emphasis on the role of forest ecosystems and the factors of coniferous forest management, many other investigations, experiments, student training and group study of all components of the forest ecosystems are carried out there. For example, studies were carried out on: the characteristics of soil and litter forest cover, the forest stands and their regeneration, the understanding of run-off chemistry and leaf mass biochemistry, fertilizing, the influence of logging technology on water supply, soil protection, growth functions of the forests, the precipitation chemistry in the case of air pollution, etc. 11 Map of site Responsible Institution – University of Forestry Site coordinator & reference person Dr Elena Rafailova University of Forestry bul. Kliment Ohridski 10 1756 Sofia Bulgaria Phone: +359 2 90907 (256) Fax: +359 2 862 30 68 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Facilities Experimental Watershed Study Site “Bazenishki Dol” , with Experimental station “Prof. Boyan Biolchev ”,exits for 40 years. It has laboratories and basic laboratory facilities Research projects and funding institutions The study site is financed by the University of Forestry 12 Main references Biolchev, As., P. Pimpirev, B. Kitin. 1970. Hydrological investigations at the test section of the G. St. Avramov Training Experimental Forest Enterprise, Research Works of the Bulgarian Forestry Engineering Institute, Volume 18. Gergov, G., E. Rafailova. 2003. Formation and regularity of the river flow in a forested mountain region. In Proceedings of Workshop on Mountain Hydrology. Bucharest, September 2003. Gergov, G., E Rafailova. 2004. Hydrological investigations on experimental watershed basins. In Proc. of International Symposium on Earth System Sciences 2004, Istanbul, Turkey Kitin, B. 1988. Investigations on hydrological and antierosivon role of coniferous forests. Dissertation Kitin B. E. Rafailova 2000. Precipitation and runoff in stationary investigation in forested catchments. Proceedings of scientific conference “75 years Higher Forestry Education in Bulgaria“ Sofia. pp. 347-349. Rafailov G. Kitin, B., 1995. 30 years investigations in ecological station in Yundola години Training Experimental Forest Enterprise стационарни екологични изследвания в УОГС-Юндола Proceedings of scientific conference “75 years Higher Forestry Education in Bulgaria. “Sofia. Volume III, 423-429 Rafailova E., 2004. The impact of silvicultural activities on hidrological characteristics of mixed coniferous forests. PhD Dissertation Rafailova, E. 2003. Experimental hydrological stations in Bulgaria. In Proceedings of International year of mountainous conference: Natural and Socio-economic Effects of Erosion Control in Mountain Regions. Belgrade, 2003. Rafailov, G., Rafailova, E. 2005. 40 Years of Ecological and Forestry Studies at the Experimental Area of Training and Experimental Forestry Enterprise “Yundola” In Proc. of International conference – Forest Impact on Hydrological Processes and Soil Erosion, Yundola 5-8 Oct. 2005 Rafailova, E. 2005. Impact of Forestry Activities on Hydrological Processes. In Proc. of International conference – Forest Impact on Hydrological Processes and Soil Erosion, Yundola 5-8 Oct. 2005 13 3. Srebarna Site general description Situated on the Bulgarian side of the Danube river between the 391 and the и 393 km, at 18 km from Silistra. Coordinates: N 44.06.52 E 27.04.41; UTM grid NJ 08. Altitude: 10 - 111 m. Area: 902,1 ha (reserve), 600 ha (of Ramsar place), 602 ha (Biosphere reserve). In 1942 the lake “Srebarna” was declared a protected site, in 1948 it has declared as a Natural reserve, and in 1977 it became a biosphere reserve. In 1985 Srebarna was put on UNESCO list. Ecosystem characterization “Srebarna” is a eutrophic lake. It is inhabited by many plant and animal species. Some of the bird species (Pelecanus crispus, Phalacrocorax pygmeus) are rare or endangered. The biological diversity of Srebarna is very high. There were established 1116 genera and 2748 taxa, belonging to 47 classes and 24 phyla (Michev et al. 1998). According to Corine Biotope Project there are 13 types of habitats. Available data and parameters From 1998 ecological monitoring is being carried out by CLGE in Srebarna. Different biotic and abiotic parameters are being monitored (see Table). Parameters Abiotic Biotic Space Lake level Primary production and Level of bottom destruction Mineral content Phytoplancton Thickness of sapropel Concentration of biogenic Микроорганизми Habtats elements Dissolved oxigen Zooplancton pH Zoobenthos Heavy metals Phytocoenoses – seasonal dynamics Chlororganic pesticides Assimilation pigments – chlorophyll A Oil products Fish Transperancy Birds Water temperature Expected additional parameters and indicators This is a site which can be a hot spot for socio-ecological studies 14 in the context of the LTSER platform of LTER-EUROPE Map of site 15 River Danube Village Srebarna Reserve “Srebarna” Responsible Institution – Central Laboratory of General Ecology - BAS Site coordinator & reference person Assoc. Prof. Dr. Luchezar Pehlivanov CLGE-BAS, 1113 Sofia, 2, Yuri Gagarin str. Phone: +359 2 8717195 Fax: + 359 2 8705498 E-mail: email@example.com 16 Facilities CLGE has a research laboratory with only basic field equipment and a living house. Research projects and funding institutions • Caracterization of the ichthyofauna in different types of water bodies as indicator for the state of hydroecosystems – BAS • Identifying important herpetological areas with European significance in Bulgaria – BAS • Ecology and migration of Pelicanus crispus Bruch in Bulgaria – BAS • Interrelationship models of neighbouring lotic and lentic ecosystems in the processe of recovery and development of aquatic communities in wetlands of the Lower Danube terrace, NSF- B1307 • Biotopic distribution and communities of terrestrial small mammals in the region of the Srebarna Biosphere Reserve – NSF- B1316 • Complex ecological monitoring of the Srebarna Biosphere Reserve since 2001– MOEW 2854 • Structure, distribution and dynamic of the zooplankton in the Srebarna Biosphere Reserve – (with Ukraine) – Bilateral project MES • Mapping of reed islets around the breeding place of Pelicanus crispus Bruch in the Srebarna Biosphere Reserve with purpose of establishing a new places for nesting – MOEWBioWetMan: A science based approach to understand biodiversity driven functions and services for improving wetland management – Austrian Science Organization Main references Ivanova, I., R. Nedkov, T. Michev, N. Kambourova. 2007. Study of the dynamics of the floating islands in the Sreburna biosphere reserve territory using aerospace, GPS and ground-based data. – Ecological engineering and environment protection, 3-4: 19-28. (In Bulgarian with English abstract). Kalchev R., Vasilev V., Hiebaum G., Tsavkova V., Pehlivanov L. (2007) Recovery of the Srebarna Lake - experience and perspectives. Journal Balkan Ecology, 10, 117-130 Kovachev, S. et al., 1993. Hydrobiological investigations of the Reserve “Srebarna”. In: Waterengineering LTD. Sofia, Project “Reconstruction of the biosphere reseve “Srebarna”. Phase I., Sofia, october 1993, 45-47 (in Bulg.). Kambourova, N. 2004. Breeding Ornithofauna of Srebarna Managed Reserve – Spatial Distribution and Long-Term Changes. Ph-D thesis, Central Laboratory of General Ecology – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 275 pp. Kambourova, N. 2005. The Current State of Colonial Waterbirds in Srebarna Managed Reserve. – Annuals of Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Department of Biology, Book 4 – X Science Session, Sofia 2003, Part II, Tome 96: 313 – 320. Kambourova, N., T. Michev. 2005. Biological Mapping of Small-sized Natural Territories. - Annuals of Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Department of Biology, Book 4 – X Science Session, Sofia 2003, Part II, Tome 96: 463 – 469. Kambourova, N. 2005. Habitat Distribution of Breeding Bird Species from Order Passeriformes in the Vicinity of Srebarna Managed Reserve. In: Chipev, N., V. Bogoev (managing editors). 2005. First National Scientific Conference of Ecology “Biodiversity, Ecosystems and Global Changes”, Sofia 4-5 November 2004, 193 – 202 (In Bulgarian). Kambourova, N. (2005). The recent status of breeding bird communities of Srebarna Managed Reserve, North-East Bulgaria. – Acrocephalus 26 (125): 81 – 97. Nikolov, S., Spasov, S., Kambourova, N. 2006. Density, number and habitat use of Common Buzzard, Buteo buteo wintering in the lowlands of Bulgaria. – Buteo 17 15: 39-47. Kovachev, S., 1994. Content and goals of the programme for monitoring activities in the Srebarna Biosphere reserve. In: Proceedings ‘Sustainable use of the land and management of water resources in the watershed of the Srebarna Biosphere Reserve’, Silistra, October 1994, Ministry of environment, 196-200 (in Bulg.). Kovatchev, S. G. & Uzunov, Y. I. 1986. Formation of macroinvertebrate communities in the course of the biological selfpurification of the Mesta River. - Arch. Hydrobiol., 4: 427-526. Michev T. and Stoyneva M. (eds). (2007) Inventory of Bulgarian wetlands and their biodiversity. Sofia: Publishing House Elsi-M, 364 p., Michev, T., M. Stoyneva, V. Velev, N. Michov, 1993. Complex ecological investigations of the Srebarna Biosphere Reserve in the conditions of contemporary anthropogenic impact. Project of contract 220/1992 with Ministry of Education and Science of Bulgaria. Scientific report for the first phase of the project (november 1992 - october 1993), Sofia, 27 pp. (in Bulg.). Naidenow, W., 1965. Contribution to the study of the copepod and branchiopod fauna of the water basins adjacent to the Danube. Izvestiya na Zoologicheskiya Institut s Muzey 19: 203-232 (in Bulg., Germ. summ.). Pehlivanov, L., G. Atanasov, 2007. Silurus aristotelis (Pisces: Siluridae) a New Species in the Bulgarian Ichthyofauna. - Acta zool. bulg., 59 (2), 211-213. Pehlivanov, L., V. Tzavkova, V. Vasilev. 2006. Development of the zooplankton community in the Srebarna Lake (North-Eastern Bulgaria) along the process of ecosystem rehabilitation. - In: Proceedings 36th International Conference of IAD. Austrian Committee DanubeResearch / IAD, Vienna. ISBN 13: 978-3-9500723-2-7, 280-284 p. Pehlivanov, L., V. Vasilev, M. Vassilev. 2005. Changes of the ichthyofauna in the Srebarna Lake for the last 60 years – In: (Chipev et al., eds.) Proceedings of the First National Scientific Conference of Ecology (Sofia, November 4-5, 2004), Petexton, София: 265-270 (In Bulgarian with Engl. Abstract). Pehlivanov, L., V. Tzavkova, W. Naidenov. 2004. The Metazoan plankton of the Biosphere Reserve Srebarna Lake (North-Eastern Bulgaria). Lauterbornia, 49: 99-105. Sichanov D., V. Popov, V. Biserkov, S. Zidarova, N. Chipev. 2006. Spatial pattern and diversity of small mammal assemblages in the area of Srebarna Managed Nature Reserve (NE Bulgaria). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 58, 209-222. Sichanov, D., N. Chipev, V. Biserkov. 2004. Spatial distribution of terrestrial small mammals in the region of Srebarna reserve. Годишник на Софийския университет. Биологически факултет. Т. 96: 411-421. Stoyneva, M. P., 1996. Long-term studies of the phytoplankton assemblages of the shallow Srebarna Lake (North-Eastern Bulgaria). Program and Abstracts "10th Workshop International Association of Phytoplankton Taxonomy and Ecology", June 21-29, 1996, Granada (Spain), p. 52. Vassilev, M., L. Pehlivanov, 2003. Structural Changes of Sturgeon Catches in the Bulgarian Danube Section. -Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 55 (3): 97 - 102. Vassilev, M., L. Pehlivanov. 2005. Checklist of the Bulgarian freshwater fishes. – Acta zool. Bulg., 57 (2): 161-190. Vasilev V., V. Tzavkova, G. Hiebaum, R. Kalchev. Srebarna Lake plankton primary production and factors influencing its seasonal and annual variations. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. (in press) Velev, V., 1997. Changes of the dynamics of main phytocoenoses of the higher vegetation in the Srebarna Biosphere Reserve. In: Proceedings, International Symposium ‘Ekologiya 97’, Bourgas, pp. 224-226 (in Bulg.). Velkov, B., L. Pehlivanov, M. Vassilev, 2004. Umbra krameri Walbaum (Pisces, Umbridae) – a reinstated species in the Bulgarian ichthyofauna. – Acta Zool. Bulg. 56 (2): 233-235. 18 4. Black sea - Macrosite Site general description 04.1. Kaliakra Kaliakra marine area is influenced of eutrophication, caused mainly by the Danube river inflow. The local anthropogenic impact in the region is insignificant due to the minor population, a lack of well developed industry and large ports along the adjustment territory. It is a nature reserve. KALIAKRA reserve Designated in 1941 Total area covers 687,50 ha It is an unique reserve for Bulgaria covered marine area (about 4 km2) The Kaliakra rocks were habitats for already vanished species Monk seal. Restricted activities: constructions, pollution, disturbing, hunting on and fishing, catching, killing wild animals, damaging their nests and dens, collecting of wild plants, and other various activities which violate the nature originality. 04.2. Galata Cape Galata site is under the indirect impact of Varna Bay current and the system Beloslav lake-Varna lake. It is an example of a cascade, introducing nutrients and pollutants of industrial (chemical industry), Thermo-electric power station, agricultural and sewage origin and nearby ports. According to pelagic elements, Galata, Kaliakra sites are determined as of moderate trophic level, higher diversity indices and are defined as of fair water quality indices (Moncheva et al., 2001). 04.3. Varna Bay • Due to its geographical characteristics, shoaled bottom, unlimited water exchange with the sea and a connection with Varna Lake, the bay is characterised by specific hydrological and hydrophysical regimes reflecting on the biota and biodiversity • Since the end of 1970s the bay ecosystem has suffered due to eutrophication, oxygen deficiencies, outburst of the accidentally introduced species, provoking severe alterations in marine communities (Konsulov, 1991-a; Moncheva, 1991; Moncheva et al., 2001; Shtereva et al., 2000; Kamburska & Stefanova, 2002) 1.4. Koketrays Sand bank 19 Benthic macrofauna is characterized with high diversity compared to nearby habitats of Burgas Bay silty mud. Numerous endangered species included in the Black Sea Red Book are presented there. This area is an important region for spawning of some bottom fishes. Existence protection certain types nature habitats according to EC Habitats Directive. (1110 Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the time) The sand bank is designated as protected area in 2001 The area covers 760 ha Restricted activities: exploitation of the sand and biological resources, bottom trawling and dragging, oil pollution. Since 1990 regular investigations and monitoring have been carried out. Ecosystem characterization The sites were chosen on the base of historical data availability and eutrophication/pollution impact c. Kaliakra - Kaliakra marine area is influenced of eutrophication, caused mainly by the Danube river inflow. The local anthropogenic impact in the region is insignificant . According to the biological elements the ecosystem is determined c. Galata –the site is under the indirect impact of Varna Bay current and the system Beloslav lake-Varna lake - an example of a cascade, introducing nutrients and pollutants of industrial (chemical industry), Thermo-electric power station, agricultural and sewage origin and nearby ports. According to pelagic elements, Galata, Kaliakra sites are determined as of moderate trophic level, higher diversity indices and are defined as of fair water quality indices (Moncheva et al., 2001). Varna Bay - Since the end of 1970s the bay ecosystem has suffered due to eutrophication, oxygen deficiencies, outburst of the accidentally introduced species, provoking severe alterations in marine communities. Varna Bay is scaled in poor water quality category, highly eutrophicated (Moncheva et al., 2001). Koketrays Sand bank – an unique benthic habitat. Benthic macrofauna is characterized with high species diversity compared to nearby habitats of Burgas Bay silty mud. Numerous endangered species included in the Black Sea Red Book are presented there. This area is an important region for spawning of some bottom fishes. 20 Available data and parameters Systematic investigations of the Black Sea ecosystem in front of Bulgarian coast Hydrophysical Temperature Salinity Hydrochemical Oxygen Nutrients Hydrobiological Chlorophyll а Phytoplankton Macrophytobenthos Zooplankton Macrozoobentos Phyt oplankton monitoring: biodiversity, taxonomic structure, successions, ecology of mass species, blooms, Chlorophyll, ecological indicators for assessment of marine ecosystem, invasive species, biogeochemical investigations, biological referent conditions and class-boundary values sensu Water Directive.; Zooplankton monitoring: taxonomic structure, plankton community distribution and dynamic, potential ecological indicator for evaluation of pelagic communities, spatial and temporal distribution of alien ctenophore species M.leidyi and B.ovata, trophic relations between mesozooplankton/M.leidyi and M.leidyi/B.ovata respectively, seasonal and annual zooplankton dynamic along the Bulgarian coast, referent values. Macrozoobenthos monitoring: biodiversity, macrozoobentic structure and dynamic, macrofauna biocenotic regularities and differentiation of Bulgarian shelf soft sediments, categorization of ecological statement and quality of marine environment applying a complex of zoobenthic indicators. Macrophytobenthos monitoring: gradients in the eutrophication stages by means of macrophytobenthos communities and trends in their development and distribution in front of Bulgarian coast in a long-term aspect. The years after 2000 mark a new phase in the phytoplankton assembly featured by a decrease in the total biomass (chlorophyll a) on the account of a striking increase of small-size species. Coastal zone has demonstrated a general decreasing trend in annual (particularly in summer) mesozooplankton abundance since the end 1980s. Changes in species composition over this period have also been 21 observed with prevalence of small-size taxa similar to the phytoplankton community changes. Key groups regime shifts Clear shift in the abundance range as a response to mutual impact of eutrophication, overfishing, introduction of non-indigenous species and climatic changes. Ecological state assessment of coastal waters is made according to benthic invertebrate fauna indicators. The potential sites for inclusion in the national network for long-term ecosystem research are included in the assessment scheme. Map of site Responsible Institution – Institute of Oceanology - BAS Site coordinator & reference person Dr Kremena Stefanova 22 Institute of oceanology – BAS Varna Phone: Fax: e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Facilities Marine biology and ecology laboratory in Institute of Oceanology; IO- BAS has all laboratories with facilities and Chemical and Biological laboratories on board of R/V Akademik - Research ship with laboratory Equipment – field survey • Scientific echosounder: SIMRAD EK 200; • Meteo system: MARCONI MARINE 1xDS 100; • CTD system - SBE 11plus, SBE32 carousel 12 bottles, 5 liter, with in situ Fluorimeter – Minitracka • Research submersible PC –8 • Side scan sonar system: Model Klein 530 • Subbotom profiler: Model Klein 530 • Echo sounder LAZ 721 with digitizer STG721C • Underwater camera ROV • Filtration system - Millipore, Vacuum pressure Pump – Millipore; • Plankton nets – Phytoplankton net (20 μm mesh size); Juday zooplankton closing nets (150 and 200 μm), Hensen-Egg Net (300 μm), Nansen closing net (200 μm) • Van Veen grabs (0.1 m-2), set of sieves, washing table • Scuba diving equipment Equipment - marine biological laboratory • Inverted Microscope Nikon Eclipse TE2000-U, image analysis LUCIA • Trinocular Microscope OLYMPUS BX41TF with digital camera and reflected fluorescence system, image analysis • Binocular light microscopes OLYMPUS SZ30; OLYMPUS SZ51 Trinocular microscope HUND Wetzlar SM31 Research projects and funding institutions The investigations were carried out with national funding program, NATO, bilaterial projects, 4, 5, 6 FP ЕС, Програми INTERREG и SCOPE, GEF/UNDP Black Sea Ecosystem Recovery Project, and also the municipality of Varna • EC PHARE – Integral monitoring of Bulgarian Black sea costal zone Durankulak-Rezovo • ARCАDIS Euroconsult – EVD Project “Support for BSBD for implementation of the Water Framework Directive, Bulgaria – Sediment composition, Phytoplankton, Chlorophyll “a”, Macrozoobenthos” - EVD Project/ ARCADIS Euroconsult • Support to the Black Sea Basin Directorate for implementation of the Water Framework Directive, Bulgaria – Macrophytе study - EVD Project/ ARCADIS Euroconsult • SESAME Integrated Project Southern European Seas: Assessing and modeling Ecosystem changes - 6 FP, EC • MPAs The development of an indicative ecologically coherent network of sub-tidal Marine Protected Areas in Bulgaria and Romania – EUCC • PLANCOAST Integrated Maritime Spatial Planning (Baltic, Adriatic and the Black Sea) - INTERREG III, CADSES 23 • TWReferenceNET Management and sustainable development of protected transitional waters - INTERREG III, B CADSES • THRESHOLDS Thresholds of Environmental Sustainability - 6 FP, EC • BLACK SEA SCENE Black Sea Scientific Network - 6 FP, EC • ECOLAS – Evaluation of the impact from land-based activities on the marine & coastal environment, ecosystems & biodiversity in Bulgaria Main references BSC, 2008. State of the Environment of the Black Sea (2001-2006/7). Edited by Temel Oguz. Publications of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (BSC) 2008-3, Istanbul, Turkey, 448 pp. Kamburska L., T. Shiganova, K. Stefanova, S. Moncheva, M. Dowell 2006. Interannual variations in the summer distribution of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz in the Black Sea, Proceedings of the Workshop on “Understanding and modelling the Black Sea ecosystem in support of marine conventions and environmental policies”, A. K. Stips, W. Schrimpf [Eds.], EUR 22176 EN, 8-14. Konsulova, Ts., V. Tasev, V. Todorova, A. Konsulov. 2003, “The Effect of Bottom Trawling on mussel beds along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast.” Proc. Second Int. Conf. “Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea: Similarities and Differences of Two Interconnected Basins”, Tubitak Publ., (Ed. A. Yilmaz), pp. 888-896. Moncheva S., O. Gotsis-Skretas, K. Pagou, A. Krastev, 2001. Phytoplankton Blooms in Black Sea and Mediterranean Coastal Ecosystems subjected to Anthropogenic Eutrophication: similarities and differences. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (2001) 53, 281-295. Moncheva S., V. Doncheva, and L.Kamburska, 2001. On the long-term response of harmful algal blooms to the evolution of eutrophication off the Bulgarian Black Sea coast: are the recent changes a sign of recovery of the ecosystem - the uncertainties. In: Proceedings of IX International conference on “Harmful Algal Blooms”, Hobart, Tasmania; G.M.Hallegraff et al., Eds. (UNESCO-IOC, Paris, 2001), pp. 177-182. Moncheva S., Dontcheva V., Shtereva G., Kamburska L., Malej A., Gorinstein S., 2001. Application of eutrophication indices for assessment of the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal ecosystem ecological quality. III Black Sea Int. Conf. Environmental Protection technologies for coastal areas, Varna, Bulgaria, Book of Proceedings, 71-82 Moncheva S., Sh. Gorinstein, G. Shtereva, E. Katrich, F. Toledo, P. Arancibia, I. Goshev and S. Trakhtenberg, 2003. Seasonal variability of phytoplankton in Varna Bay. Phytochemical Analysis, 14, 245-250. Moncheva I., S. Moncheva, N. Slabakova, V. Alexandrova, V. Doncheva, 2008. Tourism Industry Impacts on the Black Sea Ecosystem along the Bulgarian Coast -“The Good, The Bad and The Ugly”, In: Proceeding of 1st Biannual Scientific Conference “Black Sea Ecosystem 2005 and Beyond”, 8-10 May 2006, Istanbul, Turkey, 1022-1036. Prodanov K., S. Moncheva, A. Konsulov, L. Kamburska, Ts. Konsulova, K. Dencheva. 2001. Recent ecosystem trends along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Proceedings of Institute of Oceanology, IO-BAS, v.3, 110-127. Stefanova K., V. Todorova, L. Kamburska, K. Dencheva, 2005 – “The Black Sea ecosystem in front of Bulgarian coast – research review and contemporary state”. Petrova A. (Ed.) “Recent state of biodiversity in Bulgaria – problems and perspectives”, 447-468, Bulgarian Bioplatform, Sofia (in Bulgarian). Todorova V., Konsulova Ts., 2003. Community pattern and differentiation of soft 24 sediments macrofauna of the Bulgarian Black Sea shelf. Acta zoologica bulgarica, 55 (3), 81-96. Todorova V., Konsulova Ts., 2008. Ecological State Assessment of Zoobenthic Communities on the North-Western Black Sea Shelf – the Performance of Multivariate 25 5. Sozopol BAY Site general description The Sozopol Bay is situated South of Burgas, SW Black Sea coast The total bay surface and volume are approximately 6,53 x 106 m2 and 53,39 x 106 m3, respectively as calculated via Surfer™ software. The area is extensively used for recreation purposes during summertime. Ecosystem characterization Due to the anthropogenic eutrophication caused mainly by the rivers from the vast catchment area (the Danube, Dnieper, Dniester, Don etc.) discharging into the sea, the PP and the Chl A have changed both qualitatively and quantitatively its main features (Bologa et al,1999; Yilmaz et al, 1998). As the Black Sea belongs to the moderate climatic zone, its phytoplankton' primary production has the two typical maximums for such water bodies (Bologa, 1986). The PP first maximum is in the transition period from winter to spring. The second maximum in the phytoplankton' PP is in autumn, from September to October. Available data and parameters The changes the coastal ecosystem were studied under a long-term monitoring program. Studies were focused on basic biological processes determining the state of the plankton community as well as on basic physical and chemical parameters of the environment. Rates of Primary production (Pp) were measered according to Steeman-Nielsen (1952) as later modified by Dybern et al. (1976), Chlorofyll A concentrations (Chl A) were measured according Parsons and Strickland (1968), Nutrients concentration (ug-At.l-1 - NO-3, NO-2, NH+4, PO-34), were measured according the standard methods published in Ausgevelte metoden…(1979), transparency - Secchi disk, Biological Oxigen Demand (BOD) and Heterotrophic activity (V%), expressed as percentage of 14C glucose uptake per hour (Wright and Hobbie, 1966). Sestone content was measured using pre-weighted glass fiber filters Whatman GF/C after Parsons and Strickland (1968). Structure of the phytoplankton community was studied at monthly bases by describing the abundance and diversity of the dominant phytoplankton species. Expected additional parameters and indicators The site is perspective for looking for effects of global change. 26 Map of site S sampling stations Sozopol Responsible Institution – Central Laboratory of General Ecology - BAS Site coordinator & reference person Dr Ventzislav Karamfilov 27 1113 Sofia 2, Gagarin Str. Central Laboratory of General Ecology (CLGE) Phone: +359 2 8722154 Fax: +359 2 8719558 E-mail: email@example.com Facilities The Central Laboratory of General Ecology has a field research station with labs and basic equipment for field work. Research projects and funding institutions • Functional monitoring of the biological processes in the Black Sea costal Zone – MOEW – since 1985 • Еcological status of marine ecosystems along the Bulgarian Black sea coast and relation to the structure and state of communities of macroalgae and seagrasses (g. Cystoseirа and g.Zostera). 2009-2011 -NSF • Natura 2000 marine sites exploration and mapping: distribution and mapping of protected Natura 2000 habitats in the coastal Black Sea area. 2004-2008 - MOEW • Determination of reference sites and inter-calibration sites for all types of identified water bodies, selection of appropriate biological criteria for ecological classification and pilot analyses using selected biological parameters in accordance with the requirements of the WFD 2000/60/EC. 2005 • Development of a method for determining the acceptable nutrient load in the marine coastal zone. 2000 – 2001 EC • Function and structure of the coastal marine ecosystems (Function and biodiversity changes under anthropogenic impact) – The Coastal Ecosystems of the Western part of the Black Sea -1979 - 1987 Main references Hiebaum, G. and V. Karamfilov. 1992. Heterotrophic uptake of dissolved organic matter during a bloom of the peridinea Exuviaella Cordata. The Sci. Tot. Environ, Suppl. 973- 978. Elsevier. Hiebaum, V.Vasilev, (2005). Bulgarian Wetland Restoration and Pollution Reduction Project. Prognoses on habitat Diversity and the Nutrient Reduction in the Wetlands of Belene and Kalimok. In ed. N. Chipev and V. Bogoev “Proceedings of the I National Conference of Ecology – Biodiversity-Ecosystems-Global Change”, 271-278 Hiebaum G., V. Karamfilov, (2005). Regime shifts in the annual dynamics of the primary production and of the chlorophyll a concentration in the costal zone of the Burgas bay – the Western Black Sea, Workshop: Large-scale disturbances (regime shifts) and recovery in aquatic ecosystems: challenges for management towards sustainability, 13-17 June 2005, Varna, Bulgaria. 143-158 Kalchev R., Vasiliev V., Hiebaum G., Tzavkova V. and Pehlivanov L. (2007) Recovery of the Srebarna Lake - experience and perspectives. Journal of Balkan Ecology 10, 117-130. Todorova, N., V. Iotsova, V. Karamfilov, G. Hiebaum. 2008. Effect of chronic oil pollution on the ARDRA patterns of bacterial communities inhabiting coastal marine sediments. Comptes rendus de l`Académie bulgare des Sciences, 61, 3, 28 357-362. Todorova, N., I. Ivanov, A. Hristov, V. Karamfilov. 2005. Application of ARDREA analysis for early warning of the effects of oil pollution in coastal marine ecosystems. Research into a laboratory model “microcosm”. Ecological Engineering and Environmental Protection. 3-4: 69-75. Karamfilov V., G. Hiebaum, R. Mavrodieva. 2005. Impact of municipal waste water discharge on the biological processes in a semi-closed bay. Black Sea Joint JRC- TAIEX-Sofia University Workshop, Varna. 23-34. Karamfilov V., G. Hiebaum. V. Vassilev. (in press). Pontic [Zostera marina] and [Zostera noltii] meadows. Red Data Book of habitats in Bulgaria. Mavradieva, R., S. Moncheva, G. Hiebaum, V. Doncheva, E. Racheva, (2005). Cotemporary trends in the dynamics of the qualitative composition of phytoplankton, the Clorophyll A and the Primary production in the Sozopol Bay – ecological aspects. In ed. N. Chipev and V. Bogoev “Proceedings of the I National Conference of Ecology – Biodiversity-Ecosystems-Global Change”, 287-294 Petrova-Karadjova V. 1990. Monitoring of the blooms along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast.Rapp. Comm. Int. mer Medit., 31, 1, 209. Stanev, E. V., 1996. The vulnerable ecological system of the Black Sea. In: First Interparliamentary Conference of the Environmental Protection of the Black Sea, Istanbul, 10-2 July 1996, 16 pp. V.Vasilev, V. Karamfilov, K. Dencheva and G.Hiebaum, (2005) Distribution of the macrophytes in the benthos of area: Sozopol – C. Maslen Nos. Pilot investigation in the framework of the program “Nature 2000 in Bulgaria”. In ed. N. Chipev and V. Bogoev “Proceedings of the I National Conference of Ecology – Biodiversity-Ecosystems-Global Change”, 295-302 Vasilev V., V. Karamfilov, K. Dencheva, G.Hiebaum, (2005) Distribution of benthos macroalgae and their communities in the area of Sozopol and k. Maslen Nos. Pilot investigation in Natura 2000 framework. Proceeding of I National Ecology Conference “Biodiversity, Ecosystems and Global Change”, Sofia, 295-302 Vasilev V., V. Karamfilov, G.Hiebaum, Cystoseira spp on exposed infralittoral bedrock and boulders. Bulgarian Red Book of Habitats. (in press) 29 6. Mesta River Site general description At the Bulgarian territory Mesta River is mountain stream with average altitude of the catchments area 1318 m what define it as a highest river valley in Bulgaria. Mesta catchments basin is situated in the zone of the European-continental climatic influence and snow-rainy. feeding. Bulgarian part of the Mesta River has 126 km length with catchments area surface 2 267 km2 and 25 tributaries along the river. The biggest one is Dospat that flows into Mesta in the Greece territory. Ecosystem characterization Mesta River system is in full studied in terms of hydrobiological point of view during the last 30 years. The system offers a possibility of the ecological situation variety and river types as well as developed river system and indicative basic continuum gradients. The water ecosystem is subjected to organic pollution determining saprobic processes in relatively pure form and wide range of the saprobity. Conditionally two main periods, determining ecological situation in the Mesta River, were described: before 1990 г., when heavy organic pollution conditions dominated, and after 1990 г. – when processes of recovering and stabilization were observed. Essential changes of the species diversity occurred after 1990 leading toward species composition enrichment with new taxa and loss of others non-adequate in the new ecological situation. Ecological state assessment using saprobiological indices during the different periods of investigation are found in the publications of Ковачев (1977), Kovachev & Uzunov (1986), Rusev & Yaneva (1994). Long-term trends in the saprobiological state alteration and ecological status assessment of the Glasna-Iztok- Mesta River system during the period 1978-2000 г were studied from Varadinova & Uzunov (2002). As a result of decreased loading with organic matter from industrial origin water quality of the different sites is improving and entire ecological situation of the Mesta River is getting better. This process is pronounced especially during the last studied 2005 -2006 г, (unpublished data). Available data and parameters According to Water Frame Directive (2000/60/ЕU) (European Parliament and the Council of European Union 2000), all countries members of the EU have to achieve good ecological state of the water bodies. Along these lines biological monitoring is a leading and among 30 obligatory biological parameters for water body’s quality assessment are macrozoobenthos, ichthyofauna and phytobenthos (diatoms) As regards to macrozoobenthos a considerable data-massif including long-term period (1978-2000) is composed and could assist present study. It should be pointed out that the available hydrological and hydrochemical parameters include 30 years period. The last three decade investigations are connected mainly with detail studies on the species diversity of the macrozoobenthos. (Kovachev & Uzunov, 1986; Uzunov et al. (in print)). Investigations of the river ecosystem functioning and trophic structure of the macroinvertebrate communities have been carried out for the first time (Varadinova et al., 2006). A new trophic index was elaborated and proposed (Varadinova et al., 2007). In total 36 parameters (including hydrobiological, hydrochemical and hydrological) for ecological state assessment of the river ecosystem during the whole period of investigation. Data analysis of distribution of the species composition and functional feeding group of the macrozoobenthos communities during the period 1978-2000 shows that macrozoobenthos species and trophic structure in the Mesta River valley could be informative of the biotic response degree of dominating ecological situation. Regard to species structure this changes are manifested as consecutive alterations in the species composition and could be defined as a “regime-shift” – rapid ecosystem reorganization as a result of the ecological state improvement and stabilization in the studied river system (Uzunov et al., 2005). Formation of the spatial-temporal model of the macroinvertebrate communities is submitted to anthropogenic as well as natural environmental factors.The last ones could be a result of the local processes and phenomena but could be connected with global changes such as global warming Clenaghan & Hernan (1998). Shifts in species diversity were detected even at sites like the tributary of Glazna, placed in the Pirin Mountain National Park. By default, this site is free of any human impacts and it was officially recognized as a referent site in terms of normative definitions of the Annex V, Framework Water Directive 2000/60/EC. The last period of study is quite different to the previous ones in term of species content of bottom invertebrate communities. A possible reason for this kind of shift in species diversity at investigated referent site could be gradual decrease in water discharge detected at this site for the last two decades. These changes were defined as an ecosystem transition from one to the other relatively stable state. Trophic structure changes run in two directions: gradually replacement of the dominating species within the frame of one functional group and redistribution of abundance and percentage share of the functional groups in trophic structure composition. (Varadinova et all. , 2007). Considerably fewer are the published data on the ichthyofauna of Mesta River, which to date has not been an object of regular and long- term investigation. Most of the available information is fragmentary or 31 concerns solely particular species (Kovatchev, 1922; Morov, 1931; Shishkoff, 1939; Drenski, 1951). More for the species composition of the Mesta River ichthyofauna could be found in the works of Shishkoff (1939) and Michajlova (1970). Summarizing the existing data for the ichthyofauna of the Bulgaria part of Mesta River (incl. Dospat dam), Apostolou (2005) reported 28 fish species and discussed their origin and the ecological status of the ichthyofauna. Quantitative data on the ichthyofauna in Mesta river basin are scarce. Only Yankov (1978) gave some information for the number and the biomass of the trout Salmo trutta fario in the upstream of Mesta River and its tributaries. During 2005 – 2007 for the assessment of the ecological status of Mesta River in relation to several scientific projects, regular studies of the ichthyofauna and the population parameters of the indicator fish species at 9 sites along the Bulgarian part of Mesta River and several of its tributaries have been made. These studies are preliminary with the use of the above mentioned ichthyological parameters. In future the proposed system of ichthyological indicators should be elaborated and improved in order to be adapted and included in the system of biological elements for water quality assessment in accordance with WFD 2000/60/EU. The diatom taxonomic composition in Bulgarian rivers is poorly known. Floristically, Mesta River is the best studied river in Bulgaria. Passy-Tolar & Lowe (1994, 1995) and Passy-Tolar et al. (1999) were the first, who studied its benthic diatom flora. They reported 328 diatom taxa and described a new species. During the last decade, the diatom flora of Mesta River has been extensively investigated (Ivanov et al., 2006). More than 200 diatom taxa have been found only in the epilithon of the river, many of them are new records either for river Mesta and Bulgaria. Other new to science species was described (Ivanov & Ector, 2006). Compared to the 90ies of the last century, changes in the diatom communities’ composition as well as in the environment have been observed. The ecological and trophic statuses of Mesta River were assessed using the diatom-based indices IBD (Indice Biologique Diatomees) and TDI (Trophic Diatom Index) (Ivanov, unpublished data). For monitoring water quality epilithic diatoms are usually used, for a number of reasons: boulders and cobbles are widely available substrata throughout the length of a river, they are easy to sample and the performance of major diatom-based indices - IBD, TDI, IPS – Indice de Pollusensibilité Spécifique (Cemagref, 1982; Kelly & Whitton, 1995) on this substrata is well understood (Kelly et al., 1998). Expected additional parameters and indicators According to the European legislation and Regulation No 5/23.04.2007 for water monitoring (Official Gazette, No. 44/05.06.2007), the ecological status of running water is assessed following biological as well as physical, chemical and hydromorphological elements for water quality, which will be additionally measured. Other elements, such as flow speed, depth of 32 the water column, conductivity, phosphate concentration, etc., are going to be included. For complex evaluation of the processes of the river ecosystem functioning and management it follows that studied sites are situated lengthwise of the river continuum In this connection, analysis of the riverside vegetation influence (degree of cover) аlong the studied river is planed. New actual investigations of the macroinvertebrate trophic structure, fish population parameters as well as phytobenthic communities are necessary. Also multilateral relations and interactions between biotic and abiotic components of the model ecosystem have to be bringing out with a view to processes prognostication in the course of river ecosystem management. Map of site 33 Responsible Institution – Central Laboratory of General Ecology - BAS Site coordinator & reference person Dr Emilia Varadinova CLGE-BAS, 1113 Sofia, 2, Yuri Gagarin str. Phone: +359 2 8717195 Fax: + 359 2 8705498 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Facilities This site has not field research infrastructure. 34 Research projects and funding institutions: New Education and Decision Support Model for Active Behavior in Sustainable Development Based on Innovative Web Services and Qualitative Reasoning) NaturNet- REDIME (Contract GOCE-CT-2003-004074, EC 6th FP RTD) Practicability of the invertebrate community structures and fish populations parameters for ecological classification of rivers (project B-1403/MES/NSF) Development of Methods for Assessment of Minimum Water Flow Protecting the Biodiversity and Ecological Quality of the Running Waters in the Republic of Bulgaria (Project No 787-2239/1999/MOEW) Setting up the system of biological monitoring of surface water bodies in compliance with the Framework Water Directive 2000/60/EC (Project No 563/2004/MOEW/EEA) Reference & Intercallibration sites selection and Biological parameters selection relevant to the Framework Water Directive 2000/60/EC (Project No 508/2004/MOEW) Main references Apostolos, A. 2005. The Ichthyofauna from the Bulgarian Sector of the Mesta River. – Acta zoologica bulgarica, 57(2): 191-196. BREDEWEG, B., P. SALLES, A. BOUWER, J. LIEM, T. NUTTLE, , E. CIOACA , E. NAKOVA, R. NOBLE, A.L.R. CALDAS, Y. UZUNOV, E. VARADINOVA, A. ZITEK. 2008. Towards a structured approach to building qualitative reasoning models and simulations; Ecological Informatics, 1, 3:1-12. Ivanov, P. & Ector, L. 2006. Achnanthidium temniskovae sp. nov., a new diatom from the Mesta River, Bulgaria. – In: Ognjanova-Rumenova, N. & Manoylov, K. (eds), Advances in phycological studies. Festschrift in honour of Prof. Dobrina- Temniskova-Topalova, pp. 147-154. Pensoft Publishers, St. Kliment Ohridski University Press, Sofia-Moscow. Passy-Tolar, S. & Lowe, R. 1994. Taxonomy and ultrastructure of Gomphoneis mesta sp. nov. (Bacillariophyta), a new epilithic diatom from the Mesta river, Bulgaria. – J. Phycol., 30: 885-891. Passy-Tolar, S. & Lowe, R. 1995. Gomphoneis mesta (Bacillariophyta). II. Morphology of the initial frustules and perizonium ultrastructure with some inferences about diatom evolution. – J. Phycol., 31: 447-456. Passy-Tolar, S., Pan, Y. & Lowe, R. 1999. Ecology of the major periphytic diatom communities from river Mesta, Bularia. – Int. Rev. Hydrobiol., 84(2): 129-174. Rusev, B. & Janeva, I. 1994. Hydrobiological and saprobiological characteristic. – In: Mihailov, G. (ed.), Current status of the antropogeni impacts on the Bulgarian Part of the Mesta River. Final report, MOE/PHARE, Sofia, 125p. SOUFI, R., E. VARADINOVA, Y. UZUNOV. 2005. Relation of the Bulgarian Biotic Index to the standardized Indeces for Water quality assessment of the river Mesta (SW Bulgaria). - Comp. rend. Acad. bulg. Sci. 57, 8: 83-86 SOUFI, R., E. VARADINOVA, Y. UZUNOV. 2006. Relation of the Bulgarian Biotic Index to the standardized indices for water quality assessment in Bulgaria and some biotic indices used in EC countries: investigation for the Struma river (South- Western Bulgaria). - Acta Zool. Bulg., 58, 2:265-273 NUTTLE, T., P. SALLES, Y. UZUNOV, E. VARADINOVA, E. NAKOVA, E. CIOACA, S. COVALIOV, R. NOBLE, A. ZITEK, M. NEUMANN, A. BOUWER, J. LIEM, A.L.R. CALDAS ,. 2006. Navigating a Landscape of Sustainability Concepts: Towards Progressive Learning Routes within and among Qualitative Reasoning Models. – In: Tochtermann, K. and Scharl, A. (eds.) Proc. 20th Int. Conf. Informatics for Environm. Prot. (EnviroInfo 2006), Aachen, Austria, Schaker Verl. ISBN 13: 978-3-8322-5391-9, 585-586. Uzunov, Y., Varadinova, E. & Soufi, R. 2005. Shifts in species diversity of the bottom invertebrates in two southwest Bulgarian rivers. – Proc. of the UNESCO-ROSTE 35 Workshop on Regime Shifts, pp. 188-197. Varna, June, 2005. Uzunov, Y., Varadinova, E., Yaneva, I., Kumanski, K. & Stoichev, S. 2008. Long-term changes of the bottom invertebrate fauna of the Mesta River in Southwest Bulgaria – – Ann. Univ. “St. Kl. Ohridski” (in press). Varadinova, E. & Uzunov, Y. 2002. Recent assessment and long-term changes in the saprobiological state of the Mesta river in South-Western Bulgaria. – J. Envir. Prot. & Ecol., 3(1): 68-75. Varadinova, E., Soufi, R. & Uzunov, Y. 2006. Macroinvertebrate Trophic Structure as Indicator of the Ecological Status of the River Mesta. – Proc. Int. Symp. Bioprocess systems, pp. I.33-I.43. October 24-26 2006. Varadinova, E., Uzunov, Y. & Soufi, R. 2007. A New Integrated Index for Assessment of the Ecological Status of Rivers as Based on Functional Feeding Groups of the Macrozoobenthos - J. Envir. Prot. Ecol., 4(8):754-762. 36 7. Antarctica Site general description Livingston Island (62º39’S, 60º21’W) is situated in the South Shetlands, one of the Earth’s regions where warming has been more significant in the last 50 years. Livingston island shows high mountain relief, is 90% covered by glaciers and the bedrock in the research area (Hurd Peninsula) is a low-grade metasedimentary sequence of sandstone, shales and quartzite. About 10% free of ice vegetated terrains. Ecosystem characterization There are two types of terrestrial ecosystems on Livingston island. The ice-free parts of the region of Hurd Peninsula form scarcely vegetated area resembling Antarctic herb tundra formation (well represented at King George Island). The two native vascular plant species (Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica) together with mosses and lichens form the vegetation cover. Different water bodies (small lakes, creeks) form specific freshwater habitats. Available data and parameters Hydrochemical characteristics Temperature, рН Chemical flows Content of biogenic elements in soil Biodiversity • Diatoms in terrestrial and freshwater habitats • Moss diversity • Distribution of the main groups of the heterotrophic block of the micro-flora in soils, moss, rocks and ice • Nematodes in soil habitats Monitoring data • Heavy metals in soil • Heavy metal content in Neuropogon sp. 37 Map of site Bulgarian Base Livingston Island (South Bay) 38 Responsible Institution – Central Laboratory of General Ecology - BAS Site coordinator & reference person Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nesho Chipev CLGE-BAS, 1113 Sofia, 2, Yuri Gagarin str. Phone: +359 2 8717195 Fax: + 359 2 8705498 E-mail: email@example.com Facilities Bulgarian Antarctic Research station with laboratories Research projects and funding institutions: Complex geological, geochemical, geophysical and ecosystem research in the area of The Bulgarian Antarctic Station on Livingstone, Antarctica, MOEW and Bulgarian Antarctic Institute, since 1995 Main references Chipev, N. 2005. Lichens as biomonitors with special reference to the Antarctic. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on High Precision Atomic and Nuclear Methods (Editors: A. Olariu, K. Strenstrom, R. Hellborg), Editura Academica Romane, Bucuresti. 12-16. Chipev, N., A. Kovatchev. 1999. Preliminary data on heavy metal contents in lichens from the Livingston Island (Antarctica). In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences, vol. 2: 106-109. Chipev, N., D. Temniskova-Topalova. 1999. Diversity dynamics and distribution of diatom assemblages in land habitats on Livingston Island (Antarctica). In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences, vol. 2: 32-42. Chipev, N., K. Veltchev. 1996. Livingston Island: an environment for Antarctic life. In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences: 1-10. Chipev, N., V. Peneva, S. Nedelchev. 1996. Abundance and distribution of nematode feeding groups in relation to habitat conditions on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands (Antarctica). In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences: 1-10. Chipeva, V., K. Christova, N. Chipev, P. Moncheva. 1996. Extracellular enzyme activity of Streptomyces strains isolated from soils on Livingston Island, Antarctica. In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences: 1-10. Dimitrova, Z., N. Chipev, B. Georgiev.1996. Record of Corynosoma pseudohamanni Zdzitowiecki, 1994 (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae) in birds at Livingston Island, Soth Shetlands, with a review of Antarctic avian acanthocephalans. In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences: 1-10. Gyosheva, M., N. Chipev. 1999. Arrhenia salina (Hoiland)Gulden - new macromycete species to Livingston Island, South Shetlands, Maritime Antarctic. In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences, vol. 2: 26-32. Ivanova V, Dornberger K-J, Härtl A, Möllmann U, Dahse H-M, Kolarova M, Aleksieva K, 39 Chipev N. 2007. Sanionins: Antiinflammatory and antibacterial agents from the antarctic moss Sanionia georgico-uncinata with weak/low cytotoxicity. Prep Biochem Biotech, 37 (4), pp. 343-352. Pandurski, I., N. Chipev. 1999. Morphological variability in a Boeckella poppei Mrazek, 1901 (Crustacea, Copepoda) population from a glacial lake on the Livingston Island, the Antarctic. In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences, vol. 2: 83-89. Peneva, V., N. Chipev, S. Nedelchev. 1996. Prionchulus punctatus Cobb, 1917, a new record from Patagonia (Chile), with notes on other mononchids from Antarctic regions. In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences: 1-10. Peneva, V., N. Chipev. 1999. Laimaphelenchus helicosoma (Maslen, 1979) n.com. from the Livingston Island (Antarctica). In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences, vol. 2: 57-61. Sokolovska,M., L. Petrova, N. Chipev. 1996. Particularty of humus formation in Antarctic soils: factors, mechanisms, properties. In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences: 1-10. Temniskova-Topalova, D., N. Chipev, K. Manoilova. 1996. Preliminary report on diatoms from the Livingston Island, the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. In: Temniskova-Topalova, D., N. Chipev. 2000. Diatoms from Livingston Island, the South- Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Proceedings of the 16-th InternationalDiatom Symposium [Ed: A. Economou-Amilli] 291-314. Tzvetkov,Y., A. Kril, B. Georgiev, N. Chipev. 1999. Preliminary data on morphology of lesions in the intestinal wall of the gentoo penguin, Pygoscelis papua, caused by Parorchites zederi (Cestoda: Dilepididae). In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences, vol. 2: 62-67. Vasileva, G., B. Georgiev, N. Chipev, Z. Dimitrova. 1996. Cestodes from seabirds at Livingston Island, South Shetlands. In: Bulgarian Antarctic Research. Life Sciences: 1-10. Potential LTSER site Unique ecosystem “Natural Sweet Chestnut Forest” Location This site is situated in Belasitza Mountain. The southwest part of Bulgaria where this mountain is situated falls into the European Broadleaf Forest Region, Macedonian Province. The chestnut belt has area of 2592 ha (data 2002) and is situated between 250m and 900 m altitude. The climate is characterized by rainy winter and hot and dry summer. The mean annual precipitation is 590-720 mm with maximum in November and December. The minimum is in July and August. The mean annual temperature is 13-14°C. The vegetation period is 220 days. The annual evapotranspiration (after Thornthwaite) is 124,0 – 146,2 mm. The mean age of trees is 95 years but individuals aging 350 years are present, with diameter 2,5 m and height up to 18 m. Natural Park Ecosystem characterization The chestnut forest in Belasitza has complex space structure and distorted age structure. In the community a tendency for substitution of the chestnut by other tree species is present. The degradation of the chestnut stands is seen by the degree of damage. The chestnut stands 40 play a useful role in rain water chemistry regulation – under their crowns rain water with more favorable acidity reaches the soil. Available data and parameters Data on climate are available from the near by site in the town of Petrich. Microclimate was measured by setting 3 climate station with. Phytocoenological data are available from 3 year study from May to October on monthly basis. The descriptions were made on plots 900 m2. Species were determined after Kouzhuharov et al. (1992) and the analysis of floristic elements after Dimitrov (2002). The relation between species abundance was assessed by the 7 degree scale (Braun-Blanquet, 1951) and the 5-degree scale of Uranov. The state of trees has been estimated by the coefficient of damage (Mirchev, 2000). Soil samples were studied using standard methods. Data on microorganisms are also available with respect of the cycle of N and C. The routine characteristics of soil microorganisms were assessed. Data are also available on pests and the pathological state of trees. Fungi were isolated on artificial nutrition media. The abundance of Loranthus europeus L. was determined by the transect method. The production of the different vegetation floors was estimated. The cycling of the main nutritional elements was studied. Degradation of the ecosystem was estimated after Aronson et al., (1993). Expected additional parameters and indicators This site is perspective for the study of the interaction biodiversity- functioning. Potential indicator species could be lichens, mosses, birds etc. The question of habitat fragmentation can be also studied. This is a site which can be a hot spot for socio-ecological studies in the context of the LTSER platform of LTER-EUROPE Infrastructure No research infrastructure present at the site – 3 sites with dispositives for meteorological, hydrological and hydrobiological measurements. There are 3 Forest permanent sample plots, also. 41