THE PRESERVATION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE IN OF THE by nhs90963

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									 THE PRESERVATION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE IN                                                          'HE   LIGHT
 OF THE SOCIO-POLITICAL CHANGES IN BULGARIA




    The architectural    heritage left to us by the past               A series of state documents, decisions and decrees
    marks the stages of the material, economic and so-                of the Council of Ministers,       as weIl as the Law on
    cial development of the peoples who inhabited our                 the Monuments of Culture and the Museums from
    lands and testifies to the existence of a fine building            1969 were the basis on which the structure             of the
   culture and of aesthetic and artistic conceptions as               different  state bodies and institutions            concerned
   weil as to a skilful combination           of the buildings       with the preservation         of the architectural       monu-
   with natural assets.                                               ments have been built. They are the following:
   The history of the last century -the                Bulgarian      The National    lnstitute for the Monuments           of Cul-
   National Revival, is an illustration          of an architec-     ture at the Committee for Art and Culture (set up
   ture possessing a rich gamut of forms and solutions,               in 1957) which is the administrative,      methodological
   its own specific material structures,           tonality    and   and executive body concentrating           alI state activi-
   artistic representation.     Here we can mention the              ties for the study, documentation,        registration,    con-
  wonderful architectural      ensembles in some monaste-            servation and restoration of the monuments, as weIl
  ries and the integrated        and uniform architecture            as the solution of the scientific      problems connected
   settlements of Koprivshtit:)a,         Tryavna, Zheravna          with them.
   Bozhentsi,    Shiroka Luka, and Arbanassi,               where    The Councils for Art and Culture at the District
  the variety of architectural         forms, the feeling for        People's Councils which are the managing bodies
  the volume and spatial composition               and the ori-      of the architectural     heritage. They plan the means
  ginal urban ideas form the characteristic               features   for the preservation in general and take care of the
  of our settlements      dating from the last century.              physical protection of the monuments.
  With its fine artistic      qualities our Revival         archi-    The Bodies of the Ministry of Building        and Archi-
 tecture is unique in the history of world architec-                  tecture which are in charge of the development,       the
  ture.                                                              building and the architectural   aspect of the settle-
 As is known, architecture       has always been playing             ments. They assist the solution of the problems for
 the role of synthesizing art which organizes the en-                the preservation   of the architectural      heritage    in
  vironment     as a medium of social life, determines               the framework of the government         policy     for the
 the place of the separate structural           elements of so-      development and the building-up       of the settlements
 ciety and unifies aIl this into the architectonic                   The Section for Theory and History of the Settle-
 image of an art which has gathei"ed in itself many                  ments Development and Architecture           at the Bul-
 other kinds of artistic creativeness -painting,               mo-   garian Academy of Sciences which is in charge of
 numental sculpture,       decotative and applied art.               the solution of the theoretical problems and the elu-
 The great social and political          changes which have          cidation of certain scientific items connected with the
 taken place in our country after the Second World                   historical development of the architectural     heritage.
 War set up vast opportunities            for intensive crea-        At the Union of Bulgarian         Architects there is a
 ti ve acti vities not least in the field of culture.                creative group under the na me of "Architectural
Our architectural       heritage becamegenerally          known,     Heritage Group" which is doing an intensive       pub-
 it became a national property and part and parcel                   lic work on the populariiation    of the Bulgarian ar-
of the material and spiritual          values of the Repub-          chitecture by organizing     meetings, lectures, pub-
 lic. That is why the acttvit.ies for the preservation               lications,    trips, projections       of films and other
of this architectural     heritage have also a very short            activities.
history.     They began their existence in a planned                 Which are the main aspects of the solicitude                 for
and organized way only after September 9, 1944,                      the preservation      of the architectural      heritage?
as a result of a new policy, as a phenomenon of the                  Something     new and enormous, something                which
new socialrst society whiich had already surmounted                  surpasses the framework of the administration               and
national nihili~m and was linking             its present with       the law -this      is the social-governmental       principle,
the progre~çive tradÎtion~          ~f the past.                     which has interwoven        its lifegiving    roots into the
 solicitude for the preservation       of the architectural         Thus the regimen for the          .:onstructiorJ     of new
 heritage, that is, the voluntary          participation    in      buildings    in the old settlements,      their quarters,
 these activities    of hundred of thousands of Bulga-             stre('ts and lots or in proximity to individual        houses-
 rian citizens making their creative contribution.                 monuments is delermined          by Special       Aulhoriza-
 The restoration      of ali architectural    monuments is         lions, while the designs for such new buildings
 carried out      with     Orants   by the         State dis-      should be approved by the National             Institute    for
 regarding    whether they are private       possessions,          the Monuments of Culture.
 cooperative or state property. After the restoration              A fine new and prospective form of the organization
 of the monument its owner continues to exploit it                of the care for the best preservation of the architec-
 as his own property and is not liable to taxation by             tural heritage in some museum settlements                 is to
 the state.                                                       grant them the right to self administration.                The
 The monuments of architecture        cannot be ovfrin-           Old Town of Plovdiv for instancewasgranted               su ch a
 habited. The number of the tenants of the houses-               right      of administration   and independent           admin-
 monuments is tixed by the respective state organs                istrative    bodies have been functioning           there for
 who also control their exploitation.                            some years.
 Ali architectural   monuments of greater artistic,              The architectural      monuments from the past are our
 scientific and historical value are nationalized and            national capital and the care for their preservation
 are the object of special care.                                 is the cause of the entire Bulgarian people. This na-
 The ancient architectural     monuments, individual             tion-wide cause was recognized and obtained a high
settlements or only their older parts are declared               international      assessment whose expression           is the
architeLtural preserves or museum settlements.                   esteem shown on the part of UNESCO                and the or-
ln this respect the Law on the Territorial   and Set-            ganization of the present symposium of ICOMOS in
tlement-Development   provides for a series of items             our country.
which settle the questions for the preservation    of
the architectural monuments.
                                                                                                 Stefan MATEEV,        Bulgaria




RESUME



Les grands changements sociaux et politiques. surve-             -le    groupe de travail "Patrimoine       architectural"
nus en Bulgarie après la seconde guerre mondiale. ont            de l'Union des Architectes de Bulgarie.
ouvert de vastes possibilités à la créativité dans le            Les principes fondamentaux de la sauvegarde du pa.
d(1maine culturel.                                               trimoine architt?ctural sont .le suivants:
l a politique de sauvegarde du patrimoine architec-              1. La restauration    est effectuée aux frais de l'Etat ,
tl4;al prit corps après les décisions du 9 septembre             quelque soit le propriétaire     du monument.
1944.                                                            2. Toute surdensité d'occupation est interdite dans les
Le)j institutions qui. à l' heure actuelle. participen t à       monuments.
sa conservation sont:                                            3. Les monuments d' un très grand intér~t sont natio-
-l'Institut        National des Monuments Historiques.           nalisés pour leur assurer .une meilleure sauvegarde et
-les      Con.'ieils d'Art. auprès des Conseils départe-         une utilisation  éventuelle. .
mentaux.                                                         4. Une partie des agglomérations, ou leur noyau an-
-les     services responsables de l'urbanisme, de la cons-       cien. sont déclarés secteurs sauvegardés.
truction     et de l'aspect architectural    des agglomé-        5. Les projets de constructions nouvelles t;ians les ag-
rations, au Ministère de la Construction et de l'Ar-             glomérations anciennes sont soumis à l'accord de l' l ns-
chitecture,                                                      titut National des Monuments Historiques.
-la     Section de théorie et d' histoire de l'urbanisme         6. Les parties d'agglomérations      protégées-    zones-
et de l'architecture au sein de l'Académie des Scien-            musées et secteurs sauvegardés --ont une administra-
ces,                                                             tion indépendante.

								
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