Bandon Birds 2010 by shrakdoc


									                                      Osprey                   Northern                                                           Bird Identification                              Shore birds ~ Sea birds ~ Raptores

                               L: 21-24 in (53 - 61 cm)
                                                              L: 17-24 in (41- 61 cm).
                                                                                                                        The best time to observe bird behavior is at ebb tide
                                                                                                                       (out-going). This is when the mud flats are more
                                                                                                                                                                                       Birds of Bandon
                               W: 3 lbs (1.4 kg)              W: 12 - 18 oz (.34 - .5 kg)
                                                                                                                       inviting to resident and migratory birds. A number of
                                                              WS: 3.5-4.5 ft (1-1.3 m).
                               WS: 5.5 ft. (1.67 m)                                                                    helpful hints will aid the observant viewer to identify
                                                              All year resident
                               Spring/Summer                                                                           birds.
                               resident                                                                                * Look at the overall size                                Frank
                                                                                                                       * Observe shape and posture                               Balthis
 Phhoto ©: Frank Balthis                                      The northern harrier (formerly known as the marsh                                                                    ©
                                                                                                                       * Estimate the length of legs, tail, and bill
                                                              hawk) is a slender, white rump, medium-sized,            * Study the surrounding habitat and behavior.
                                                              low-flying raptor of upland grasslands and fresh and
                                                              saltwater marsh the white rump is obvious in all
BREEDING: Courting pair in swift pursuit                      seasons and can be easily spotted by novice bird-          Species with long, slim bills use them for probing
                                                              watchers. The female plumage is mostly brown             mud or sand in search of food, or for snatching food
flight, soar, circle, dodge, with rapid turns and                                                                      from the surface like a pair of tweezers. In general,
quick swoops. Female fed entirely by the male                 while the male is mostly white and gray. This hawk
                                                              can be identified in flight by its wings held in a       the stouter the bill, the larger the prey the bird can
from pair formation through egg laying. Breeding                                                                       capture. The bill shape reflects the bird’s specialized
                                                              shallow angle, or “V” shape. It is considered one of
pair probably mates for life and returns to the same nest                                                              method of feeding.
                                                              the most agile and acrobatic in North America.
area each year.                                                                                                          Bandon Marsh and the Ni-les-‘tun units are part of
                                                              Unlike other hawks, the northern harrier relies on its
MIGRATION: south by November, and return in
                                                              hearing as well as its vision to capture prey.           Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge. Parking
February/ March
                                                              MIGRATION: The northern harrier range is                 space and viewing platform is available at both units.      Susan
NEST: Osprey usually nest in high trees in isolated                                                                    SEE center-fold map for directions.                        Dimock ©
                                                              throughout all of North America, breeding as far
                                                                                                                        SEA Adventures Guided Tours
areas near lakes and rivers. LOCAL Bandon Nest:
                                                              south as California and wintering from South
On the north side of Hwy 101 just east of the to bridge
                                                              America to British Columbia. It prefers marshes and        SEA docents are available to escort an individual,
there is a high platform built especially for the osprey. .
                                                              open grasslands.
Both adults help to build the large, stick-built nest.;                                                                or group to several locations to view birds. High
lined with soft grasses. Generally male seeks nest site       DISPLAY: Dives from 50-100 ft swooping near              powered scopes and educational materials are
before arrival of female; male may start nest-building        the ground and climbing again to the tope; then          provided. There is no fee, however donations are
before pair-bonding.                                          following a roll or somersault, dives again.             accepted. Please call: 541-260-7770. Reservation
EGG: Clutch 2-4 eggs; both adults incubate the eggs           BREEDING: clutch of 3 - 6 eggs incubate from             only for this type of tour.
for 5 weeks but male does less incubation than female.        29 to 31 days by the female. There is evidence that
FOOD: Hovers at 30' - 100' and dives primarily for            male northern harriers are mated to one or two           Resources::
                                                              females at the same time. Females incubate the eggs      Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, South Slough
fish; occasionally preys on rodents, birds, small
                                                              and brood the offspring, while the male provides the     National Wildlife Research Reserve.
vertebrates. Young are fed regurgitated food the first                                                                 Birds of North America, The Sibley Guide,
                                                              bulk of the food for his mates and their nestlings.
10 days. Brood of 3 requires 6 lbs of fish per day.
                                                              Nest is a pile of sticks and grasses on the ground in
Ospreys dive feet first for their prey, accessing only
                                                              thick grass, shrubbery, or other vegetation.             In appreciation for the copyright photos as an                      Shoreline Education
about the top meter (3 ft) of water which restricts them                                                               educational resource.
to surface-schooling fish and fish in shallows—the            FOOD: Hunts on the wing, flying low over open            David Ledig ~ USFWS
                                                                                                                                                                                              for Awareness
latter generally most abundant and available.                 habitats; often seen hovering over prey areas. Prey      Frank Balthis ~                                                     PO Box 957, Bandon OR 97411
.                                                             is small mammals, birds and reptiles plentiful in the                                   Tele: 541-260-7770
                                                              higher grassy areas and open fields.                     Steve & Susan Dimock ~                                                Email:
                                                                                                                                                               Web Site:
                                               12             C:SEA\Brochures 2010\Page 1 1-24-2010                                                                                    © Copyright 2 000. All rights reserved
     Ruddy                                                  Canada Goose                                               Great Egret                                            Great Blue
    Turnstone                                                                                                          L: 39“ (1 m))                                            Heron
                                                                                                                       W: 1.9 lbs (870 g)
                                                            L: 5-45 in (63 cm)m)                                       WS: 51" (1.3 m)
    L: 9.5 in (24 cm)                                                                                                                                                         L: 46 in (116 cm)
                                                            W: 3.5-9.8 lbs( 1.6-4.5 kg)                                Year-Round resident;
    W: 3.9 oz (110 g)                                                                                                                                                         W: 5.3 lbs (2.4 kg)
                                                            WS: 43-60 in 109-152 cm)                                   uncommon in the
    WS: 21" (53 cm)                                                                                                                                                           WS: 72 in (1.8 m)
    Winters PNW coast/
                                                            Year-Round resident                                        middle of summer.
    Summer: Breeds in Arctic                                                                                                                                                  resident
                                                                                                                         This long-legged wading
                                                                                                                       bird inhabits freshwater,
  The ruddy turnstone is a robust stocky shorebird with        The Canadian goose                                      estuaries, and marine wetlands, nests in colonies,       The great blue
short, orange legs and short, wedge-shaped, black,           is the most widely distributed goose in North             and feeds in groups as well as individually.           heron is one of the
slightly upturned bill. Plumage is variegated russet        America. Black head with white chin band that              Plumage is all white, long neck, black feet, and       largest resident
color patterns responsible for its name. Plumage is         extends behind eyes; sometimes a black chin strap or a     long yellow bill. In Oregon, breeds in Klammath,       wading birds of the southern coast line. It can be
more colorful in breeding season. Has rapid wing            white forehead. Basically, black head and neck with        Warner, and Harney Basins, and at various lakes in     seen standing at the water’s edge, or stalking in the
movement, flies in bunches rather than in formation.”       white strip under chin; bluish-gray body. Due to           Klammath and central valley of California.             shallows.
BREEDS: in tundra regions of northern North                 several differences in voice, size, habitat and breeding   BREEDING: a complex courtship made up of                 This wading bird has a long neck and spear-
America from Alaska to Greenland. Arrive on northern        period, the species has been divided into two species      several stages. There may be a second brood if first   shaped stout bill. It flies gracefully with its neck
breeding grounds late May and early June. Disperses         i.e. Canada goose and cackling goose a.k.a. Aleutian       one is lost. During early breeding season long         folded back so the head rests between the wings.
soon after arriving and forms mating pairs in about 7-      Canadian goose (the smaller); other sub species exits      plumes, extending beyond tail are grown on             The wings beat slowly in flight; a valuable clue to
10 days.                                                    that vary widely in size and location. .                   scapular (shoulders); erected during courtship. Bare   judge the size of a bird at a distance.
NEST: The period of pairing, courtship and nest             BREEDING: Most birds arrive at breeding areas              parts intensify e.g. bill becomes orange-yellow;       BREEDING: Courtship to egg laying late
building is about 10 to 12 days. Pair examines area for     paired. The time of arrival and nesting depends on         eye-ring lime green; in soft portion color variable    January/February in Oregon.
best site; scrapes hollow in ground with female             location and temperature. Their habitat includes           depending on habitat.                                  NEST in a variety of habitats, mostly in colonies
selecting final site for nest but site location varies      tundra, northern forest, prairies parklands, high          NEST: Males select area where nests are                and sometimes in single pairs. Males arrive first;
depending on low or high tundra areas; site often           mountain meadows and a variety of managed Refuges.         constructed; has display to attract females. The       the nests are located in the tops of tall trees in areas
selected for wind protection; fills nest with vegetation.   NEST: Female chooses site; extremely variable              nests are typically built in tops of trees or woody    protected from strong winds and human
EGGS: Typically 4 egg clutch; Incubate for 21-24            among subspecies. Typically nests on drier, slightly       vegetation areas. Male collects long sticks and        disturbance; are lined with pine needles, moss,
days by both sexes, but only sporadically by male.          elevated sites near water using dry grasses and sedges,    twigs before pair formation. However, nest             reeds, dry grass, mangrove leaves, or small twigs.
Chicks precocial with downy pelage; usually walking         lichens and mosses, and various parts of shrubs and        material varies according to abundance of local        EGGS: Average clutch is 4; oval shaped; in
about within hours of hatching.                             trees.                                                     vegetation.                                            Oregon laid late February.
FOOD:Young self-feed; main food is insects near             EGGS:: 2 - 8; Elliptical to oval; varies by subspecies,    EGGS: Elliptical to sub-elliptical; clutch size        FOOD consists of fish, frogs, insects, and even
riparian areas where recently emerged small and             location, and year. Only female has brood patch to         averages 6; in North America it is nearer 3.           small birds and rodents. It catches prey by
soft-bodied insects emerge. Seeks its food by turning       incubate.                                                  Incubation period is about 23-27 days. Both adults     amazingly quick movements of neck and bill. The
over pebbles, shells, bits of driftwood and other sea       FOOD almost exclusively an herbivore; governed             share incubation time.                                 great blue heron tends to be a solitary feeder but if
wrack to gather insects or small crustaceans hiding         primarily by season and nutrient requirements; and         FOOD Adults feed by regurgitation of small fish        the food supply is plentiful, several can be seen
underneath.                                                 variation in the quality and quantity of food.             fed directly to young or made available by             nearby.
                                                                                                                       deposition on nest floor.
                                                                                                                                                                              Resource: Robert W. Butler. Birds of North
C:\/SEA\Brochures 2010\Page 2   1-25-2010                   Resources: Thomas B. Mowbray et al. Birds of North         Resources: Donald A. McCrimmon, JR. Birds of North     America.                                         9
                                              4             America.                                                   American.
  Surf Scoter                                            Tufted Puffin                                              Black Oyster                                             Surfbird
 L: 20 in (50 cm)                                        L: 15 in (38 cm)                                             Catcher                                                L: 10 in (25 cm)
 W: 2.1 lbs (950 g)                                      W: 1.7 lbs (780 g)                                         L: 17.5 in ( 44 cm)                                      W: 7 oz (190 g)
 WS: 30 in (76 cm)                                       WS: 25 in (63 cm)                                          W: 1.4 lbs (650 g)                                       WS: 26 in (66 cm)
 Spring/Summer                                           Spring /Summer                                             WS: 32 in ( 81 cm)                                       Winter resident
 resident                                                resident                                                   Year ‘Round
                                                                                                                    resident                 © Photo by Susan Dimock
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Photo: USFWS
                                                         Often referred to
 The surf scoter is a sea duck with velvet-like black    as the “Parrot of the Sea”, the tufted puffin can be         The black oyster catcher is a shore bird found
                                                                                                                    along the west coast of North America from Alaska
                                                                                                                                                                               Medium size plover-like bird; females larger in
plumage; a white patch on forehead and large white       seen on the water or near nest on Face Rock. An
                                                                                                                    to Oregon. The plumage is black. The female has         size but the plumage is the same for both gender;
triangle on nape. The colorful bill has a pattern of     elusive bird that may be seen in the spring as they pair
                                                                                                                    a heavier body than male and longer, narrower bill.     colors of mostly white, black and browns with
white, red, yellow, and a black patch near base;         up and begin to build their nest. They are recognized
                                                                                                                    They both have pale pink legs, and orange-red bill      emphasis on white during breeding season. The
appears mostly orange. Seldom flies in line like other   by their colorful bill and the whitish-yellow tufts.
                                                                                                                    with yellow tip. The adult bird has a yellow iris       surfbird’s winter range is among the narrowest of
scoters; generally more agile. Flies low over water in   Extensive breeding range; nests on coastline from
                                                                                                                    and an orange-red orbital eye ring.                     any North American breeding bird. During the
everyday movements, but to considerable heights          Alaska to mid California and west to northern
                                                                                                                    BREEDING: Paired birds remain together year-            northern winter, surf birds are found from Kodiak
during migration. Mostly is a foot-propelled diver but   Japanese islands.
                                                                                                                    round and either gender can initiate copulation.        Island AK, to the Straits of Magellan, Chile; a
occasionally uses its wings.                                The tufted puffin is an alcid. Breeding plumage is
                                                                                                                    They exhibit strong territoriality and nest area        distance of 17,500 km. The winter range extends
Often mistaken for the Tufted Puffin due to similar      black with a bright orange-red bill with yellow tip,
                                                                                                                    fidelity.                                               inland only a few meters above the tide line. In
color of bill and plumage.                               white face mask with tufts above the eyes and
                                                                                                                                           NEST: is made of rock            flight, conspicuous white wing-bar, rump, and tail,
BREEDING: Pairs form on winter staging grounds;          extending along side of head, and orange feet. The
                                                                                                                                           flakes, and bits of broken       squared at tip with broad black terminal band.
most pairs already formed upon arrival at breeding       orbital ring is also orange. The male is slightly larger
                                                                                                                                           shells on pebble or cobble       BREEDING: Pair formation probably occurs in
lakes and rivers.                                        than the female and both gender have the same
                                                                                                                                           beaches, and exposed rocky       first few days after arrival at northern breeding
NEST: usually a hollow in ground that is located near    plumage.
                                                                                                                                           shorelines. Predation of egg     colonies. Limited to areas of dry, frequently stony,
lakes and rivers and has some cover like tree branches   BREEDING: Mid March to mid April they arrive at
                                                                                                                                           or chick is highest with         alpine tundra, characterized by lichens, and dwarf
hanging low over ground, or a fallen tree. The female    colonies about 3 to 5 weeks before egg laying begins
                                                                                                                                           mainland nest sites so off-      shrubs. Habitat located on summits and upper
builds the nest with ground debris and down; well        and occupy the nest approximately 1 week before egg
                                                                                                                    shore rocks are preferred. Nest-building only           slopes of steep ridges.
hidden.                                                  is laid.
                                                                                                                    occurs when both mates are present which may            EGGS: usually 4; may be some predation of eggs;
EGGS: Single brood only of about 7 eggs; shape is        NEST: typically excavated in deep, vegetated turf on
                                                                                                                    strengthen the pair bond.EGGS: usually 2-3;             one brood only. Best estimation for incubation is
sub-elliptical to oval. Incubation by female only.       steep slopes or plateaus, well above shoreline. Both
                                                                                                                    incubation period is usually 26–28 days. Both           about 22-24 days. Males do incubate but
Hatching is synchronized among eggs.                     gender help to build the long tunnel-like nest using
                                                                                                                    sexes incubate. At first mostly female, but male        information on females unconfirmed. Parental care
MIGRATION: The surf scoter breeds in Northern            their feet and sometimes their bills. Rock crevices are
                                                                                                                    duty increases later during incubation period. Eggs     may be by just single adult.
Canada and Alaska; winters along the entire Pacific      sometimes used as a nest area.
                                                                                                                    are incubated 90–98% of the time. FOOD:                 MIGRATION:: winter along the entire North
coast. Usually by March they can be seen in breeding     EGG: one egg is laid and incubation begins
                                                                                                                    Foraging at low tide almost exclusively in intertidal   American continent; southern migration period
plumage before heading North. They return to the         immediately. Both help to incubate the egg; if lost a
                                                                                                                    and rocky shore habitat. Feed on invertebrates,         August. through October probably peaking in Sept.
Pacific coast in early fall having molted most of the    second brood egg is laid in about 21 days.
                                                                                                                    bivalve populations, particularly sea and bay           Often associate with ruddy and black turn stones.
white spots with the bill far less colorful.             MIGRATION: wintering is usually in the North
                                                                                                                                                                            Favor rocky seacoasts, especially wave-beaten
FOOD: Adults feed mostly on mollusks (mussels,           Central Pacific. The most northern colonies are            mussels. The shape of their bill is very important to   intertidal rocky shores, ledges, and reefs. Often
clams) when staging, molting, or wintering in salt       vacated around late October due to ice.                    extract intertidal animals from their hard, outer       found roosting in spray zone at and above tide line.
water. Feed on herring eggs whenever available during    FOOD: about 50–70% of adult diet is invertebrates          shells. With a few quick jabs of the bill they are      FOOD: alpine habitat: flies and beetles. Shoreline
spring migration, especially on West Coast.              and remainder fish; adults feed mostly fish to young.      able to sever the adductor muscle that holds the        intertidal zones; muscle beds and among marine
                                                         They are a wing-propelled diver.                           shell closed.                                           algae, bivalves, gastropods.
Resource: Jean-Pierre L. Savard et al;                                                                                                                                                                            .         3
Birds of North America.                     10           Resource: John F. Piatt et al; Birds of North America.
Common                                                  Pigeon                                                   Western Gull                                                 Brown
 Murre                                                 Guillemot                                                  L: 25 in (64 cm)                                            Pelican
L: 17.5 in (44.5 cm)                                   L: 13.5 in (34 cm)                                         W: 2.2 lbs ( 1 kg)
W: 2.2 lbs (990 g)                                     W: 1.1 lb (. 5 kg)                                         WS: 58 in (1.5 m)                                         L: 51 in (100–137 cm)
WS: 26 in (66 cm)                                      WS: 23 in (58 cm)                                          Year ‘round              resident                         W: 8.2 lbs (3,740 g)
April/July resident                                    April/Sept.                                                                                                          WS: 79 in (2 m)
                                                       resident                                                                                                             Bill: 25–38 cm             Photo: © Mark Shields
      A large black                                                                                              The Western gull is a common sight along the               May - October
                                                                                                               Pacific coast of North America, and breeds from              non breeding only
 and white sea bird          Photo: © Steve Dimock       The pigeon guillemot can be found along rocky
that looks similar to                                  coastlines between Alaska and California. This auk      Vancouver Washington to Baja California.
 a penguin but                                         nests in burrows or in rock cavities, often on small       Adult has a white head, breast and underpart;               The brown pelican is quickly recognized by its’
they are not related at all. The common murre is a     islands that provide protection from predators; small   yellow beak with red dot near tip, Only gull breeding        long bill, large body and gular pouch. Adult
wing-propelled diver found mostly in cool climates     colonies often form, although they do nest as           in North America that has dark gray mantle, black            plumage takes about 3 years to complete; both
of arctic and sub-arctic continental shelf waters. A   isolated pairs.                                         wingtips, and pink legs in adult stage; yellow-white to      genders similar. Upper body is gray to gray brown;
consummate diver, the common murre reaches                                                                     golden brown iris with yellow or orange orbital ring;        belly black-brown; remainder of undersurface
                                                         A medium size auk with dark blackish-brown                                                                         striped black and silver. Molt of head and neck
depths of more than 100 meters in search of prey,                                                              medium gray back and upper wing area; black on tail.
                                                       plumage in summer; in winter their underparts are                                                                    produces 3 distinct appearances per annual cycle.
mainly fish but also invertebrates. They have a        white and upper parts grayish; bill is black and           It takes 4 years for the western gull to gain adult
sharp, slender black bill and in flight, wings beat                                                            plumage. After Juvenile plumage, western gull has            Head pale yellow and neck white during post-
                                                       pointed; inside of mouth is bright red.                                                                              breeding season; head yellow and neck dark brown
rapidly.                                               BREEDING: individuals first seen in breeding            distinct first, second, and third-year basic and alternate
BREEDING: pairs may form below cliffs. Males                                                                   plumage with fourth year basic being the earliest            just prior to onset of breeding; head white
                                                       areas in early April approximately 40 days before                                                                    (sometimes speckled with dark feathers) and neck
and females spend equal time at colony 2–3 weeks       laying eggs.                                            definitive plumage. First-year birds are mostly dark
before egg-laying; both sexes incubate egg and                                                                 brownish-gray with black bill.                               brown during nesting. A portion of gular pouch dark
                                                       NEST on cliffs of off-shore rocks, dig; also nests                                                                   gray-green year-round.
brood chick equally. Prolonged care only by male       under bridges and piers. Wide variety of nest cavity    BREEDING: Hybridizes extensively with
after fledgling. Breeds on cliff ledges, sloping                                                               glaucous-winged gull from Coos Bay, OR north to              BREEDING: Breeds in southern California and
                                                       types are used. Nests are made up of loose stones or                                                                 Baja. Male selects nest area and performs head
island surfaces, or flat areas on rocky headlands      shells in cavity pulled together to form a heap with    Strait of Juan de Fuca, B.C. Pair formation occurs
and islands in full ocean view.                                                                                before or in early part of breeding season on male’s         swaying to attract female. Non-breeding birds come
                                                       central depression.                                                                                                  north in late May - October.
MIGRATION: Oregon and Washington colonies                                                                      territory. One brood a year; clutch replaced if first one
                                                       Migration: Fall - Off Oregon and Washington                                                                          NEST: Mainly on ground in thick green vegetation;
disperse northward to Strait of Juan de Fuca and                                                               is destroyed.
                                                       coast, groups regularly seen flying north along                                                                      open enough to allow adults to preen, and rest. Made
vicinity in late summer. Adult males leave colony      continental shelf in late Aug-early Sept;               NEST: Site is protected from prevailing wind and
mostly by swimming as they accompany chicks                                                                    may be placed next to a object like a log, bush, rock or     of sticks and grasses.
                                                       Spring - about March - April.                                                                                        EGGS: normal clutch is 3. One adult is on the nest
away from colonies toward chick-rearing and molt                                                               vegetation. This also provides a barrier between nest
                                                       EGGS: Clutch of 1 or 2; shape is variable from                                                                       at all times. Parent incubates the eggs under webs of
areas; females and sub-adults vacate colony by                                                                 and nearest neighbor. Chicks leave nest in about 24
                                                       pointed to elongated. Both sexes take equal share in                                                                 totipalmate (totally webbed) feet.
flying.                                                                                                        hours but remain on nest territory protected by adults.
                                                       feeding chicks.                                                                                                      FOOD: Primarily forages in shallow(150 m) waters
NEST: there is no nest; one egg is laid on cliff       FOOD: Although most foraging is in benthic              EGGS: Normal clutch is3; takes about 3 to 4 days to
shelf and incubated by both pairs by holding with                                                              lay clutch; incubation about 30-32 days; chicks fledge       of estuaries and continental shelf; usually within 20
                                                       habitats (on sea bottom); feeding also occurs in the                                                                 meters of shore. Captures fish mainly by surface
feet against the brood patch on lower abdomen          water column. Optimal diving and foraging               about 6-7 weeks after hatching. Feed on natal territory
area.                                                                                                          12-15 weeks old and up to 6 months after fledgling;          diving head first. Small, surface-schooling fishes
                                                       efficiency thought to be in water 10–20 m deep.                                                                      make up bulk of diet throughout range; favors
EGG: pear-shaped to roll in circle and not off the     Wide variety of benthic fish and invertebrates taken    adults and fledglings leave nest territory in early fall..
cliff edge.                                                                                                                                                                 anchovies and sardines.
                                                       throughout the year; invertebrates particularly         Incubation shared by pair.
FOOD:: small slender fish                              important in winter.                                    FOOD: Varies depending on site location; preys on            Resource: Mark Shields, Birds of North America,
                                                       Resources: Peter J. Ewins; Pigeon Guillemot;            other bird eggs and intertidal invertebrates; gulls are
1-25-2010                                    8         Raymond J. Pierotti et al Birds of North America;       opportunistic feeders.                                                                                    5
                                                       Western Gull.
Pelagic Cormorant                                        Brandt’s                                              Black Bellied                                               Bald Eagle
L: 20-30 in (51–76 cm)                                  Cormorant                                                 Plover                                                   L: 31 in (78 cm)
W: 4.5 lbs (2 kg)                                      L: 34 in (86 cm)                                        L: 11.5 in (30 cm)                                          W: 9.5 lbs (4.3 kg)
WS: 39 in (1 m)                                        W: 4.6 lbs (2.1 kg)                                     W: 8 os (240 g)                                             WS: 80 in (2 m)
Spring/Summer resident                                 WS: 50 in(1.3 m)                                        WS: 29 in (74 cm)       ü                                   Year-Round resident
                                                       All year resident                                       Winter resident. Non Breeding
They range from the Arctic
waters of the Chukchi and                                 Easily distinguished                                                      Breeding   !                             The bald eagle is a
Bering Seas south through                              from other cormorants by                                                                                            second largest raptor of
temperate waters along the                             a blue gular pouch edged posteriorly with buff to                                                                   prey in North America;
North American Pacific Coast to Baja California
                                                                                                                 The black bellied plover is a stocky bird; larger than    with broad wings for a
                                                       white feathers; blackish body. They BREED along         most plovers and is a wide-ranging shorebird. In
and along the Asian coast to southern China            the West Coast of North America, range is from                                                                      flapping-soaring flight; a
PLUMAGE is black glossy green and                                                                              winter it is seen in all of North America; breeds in        characteristic white head and white tail in adults
                                                       Alaska in the north to Mexico in the south. Male        arctic climate of Northern Canada. Found in coastal
violet-bronze on body and violet-purple on neck;       builds nest.                                                                                                        birds. Plumage same for both genders.
white patch on flank. They are called a sea bird but                                                           beaches and estuaries throughout range. Its flight call     BREEDING: early spring in Northern areas of the
                                                       NEST: grass, moss, and weeds from near colony.          is a high clear whistle “PLEE ooee” and is one of the
seldom are but a few centimeters from land. .          EGG: probably laid late May along S. coast of                                                                       U.S. and Canada. Spectacular courtship rituals,
BREEDING: varies depending on temperature.                                                                     more common sounds heard on coastal mud flats.              involving vocalizations and acrobatic flight displays;
                                                       Oregon.                                                 While foraging its rapid forward movement and quick
Below Queen Charlotte Is. they generally remain in     FOOD: Feeds on fish, mainly by pursuit-diving.                                                                      especially cartwheel display. Monogamous and
vicinity of nesting grounds all year.                                                                          stop help to identify it, even at a distance. NEST: in      thought to mate for life.
NESTS: on side of cliffs on off-shore rocks. Pair                                                              dry, hollow-ground, exposed site. Often nests within        NEST: building begins about 3 months before are
                                                         Killdeer                                              300' of previous year’s nest. DIET: small marine life,      eggs laid in highest and strongest trees. Unconfirmed
build nest together made of grasses & seaweed
                                                       L: 10.5 in (26 cm)                                      insects, and some vegetable matter.                         which one selects nest site. The nest is made of sticks
held together with guano. Eggs: clutch is 3-5 eggs.
                                                       W: 3.3 oz (95 g)                                        DISPLAYS:: Male butterfly flight in courtship.              placed in an interwoven pattern. Other materials
FOOD: feeds mostly on solitary fish and
                                                       WS: 24 in (61 cm)                                                                                                   added may include grasses, mosses, corn stalks and
                                                       Year-Round resident                                                                Western Sandpiper                finally nest is lined with downy feathers.
Double Crested                                                                                                                              L: 6.5 in (17 cm)              EGGS: usually 2 and oval shaped; Clutch size 1-3.
                                                        The killdeer is by far the most wide-spread and                                     W: .91 oz (26 g)               Incubation time is about 35 days. Female does
                                                       familiar of North American plovers; upper parts                                      WS: 14 in (36 cm)              majority of incubating with help from male.
Cormorant                                              grayish brown; underparts white, interrupted by 2                                    Winters along the Pacific      FOOD: Predominantly fish, and waterfowl, small
L: 70-90 cm (28-35in)                                  black bands across breast; rump and upper tail is                                    coast.                                                      mammals. Adults tear
W: 50"                                                 long, with white tip. They frequent mud flats, gravel                                                                                             food into small pieces
WS: 52" (1.1 m)                                                                                                   The western sandpiper is the most common and
                                                       bars, short-grass meadows. DISPLAY:                     abundant shorebird on the west coast. Black legs with                                     for chicks.
Year ‘round resident
                                                       attention-getting with the broken-wing act and          small webs between the toes. Black bill with deep                                         Resources: David A.
                                                       piteous cries to draw potential predators away from                                                                                               Buehler; Birds of North
The double crested cormorant is the largest of the                                                             base; bill slightly decurved with rather fine tip (both
                                                       nest and chicks.                                        genders the same). High tide will find them hidden in                                     America.
cormorant family. Plumage may appear black but it
                                                       BREEDING: The Killdeer both breeds and winters          the grassy areas. Beautiful “simultaneous banking,”
is actually bronze; red at base of bill; seen most
                                                       year ‘round along both coasts and in the southern       flight pattern; travel both in groups and in formation.
frequently with wing spread to help dry wet
                                                       States; breeds in upper mid-west states and across      BREEDING: Strictly monogamous and territorial.                                           Photo: USFWS
feathers. BREEDING: Pair-bond only at nest in
                                                       Canada in spring. NEST: Builds in open, with            Both sexes incubate and tend young after hatching       :                                Adult & young eaglets
spring. NEST: is built of sticks, and feathers
                                                       sparse low or no vegetation. Often the location is      Nest: are usually well-defined depressions in the
usually on rocky out-cropping or high in a tree top.
                                                       slightly raised above surrounding terrain; complex      tundra, usually under a dwarf birch; some built in
Apparently monogamous; has a display stance for
                                                       ceremony while building nest; made of rocks, bits of    grasses. Lined with bits of lichens, sedge, and leaves.
mating. EGGS: clutch 3-5. Predation of egg and
                                                       shell, weed stems, and other materials. EGGS:           EGG: 4 egg clutch; incubation about 21 days.                                                              11
young wide-spread.
                                                       Clutch is usually 4; both genders incubate.             FOOD: insects.                                                                                      1-25-2010
FOOD:: almost entirely fish.                   2

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