"THE EDUCATION AND RESEARCH OF VETERINARY ANATOMY IN BANGLADESH"
THE EDUCATION AND RESEARCH OF VETERINARY ANATOMY IN BANGLADESH Dr. Md. Zahirul Islam Khan Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh History of the Veterinary Science in Bangladesh The first Veterinary School was established at Puna, India in 1862 In 1947 a Veterinary College was established at Comilla -3 years DVMS In 1950 the College was shifted from Comilla to Dhaka – 5 years B.Sc. (Vet. Sc & A.H.) 1n 1961 East Pakistan Agricultural University forms with Faculty of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry 1963 the combined faculty bifurcated into Faculty of Veterinary Science (DVM) and Faculty of Animal Husbandry (B. Sc. A.H) In 2002 BAU adopted the course-credit-based 8- semester DVM course with 6 months internship program. Establishment of Veterinary Colleges and Veterinary Faculti in different Universities of Bangladesh Faculty of Veterinary Science Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Veterinary Colleges Private Veterinary Faculty Semester System of the Faculty of Veterinary Science Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Semester Semester Semester Semester Semester Semester Semester Semester 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Each semester = 6 months Important Regulations for DVM Curriculum Total Credits : 178 Duration of the course : 4 level (8 Semester) Internship : 1 Semester Name of the Semester : Jan. – June/ July - Dec. Semester duration : 24 weeks Classes and Class test (s) : 16 weeks Semester final exam. : 6 weeks Publication of results : 2 weeks 1 Credit : 1 hr theory lecture or 2 hrs practical/week Marks per subject : 100 irrespective of the credit Subjects of Anatomy in Different Semesters Credit hrs. No. of Subjects Title of the courses, Level and Semester Contact hrs. (T+P) Courses 1. Anatomy (osteology, arthrology, myology) 2+1 4 2 Course of level 1 semester 1 2. Anatomy (splanchnology, angiology, aesthesiology). 2+1 4 2 Course of level 1 Semester 2 1.Gross Anatomy 3. Comparative and Neuro-anatomy 0+1 2 1 Course of level 2 semester 1 4. Topographic and surgical anatomy. 0+1 2 1 Course of level 3 semester 1 1. Histology 3+1 5 2 Course of level 1 semester 1 2.Histology and Embryology 2. Embryology Course of level 1 semester 2 1+1 3 2 Total 8+6 20 10 Total marks: 10 subjects (4 theory + 6 practical) x 100 = 1000 Postgraduate Courses and Research in the Faculty of Veterinary Science Important Regulations for M.S. Curriculum Duration of the course : 1 year 6 months Credit for January– June : 12 Credit for July-December : 12 Credit for thesis : 8 Total Credits : 32 Number of Courses and Credits For each course semester Compulsory courses: 4 x 2 credit = 8 credits Elective courses : 2 x 2 credit = 4 credits _____________________________________ 12 credits For thesis semester Examination of thesis: 5 credits Thesis defense : 3 credits Marks Distribution and Examination Procedure Each credit represents 50 marks Test examinations: 20 marks Assignments : 10 marks Final examination: 20 marks --------------------------------------- 50 marks Design of M.S Courses in Anatomy (January – June Semester) Compulsory course: Course code Course title Credit hour Total credit (T + P) and Marks VAH 501 Ruminant Anatomy 1+1 8 credit VAH 502 Veterinary Histology 1+1 Marks: 50x8=400 VAH 503 Developmental Anatomy 2+0 VAH 504 Evolutionary Anatomy 2+0 Elective courses: The students select two subjects as an elective course from the following: Course Course title Credit hour Total credit and code (T + P) Marks VAH 505 Equine Anatomy 1+1 4 credit VAH 506 Comparative Anatomy of Locomotive System 1+1 Marks: 50x4=200 VAH 507 Comparative Anatomy of Digestive and 1+1 Respiratory system VAH 508 Anatomy of Immune system 2+0 VAH 509 Comparative Anatomy of Urogenital system 1+1 VAH 510 Canine and Feline Anatomy 1+1 Design of M.S courses in Anatomy (July – December Semester) Compulsory course: Course code Course title Credit hour Total credit and Marks (T + P) VAH 511 Avian Anatomy 1+ 1 8 credit VAH 512 Endocrine Anatomy 2+ 1 Marks: 50x8=400 VAH 513 Neuro Anatomy 1+ 1 VAH 514 Histochemistry 1+1 Elective courses: The students select two subjects as an elective course from the following: Course Course title Credit Total credit and code hour Marks (T + P) VAH 515 Comparative Anatomy of Blood Vascular and 1 + 1 4 credit Lymphatic System Marks: 50x4=200 VAH 516 Histology of Digestive and Respiratory System 1+1 VAH 517 Histology of Blood Vascular and Lymphatic System 1+1 VAH 518 Histology of Urogenital System 1+1 VAH 519 Comparative Anatomy of Sense Organ 1+1 VAH 520 Anatomy of Laboratory and Zoo Animals 1+1 Thesis Semester Course Course title Total credit Marks code Satisfactory/ Research - Unsatisfactory VAH Examination of 5 x 50 = 5 credit 551 Thesis 250 Thesis 3 x 50 = 3 credit Defense 150 Present Strength of the Department of Anatomy and Histology q 4 Professors of which 2 Ph.D and 2 Masters 2 Assistant Professor having Master degree 4 Lecturer having Master degree Good class rooms and laboratory facilities Teachers try to receive their Ph.D degree from Australia, Canada, Japan and United Kingdom Teaching Activities of the Department of Anatomy and Histology Teaches to the undergraduate students of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry student Teaches to the Masters Students of the Faculty of Veterinary Science Teaches to the trainee of Governmental and Non- governmental organization IgA Research Activities in the Department of Anatomy and Histology q Gross anatomy and comparative anatomy of animals q Studies on the effect of vitamin E and selenium on IgG the immune system of chicken q Harderian gland of chicken and its possible role in immunity q Chemotherapeutic effect on the immune system of chicken q Azoospermia and defect in the spermatogenesis of IgM bull in Bangladesh q Aortic heart valve of the indigenous cattle of Bangladesh for future bioprosthetic purpose Spleen of Chicken Studies on the Aortic Heart Valve of Indigenous Cattle of Bangladesh for Bioprosthetic Purpose Addresses of authors: Department of Anatomy & Ph.D. Research Work is Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, sponsored by Mymensingh- Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh- 2202, Bangladesh; Bangldesh Heart Research Gulshan-2, Association, Gulshan-2, Dhaka, Bangladesh Importance and Justification of the Study v At present, impaired/defective valves are replaced with mechanical or porcine (pig) tissue valves which are imported and very costly. v Some studies revealed that the valves size of indigenous cattle of Bangladesh has focused a very prospective similarity with human heart valve which has created the present thrust of research in this area. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 32 Bovine heart specimens were collected from the healthy cattle of native breed (Bos indicus) immediately after slaughter with aseptic measures. Age group: 2 to 4 years Sex: Both sexes (50% male and 50% female) After rinsing away the blood, the hearts were kept in the balanced isotonic saline solution until dissection. This study included the gross morphology, anatomical assessment, histological and histochemical structures of 32 aortic valves of the hearts, 8 valves from each of 2, 2.5, 3 and 4 years old of indigenous cattle of Bangladesh Gross Morphology of Bovine Aortic Heart Valve 1. The components of the aortic valve are the three leaflets, associated sinuses, and the interleaflet triangles. 2. Each leaflet is attached to the aortic annulus of the heart valves. 3. The aortic surface of the valve is rougher in nature than the ventricular surface. 4. Two coronary ostia located in the right and l e f t c o r o n ary s i n u s e s f r o m whe re t he NCC corresponding arteries originated. RCC 5. The aortic wall enclosed the three leaflets. LCC 6. The three leaflets comes in cont act each other by commissures. Graphical presentation of height, width and length of cusps of bovine aortic valve . NCC LCC RCC 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2 2.5 Year 3 4 Age in years of the cusps (NCC - noncoronary cusp, LCC - left coronary cusp, RCC - right coronary cusp) Height of the cusps of aortic valve Length of the cusps of aortic valve 25 NCC LCC RCC 40 NCC LCC RCC 20 35 (mm) (n = 8) 30 (mm) (n = 8) 15 25 10 20 15 5 10 5 0 0 2 2.5 3 4 2 2.5 3 4 Year Year Age in years of the cusps (NCC - noncoronary cusp Age in years of the cusps (NCC - noncoronary cusp, LCC - left - left coronary cusp, RCC - right coronary cu coronary cusp, RCC - right coronary cusp) distances of the cusps of aorti Graphical presentation of the External intercommissural 55 Graphical presentation of the 50 x te al n d te n a l ee xte r rnnal aa n d i innte r r n a l valve (mm) (n = 8) NCC LCC RCC 45 intercommissural distances of intercommissural distances of 40 35 th cus s of o vine ao rt ic th eecus pp sof bb o vine ao rt ic 30 valve. valve. 25 20 15 10 5 0 2 2.5 3 4 Year Age in years of the cusps (NCC - noncoronary cusp, L distances of the cusps of aortic coronary cusp, RCC - right coronary cusp) Internal intercommissural 35 NCC LCC RCC valve (mm) (n = 8) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2 2.5 3 4 Year Age in years of the cusps (NCC - noncoronary cusp, L coronary cusp, RCC - right coronary cusp) Height of the cusps, width of the commissure and length of the free margin of the cusps of indigenous cattle (n = 32) of Bangladesh and compare with human (studied by Jatene et al., 1999). Measures Cusps Mean value (mm) Indigenous cattle of Human Bangladesh Height of the cusps NCC 15.19 14.90 LCC 14.91 15.20 RCC 14.25 15.00 Width of the commissure NCC 4.72 4.30 LCC 4.47 4.60 RCC 4.41 4.40 Length of the free margin NCC 31.50 30.00 cusps LCC 31.75 30.60 RCC 32.22 30.10 NCC- noncoronary cusp, LCC- left coronary cusp, RCC- right coronary cusp Mean value of the external and internal intercommissural distance of the cusps of indigenous ca ttle (n=32 ) of Bangladesh and compare with human (studied by Jatene et al., 1999). Mean value (mm) Intercommissural Distance Cusps Indigenous cattle of Human Bangladesh NCC 35.06 24.10 External LCC 34.78 25.20 RCC 34.38 24.50 NCC 21.13 20.00 LCC 22.09 19.80 Internal RCC 21.56 19.20 NCC- noncoronary cusp, LCC- left coronary cusp, RCC- right coronary cusp The position of the ventricular septum in relation to the aortic valve of the indigenous cattle (n=32) of Bangladesh and compare with human (studied by Jatene et al., 1999). Intercommissural Mean value (mm) Distance Indigenous ca Human ttle of Bangladesh NC C 17.66 19.20 D 23.28 21.80 C- distance between the septum and the NC-LC commissure; D- aortic diameter. Measurement of orifice diameter of aortic valve in different age groups of indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) of Bangladesh Av.wt. of the Av.wt. of Nos. of Animal Av. size of the Aortic valves Age (Yrs) group animal the heart Studied orifice diameter(mm) (Kg) (Gm.) 2 8 60.16 616.33 23.00 2.5 8 80.00 625 24.00 3 8 75.00 400 25.00 4 8 120.00 750 26.00 * At NICVD(National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases),Dhaka, Bangladesh, the sizes of the valve implanted is ranging from 21-33 mm.in human cardiac patients. Histological comparison of bovine and human aortic Bovine valve Human F F SP SP V V Verhoeff’s Elastic stain x 600 H & E stain x 600 193 micron thick 145 micron thick 1. The course and curriculum of the veterinary anatomy in Bangladesh is standardly designed for the student. 2. The teachers of the department of Anatomy and Histology teach to the student of Veterinary Science, Animal Husbandry, and to the trainees, and technicians for the development of manpower of Non- governmental organization (NGO). 3. Although the course work for M.S and Ph. D is standard, however, the research facilities is not up to the international level due to inadequate research facilities. 4. Within the limited facilities the department of Anatomy and Histology have been carried out need-based research of the country. 5. For the improvement of education and research, the department of Anatomy and Histology, Bangladesh Agricultural University have been carried out the linkage program with the veterinary college, Medical college and Bangladesh Heart Research Association (BHRA ).