THE EDUCATION AND RESEARCH OF VETERINARY ANATOMY IN BANGLADESH by bim75537

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									THE EDUCATION AND RESEARCH OF
    VETERINARY ANATOMY IN
         BANGLADESH


           Dr. Md. Zahirul Islam Khan



Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary
       Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University,
             Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
History of the Veterinary Science in Bangladesh


                 The first Veterinary School was established at
                 Puna, India in 1862

                 In 1947 a Veterinary College was established at
                 Comilla -3 years DVMS

                 In 1950 the College was shifted from Comilla to
                 Dhaka – 5 years B.Sc. (Vet. Sc & A.H.)

                 1n 1961 East Pakistan Agricultural University
                 forms with Faculty of Veterinary Science and
                 Animal Husbandry

                 1963 the combined faculty bifurcated into Faculty
                 of Veterinary Science (DVM) and
                 Faculty of Animal Husbandry (B. Sc. A.H)

                 In 2002 BAU adopted the course-credit-based 8-
                 semester DVM course with 6 months internship
                 program.
Establishment of Veterinary Colleges and Veterinary Faculti
          in different Universities of Bangladesh



                                   Faculty of Veterinary
                                   Science

                                   Department of Animal
                                   Husbandry and
                                   Veterinary Science

                                   Veterinary Colleges


                                   Private Veterinary
                                   Faculty
           Semester System of the Faculty of
                 Veterinary Science

      Level 1               Level 2                Level 3               Level 4



Semester   Semester   Semester    Semester   Semester   Semester   Semester   Semester
   1          2          3           4          5          6          7          8



                                 Each semester = 6 months
             Important Regulations for DVM Curriculum

Total Credits                : 178

Duration of the course       : 4 level (8 Semester)

Internship                   : 1 Semester

Name of the Semester         : Jan. – June/ July - Dec.

Semester duration            : 24 weeks

Classes and Class test (s)   : 16 weeks

Semester final exam.         : 6 weeks

Publication of results       : 2 weeks

1 Credit                     : 1 hr theory lecture or 2 hrs practical/week

Marks per subject            : 100 irrespective of the credit
  Subjects of Anatomy in Different
            Semesters
                                                                            Credit hrs.                       No. of
Subjects               Title of the courses, Level and Semester                               Contact hrs.
                                                                              (T+P)                          Courses




                  1. Anatomy (osteology,
                     arthrology, myology)                                       2+1                4           2
                     Course of level 1 semester 1



                  2. Anatomy (splanchnology,
                     angiology, aesthesiology).                                 2+1                4           2
                     Course of level 1 Semester 2

1.Gross Anatomy


                  3. Comparative and Neuro-anatomy
                                                                                0+1                2           1
                     Course of level 2 semester 1




                  4. Topographic and surgical anatomy.
                                                                                0+1                2           1
                     Course of level 3 semester 1




                  1.    Histology
                                                                                3+1                5           2
                       Course of level 1 semester 1
2.Histology
  and
 Embryology
                  2. Embryology Course of level 1 semester 2                    1+1                3           2



Total                                                                           8+6               20            10


                             Total marks: 10 subjects (4 theory + 6 practical) x 100 = 1000
Postgraduate Courses and Research in
  the Faculty of Veterinary Science

Important Regulations for M.S. Curriculum

Duration of the course          : 1 year 6 months

Credit for January– June        : 12

Credit for July-December : 12

Credit for thesis               : 8
Total Credits                   : 32
Number of Courses and Credits

 For each course semester

 Compulsory courses: 4 x 2 credit = 8 credits

 Elective courses  : 2 x 2 credit = 4 credits
 _____________________________________
                                  12 credits
 For thesis semester

 Examination of thesis: 5 credits

 Thesis defense       : 3 credits
Marks Distribution and Examination
             Procedure

   Each credit represents 50 marks

   Test examinations: 20 marks

   Assignments            : 10 marks

   Final examination: 20 marks
   ---------------------------------------
                               50 marks
                 Design of M.S Courses in Anatomy
                    (January – June Semester)
Compulsory course:
Course code                 Course title      Credit hour   Total credit
                                                (T + P)     and Marks
VAH 501        Ruminant Anatomy                  1+1        8 credit
VAH 502        Veterinary Histology              1+1        Marks: 50x8=400
VAH 503        Developmental Anatomy             2+0
VAH 504        Evolutionary Anatomy              2+0

Elective courses: The students select two subjects as an elective course from the
                   following:
 Course                  Course title                Credit hour Total credit and
   code                                                 (T + P)         Marks
VAH 505 Equine Anatomy                                 1+1       4 credit
VAH 506 Comparative Anatomy of Locomotive System       1+1       Marks: 50x4=200
VAH 507 Comparative Anatomy of Digestive and           1+1
        Respiratory system
VAH 508 Anatomy of Immune system                       2+0
VAH 509 Comparative Anatomy of Urogenital system       1+1
VAH 510 Canine and Feline Anatomy                      1+1
                   Design of M.S courses in Anatomy
                     (July – December Semester)
Compulsory course:
Course code            Course title           Credit hour   Total credit and Marks
                                                (T + P)
VAH 511       Avian Anatomy                      1+ 1       8 credit
VAH 512       Endocrine Anatomy                  2+ 1       Marks: 50x8=400
VAH 513       Neuro Anatomy                      1+ 1
VAH 514       Histochemistry                     1+1
Elective courses: The students select two subjects as an elective course from the
                   following:
 Course                  Course title                       Credit Total credit and
  code                                                       hour      Marks
                                                            (T + P)
VAH 515 Comparative Anatomy of Blood Vascular and            1 + 1 4 credit
        Lymphatic System                                            Marks: 50x4=200
VAH 516 Histology of Digestive and Respiratory System        1+1
VAH 517 Histology of Blood Vascular and Lymphatic System     1+1
VAH 518 Histology of Urogenital System                       1+1
VAH 519 Comparative Anatomy of Sense Organ                   1+1
VAH 520 Anatomy of Laboratory and Zoo Animals                1+1
       Thesis Semester

Course
          Course title    Total credit     Marks
 code


                         Satisfactory/
         Research                             -
                         Unsatisfactory


 VAH     Examination of                   5 x 50 =
                        5 credit
 551     Thesis                           250


         Thesis                           3 x 50 =
                         3 credit
            Defense                       150
    Present Strength of the Department of
          Anatomy and Histology

q     4 Professors of which 2 Ph.D and 2 Masters

    2 Assistant Professor having Master degree

    4 Lecturer having Master degree

    Good class rooms and laboratory facilities

    Teachers try to receive their Ph.D degree from
    Australia, Canada, Japan and United Kingdom
Teaching Activities of the Department
     of Anatomy and Histology

 Teaches to the undergraduate students of Veterinary
 Science and Animal Husbandry student

Teaches to the Masters Students of the Faculty of
Veterinary Science

 Teaches to the trainee of Governmental and Non-
 governmental organization
             IgA    Research Activities in the Department of
                           Anatomy and Histology


                    q Gross anatomy and comparative anatomy of animals

                    q Studies on the effect of vitamin E and selenium on
            IgG        the immune system of chicken

                    q Harderian gland of chicken and its possible role in
                       immunity

                    q Chemotherapeutic effect on the immune system of
                      chicken

                    q Azoospermia and defect in the spermatogenesis of
             IgM       bull in Bangladesh

                    q Aortic heart valve of the indigenous cattle of
                       Bangladesh for future bioprosthetic purpose




Spleen of Chicken
  Studies on the Aortic Heart Valve of Indigenous Cattle of
           Bangladesh for Bioprosthetic Purpose




Addresses of authors: Department of Anatomy &     Ph.D. Research Work is
   Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Science,          sponsored by
                                    Mymensingh-
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-
 2202, Bangladesh; Bangldesh Heart Research
               Gulshan-2,
  Association, Gulshan-2, Dhaka, Bangladesh
 Importance and Justification of the Study

v At present, impaired/defective valves are replaced with mechanical or
porcine (pig) tissue valves which are imported and very costly.


v   Some studies revealed that the valves size of indigenous cattle of
Bangladesh has focused a very prospective similarity with human heart
valve which has created the present thrust of research in this area.
      MATERIALS AND METHODS

A total of 32 Bovine heart specimens were collected from the healthy
cattle of native breed (Bos indicus) immediately after slaughter with
aseptic measures.
Age group: 2 to 4 years

Sex: Both sexes (50% male and 50% female)

After rinsing away the blood, the hearts were kept in the balanced
isotonic saline solution until dissection.

This study included the gross morphology, anatomical assessment,
histological and histochemical structures of 32 aortic valves of the
hearts, 8 valves from each of 2, 2.5, 3 and 4 years old of indigenous
cattle of Bangladesh
Gross Morphology of Bovine Aortic Heart Valve
               1. The components of the aortic valve are the
                    three leaflets, associated sinuses, and the
                  interleaflet triangles.

               2. Each leaflet is attached to the aortic annulus
                  of the heart valves.
               3. The aortic surface of the valve is rougher in
                  nature than the ventricular surface.

               4. Two coronary ostia located in the right and
                  l e f t c o r o n ary s i n u s e s f r o m whe re t he
  NCC
                  corresponding arteries originated.
         RCC
               5. The aortic wall enclosed the three leaflets.
   LCC
               6. The three leaflets comes in cont act each
                  other by commissures.
           Graphical presentation of height,
           width and length of cusps of bovine
           aortic valve .
                                                                                                                                                        NCC               LCC             RCC
                                                                                                                                         6
                                                                                                                                         5
                                                                                                                                         4
                                                                                                                                         3
                                                                                                                                         2
                                                                                                                                         1
                                                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                                    2               2.5    Year   3             4

                                                                                                                                             Age in years of the cusps (NCC - noncoronary cusp, LCC -
                                                                                                                                                  left coronary cusp, RCC - right coronary cusp)
Height of the cusps of aortic valve




                                                                                          Length of the cusps of aortic valve
                                      25          NCC                LCC     RCC
                                                                                                                                40                      NCC                           LCC                   RCC

                                      20                                                                                        35
        (mm) (n = 8)




                                                                                                                                30




                                                                                                  (mm) (n = 8)
                                      15
                                                                                                                                25

                                      10                                                                                        20

                                                                                                                                15
                                      5                                                                                         10

                                                                                                                                5
                                      0
                                                                                                                                0
                                             2          2.5           3     4
                                                                                                                                     2                        2.5                     3                 4
                                                              Year
                                                                                                                                                                          Year
                                      Age in years of the cusps (NCC - noncoronary cusp
                                                                                                                                     Age in years of the cusps (NCC - noncoronary cusp, LCC - left
                                          - left coronary cusp, RCC - right coronary cu
                                                                                                                                            coronary cusp, RCC - right coronary cusp)
                                          distances of the cusps of aorti
Graphical presentation of the




                                            External intercommissural
                                                                              55
 Graphical presentation of the                                                50
  x te       al n d         te n a l
ee xte r rnnal aa n d i innte r r n a l




                                               valve (mm) (n = 8)
                                                                                           NCC                LCC        RCC
                                                                              45

intercommissural distances of
 intercommissural distances of
                                                                              40
                                                                              35

 th cus s of o vine ao rt ic
th eecus pp sof bb o vine ao rt ic                                            30

valve.
 valve.
                                                                              25
                                                                              20
                                                                              15
                                                                              10
                                                                              5
                                                                              0
                                                                                     2           2.5           3     4
                                                                                                       Year
                                                                             Age in years of the cusps (NCC - noncoronary cusp, L




                                          distances of the cusps of aortic
                                                                                    coronary cusp, RCC - right coronary cusp)




                                             Internal intercommissural
                                                                             35

                                                                                           NCC                LCC        RCC




                                                valve (mm) (n = 8)
                                                                             30


                                                                             25


                                                                             20


                                                                             15


                                                                             10


                                                                              5


                                                                              0
                                                                                     2           2.5           3     4
                                                                                                       Year

                                                                             Age in years of the cusps (NCC - noncoronary cusp, L
                                                                                    coronary cusp, RCC - right coronary cusp)
Height of the cusps, width of the commissure and length of the free
margin of the cusps of indigenous cattle (n = 32) of Bangladesh and
compare with human (studied by Jatene et al., 1999).

                       Measures             Cusps          Mean value (mm)
                                                    Indigenous cattle of   Human
                                                        Bangladesh
                  Height of the cusps       NCC            15.19           14.90
                                            LCC            14.91           15.20
                                            RCC            14.25           15.00
                Width of the commissure     NCC            4.72             4.30
                                            LCC            4.47             4.60
                                            RCC            4.41             4.40
                Length of the free margin   NCC            31.50           30.00
                         cusps              LCC            31.75           30.60
                                            RCC            32.22           30.10
               NCC- noncoronary cusp, LCC- left coronary cusp, RCC- right coronary
                                             cusp
Mean value of the external and internal intercommissural
distance of the cusps of indigenous ca ttle (n=32 ) of
Bangladesh and compare with human (studied by Jatene
et al., 1999).
                                                                   Mean value (mm)

                  Intercommissural Distance      Cusps
                                                          Indigenous cattle of
                                                                                 Human
                                                                Bangladesh


                                                  NCC            35.06            24.10

                           External               LCC            34.78            25.20

                                                  RCC            34.38            24.50

                                                  NCC            21.13            20.00

                                                  LCC            22.09            19.80
                            Internal

                                                  RCC            21.56            19.20


                NCC- noncoronary cusp, LCC- left coronary cusp, RCC- right coronary cusp
The position of the ventricular septum in relation to the
aortic valve of the indigenous cattle (n=32) of Bangladesh
and compare with human (studied by Jatene et al., 1999).


                        Intercommissural         Mean value (mm)
                             Distance
                                           Indigenous ca     Human
                                               ttle of
                                            Bangladesh
    NC
                               C               17.66          19.20

                               D               23.28          21.80

                       C- distance between the septum and the NC-LC
                       commissure; D- aortic diameter.
 Measurement of orifice diameter of aortic valve
  in different age groups of indigenous cattle
           (Bos indicus) of Bangladesh

                                      Av.wt. of the   Av.wt. of
                     Nos. of Animal                               Av. size of the Aortic valves
   Age (Yrs) group                         animal     the heart
                          Studied                                       orifice diameter(mm)
                                          (Kg)          (Gm.)



         2                 8             60.16         616.33                23.00



         2.5               8             80.00          625                  24.00



         3                 8             75.00          400                  25.00



         4                 8             120.00         750                  26.00



* At NICVD(National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases),Dhaka, Bangladesh, the
  sizes of the valve implanted is ranging from 21-33 mm.in human cardiac patients.
Histological comparison of bovine and human aortic
          Bovine      valve         Human




                  F


                                        F
                  SP


                                   SP


              V                         V



  Verhoeff’s Elastic stain x 600   H & E stain x 600

        193 micron thick            145 micron thick
1. The course and curriculum of the veterinary anatomy in Bangladesh
   is standardly designed for the student.
2. The teachers of the department of Anatomy and Histology teach to
   the student of Veterinary Science, Animal Husbandry, and to the
   trainees, and technicians for the development of manpower of Non-
   governmental organization (NGO).
3. Although the course work for M.S and Ph. D is standard, however,
   the research facilities is not up to the international level due to
   inadequate research facilities.
4. Within the limited facilities the department of Anatomy and Histology
   have been carried out need-based research of the country.
5. For the improvement of education and research, the department of
   Anatomy and Histology, Bangladesh Agricultural University have
   been carried out the linkage program with the veterinary college,
   Medical college and Bangladesh Heart Research Association (BHRA
   ).

								
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