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					 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006
                            Review Exam for Students by
                            Presidential Administrations.
Comments and Directions: This type of review is interesting but excludes a major part of the
early and formative period in American History. Naturally, the colonial era is included on the AP
Exam and so a review of that 170 year period (1620-1790) needs to take place by the students in
addition to this review. One might call this period of review, ―The Constitutional Era of Review‖
since it dates from the implementation of the American Constitution.

George Washington:

1.    Everything President Washington did set a precedent for later American Presidents. Which
      area of presidential precedent have historians determined to be his most significant
      precedent?
      A)     Providing for civilian control of the military
      B)     Nominations to the Supreme Court
      C)     Exert effective control over organization of Congress
      D)     Establishment of the presidential cabinet
      E)     Establish the existence and function of political parties

2.    Which of the following presidential advisers to Washington is mis-matched with the function
      he performed in the Washington Administration?
      A)     Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State?
      B)     Alexander Hamilton as Treasury Secretary
      C)     Henry Know as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
      D)     Benjamin Franklin as Postmaster General
      E)     John Adams as Vice President

3.    George Washington immediately added an innovation to the new government by ―interpreting‖
      the new Constitution to provide for…
      A)    Veto power
      B)    Annual budget
      C)    State of the Union Address
      D)    Provide for Executive Privilege
      E)    Provide for Presidential Cabinet

4.    Alexander Hamilton became the financial wizard of the Washington Administration by
      recommending several economic moves. Among these was a bill of assumption to be paid by
      8% tariff and…
      A)     Raising the prices on western land sales
      B)     Excise tax on whiskey production
      C)     Income tax on the very wealthy
      D)     Head tax on slaves sold at auction
      E)     Selling surplus military equipment from the Revolution

5.    In Washington’s ―Farewell Address to the Nation‖ he pointed warned against the…
      A)    establishment of permanent alliances with foreign nations.
      B)    the evils of society which provided for permanent slavery
      C)    the right to vote for women and women and minorities
      D)    the evils of revolution
      E)    the establishment of sectionalism over national unity.

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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

John Adams:

6.    John   Adams played a major role in ALL OF THE FOLLOWING EVENTS EXCEPT:
      A)      Delegate to the Declaration of Independence
      B)      Serving as cabinet member to George Washington
      C)      Leader of the Constitutional Convention
      D)      Vice President of the U.S.
      E)      Signed the Alien & Seditions Acts into law during his administration

7.    Which of the following treaties was the one in which the resolution of the Revolution of 1800
      was made under the leadership of John Adams?
      A)    Treaty of Joinville
      B)    Treaty of Boudreaux
      C)    Treaty of Reims
      D)    Treaty of Mortefontaine
      E)    Treaty of Paris 1803

8.    John Adams held a firm, consistent, and almost blind proclivity for which of the following
      nations of Europe?
      A)    Great Britain
      B)    Spain
      C)    France
      D)    Italy
      E)    Germany

9.    Which of the following exclamations did John Adams give voice when he heard about the
      XYZ Affair?
      A)    ―We will not be held with hoops of steel to the anarchy of the French!‖
      B)    ―These are times that try men’s souls!‖
      C)    ―Caesar had his Brutus, and Napoleon may have his Robespierre!‖
      D)    ―I regret that I have but one life to give for my country!‖
      E)    ―We will spend millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!‖

10.   The two issues that faced John Adams during his Presidential Administration were the Alien
      & Sedition Acts and…
      A)    French Revolution
      B)    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
      C)    Assassination of Alexander Hamilton
      D)    Establishment of the Whiskey Tax
      E)    The Embargo Act


Thomas Jefferson:

11.   Thomas Jefferson’s vision of the good society included ALL OF THE FOLLOWING EXECPT:
      A)   An agrarian society
      B)   A citizenry of virtuous independent farmers
      C)   A national government with limited powers
      D)   An economy that relied on the national government to provide subsidies
      E)   A society based upon education, agriculture, and politics.



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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

12.   The issue upon which Jefferson changed his view of strict construction of the Constitution
      was:
      A)     The Lewis and Clark Expedition and Louisiana Purchase
      B)     The issues involving slavery in 1808
      C)     The conflicts of opinions he had with Chief Justice John Marshall
      D)     The destruction of the national bank by Albert Gallatin
      E)     The writing of the Declaration of Independence

13.   According to Thomas Jefferson, which of the following was most vital to the security of the
      United States in 1803?
      A)     Cuba
      B)     Nova Scotia
      C)     New Orleans
      D)     Florida
      E)     Columbia River

14.   In his first inaugural address Jefferson was pledged to the task of
      A)     Strengthening the military
      B)     Jailing all subversives of the government of the U.S.
      C)     Repudiating the debt of the United States
      D)     Reconciling political differences with the Federalists
      E)     Sponsoring the Lewis and Clark Expedition

15.   The unforeseen relocation of power within the Federal Government came as the result of…
      A)    Fletcher vs Peck
      B)    Cherokee Nation vs Georgia
      C)    Dartmouth College vs Woodward
      D)    Gibbons vs Ogden
      E)    Marbury vs Madison


James Madison:

16.   In which of the following events does James Madison, NOT play a major and determinative
      role?
      A)    Participant in the Presidents cabinet
      B)    A Justice of the Supreme Court
      C)    Architect of the Constitution of 1787
      D)    A major leader of Congress until the Revolution of 1800
      E)    An author of the Federalist Papers

17.   A rising new young and dynamic group of men elected to Congress while Madison was the
      President included ALL EXCEPT:
      A)     Daniel Webster
      B)     Henry Clay
      C)     Andrew Jackson
      D)     John C. Calhoun
      E)     Felix Grundy




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

18,   which   of the following was NOT a unique long range cause of the War of 1812?
      A)      Rise of slavery
      B)      Imperialism
      C)      Indian relations on the frontier
      D)      Impressment
      E)      Anti-Spanish ethnicity

19.   What diplomatic conference ended the War of 1812 and thus achieved American nationalism
      from Britain, once and for all.
      A)    Treaty of Joinville
      B)    Treaty of Ghent
      C)    Treaty of San Idelfonso
      D)    Treaty of Paris 1815
      E)    Treaty of Chapultepec

20.   Which of the following events expressed dissatisfaction with the War of 1812, and can be
      called the first American anti-war movement?
      A)      Treaty of Greenville
      B)      Treaty of Paris – 1815
      C)      Hartford Convention
      D)      Seneca Falls Convention
      E)      Port Huron Statement


James Monroe:

21.   Which of the following events or developments happen while James Monroe was President,
      but, which he had very little to with their development? Which is the lone EXCEPTION to
      this assertion?
      A)      McCulloch vs Maryland
      B)     Development of the American System
      C)     Missouri Compromise
      D)     Dartmouth College vs Woodward
      E)     Recognition of Latin American Independence movements

22.   The Monroe Doctrine was issued in response to
      A)    the threat of war with England
      B)    the threat of war with Austria
      C)    the purchase of Florida
      D)    the invention of the cotton gin
      E)    the threat of the Quadruple Alliance to reestablish Spanish Power in the Americas

23.   The Monroe Doctrine, which has been the foundation of American foreign policy, was brilliant
      bold step taken by which of the following secretaries of state?
      A)     Thomas Jefferson
      B)     James Madison
      C)     James Monroe
      D)     John Quincy Adams
      E)     Henry Clay




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

24.   The Monroe Administration was called ―The Era of Good Feelings‖ because of
      A)    the absence of sectionalism
      B)    the dominance of one major party
      C)    the absence of political strife
      D)    the lack of important national issues
      E)    the disappearance of slavery on the national scene

25.   Thomas Jefferson, commenting on the Missouri Compromise under James Monroe called it:
      A)   the compromise to save the union
      B)   a compact with the devil
      C)   a firebell in the night
      D)   abolitionist propaganda
      E)   an end to slave rebellions


John Quincy Adams:

26.   John     Quincy Adams had the distinction of being ALL of the following EXCEPT:
      A)        the first one term President
      B)        the son of a former President
      C)        the first post—Revolutionary President
      D)        the first President to serve without an outright election of the people or House of
                Representatives
      E)        the first pro-western politician on the national scene

27.   Which of the following is true of the John Q. Adams Administration?
      A)    Adams cabinet was one of the most able and harmonious on record
      B)    The nationalistic goals were to provide—education, industrialization, & transportation
      C)    Adams was able to win over with personality that he could not control politically
      D)    Except of the ―Corrupt Bargain‖ the Adams Administration was absent of strife
      E)   Adams refused to use the spoils systems and dismiss public workers to fill their jobs
           with political supporters.

28.   It has   been claimed that John Q. Adams:
      A)       did his finest work for the American before and after he was President
      B)       was a week spineless politician prone to making political deals for the federalists.
      C)       fired John Marshall from the Supreme Court & appointed Roger Taney.
      D)       nationalist more than he was an internationalist.
      E)       political conformist rather than a creative and idealistic diplomat.

29.   Which of the following historical issues did NOT occur under John Q. Adams?
      A)    Canal building begins spurred into reality by Henry Clay
      B)    South Carolina Exposition & Protest was written by Calhoun
      C)    Cherokee Nation vs Georgia was rendered under John Marshall
      D)    James Fennimore Cooper’s Last of the Mohicans was published
      E)    Joseph Smith establishes the Mormon religion in Kirtland, Ohio




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

30.   John Quincy Adams was President who dealt with revolutions of ALL but which of the
      following?
      A)     transportation revolution
      B)     gender revolutionary issues
      C)     social & religious revolutions
      D)     diplomatic revolutions
      E)     market revolution


Andrew Jackson

31.   Jackson was the forerunner of which late nineteenth century movement?
      A)    Social Darwinism
      B)    Imperialism
      C)    Populism
      D)    Industrialism
      E)    Pragmatism

32.   During the Age of Jackson, democracy was characterized by which of the following changes?
      A)    Politicians emphasized a high education or strong qualification for the job and boasted
            of their upper class status or wealth.
      B)    The percentage of eligible voters casting ballots increased with each election as mass
            mass politics became a popular activity.
      C)    Parties relied primarily upon mass communication tools, especially the newspaper
            and pamphlets.
      D)    Party bosses tried to clean up their acts; ridding the party of corruption, kickbacks,
            and the spoils system.
      E)    Political deals, congressional caucuses, behind the scenes manipulation were common
            during this era.

33.   Which was the major item of debate in the election of 1828 which saw the ascension of
      Andrew Jackson to the Presidency?
      A)    Interventionist European foreign policy
      B)    Tariffs
      C)    Personalities of the candidates
      D)    Western land sales and prices
      E)    Manufacturing

34.   The Tariff of 1828 provoked publication of a pamphlet called The South Carolina Exposition &
      Protest. This pamphlet offered what solution to the tariff dilemma?
      A)     Secession
      B)     Nullification
      C)     Virtual representation
      D)     Loose construction interpretation of the Constitution
      E)     Doctrine of implied powers

35.   Considering the issue of government and economics, Andrew Jackson was a(n)…
      A)    soft money advocate
      B)    defender of the national debt
      C)    proponent of high tariffs
      D)    hard money advocate
      E)    advocate of a graduated income tax
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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006


Martin Van Buren:

36.   What   democratic political bureaucrat was the leader of the New York ―Buck Tails?‖
      A)      John C. Calhoun
      B)      Theodore Roosevelt
      C)      Martin Van Buren
      D)      Thurlow Weed
      E)      Gouverner Morris


37.   The newly formed legislative caucus in New York led by Martin Van Buren was known as:
      A)    democrats
      B)    federalists
      C)    loyalists
      D)    copperheads
      E)    regency

38.   The consensus ―great‖ Whig leader of the Van Buren era was?
      A)    Henry Clay
      B)    John Quincy Adams
      C)    Daniel Webster
      D)    James K. Polk
      E)    Ralph Waldo Emerson

39.   Which of the following events DID NOT TRANSPIRE UNDER Martin Van Buren?
      A)    Invention of the steel plow by John Deere
      B)    Massachusetts establishes state board of education
      C)    Whig Party organized
      D)    Mormon migration to Illinois
      E)    Independent Treasury Act was passed into law by Congress

40.   Which of the following events was considered by many to be Van Buren’s major economic
      achievement?
      A)    Gold Rush to California
      B)    Mormon migration to Utah
      C)    Samuel F.B. Morse invents the telegraph
      D)    Large scale development of railroads
      E)    Steam power manufacturing begins


William Henry Harrison:/John Tyler

41.   The distinguishing factors about William Henry Harrison as the President of the US were ALL
      EXCEPT:
      A)    He was a military hero//and a Congressional delegate from Ohio
      B)    He was the oldest man to become President//lived the shortest time in office
      C)    He was known as ―Old Hickory//and Billy Budd
      D)    He was a Whig from Ohio//Governor of Indiana Territory
      E)    He inaugural address was the longest on record//Director of US Bank



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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

James K. Polk:

42.   The primary advocate of ―Manifest Destiny‖ as the public policy of the United States
      Government was:
      A)    Andrew Jackson
      B)    James K. Polk
      C)    John L. O’Sullivan
      D)    Henry Clay
      E)    Thomas Hart Benton

43.   James K. Polk, sent John Slidell to Mexico to:
      A)   purchase Texas
      B)   secure recognition of the Texas annexation
      C)   purchase California
      D)   end the Mexican War
      E)   negotiate the purchase of the Oregon Territory

44.   The Oregon Treaty of 1846
      A)    established a boundary on the Columbia River
      B)    was on the whole a British victory
      C)    was a colossal Russian defeat
      D)    fulfilled Polk’s campaign slogans and promises
      E)    was a reasonable compromise

45.   Which of the following movements did not occur in the 1844-1848 period of US History?
      A)    Gag Rule
      B)    Split of the Baptist Church into Northern and Southern Churches
      C)    Publication of The Essay on Civil Disobedience
      D)    Hawthorne writes The Scarlet Letter
      E)    George Morton discovers ether as anesthesia


Franklin Pierce:

46.   The cotton gin is to the South as ____ is to ____
      A)    commerce ::New York
      B)    railroad :: West
      C)    fishing :: Alaska
      D)    lumbering :: Northeast
      E)    cattle raising :: Wyoming

47.   Mormons are to Utah as ____ is to ____
      A)   Baptists :: Florida
      B)   Catholics :: California
      C)   Quakers :: Oregon
      D)   Utopian Socialists :: Old Northwest
      E)   Lutherans :: Mississippi Valley




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

48.   The aggressive administration of President Franklin Pierce sought to…
      A)    Engage Spain and England in a war over Mexico
      B)    force Japan open to trade
      C)    dig a Nicaraguan canal
      D)    annex Canada
      E)    acquire Cuba

49.   The election of 1852 was genuinely significant in US History because:
      A)     It set back the Democratic Party
      B)     It highlighted the achievements of the Whigs
      C)     It doomed the Whig Party in national political culture of the future
      D)     It spawned a compromise over slavery that avoided civil war
      E)     It gave birth to the Republican Party

50.   Men who became giants and forerunners of the Civil War era included ALL EXCEPT:
      A)   Abraham Lincoln
      B)   Stephen A. Douglass
      C)   William H. Seward
      D)   Henry Clay
      E)   William Lloyd Garrison


James Buchanan:

51.   The election of 1856 is significant for a variety of reasons. Which of the following is NOT an
      1856 issue?
      A)     This election brought forth the advent of the long awaited sectional party—the
             Republicans.
      B)     Buchanan failed to take strong measures against secession.
      C)     Brooks attacked Sumner in one of the most appalling scenes of modern democracy
      D)     The waning of the American Party became a political reality
      E)     The rendering of the Dred Scott case occurred

52.   James Buchanan openly sided with:
      A)   advocates of Manifest Destiny
      B)   provisions of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
      C)   southerners who were pro-slavery in Kansas over the Le Compton Constitution
      D)   anti-slavery prosecutors of the Dred Scott case
      E)   anti-immigration advocates of European immigration

53.   The period 1856-1860 included ALL OF THE historical crises EXCEPT:
      A)    Dred Scott vs Sanford
      B)    Lincoln vs Douglas Debates
      C)    Panic of 1857
      D)    Buchanan accepted skillful aid of Thurlow Weed
      E)    Sent Col. Albert Sidney Johnson against the Mormons in Utah




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

54.   Senator William H. Seward, labeled the national political crisis a(n)…
      A)    blundering generation
      B)    irrepressible conflict
      C)    victory for republicanism
      D)    age of permanent sectionalism
      E)    the modern curse of urbanism vs rural agrarianism

55.   The single greatest impact of actions and events taken during the Buchanan Administration
      was the
      A)    political reemergence of Abraham Lincoln
      B)    the publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin
      C)    the writing and distribution of Hinton R. Helper’s book, The Impending Crisis.
      D)    decisions by the Buchanan pro-Northern Supreme Court
      E)    drafting of the Chrittendon Compromise on slavery


Abraham Lincoln:

56.   Which of the following combinations of rivals did Lincoln choose to nominate as cabinet
      members upon his election 1860?
      A)    Douglas, Bates, Jeff Davis, and Cameron
      B)    Cameron, Stephens, Lee, and Seward
      C)    Seward, Chase, Bates, and Cameron
      D)    Weed, Grundy, Blair, and Andrew Johnson
      E)    Blair, Douglas, Fremont, and Grant

57.   Which descriptive term most carefully identifies Abe Lincoln’s abolitionist feelings?
      A)    He was a fanatic abolitionist
      B)    He was a liberal abolitionist on principle only
      C)    He was undecided and unconcerned about abolitionism
      D)    He was a moral or conscience abolitionist
      E)    He was anti-abolitionist

58.   Which of the following men did NOT participate in the election of 1860 as a candidate
      A)    Lincoln
      B)    Douglas
      C)    Breckenridge
      D)    Bell
      E)    Buchanan

59.   At the   beginning of the Civil War, the North had all of the following advantages EXCEPT:
      A)       more manpower
      B)       more industry
      C)       stronger consensus concerning war aims
      D)       an established government recognized by all nations
      E)       superiority in number of naval vessels




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

60.   Abraham Lincoln viewed the Civil War primarily as a…
      A)   struggle in the economic interest of the northern bankers and merchants
      B)   crusade to abolish slavery
      C)   test of the inviolability of the union
      D)   struggle against the dominance of Southerner in national government
      E)   struggle to secure full citizenship for Negroes


Andrew Johnson:

61.   Andrew Johnson’s conception of what was to be done following the Civil War is best
      described by the term:
      A)     ―Squatter sovereignty‖
      B)     ―Restoration‖
      C)     ―Scalawag supremacy‖
      D)     ―Military reconstruction‖
      E)     ―Distribution of forty acres and a mule‖

62.   The remarkable characteristic of Johnson’s reconstruction policy was that it was:
      A)     arbitrary and suspicious
      B)     mild and compromising
      C)     a capitulation to the radical views in the North
      D)     original and visionary
      E)     vague but diplomatic
63.   Historians Thomas A. Bailey and David Kennedy have argued that Reconstruction was…
      A)     an effective and enduring revolution to advance political democracy
      B)     a movement of unintended consequences
      C)     a static and reactionary move that set the US back a century in progress
      D)     a more bitter pill for the South to swallow than the War itself.
      E)     to delay the effectiveness of women’s rights movement

64.   Which post-war President of Reconstruction signed the now powerful and precedent setting
      14th Amendment to the Constitution?
      A)    Andrew Johnson
      B)    Abraham Lincoln
      C)    Ulysses S. Grant
      D)    James A. Garfield
      E)    Chester A. Arthur

65.   The Reconstruction Act of 1867 dealt specifically with:
      A)    the economic reconstruction of southern agriculture
      B)    the social conditions of the ex-slaves
      C)    the establishment of military reconstruction in five districts under Union generals
      D)    the rebuilding of the rail system in the South
      E)    the steps necessary to go from ―conquered provinces‖ to member of the republican
            union.




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

Ulysses S. Grant:

66.   The major achievement of the Grant Administration which was actually a process out of it’s
      control concerned which of the following issues that dramatically was beneficial to the whole
      American nation?
      A)    effective and peaceful completion of reconstruction
      B)    effectively dealing with the hoards of immigration coming from Europe
      C)    efficient readjustment of southern agricultural problems
      D)    effective reestablishment of diplomatic relations with European nations
      E)    allowing the rise of industrialism to go forward unregulated

67.   The most vital trans-continental development in railroad building occurred when…
      A)   the Great Northern railroad was completed
      B)   the Northern Pacific railroad was completed
      C)   the Central Pacific and Union Pacific was joined at Promontory Point
      D)   the Southern Pacific connected the North and South
      E)   the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe rail line began operations

68.   Which of the following is NOT TRUE of the pre-Grant years of Reconstruction?
      A)   The war devastated southern society
      B)   Every major southern city law in ruins
      C)   The social structure of the South was weakened
      D)   There were only minimal affects upon African Americans
      E)   The per capita wealth was more than twice that of all eleven Confederate states.

69.   Which of the following combination of events was clearly outside the period of the
      Administration of President Ulysses S. Grant?
                   I.     Credit Mobilier Scandal
                   II.    Ku Klux Klan Act
                   III.   Publication of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
                   IV.    Glidden invent ―Barbed Wire‖
                   V.     Atlanta Compromise

      A)     I & III
      B)     IV & II
      C)     III & V
      D)     II & V
      E)     IV & I

70.   Which of the following massacres occurred during the presidential watch of Ulysses S.
      Grant‖?
      A)    The Little Big Horn Massacre
      B)    The Colfax Massacre
      C)    The Fetterman Massacre
      D)    Deerfield Massacre
      E)    Wounded Knee Massacre




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

Rutherford B. Hayes:

71.   At the time of his inauguration, President Hayes was view by a great majority of the American
      people as having been...
      A)     elected by fraud
      B)     considered to be a major reformer
      C)     a political supporter of radicalism in reconstruction
      D)     a pro-Western railroad magnate
      E)     a New England conservative

72.   During Hayes’ Administration, he was able to gain recognition as reformer and fighter
      against:
      A)    radical reconstruction
      B)    Indian massacres in the mid-West
      C)    abusive pork barrel riders to essential appropriation bills
      D)    abuse of workers in the burgeoning factories of America
      E)    farm subsidies by Congressmen from the Midwest

73.   A common feature of southern agriculture under the Hayes Administration was:
      A)   homesteading
      B)   government land grants
      C)   subdividing plantations
      D)   sharecropping
      E)   introduction of the sugar industry into agriculture


James A. Garfield:

74.   Which of the late 19th century issues does NOT affect the administration of James A.
      Garfield?
      A)    He was a compromise candidate for the nomination after the 34 ballot of the
            convention.
      B)    Garfield had a deep-seated aversion to parading his own virtues.
      C)    Indian massacres and battle on the Midwest frontier
      D)    Democrats attempted to taint Garfield as a scandal monger
      E)    James G. Blaine changed political parties after Garfield’s nomination

75.   Who among the following became the colorful, magnetic, and powerful Secretary of State,
      during Garfield’s presidency, in much the same fashion William H. Seward did under
      Lincoln?
      A)    Roscoe Conkling
      B)    Rutherford B. Hayes
      C)    James G. Blaine
      D)    Grover Cleveland
      E)    Chester A. Arthur




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

Chester A. Arthur:

76.   The presidential successor to Garfield, due to the assassin’s bullet, Arthur is known for each
      of the following EXCEPT:
      A)      Arthur signed the Pendleton Act
      B)      Arthur was the product the most powerful patronage machine in existence
      C)      Arthur signed a tariff law noted for doing nothing
      D)      Arthur was a major foreign policy expert
      E)      Arthur was unique in that he was first incumbent President whose party refused to re-
              nominate him for another term of office.


Grover Cleveland:

77.   Grover Cleveland became the first president after 1868 to
      A)    secure a majority of both popular and electoral votes
      B)    have a party majority in both houses of Congress
      C)    take steps to end Reconstruction
      D)    have been born in the South
      E)    break Republican control of the White House

78.   The Cleveland-Blaine campaign of 1884 was aimed primarily at:
      A)    lowering tariffs
      B)    reviving the Bloody Shirt issue
      C)    reforming the civil service
      D)    exposing the personal shortcomings of the candidates
      E)    regaining the European powers allegiance to avoid continental war

79.   Which combination of two laws was Grover Cleveland famous for signing?
      A)    Interstate Commerce Act // Dawes Severalty Act
      B)    Pendleton Act // Pension Appropriations Act
      C)    Tenure of Office Act // Sherman Tariff Act
      D)    Gold Standards Act // Sherman Silver Purchase Act
      E)    Reconstruction Acts // Forest Reserve Act


Benjamin Harrison:

80.   Benjamin Harrison is most commonly identified with and responsible for…
      A)    Dawes Severalty Act
      B)    ―Billion dollar‖ out of control Congress of 1890
      C)    Rise of Knights of Labor
      D)    Formation of United States Steel Corporation
      E)    Formation of Standard Oil Trust




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

William J. McKinley:

81.   William J. McKinley was the first Gilded Age President to focus on aggressive…
      A)     Development of imperialism in foreign policy matters
      B)     Rejection of insularism
      C)     Approval of organized labor’s anti-immigrant socialism
      D)     Domestic acceptance of William James ideas of pragmatism
      E)     Development of the rise of populism

82.   Which member of Lincoln’s ―Team of Rivals‖ was retained by McKinley to run the foreign
      policy of the US?
      A)     Salmon P. Chase
      B)     Simon Cameron
      C)     Francis Blair
      D)     William Henry Seward
      E)     William Jennings Bryan

83.   Men who made a major impact upon foreign affairs in the Gilded Age included ALL EXCEPT:
      A)   William H. Seward
      B)   Hamilton Fish
      C)   James G. Blaine
      D)   Henry Cabot Lodge
      E)   Samuel Gompers

84.   The weak and ineffective Presidents of the Gilded Age were complimented by powerful
      A)    Vice Presidents
      B)    Secretaries of State
      C)    Secretaries of the Treasury
      D)    Powerful Democratic Senators
      E)    Powerful industrial magnates that supported the Presidents

85.   The primary feature of American government during these years signaled the development of:
      A)    powerful standing armies
      B)    of useful navies for imperial motives
      C)    of powerful centralized government
      D)    major powers and policies coming from the Supreme Court
      E)    rapid settlement of western US into statehood


Theodore Roosevelt:

86.   Who was the first American President to draw popular attention to the need for a national
      conservation policy?
      A)    Theodore Roosevelt
      B)    Woodrow Wilson
      C)    Herbert Hoover
      D)    Franklin D. Roosevelt
      E)    John F. Kennedy




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

87.   Which of the following items of modern power structures would Theodore Roosevelt have
      rejected as unacceptable?
      A)     industrialism
      B)     nationalism
      C)     progressivism
      D)     imperialism
      E)     fanaticism

88.   Which of the following ―Deals‖ did TR propose to the American People?
      A)    Fair Deal
      B)    Square Deal
      C)    New Deal
      D)    Raw Deal
      E)    Vegas Deal

89.   Which of the following items was NOT an action of President TR?
      A)    Pure Food & Drug Act
      B)    Roosevelt Corollary
      C)    Built the Panama Canal
      D)    Newlands Reclamation Act
      E)    Veto veterans pension bill

90.   Theodore Roosevelt would earn the Nobel Prize in 1906 for helping bring to an end a war
      between which combination of two nations.
      A)    France // Germany
      B)    Spain // Italy
      C)    Britain // Turkey
      D)    Japan // Russia
      E)    Mexico // Argentina

91.   Roosevelt’s victory in the Northern Securities Company case (1904) was his first significant
      trust-busting effort; was aimed at the unpopular railroad industry, and which of the
      following captains of industry?
      A)     James J. Hill
      B)     Andrew Carnegie
      C)     John D. Rockefeller
      D)     Leland Stanford
      E)     Cornelius Vanderbilt


William Howard Taft:

92.   The economic oriented foreign policy of the man who succeeded Theodore Roosevelt as
      President was known as:
      A)    Manifest Destiny
      B)    Dollar Diplomacy
      C)    Social Darwinism
      D)    Reciprocity with nations
      E)    World safe for democracy




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

93.   ―He graduated 2nd in his class at Yale, was an enviable lawyer, and judicial scholar…‖ Which
      of the following progressives is Historian David Kennedy talking about?
      A)      Robert LaFollette
      B)      Theodore Roosevelt
      C)      Woodrow Wilson
      D)      William Howard Taft
      E)      John Hay

94.   Which of the following issues were not issues on which Taft had to deal during his single
      term as President of the United States.
      A)    trust-busting
      B)    tariff
      C)    inter-government agency fights
      D)    impeachment crisis
      E)    Senatorial insurgency

95.   What   did Taft call the supporters of TR when he returned to oppose Taft in 1912?
      A)      feeble miscreants
      B)      emotional and neurotic
      C)      intellectual snobs
      D)      naked thieves
      E)      wishy-washy-turncoats


Woodrow Wilson:

96.   At the beginning of the 20th century Woodrow Wilson ascended to the White House with a
      profound sense of…
      A)     idealism
      B)     realism
      C)     pragmatism
      D)     surrealism
      E)     imperialism

97.   Wilson by any standard of judgment was a(n)_____ President in 1912 in the first term of
      office.
      A)      plurality
      B)      minority
      C)      majority
      D)      super-majority
      E)      compromised

98.   Which of the following trusts did Wilson ―go after‖ upon his election to the Presidency?
      A)    railroad
      B)    copper
      C)    banking
      D)    steel
      E)    oil




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

99.    Woodrow Wilson was fundamentally opposite his two progressive presidential predecessors in
       that he hated which of the following
       A)     nationalism
       B)     dollar diplomacy
       C)     insularism
       D)     pluralism
       E)     imperialism

100.   Wilson did not confront any of the basic causes of war that led to World War I EXCEPT he
       did not approve of
       A)    nationalism
       B)    militarism
       C)    imperialism
       D)    alliance systems
       E)    propaganda

101.   Wilson ―pushed societies envelope‖ by appointing a man to the Supreme Court who he knew
       would be controversial. That person was…
       A)    William Howard Taft
       B)    Charles Evans Hughes
       C)    Louis D. Brandeis
       D)    Owen Roberts
       E)    Robert Jackson

102.   The chief cause for the entry of the United States into World War I, was Germany’s
       A)    policy of peaceful penetration into Mexico
       B)    invasion of Belgium
       C)    resumption of submarine warfare
       D)    campaign of sabotage in the United States
       E)    air attack on the Atlantic coast of the US

103.   Which of the following tandem issues were not long range causes of warfare in the first half of
       the 20th century?
       A)     imperialism // racism
       B)     nationalism // fanaticism
       C)     militarism // alliance building
       D)     propaganda // yellow journalism
       E)     manifest destiny // neutrality

104.   Wilson’s avowed intentions in going to the Versailles Peace Conference was to…
       A)    make the world safe for democracy
       B)    punish the Germans and Austrians
       C)    achieve the provisions of the fourteen points
       D)    halt Russian expansionism in eastern Europe
       E)    create the United Nations




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

105.   The battle in which the Americans took the primary role of halting the Central Powers was
       A)    Rock of the Marne
       B)    Muese-Argonne Forest
       C)    Cantigny
       D)    Piave
       E)    Verdun


Warren G. Harding:

106.   Under President Harding the U.S.
       A)    ratified the Treaty of Versailles with reservations
       B)    took no notice whatever of the League of Nations
       C)    we sacrificed actual naval superiority
       D)    we sacrificed potential naval superiority
       E)    became over night the world’s only super-power

107.   The Washington Naval Conference of 1921-22
       A)   actually achieved no arms reductions
       B)   improved the tense atmosphere in the Pacific
       C)   left the Philippines in a stronger position
       D)   made a highly favorable impression on Japan
       E)   protected Australia from invasion

108.   The Ohio Gang included, pair of the following men?
       A)    Harry F. Sinclair // William Howard Taft
       B)    Henry Ford // Charles Evans Hughes
       C)    Harry M. Daugherty// Albert B. Fall
       D)    Herbert C. Hoover // Andrew Mellon
       E)    Calvin Coolidge // John Scopes


Calvin Coolidge:

109.   President Calvin Coolidge presided over a nation that was affected by ALL OF THE
       FOLLOWING EXCEPT:
       A)    a tremendous business boom cycle
       B)    a cultural renaissance among both Black and White communities
       C)    an economic age of affluence and change
       D)    a blistering depression and war
       E)    an age fundamentalism and prohibitionist

110.   Thomas Edison was to the Gilded Age as _____ was to _____
       A)   Charles Evan Hughes :: World War I
       B)   Wilbur Wright :: Progressive Era
       C)   Herbert C. Hoover :: the Great Depression
       D)   Al Jolson :: Sports Era
       E)   Henry Ford :: was the Jazz Age




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

Herbert Clark Hoover:

111.   One of the great writers of the age who, in terms of the way he lived, and the themes of his
       literary works, the author most representative of the ―Lost Generation‖ was:
       A)      Ernest Hemingway
       B)      Langston Hughes
       C)      John Dos Passos
       D)      John Steinbeck
       E)      Sinclair Lewis

112.   Which of the following diplomatic treatises and attending doctrines was written and applied
       during the Herbert Hoover Administration?
       A)    Olney Doctrine—Platt Amendment
       B)    Roosevelt Corollary—Dollar Diplomacy
       C)    Clark Memorandum—Good Neighbor Policy
       D)    Ostend Manifesto—Teller Amendment
       E)    Alliance for Progress—Peace Corps

113.   Which of the following is NOT TRUE of Herbert Hoover?
       A)    Born in Iowa and orphaned, but worked his way through Stanford University
       B)    He was a fabulously successful mining engineer who worked abroad
       C)    He was a gregarious out-going and social man who merged easily in high society
       D)    His real power lay in his integrity, humanitarianism, and loyalty. He was known as
             ―Chief!‖
       E)    He was the intellectual spirit behind the development of ―Good Neighbor Policy.‖

114.   Which of the following issues was NOT a long-range cause of the Great Depression which
       confronted Herbert Hoover?
       A)    Over production by farmers
       B)    Over speculation in the stock market
       C)    Over extension of credit by banks
       D)    Over spending on credit by consumers
       E)    Over regulation of Securities & Exchange Commission

115.   Hoover’s presidential theme was:
       A)    Manifest Destiny
       B)    Rugged Individualism
       C)    The Square Deal
       D)    Scientific Management
       E)    The Open Door Policy


Franklin Delano Roosevelt:

116.   Which of the following tandem events and statements is true of the 1932 Democratic
       Convention in Chicago?
       A)    FDR smashed precedent by accepting nomination in person // ―I pledge to you, I
             pledge myself to a new deal for the American people.‖
       B)    The democratic platform supported prohibition // ―Happy Days are here again!‖
       C)    Al Smith proudly proclaimed… // ―Out of the Red with Roosevelt‖
       D)    FDR rousingly shouted // ―damn the deficit spenders!‖
       E)    FDR forebodingly warned that // ―All we have to fear, is fear itself!‖
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American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

117.   FDR’s first ―New Deal‖ aimed at a triad of prescriptural solutions to the Depression. Which of
       the following combinations of programs is NOT correct?
       A)      Reform actions // Glass-Steagall Act, NRA, TVA,
       B)      Recovery actions // Emergency Banking Relief, CCC, & FERA
       C)      Reactionary actions // PWA, Beer & Wine Act, & RFC
       D)      Relief actions // AAA, HOLC, & WPA
       E)      Later reform actions // FHA, Wagner Act, & Fair Labor Standard Act

118.   FDR made historical decisions, but one of the first decisions & a major issues involving
       women was:
       A)   Using his wife a goodwill ambassador
       B)   Choosing a woman as Vice President
       C)   Allowing Margaret Chase to become a US Senator
       D)   Allowing Mary McLeon Bethune to become a director of minor government agency
       E)   Appointing Frances Perkins to serve as the Secretary of Labor and first woman to
            serve in a President’s Cabinet

119.   Which of the following economic groups needed Roosevelt’s attention due to natural
       disasters?
       A)     Union workers in the cities
       B)     Women across the America
       C)     Students from the universities
       D)     Farmers from the ―Dust Bowl‖ states
       E)     Eastern seaboard businessmen

120.   Which dual set of programs were declared ―unconstitutional‖ by the Supreme Court during
       the New Deal Years?
       A)    NRA & AAA
       B)    TVA & SEC
       C)    NLRB & HOLC
       D)    WPA & PWA
       E)    FERA & CCC

121.   Which two crises enable FDR to bring the US into the modern world of 1945?
       A)    Supreme Court crisis // Dust Bowl
       B)    World War II // Great Depression
       C)    Rise of Fascism // collapse of labor in 1930’s
       D)    Changing his Vice Presidents// Organizing the CIO
       E)    Suppressing civil liberties // mandating integration in Armed Forces

122.   William H. Seward was to Abraham Lincoln as _____ was to _____
       A)     James G. Blaine :: Benjamin Harrison
       B)     Alexander Hamilton :: George Washington
       C)     Henry Clay :: John Quincy Adams
       D)     Cordell Hull :: Franklin D. Roosevelt
       E)     Henry L. Stimson :: Woodrow Wilson




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American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

123.   The day ―that will live in infamy!‖ is which of the following?
       A)    Black Friday, Sept. 24, 1869
       B)    Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929
       C)    December 7 1941
       D)    June 6, 1943
       E)    April 12, 1945


124.   What    presidential action of FDR did NOT move this nation toward World War II?
       A)       Lend-lease Act
       B)       Einstein letter of August 2, 1939
       C)       defacto isolation and neutrality during the 1930’s
       D)       the Atlantic Charter covenant struck by Churchill and Roosevelt
       E)       pre-1940 Japanese Relocation movement

125.   A major, early set of naval battles that stopped Japanese aggression & expansionism were:
       A)    Pearl Harbor & Midway
       B)    Midway & Coral Sea
       C)    Leyte Gulf & Mariana Islands campaign
       D)    Coral Sea & Invasion of the Philippines
       E)    Gilbert Islands & Okinawa


Harry S. Truman:

126.   Harry   S. Truman aided the cause of civil liberty
       A)      denouncing Southern support in the 1948 presidential election
       B)      desegregation of the armed forces of the United States
       C)      integrating the public schools of Missouri & Arkansas
       D)      ordering non-discrimination clauses in all defense contracts
       E)      integrating restaurants, movie theaters, and interstate travel

127.   Truman’s twin decisions involving war in the modern world on a level never before known
       are:
       A)   Normandy Invasion and Battle of the Bulge
       B)   Authorization to invade the Philippines and French Indochina
       C)   Fire bombing of Tokyo and attack order for Iwo Jima
       D)   Eisenhower’s authorization to cross the Rhine and invade the City of Berlin
       E)   The Korean police action of 1950 and the bombing of Hiroshima/Nagasaki

128.   During the Second World War civil liberties in the US were most conspicuously violated by
       the
       A)    relocation of Japanese Americans
       B)    jailing German and Japan pacificists
       C)    persecution of pro-Hitler German Americans
       D)    persecution of Russian-American Communists
       E)    crack-down on Jewish American press




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American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

129.   Truman’s action to remove Gen. Douglas MacArthur from command of the United Nations
       forces during the Korean War exemplifies the constitutional power of…
       A)     separation of powers
       B)     federal supremacy
       C)     civilian control of the military
       D)     concept of limited government
       E)     checks and balances

130.   Which of the following World War II military figures became the architect of Truman’s foreign
       policy?
       A)     Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower
       B)     Gen. George S. Patton
       C)     Adm. Chester W. Nimitz
       D)     Adm. William F. Halsey
       E)     Gen. George C. Marshall


Dwight David Eisenhower:

131.   President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s chief cold war problem was…
       A)    Sputnik
       B)    Ending the Korean War
       C)    McCarthyism
       D)    U-2 Incident
       E)    death of Joseph Stalin

132.   Which Supreme Court case, rendered under the Eisenhower Administration by a Chief
       Justice appointed by Eisenhower, mandated racial integration?
       A)     Muller vs. Oregon
       B)     Schenck vs United States
       C)     Schecter Poultry vs US
       D)     Dennis vs US
       E)     Brown vs Board of Education, Topeka, KS

133.   President Eisenhower’s economic and national unification program was manifest in…
       A)    Establish several trans-continental airlines
       B)    Rebuilding the nations railroads
       C)    Building the new freeway, parkway, and ribbons highways
       D)    careful supervision of the stock market
       E)    rebuilding the nations ports on both oceans

134.   The area of the world where the Cold War was most acutely focused was:
       A)    Japan
       B)    Germany
       C)    Argentina
       D)    Nigeria
       E)    Philippines




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American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

135.   Nuclear weaponry has reached a colossal xenophobia of fear, because of the creation of ALL
       EXCEPT:
       A)    hydrogen warheads
       B)    missiles for delivery
       C)    computers for programmed delivery
       D)    neutron bombs
       E)    defense mechanisms


John F. Kennedy:

136.   Which of the following issues did NOT occur during the Kennedy Administration
       A)    Cuban Missile Crisis
       B)    Berlin crisis—construction of Wall
       C)    The Vietnam quagmire
       D)    Serious labor union strikes
       E)    Serious civil rights conflicts

137.   John F. Kennedy surrounded himself what he called; ―The best & the brightest‖. Among them
       were included ALL EXCEPT:
       A)     Mc George Bundy
       B)     Thurgood Marshall
       C)     Dean Rusk
       D)     Robert F. McNamara
       E)     Douglas Dillon

138.   There is an interesting and somewhat significant correlation between the cabinet members of
       FDR and JFK, in that they
       A)     were all New Englanders
       B)     business executives of major national importance
       C)     intellectuals from the major universities of the nation
       D)     included several southerners and western figures
       E)     nearly half of them were women, minorities, and bachelor’s

139.   The twin relics of national crisis and foreign shame that occurred during the Kennedy
       Administration were:
       A)    Vietnam and Civil Rights
       B)    collapse of the Common Market and social violence at home
       C)    betrayal of foreign leaders to help Kennedy and national failure of the economy
       D)    alienation of young people against power and greed of world leaders for imperialist
             power
       E)    development of drug culture and the unabashed greed of corporate America.

140.   The single greatest tragedy of ―Camelot‖
       A)    sky-rocketing crime rates
       B)    appalling poverty
       C)    assassinations
       D)    sexual revolution
       E)    emergence of the radical ―New Left!‖




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American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

Lyndon Baines Johnson:

141.   The years from 1963-1968 are a complete tragedy for a man who was such a political idealist
       and moral pragmatist, that it has the plot of an operatic tragedy. Which of the following was
       THE ONLY BRIGHT SPOT in the Administration of Lyndon Johnson?
       A)    Vietnamese war
       B)    Civil Rights catastrophes
       C)    Student revolts
       D)    Black power vs White backlash
       E)    War On Poverty

142.   What   was the single event that dealt Johnson’s credibility a fatal blow?
       A)     Danang Air strike
       B)     Tet Offensive
       C)     Gulf of Tonkin resolution
       D)     The bombing raids over the north
       E)     Dien Bien Phu attack

143.   Lyndon Johnson stunned the nation and the world in March of 1968, with the
       announcement:
       A)   that he would not run again
       B)   that he was resigning immediately
       C)   that he felt betrayed by those who were of his own party
       D)   that Robert F. Kennedy had been assassinated
       E)   that Martin Luther King had been assassinated



Richard M. Nixon:

144.   To whom did Richard Nixon appeal in political quest for the Presidency?
       A)    The New Left
       B)    The Radical Left
       C)    The silent majority
       D)    The John Birch Society
       E)    The Conservative Fundamentalist Right

145.   Leading figures appointed by newly elected Presidents are always historically significant in
       that they are the ones who will set the agenda, formulate the policies, and execute the
       actions of the government looking forward. Which of the list is generally considered to be the
       foreign policy ―master mind‖ of the Nixon Years?
       A)     Robert Finch
       B)     William J. Fulbright
       C)     George McGovern
       D)     Robert McNamara
       E)     Henry Kissinger




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 American History Students Review—Based upon the Presidential Administration-John A. Braithwaite-2006

146.   The fascinating term that came to characterize Nixon foreign policy was:
       A)    ―Open Door Policy
       D)    ―Détente‖
       C)    ―Good Neighbor Policy‖
       D)    ―Peace without victory policy‖
       E)    ―Unilateral application of democracy‖

147.   Which of the following TWO events occurred early in the Nixon administration that both
       shocked and awed the world?
       A)    Apollo 11 // Kent State murders
       B)    Assassination of Martin Luther King // Congress passes ERA
       C)    Nixon’s resignation // NOW founded
       D)    Paris Peace Accords // Cuban Missile Crisis
       E)    War Powers Act-73 // Roe vs. Wade decided

148.   The resignation of Richard Nixon came as the result of the investigation into the…
       A)    Vietnam war
       B)    Assassination of Malcolm X
       C)    Kent State Massacre
       D)    Watergate investigation
       E)    The escalation of the Vietnam War into Cambodia and Laos

149.   Which pair of African American leaders wrote wholly contrasting views about race relations in
       American?
       A)    James Foreman // Jesse Jackson
       B)    Stokley Carmichael // Thurgood Marshall
       C)    Martin Luther King // Malcolm X
       D)    Jackie Robinson // Willie Mays
       E)    Jim Brown // Wilt Chamberlain

150.   What nineteenth century concept of politics did both Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger
       share in common?
       A)     Détente
       B)     Neo-Machiavellian idealism
       C)     Gradual release of imperialistic motives
       D)     Realpolitik
       E)     National Socialism


                                                FINIS

NOTE TO TEACHERS:

I wrote this test with the fact in mind that many of you might like to use it in a single setting on a
90 minute block schedule. Therefore, there are 150 questions. For those of you on single 50
periods, divide it into two sections of 75 questions and give over a two day setting. It is perfectly
okay to use as an at-home over night exam for students to prepare for the AP objective section of
the test. None of these questions come from past AP exams. They are my own writing and this test
is intended for review. I have had regular teachers ask if this could be used as an open-book exam
for regular students. Do as you want with it. I just had a couple of days of fun putting it together
for you. For me, it was to slow down the senility rate and attempt to remain current.


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