Control of optical properties of tissues and blood - recent achievements Valery V. Tuchin Department of Optics and Biomedical Physics Research-Educational Institute of Optics and Biophotonics Saratov State University 83 Astrakhanskaya str. Saratov 410012, Russia This lecture aims to review the recent results on the optical clearing of the naturally turbid biological tissues and blood using the optical immersion technique, which is well-known in physical science and applied for reduction of light scattering and undesirable reflections in the optical system. Basic principles of the technique, its advantages, limitations, and future are discussed. The refractive index matching concept for enhancement of in-depth light penetration into tissues and blood is presented on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies using optical spectroscopy, polarization and coherence-domain techniques. The index matching of scatterers and ground matter by means of administration of clearing agents is under discussion. The optical properties of tissues with basic multiple scattering, which are transformed to a low scattering mode, are analysed. It is shown that light reflection, transmission, scattering, and polarization can be effectively controlled. The possibilities of usage of optical immersion method for diagnostic purposes based on contrasting of abnormalities, on in-depth profiling of tissue and blood, and on monitoring of endogenous and exogenous matter diffusion within tissue are demonstrated.
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