ppt - The Internet by fjwuxn

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									The Internet
  Chapter 9
                         Issues

                       EPS cycle
                    Roots of the web
                      Hackers and
                       Spammers
                   Censorship attempts
                      Technologies
                      Other issues

New Yorker, 1993
            The EPS Cycle
• Elite: Early adopters, wealthy

• Popular: Mass audience

• Specialized: Audience fragmentation,
  more interactivity

• [Interactive: Audience has more control
  over content.]
   Microcomputer Predictions
“Computers may weigh no more than 1.5 tons.”
Popular Mechanics, 1949

“There is no reason anyone would want a computer
in their home.”
Ken Olson, president of Digital Equipment Corp. 1977

“I think there's a world market for about five computers.”
Thomas J. Watson, chairman of the board of IBM. 1943

"640K ought be enough for anybody." Bill Gates (1981)
Future of Home Computing...?
               Charles Babbage
• Dreamed of a machine that computed mathematical
  tables using steam power -1822
   – Difference engine
   – Received government funding
       • A calculator that computed using the method of
         differences
   – Never finished
• Came up with the idea for a machine that could be
  programmed to solve any problem
   – Analytical engine
       • Similar in design to modern computers
• August Ada Byron King, Lady of Lovelace
   – Daughter of Lord Byron
   – Interpreted Babbage to the world
   – Honored as the first computer programmer
       Early Data Networks
• First wide area network (WAN): Sage air
  defense system
      • Fed bomber counts into phone lines
• American Airlines’ SABRE: Airline
  reservation system
• Local area network (LAN): Computers
  inside the Livermore laboratory
• 1960s: Packet Switching developed
                     Videotex
• Display text and simple graphics on TV or home computer
   – Prestel
       • The first commercial videotex service
       • Originated with the British Post Office in 1974
• Newspapers attempted videotex delivery of news
   – Viewtron - Knight-Ridder
   – Other services
       • Keyfax and Gateway
• French Minitel online information system
   – Includes a phone directory
   – 6.5 million terminals installed
• Amateur Bulletin Board Systems (BBS)
          Computer Generations
•   Moore’s Law
     – Processing capacity of
        computer chips doubles
        every 18 months
•   First generation
     – Vacuum tubes
•   Second generation
     – Transistors
          • Bell Labs
          • William Shockley
            inventor
•   Third generation
     – Integrated circuits
•   Fourth generation
     – Very large scale integrated
        chips (VLSI)
•   Fifth generation
     – Parallel processing
                         Protocols
•   TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/Internet protocol)
     – Basic building blocks of Internet applications

•   Electronic Mail
     – Simplified mail transfer protocol (SMTP)

•   File transfer protocol (FTP)
•   Chat
     – Internet relay chat (IRC)
     – Instant message (IM)

•   Remote access
     – Telnet logs into a remote computer
                                                          Hedy Lamarr
•   Document display
                                                      Co-inventor of Spread
     – Web page
                                                      Spectrum technology,
          • Hypertext markup language (HTML)
                                                     used in cell-phones and
•   Domain name service
                                                           TCP/IP
                 Early networks
• 1969: ARPANET: Advanced
  Research Projects Agency Network
   – Designed to link weapons
     research centers
       • Funded by the Department of
         Defence
   – Predecessor of today’s Internet
• 1971: First email


• 1991: World-Wide Web (WWW)
  released by CERN; Tim Berners-Lee    ARPANET: 1969 sketch
  developer.
     USENET

• Decentralized
  international
  bulletin board.
• Over 100,000
  groups
• Groups
  organized into
  categories: alt.,
  rec., sci., soc.,
  misc., etc.
                 Microcomputer
•   First computers were room size mainframes
     – Tied together users using dumb terminals
          • Time share operating system
•   Mini computers
     – About the size of file cabinet
•   Alto computer
     – Developed by Xerox Corporation 1972-1974
     – Mouse
     – High speed local area network                 Commodore
          • Ethernet                                  PET, 1977
                                                  First complete PC.
                                                   4 or 8 kb RAM,
                                                    cassette drive,
                                                     no hard drive
                   Microcomputer
•   Altair 8800 computer, 1975
     – No CRT, keyboard or disk drives
     – Inspired Bill Gates and Paul Allen to
        go into the software business
•   Apple
     – Steve Jobs & Stephen Wozniak
     – Apple I computer built in the garage
        of Woznak’s mother’s house




                Apple II c
                1984
   Operating Systems

               Linux
        OS X
                2%
         7%
                                            Overall,
                                            Microsoft has
Vista
                                            87% of the
24%                                         operating
                                            system
                                            market.
                        XP
                       67%                  Windows 7
                                            comes out
                                            Thursday, Oct.
                                            22nd.



                         W3, via TG Daily
         Browser Wars
                Opera, 1%
               Safari, 3%
        Chrome, 3%




Firefox, 31%
                            Microsoft Internet
                             Explorer, 53%




                                     W3, via TG Daily
                       US Internet Use
                 % Use of Internet in United States
                                                                                 Year          USE
                             2000-2008
                                                                                        2000     44.10%
80.00%                                                                                  2001     50.00%

70.00%                                                                                  2002     58.00%

                                                                                        2003     59.20%
60.00%
                                                                                        2004     68.80%
50.00%
                                                                                        2005     70.20%

40.00%                                                                                  2006     71.00%

                                                                                        2007     72.50%
30.00%
                                                                                        2008     74.10%
20.00%


10.00%


0.00%
         2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008




                                                                  Source: Neilsen Net ratings
                                               Communication:
                           Time Spent Online   e.g. Yahoo Mail,
                                               AOL Instant
                                               Messenger and
                                               MSN Groups

                                               Community added
                                               2008: Facebook,
                                               LinkedIn, etc.




                                               Approximately a
                                               third of all online
                                               time occurs at work.

                                               Spam accounts for
                                               five minutes of every
                                               hour spent online,
                                               which translates into
                                               10 8-hour workdays
Online Publishers Assoc.
                                               per year.
• Overall, online use doesn't differ by gender. However,
  female respondents on average use e-mail, instant
  messaging, and social networking more than men, who
  spend more time on browsing, in newsgroups and in chat
  rooms.

• Roughly 20 percent of Internet users communicate with
  someone they've never met in person; one out of eight
  communicate with someone they first met online.

• For the average respondent, an hour of time online reduces
  the amount of time spent with family more than twice as
  much (23.5 minutes) as it limits daily TV viewing (10
  minutes). This amounts to 70 minutes less time spent per
  day with family, versus c. 30 minutes less time watching
  television. The study also found the average surfer gets 8.5
  minutes less sleep per day due to time spent online.
                WEB 2.0
• A controversial and disputed term, Web
  2.0 is now often used to describe
  increased user creation of web content.
• Such things as blogs, mashups, wikis,
  Google Wave, Open Source software,
  Facebook and cloud computing are
  commonly understood to be Web 2.0
  manifestations.
            Search Engines
1.   Google                            70.24%
2.   Yahoo                             16.96%
3.   Bing* (and Live.com, MSN.com)     9.48%
4.   Ask.com                            2.37%




                               Comscore, Sept. 2009
                 Sticky Web Site
• Usage
   – 220 million people around the world use the Internet
   – Average time on the web is 3 hours per week
   – E-mail is the most common Internet activity
• Web pages are designed to make people stay longer
   – Sticky
       • Eye catching colors and attractive layouts
       • Online games
       • Personalized content for individual users
• Stickiest web pages
   – On-line games, auctions, stock trading, free e-mail and portal
      services
           Antisocial Activities
• (Distributed) Denial of service       2009:
  ((D)DoS) attacks                      June: Michael Jackson’s
                                        death produces such a
   – Overloading a Web server with      large number of Google
     bogus requests                     searches that Google
                                        temporarily shut down in
   – Legitimate requests can not be     self-defense.
     served
                                        August: Twitter,
• Hackers                               Blogspot, Facebook and
   – Breaking into computer systems     Livejournal were shut
                                        down for several hours
      • Theft of services               by a massive DDoS
                                        attack.
      • Steal credit card numbers and
         other information
           – Identity theft
         Antisocial Activities
• Spamming
  – Junk mail: only 3% porn, but 90.4% of all
    email is spam (Symantec, 2009)
  – Filtering utilities
  – Can-Spam Act of 2003: (Controlling the
    Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and
    Marketing Act)
  – Offence to use misleading addresses,
    deceptive headers, and must have opt-out for
    receiver.
  – Stunningly unsuccessful
Antisocial Activities
             Antisocial Activities
•   Tracking
     – Cookies

        • Data stored on your hard drive by a web page

            – Personalizes your web experience

            – Collect information


     – Phishing

        • Attempts to get consumer information by pretending to

          be an official website
     – Web bugs (“Malware”)

        • Embedded in images

        • Track Web browsing behavior

        • Can be used to snoop on e-mail

        • Can be used to remotely control your computer for

          DDoS attacks
              Antisocial Activities
                           •   One method used to distinguish between
                               human users and automated attacks is
                               the CAPTCHA program: "Completely
                               Automated Public Turing test to tell
                               Computers and Humans Apart."
Alan Turing (1912-
1954), an early British
computer scientist,
proposed that if a user
could not tell the
difference between a            However, CAPTCHA methods continue to be hacked.
computer and a real
person, the computer
could be considered
intelligent. This became
known as the “Turing
Test.”
         Illegal downloading
•   The RIAA claims “…global music piracy
    causes $12.5 billion of economic losses
    every year, 71,060 U.S. jobs lost, a loss of
    $2.7 billion in workers' earnings, and a loss
    of $422 million in tax revenues, $291 million
    in personal income tax and $131 million in
    lost corporate income and production
    taxes.”
•   In 2005, the MPAA blamed college students
    for 44% of their losses. They later amended
    this to 15%.
          Illegal downloading
•   Courts have been unsympathetic: Under
    federal law, the jury could award the labels
    from $750 to $30,000 for each copyright
    infringement and as much as $150,000 for
    each willful infringement.
•   A BU student who downloaded 30 songs
    could have owed as much as $4.5 million.
    The jury later set the figure at $22,500 per
    song, for a total of $675,000.
          Illegal downloading
•   In the past 2 years, peer-to-peer web traffic
    has dropped from about 4% to about 0.5%.
•   When Sweden shut down PirateBay in
    2009, web traffic dropped 30%.
                       Prʘn
•   Erotic material has been surpassed by
    social networking as the hottest thing on the
    web.
•   36% of the registered sites on the web are
    erotic.
•   The number of searches for porn have
    dropped to 10%, from 20% a decade ago.



                                   Trancer Optenet study, 2008
                http://www.optenet.com/mailing/pdfs/TrendReport.pdf
Trancer Optenet study, 2008
                          Pr0n
•     According to SexTracker, "70 percent of
  all Internet porn traffic occurs during the 9 to
  5 workday." Nielsen/NetRating has
  determined that 21 percent of all adult sites
  are accessed from work.
• Sales of “traditional” porn: DVDs,
  magazines, etc., have been badly affected.


       http://www.websense.com/products/resources/wp/hr_wp.pdf (2003)
                  Pr0n
 “A 10 percent increase in Net access yields about
a 7.3 percent decrease in reported rapes. States
that adopted the Internet quickly saw the biggest
declines. And, according to Clemson professor
Todd Kendall, the effects remain even after you
control for all of the obvious confounding
variables, such as alcohol consumption, police
presence, poverty and unemployment rates,
population density, and so forth.”

                         Prof. Steven Landsburg,
                           Slate magazine, 2006
            Net Censorship
• 1995 Time
  Magazine cover
  story on internet
  porn turned out
  to be a hoax, but
  was at least
  partially
  responsible for a
  wave of
  attempts at net
  censorship.
   Communications Decency Act
            (1996)
• CDA imposed criminal sanctions on anyone who
  – knowingly (A) uses an interactive computer service to
    send to a specific person or persons under 18 years
    of age, or (B) uses any interactive computer service to
    display in a manner available to a person under 18
    years of age, any comment, request, suggestion,
    proposal, image, or other communication that, in
    context, depicts or describes, in terms patently
    offensive as measured by contemporary community
    standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs.
• It further criminalized the transmission of
  materials that were "obscene or indecent" to
  persons known to be under 18.
                          CDA
• In 1997, the Supreme Court upheld the
  Philadelphia court's decision in Reno v.
  American Civil Liberties Union, stating that
  the indecency provisions were an
  unconstitutional abridgement of the First
  Amendment right to free speech because
  they did not permit parents to decide for         Nitke
  themselves what material was acceptable for
  their children, extended to non-commercial
  speech, and did not define "patently
  offensive," a term with no prior legal meaning.
• But: in 2006 Barbara Nitke, a photographer
  specializing in BDSM photos, was found
  guilty of making obscene images available to
  children.
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
              (1998)
• Outlaws the manufacture, sale, or distribution of code-
  cracking devices used to illegally copy software.

• Makes it a crime to circumvent anti-piracy measures built into
  most commercial software.

• In general, limits Internet service providers from copyright
  infringement liability for simply transmitting information over
  the Internet.

• Service providers, however, are expected to remove material
  from users' web sites that appears to constitute copyright
  infringement.

• Requires that "webcasters" pay licensing fees to record
  companies.
                    CIPA (2000)
      Children's Internet Protection Act

• requires public and school libraries to have a policy of
  Internet safety for children. CIPA's amendments
  specifically require protection that "blocks or filters"
  access to visual depictions that are obscene or harmful
  to minors. If libraries fail to comply, they will not receive
  federal funding.
• Upheld by Supreme Court in United States v. American
  Library Association, 2003
             Internet Regulation
      Child Pornography Prevention Act
                 (CPPA) 1996
The Child Pornography Prevention Act (CPPA) expanded the
   definition of child pornography. CPPA criminalized the creation
   of what is called “virtual child pornography,” or “morphed” child
   pornography. Under CPPA images that appear to depict
   children but do not, including images of youthful-looking adults
   or images that are computer-generated would be illegal.
   Overturned in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, 2002:
“First, the law, as written, is overbroad, prohibiting otherwise
   legal, non-obscene images depicting teenagers engaging in
   sexual activity, such as filmed depictions of Romeo and Juliet
   or Lolita.
Second, the prohibition on child pornography is based on the link
   between the creation of the image and the sexual abuse of the
   children shown in the image. If an image is created by use of
   computer technology or by photographing adults pretending to
   be children, there is no basis in the law to ban the image.”
Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) 1998
"Regulation of unfair and deceptive acts and practices in
connection with collection and use of personal information from
and about children on the Internet.”

The Child Online Protection Act (COPA) 1998
passed but not funded, its research into filtering methods was
incomplete. $50,000 penalty for showing obscenity. Overturned by
Ashcroft v. ACLU 2004. The court found "a 'Community standards'
test would essentially require every Web communication to abide
by the most restrictive community's standards.” Finally ended by
Supreme Court Jan. 2009.
  “Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing
    Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and
           Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001”
                (USA PATRIOT ACT)
• Allows federal officials to intercept wire, spoken and electronic
  communications relating to terrorism.
• Allows federal officials to intercept communications relating to
  computer fraud.
• (2006) Now prohibits asking most libraries about suspected
  terrorists.
• Allows federal officials to issue roving wiretaps for any telephone or
  computer they think a suspected spy or terrorist might use.
• Allows federal officials to wiretap or watch suspects if foreign
  intelligence gathering is a "significant purpose"; the earlier standard
  said intelligence gathering must be the main purpose.
• Permits Internet service providers to hand over records in
  emergencies.
                 Internet Issues
• Digital divide
   – Low income groups have less access to computers
   – Computer savvy ruling class
• Government controlling of the Internet
   – If government controls it, will they want to tax it?
   – Communications Decency Act
       • Held unconstitutional
   – Child On-Line Protection Act
   – Electronic Communications Privacy Act
   – FBI inspection of downloads, chat rooms, and e-mail
       • Carnivore program
   – Homeland Security Act
       • Empowers government to sift through e-mail and Internet
             Content Providers
• Old media giants
   – Disney
       • Web design departments
   – The New York Times
       • Reformats existing content for the Web
• Internet retailers
   – Have in house design staff
       • Amazon.com
• Independent design firms
   – New York's Silicon Alley
   – San Francisco’s “south of Market street” (SOMA)
• Anyone who has a home page is a content provider
   – From the National Weather Service to the local elementary
      school
                   Domain Names
      Designated by Internet Corporation for
    Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and
              VeriSign (.com, .net).

 .edu                               .net
    Educational sites                  Internet service providers
 .gov                               .xxx?
    Government agencies               Controversy about applying
 .org                                domain name for porn
    Not for profit organizations    .com
 .mil                                  Commercial sites
    Military                        Sites outside the United States
                                        .fr: France
                                        .it: Italy
                                        .us just starting to be used
Infrastructure
“…large gaps exist among the average download speeds of
the various states--raising questions about the equitability of
students' access to technology at home from state to state.

Iowans, for example, have a median download speed of 1.26
megabits. That's not terrible considering the national
average is 1.97--but it's far behind the jackrabbit-like speed
of Rhode Island, the fastest state, with 5.01 megabits. But
even Rhode Island pales in comparison to countries such as
Canada, with 7.60 megabits, or Japan, fastest in the world at
61 megabits.

"People in Japan can download an entire movie in just two
minutes, but it can take two hours or more in the United
States," the report says. "Yet, people in Japan pay the same
as we do in the U.S. for their internet connection.“
                                  CWA report, 2007
       Internet Robber Barons
• Using the network as a tool to create monopolies
   – Microsoft found guilty of monopolistic practices in 2000
       • Abused its market power
       • Drove Netscape out of business
       • Creating horizontal integration
   – Bill Gates has invested in other areas
       • Cable television, broadcasting, photo archives and high speed data
         networks
       • Vertical integration
• New technology will force consumers to junk electronic
  equipment
   – Huge transfer of wealth from consumers to multinational
     corporations
• Copyright Term Extension Act
   – Tool of corporate control of the Internet
   – Corporations are interfering with fair use
               Technology Trends
•   Special purpose computers
        Set top box will sit on top of
     –

        your television
                                         •Killer Apps
     –  Toaster will communicate to
        your coffeemaker
•   Scaled down computers
     –  Personal data assistants
        (PDA)
•   Home appliances on the Internet
     –  Toaster will communicate to
        your coffeemaker
•   Personal data assistance (PDA)
     –  Wireless connection to the
        Internet
•   Wearable computers
     –  Computer built into your
        clothing
•   Multimedia computer

								
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