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					FINAL TEST REVIEW                  8TH GRADE U.S. HISTORY                 RUSSO/DORAL
ACADEMY/2010

Chapter 13 Test          Westward Expansion

1.       Who were the first PERMANENT American white settlers in Oregon?

      Missionaries

2.       What led settlers and trappers to move to Oregon and Far West in the 1820s?

      the lure of fertile lands, plentiful rainfall, and a mild climate

3.       Why did American settlers in Texas come into conflict with Mexico in the 1830s?

         Mexico feared losing Texas to the Untied States

4.       How did the United States and Britain settle their dispute over Oregon?

      The United States and Britain agreed to divide the land

5.       Why did the Mormons move west to settle in Utah?

      They hoped to escape religious persecution

6.       Which group of rugged individualist lived off the land in Oregon?

      mountain men

7.       What was the BIGGEST threat to those who traveled to West in wagon trains?

      illness such as cholera

8.       Mexicans influenced American culture in the Southwest by

      teaching Americans new irrigation techniques and mining skills

9.    What development immediately followed the Texan victory at the Battle of San Jacinto in
1836?

      Texan became an independent republic

10.      What was one challenge faced by the “Lone Star Republic”?

      Mexico refused to recognize its independence.

11.      What final incident caused President Polk to urge Congress to declare war on Mexico?

      American and Mexican troops clashed near the Rio Grande


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FINAL TEST REVIEW                 8TH GRADE U.S. HISTORY                 RUSSO/DORAL
ACADEMY/2010

12.      Which of the following caused Texans to seek revenge against Santa Anna’s troops?

the fall of the Alamo

13.   Which of the following did NOT occur in California in the 1850s as a result of the gold
rush?

      Most forty-niners became wealthy

Chapter 16

14.      The political party whose main goal was to stop the spread of slavery to the west was called

      the Free-Soil Party.

15.      The “Great Compromiser” was

Henry Clay

16.      The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott was not free because


      His status, as free or slave, depended on the laws of Missouri, where his owner lived and
      he was not a citizen, he was property.

17.      After nearly 60 northern Democrats voted for the Kansas-Nebraska Act,

      Only seven of them retained their House seats in the next election

18.      Stephen Douglas introduced the Kansas-Nebraska bill which said that

      the slavery question in Kansas and Nebraska would be decided through popular
      sovereignty

19.    While the South Carolina secession convention was under way, a plan to save the Union was
introduced congress by

      John J. Crittenden

20.      The first state to formally withdraw from the Union was

      South Carolina

21.      After John Brown seized the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry

      he hoped slaves in the region would join him, but non did.


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ACADEMY/2010

22.      The Confederate States of America was

      a new nation with its own constitution and officials

23.      In 1854 Stephen Douglas introduced a bill in Congress that would organize the


      Remainder of the Louisiana Purchase into two territories, each to determine the slavery
      questions by popular sovereignty.

24.      Lincoln’s election to the presidency angered many southerners because he

      did not carry a single southern state and because they believed that he would abolish
      slavery.

25.    Pennsylvania James Buchanan was nominated for president by the Democrats in 1856
because

      He had avoided the Kansas-Nebraska controversy

26.      The Democratic Party split in to in 1860 because

      Northern and southern members of the party could not agree on a candidate.

27.    Preston Brooks resorted to violence in the Senate chamber in 1856 after Charles Sumner
northern senator

      insulted a senator from South Carolina-Andrew Butler

Chapter 17

28.      Which of the following was a successful strategy for winning the Civil War?

      The Union took control of the Mississippi River

29.      What was the North’s one official goal at the start of the Civil War?

      to keep the Union together

30.      What was one effect of the Emancipation Proclamation?

      It added the abolition of slavery in the South to the Union’s war goals

31.   Which statement applies to BOTH the Battle of Fredericksburg and the Battle of
Chancellorsville?

      It was a stunning Confederate victory

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FINAL TEST REVIEW                 8TH GRADE U.S. HISTORY                  RUSSO/DORAL
ACADEMY/2010

32.      Which of the following helped the Union achieve one of its goals in the Civil War?

      the determination of General Grant

33.      Early Civil War battles showed

      the need for well-trained soldiers

34.      How did the South deal with economic problems during the war?

      Plantations grew food crops

35.      How did African Americans in the Union Army contribute to the war effort?

      They fought in major battles in 1863

36.      Which of the following individuals served as a Confederate nurse during the Civil War?

      Sally Tompkins

37.      What is one problem that northerners faced during the war?

      Certain rights were suspended to preserve public safety

38.      How did Ulysses S. Grant’s concept of total war differ from earlier strategies?

      Civilian were subject to the same hardship as enemy soldiers.

39.      Which of the following was a major result of the Civil War?

      Slavery was ended everywhere in the United States.

Chapter 18 Test         Reconstruction and the Changing South

40.      Which statements BEST summarizes early Reconstruction efforts?

      Lincoln signed a bill establishing the Freedmen’s Bureau

41.      How did members of Congress react to the black codes?

      Outraged Republicans vowed to develop a stricter Reconstruction plan

42.      Radical Republicans gained power in Congress by

      Joining forces with moderate Republicans to reduce the power of southern Democrats.



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43.      Which group was NOT among the new forces in southern politics after the Civil War?

      white conservatives

44.      Why did conflict erupt shortly after the assassination of President Lincoln?

      Republicans disapproved of President Johnson’s Reconstruction plan.

45.      Why did southern states agree to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment?

      Ratification of the amendment helped their states win presidential approval to rejoin the
      Union

46.      Which of the following was a result of southern Conservative resistance to Reconstruction?

      Violence toward African Americans increased

47.      Which of the following helped bring about the end of Reconstruction?

      reforms put in place by southern Conservatives

48.      How did MOST freedmen meet their basic needs after Civil War ended?

      They returned to the land where they had worked as slaves

49.      Why did Reconstruction governments increase taxes after the Civil War?

      to cover the costs of rebuilding the South

50.     Which of the following required freedmen to know certain section of the Constitution in
order to vote?

      literacy tests


Chapter 19 Test                The New West (1865-1914)


51.    How did news of the Comstock Lode affect the West?

             Thousands of prospectors migrated to other areas of the West in search of gold and
                silver.


52.    Which of the following changed the way Plains Indians hunted?
            “sacred dogs”


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FINAL TEST REVIEW                8TH GRADE U.S. HISTORY                RUSSO/DORAL
ACADEMY/2010

53.   Which of the following posed the GREATEST threat to cowhands on cattle drives?

           runaway herds

54.   What were the terms of the Fort Laramie Treaty?

           Land would be reserved for Native Americans forever, and they would receive
              tools, domestic animals, and money.

55.   Why was the Dawes Act of 1887 unsuccessful?

           The act ignored the traditional Native American views of land ownership.

56.   What role did the buffalo play in the lives of Plains Indians?

           They were a source of food, clothing, tools, and shelter

57.   Why were Texas Longhorn cattle popular in the commercial market?

           They required fairly low maintenance

58.   How was a woman’s social rank established in Plains Indian society?

           by showing skill in battle

59.   Which of the following was the MAIN function of cow towns during the cattle boom.

           Their location linked the cattle trails with eastern markets.

60.   How did the Native American way of life come to an end?

           The government took away the power of tribal leaders

61.   Which of the following problems were caused by the mining boom?

           loss of forests, water pollution, racism

62.   In Plains Indian societies, men were MOST likely to

           lead tribal religious ceremonies

63.   Why did buffalo herds decline in the 1830s and 1840s?

           increased market for buffalo robes

64.   Whose job was concerned primarily with tending and driving cattle herds to market?
          cowhand

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FINAL TEST REVIEW                8TH GRADE U.S. HISTORY               RUSSO/DORAL
ACADEMY/2010

65.   What leader’s surrender marked the end of formal warfare between Native Americans and the
      United States government?

             Geronimo

66.   At which of the following locations did Native Americans win a victory over cavalry troops?

             Little Big Horn alley

Chapter 20      Industrial Growth

67. Which organization first recognized a practical use for the Wright brothers’ best-known
    inventions?

             United States military

68. Which statement BEST shows the impact of technology on economics in the late 1800’s?

             Wages for workers declined as more factories used new machines to produce goods.

69. Which advance made a network of railroad lines possible?

             standard gauge

70. Which of the following was NOT a factor in the growth of huge steel empires after Civil War?

             the development of a less-polluting manufacturing process

71. Who laid an underwater cable that transmitted telegraph messages from North America to
    Europe?

             Cyrus Field

72. Which of the following was NOT a problem that led workers to form labor organizations?

high unemployment rates

73. Which of the following practices led many small farmers to join the Populist Party?

Railroad owners used rebates and pools to keep prices artificially high.

80. What strategy did John D. Rockefeller use to strengthen Standard Oil?

forced railroads to give him rebates




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FINAL TEST REVIEW               8TH GRADE U.S. HISTORY                   RUSSO/DORAL
ACADEMY/2010

81. Which statement explains how railroad rebates worked?

Railroad owners gave secret discounts to their biggest customers

82. How did corporations contribute to the growth of the economy in the late 1800s?

Corporations’ stockholders provided capital to build factories and buy equipment.

83. Which of the following inventions were developed by Thomas Edison?

motion picture projector, electric power plant, phonograph

84. Which of the following advances did women workers make during the late 1800s?

Women garment workers won better pay and shorter work hours.

85. According to their defenders, how did trusts benefit the economy?

Trusts lowered production costs and increased wages.

86. What was the most important effect of Henry Ford’s method of automobile production?

Millions of Americans could afford automobiles


Chapter 21

87. Which of the following was NOT a pull factor drawing immigrants to the United States

lack of land

88. What does it mean to assimilate?

to become part of another culture

89. Which of the following best describes tenements in the late 1800s?

dirty, crowded, and unhealthy

90. Which of the following did NOT contribute to the building of skyscrapers?

the use of public transportation




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FINAL TEST REVIEW               8TH GRADE U.S. HISTORY                RUSSO/DORAL
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Chapter 22

91. Which of the following was NOT a feature of American politics in the 1870s and 1880s?

too much government control of big business

92. Which idea was supported by Theodore Roosevelt?

Trusts engaging in illegal practices should be controlled or broken up

93.    The Nineteenth Amendment

gave the women the right to vote.

Chapter 24

94. What was one of the tensions in Europe that led to World War I?

Many people united by language and culture sought self-government

95. With which two countries did Austria-Hungary form the Triple Alliance?

Russia and Italy

96. Why did Germany launch a “peace offensive” in 1918?

to attempt a final push to win the war

97. How did Germany’s sinking of the Lusitania increase the risk of war with the United States?

The deaths of many American passengers on the British sip outraged President Wilson

98. Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points included all of the following EXCEPT.

the principle of international alliances.

99. How did President Wilson hope to end World War I?

by declaring peace without victory.

100. Which of the following population changes occurred during World War I?

African Americans and Mexican Americans migrated from the South to cities in the North

101. Why did the United States government create the War Industries Board?

to ensure that factories produced enough military supplies for the war

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FINAL TEST REVIEW               8TH GRADE U.S. HISTORY               RUSSO/DORAL
ACADEMY/2010

102. President Wilson’s goal for the League of Nations was

to protect the independence of all nations

103. Which of the following nations would have entered World War I if the Zimmerman plot had
     succeeded?

Mexico

104. Why did American forces fight separately from Allied units when protecting Belleau Wood?

to play an independent role in shaping the outcome of the war

105. Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of trench warfare?

short battles with relatively few deaths

106. Which of the following was a setback for the Allies in 1917?

the treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Chapter 25

107.   Which of the following statements about officials in the Harding administration is FALSE?

Herbert Hoover secretly sold food intended for the starving

108. The Eighteenth Amendment, sometimes called the “noble experiment,” did which of the
following?

banned the manufacture, sale or transportation of liquor

109. Which of the following BEST summarizes trends in American literature and music in the
1920s?

Talented young people explored original themes and forms

110.   How were anti-union feelings related to the “Red Scare”?

Many Americans feared that labor strikes signaled the start of a communist revolution.

111.   What group benefited from the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920?

women




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FINAL TEST REVIEW              8TH GRADE U.S. HISTORY                  RUSSO/DORAL
ACADEMY/2010

112.   The issue involved in the Scopes Trail was

whether the theory of evolution could be taught in public schools.

113. What name was given to the achievements of black artists, writers, and musicians in New
York during the 1920’s?

the Harlem Renaissance

114. What condition in the United States helped Warren Harding win the 1920 presidential
election?

a sharp economic recession

115. Which of the following statements BEST summarizes the relationship between the United
States and Latin America during the 1920s.

The United States intervened in Latin America to protect U.S. economic interests.

Chapter 26

116. Which of the following BEST explains why most Americans voted for Franklin Roosevelt
in 1932?

Franklin Roosevelt inspired them with his confidence.

117.   Why did the government fail to notice the slowing economy in the mid-1920s?

the government had no system to track economic statistics.

118.   Which of the following was enacted to protect people’s savings?

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

119.   What alternate plan to end the depression was proposed by New Deal critic Huey Long?

increase taxes on the rich, and provide each American family with a house, car, and decent
       income.

120. Which of the following events was an effect of the other three?
dust bowl

121.   Which of the following was NOT a way in which Americans were affected by the
       depression?

Farmers were unable to grow food.


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FINAL TEST REVIEW                8TH GRADE U.S. HISTORY              RUSSO/DORAL
ACADEMY/2010

122.   How did the Supreme Court initially react to New Deal programs in the 1930s?

The Court ruled that many New Deal programs were unconstitutional.

123.   Which of the following is NOT true about the Dust Bowl?

The Dust Bowl extended from the northern to the southern borders of the United States.

124.   What generalization can be made about the Indian New Deal?

Its laws gave Native Americans more control over their own affairs.

125.   Which of the following BEST describes the impact of the depression on women?

Employers gave preference to men when hiring workers

126.   A common theme among painters and photographers in the 1930s was

the hard times of the present.

Chapter 27

127.   What was the purpose of the Nuremberg trials?

to prosecute Nazi leaders for atrocities and war crimes

128.   What policy did the United States adopt at the beginning of World War II?

isolationism

129.   Which set of words could be used to describe BOTH Hitler and Mussolini?

used economic unrest as a tool

130.   Which of the words below best complete the following analogy?
             Democracy: liberty          Totalitarianism: ___________

oppression

131. In the United States, people from which of the following groups were sent to “relocation
camps” solely because of their ethnic background?

Japanese Americans

132.   How did employment conditions change for African Americans during World War II?

Employers with government contracts could not discriminate in hiring.

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FINAL TEST REVIEW                8TH GRADE U.S. HISTORY                   RUSSO/DORAL
ACADEMY/2010

133.    Which statement BEST summarizes how the United States mobilized its wartime economy?

The government planned what goods would be produce by private industry

134. Which of the following was NOT a way in which the United States responded to the early
stages of World War II?

sent troops to Europe

135.    What prompted FDR to call December 7, 1941 “a day which will live in infamy”?

the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

136.    Which of the following forced Japan to surrender to the Allies in World War II?

The United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japanese cities.

137.    How did the D-Day invasion of France affect the war in Europe?

If forced the Germans to split their armies between two different fronts.

138.    What common bond connects the following battles: Guam, Wake Island, Singapore?

All were Japanese victories in early 1942.

139.    Which of the following BEST describes the final days of the war in Europe?

American and Soviet troops entered Germany form different directions.

VOCABULARY

140.    An attack in which the enemy forces surround and try to capture a city or fort.

siege

141.    A rise in prices and decrease in value of money is

inflation

142.    A law that is severely limiting the rights of freedmen

black code

143.    A single company that controls a business or industry is called

monopoly


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FINAL TEST REVIEW               8TH GRADE U.S. HISTORY               RUSSO/DORAL
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144.   A payment received for losses suffered during the war

reparation

145.   A period of increased stock trading and rising stock prices

bull market

146.   A situation in which government spends more money than it takes in.

deficit spending




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