Elementary / Higher Education
Mutual exchange of Ideas & people
Australia, India sign education deal April 8, 2010
• Australia and India have signed a major deal on
• An ‘Australia India Education Council’
- made up of experts from both sides - will be
- A joint ministerial statement was signed to expand
the education exchange program. Kapil Sibal,
- India's Minister of H R D - which includes
- education - met with Deputy Prime
- Minister Julia Gillard in Melbourne
for the signing. 2
Educating India's population needs
Enhancing of School infrastructure and Increase Budgetary outlays.
• India has the largest student population in
the world with over 135 million pupils in
primary education followed by China at
over 121 million pupils at this level. India
has the second-largest population in the
world of over 110cr people (1.1bn), with a
literacy rate of 61%. [National resource]
• Educating such a large population is not
only a challenging task but also an
Why welcome Oz?
• Kapil Sibal has several goals for inviting Oz
universities to enter the Indian market.
• The Oz are expected to provide the much
needed capacity and new ideas on higher
education management, curriculum,
teaching methods, and research.
• It is hoped that they will bring investment.
This is already there, may be strengthened.
Global education & Australia
• Australia is internationally competitive in providing
education and training both in Australia and offshore for
students from outside Australia, known as overseas
• Australian universities have expanded globally by
creating offshore campuses, centres and programs.
• Monash University, for example, has established
campuses in Malaysia and South Africa as well as centres
in the UK, Italy and has collaboration at Mumbai with
• University courses are reflecting this global focus with
programs being designed to cater for international
students whether located within Australia or offshore. 6
Australia shares high values with ASIA
• These values we share in common with many nations but
doing so in a way which recognizes that countries do not
need to be cultural and political mirror images to work
closely and effectively together. In particular, we have
stopped fretting about the definitional category which most
accurately describes our engagement with Asia.
• In particular, we have stopped fretting about the definitional
category which most accurately describes our engagement
• We no longer agonize over whether we are 'in', or 'part of',
or 'enmeshed with' Asia. We are just being ourselves in Asia
– that is, a strong, stable and engaged middle power openly
espousing the great liberal democratic values.
Australian Studies Fellowships for Indian
University Teaching Staff and Postgraduates
• The Australian Studies Fellowships are a major
component of the Australian Studies program of the
Australia-India Council. The primary purpose of the
Fellowships is to more fully acquaint Indian scholars
with Australian Studies centres and programs in
• The Fellowships are managed by a consortium of
Universities, led by Monash University and
consisting of the Australian National University, the
University of New South Wales, the University of
South Australia and the University of Queensland. 8
The Understanding Australia website offers
international students, visitors and backpackers
information about the continent and its people.
Subscription to Australia-India Focus is free. To
receive Australia-India Focus by email, simply
provide your Email Address, Name and Mailing
Address to: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Australia-India Focus newsletter is
produced bi-monthly by the Australia-India
Council and the Australia India Business
Council. Please direct your editorial enquiries 10
Implication of India’s HDI rank
• India’s Human Development Index (HDI) is
128th out of 177 countries with data (UNDP
Human Development Report 2008).
Australia’s (HDI) is the third best in the world,
behind only Norway and Ireland (UNDP
Human Development Report 2006).
The rank of India in the HDI is low (128th)
mainly because of comparatively lower
literacy rate (Around 68% as of 2009) and the
high human population (1.17 billion) and lack
of executive will to develop the infrastructure
like roads, water supply and electricity.
Unless there is enhanced executive will to
solve these problems we will continue to
have lower HDI status despite satisfactory
Yes we can change this. 12
" We are reaching out to Australia, saying you
have enormous opportunities in India to
partner with us at the school, vocational
education and training level, higher education
and research level," Mr Sibal said in
"It's very important for both of
us at the two ends to develop
the skills which allow our human
resources to take advantage.“
Kapil Sibal has proposed a Public Private
Partnership programme to accelerate the
capacity building and quality improving
initiatives for education in India.
Proposals have been floated in the Indian
Parliament to allow more and more
involvement of private players in the
education sector. At present about 36%
of the total educational institutions (at all 14
level) are privately held.
Enter: Oz educational institutions in India
This is no hidden fact that the private
institutions have over the years performed
better and produced better citizens, so the
minister now wants to take leverage of the
same fact and promote a lot more private
investment and professionalism. Having said
that, it should not be presumed that the
entry of new Educational Institutions, that
too from Oz is an easy task. 15
Oz [Foreign] Education Providers
• Education in India is highly regulated sector.
Till very recently India did not easily allow
foreign universities to operate but now the
things have improved,
• Foreign Education Providers (FEPs) are
allowed, but with a lot of regulations. There is
a well defined bill to regulate the entry,
operation and maintenance of foreign
education providers. 16
What are the
Australian institutions operating in India are
regulated by host country through FEI Regulation
Regulatory Barriers to FEPs
Land & Building
Quota System :
India since long has been a following a policy
of reservation and quota for certain classes of
people with an aim of inclusive education and
upliftment of socially backward classes. The
FEPs are alien to such concepts and may feel
trouble in implementing this, and producing
the kind of professionals they are known for.
Low Incomes of Indian middle class families
• Though India is developing economically fast,
there are large sections of population whose per
capita income is nowhere in comparison to the
• A situation exists where a large number of
meritorious young student’s parent may not be
having the financial resource to support the
• The FEPs may not be providing the facilities
without the subsidies by government of India, or
private charitable trusts. Scholarships and 20
subsidies may resolve this issue.
• Going abroad is an education in and of
• Young Indians prize the opportunities to
do so. Most of the Indian students who go
or wish to go abroad is because of the
overall social and economic environment
prevalent there, which is more conducive
for healthy living.
• This set of people would not enrol for
programs in India.
Land and Building
• Land acquisition is a major issue in India and for
setting up any institute or an organization land is
a must. The capex costs of setting a campus in
India will mean fees pretty close to those abroad
especially since endowment money cannot be
used to offset costs. This will lead students to
question why they should in India when they can
go abroad. 22
• It would not be feasible to get all the staff from
• These FEPs would have to go for local people for
most of the jobs.
• Even if Indian faculty are hired, they will want
the same salary as the expatriates teaching the
Most of the institutes and universities in India
are setup by trusts, societies and charitable
companies, where profits are not to be taken
out and have to be reinvested. There could be
serious issues as these FEPs can prove to be a
major revenue earner and start taking back the
profits to their native country. 24
So, apart from these primary issues
there can be some secondary issues
like ; Follow the rule of land, India is
nation with substantially different set
of rules and regulations [specially for
elementary school education] as
compared to those countries in west.
The FEPs need to mandatorily follow
the rule of land and hence may feel
education: search for
Australian(Foreign) Education Providers
Right to Elementary Education Act 2010
Role of the Union & State governments
in education of Indian Children
The major goals of primary education are
achieving basic literacy and numeracy
amongst all pupils, as well as establishing
foundations in science, geography, history,
math, and other social sciences. The relative
priority of various areas, and the methods
used to teach them, are an area of
considerable political debate 34
Australia India Complementarities
Oz may have enormous opportunities in India to
partner with us at the school, vocational education 35
and training level, higher education and research
Australia & India : Similarities & differences.
• Australia and India have much in common.
• Both came out of British control of the new
world and culture to form two new nation-
states, even though Oz is Brit & In is Asia-Pacific.
• Oz is Brit’s daughter; In is step- daughter. The US
is now our ‘big brother’.
• Binding the similarities in economic and political
culture is a shared messianic crusade to save the
world from an infection of terrorism & cold-war
and a vision of a new Asian order promising
prosperity and peace for Asia & the world. 36
Advance Australia fair
• Oz may strike out on • Australia may lower
its own as an its level of urban
independent country. consumption to help
It need not abandon bring an end to
the British crown as poverty in the world,
its ruling family as and extend its
China & India will democratic charter to
synergize with British
culture and heritage. include a number of
Demand for education in regional language
(mother tongue as medium of instruction)
• As per the Right to Education Act, it is the intent of
the government to provide education to children in
their mother tongue or the appropriate regional
languages. The motivation of the government is due
to the fact that the child would understand
instructions easily in his/her mother tongue and
thus, the quality of education would be better.
Develop and provide the
education content in regional languages
• In the computer literacy initiative that is being
undertaken by the state governments, there is a
clear mandate to the education companies to
develop and provide the education content in
regional languages. This leads to strong demand for
content in regional languages and companies with
strong content development teams with the ability
to modify the content as per regional requirements
stand to benefit.
• There are about 29 languages in India
which are spoken by more than a million
people. Most of the education in India is
carried out in these regional languages.
• The FEPs would be able to provide
education in only one [English] or two
most prevalent languages [Regional +
Hindi + English] winning over a large part
of prospective clientele. 40
States of India with schools availability problems
• India has one of the lowest educational
indicators in many of its Northern States--Assam,
Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
and West Bengal. These states account for most
of the country's children out of school and most
of its illiterate population.
Types of schools in India
NCERT is the apex body for school education
It provides support and technical assistance to
a number of schools in India and
oversees many aspects of enforcement of
education policies. 44
In India, the various bodies governing school
education system are
• (i)The state government boards, in which
the majority of Indian children are
• (ii) The Central Board of Secondary
Education (CBSE) board.
• (iii) The Council for the Indian School
Certificate Examinations (CISCE) board.
• (iv) The National Institute of Open 45
■ International schools affiliated to the International
Baccalaureate Programme and/or the Cambridge
■ Islamic Madrasah schools, whose boards are
controlled by local state governments, or
autonomous, or affiliated with Darul Uloom
■ Autonomous schools like Woodstock School,
Auroville, Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga 46
Sibal meets Stephen Smith, discusses
safety of Indian students
Wednesday, April 7, 2010 13:59 IST
• Melbourne: Concerned over the safety of Indian students
here, human resource development minister Kapil Sibal has
reviewed with foreign minister Stephen Smith the steps taken
by the Australian government here to ensure their safety and
• "We also looked to the future of the Australia-India education
relationship, which presents enormous opportunities to
deepen collaboration across all sectors from vocational
education and training to higher education and postgraduate
studies," he added.
• Smith said Sibal has been a strong advocate of the Australia-
India Strategic Partnership, agreed by prime minister Rudd
and Indian prime minister Singh in New Delhi in November
• India's higher education needs are enormous. The
country needs more enrolment capacity at the bottom of
the system as well as more places at its small elite sector
at the top.
• The system needs systemic reform.
• Furthermore, fresh breeze from abroad might help to
galvanize local thinking.
• Yet, is it possible for (Oz) foreigners to solve or even
make a visible dent in India's higher education system? 48
We, the people of Oz & In, resolve to develop…….
• We need to encourage world-class standards of
literacy, numeracy and information technology
expertise in our schools and communities.
• We need to expand ‘Oz – In’ exchange of
educational, legal, technological and other value
adding sectors of information and knowledge
• We need to develop a leadership role for ‘Oz –
In’ in biotechnology and its applications.
This is a Golden Dream
to be realized.
Dear Foreign Education Providers , listen
• If you give a fish, today’s hunger is satisfied, make someone
learn fishing and cooking too, you can eat together and plan
more business, OK?
• Remember, it was in ancient India that it was said, “For the
generous in spirit, the world’s people are one family”; don’t
trust today’s Indians, make them remember what they already
• Why do Indians do research to develop weapons of mass
destruction capability when they have mass poverty at their
door and home made Maoist militants to harass them? Why
don’t Indians practise what their Gurus package to the West ?
• When India’s youth understands the rest of us, may be there
will be peace around.
• Come let us contemplate together.
General or liberal education imparts
citizenship values, but employment angle is
According to UNESCO, “higher education is no
longer a luxury; it is essential to national, social
and economic development”. Educational
reforms, therefore, are more intrinsically tied-
up with and can have stronger influence on the
youth employment opportunities than ever
before. Even more pertinent issue is that, while
numbers and analyses show that the standard
and accessibility of elementary and primary
education have improved for most of the
developing countries for the last two decades_
yet that success story has not led to a
consequential fruition, as expected from a
complete education, in terms of enhancing the
employment opportunity or poverty reduction
through self-reliance for today’s youth. WHY?
Some lesser known facts which are summarized as
• 84.5 million (highest in the world) young people live
under ‘extreme poverty line’ (less than US $1 per day)
in India. That is 44.2 % of total youth population.
(Source: World Youth Report, 2003);
• 44 million of Indian youth is under-nourished (again,
highest in the world) which is 23% of the total youth
population (Source: World Youth Report, 2003);
• Gross enrollment percentage of youth in
higher education is 7%, as compared to 92% in
US, 52% in UK, 45% in Japan, 11.1% in all Asia,
even 10.3% in all developing countries.
• Largest percentage of unemployed
population in India is educated youth.
Most intriguingly, in stark contrast to the OECD
countries, the share of unemployment
increases as the average educational level goes
• Organized job sector is appallingly low at less
than 5-6%. Almost 95% of newly created.
School for national
From: The Australian
April 21, 2010 12:00AM
• KAPIL Sibal, India's Minister for Human
Resource Development, was bound to emphasise the
safety of Indian students during his recent visit to
Australia, and that captured commentators in both
The real significance of his exchange with federal
Education Minister Julia Gillard, however, lies within
their joint ministerial statement proposing an India-
Australia education council. That would cover primary
through to university education and include training
programs, staff and student exchange, research and
With India a magnet for education providers
worldwide because of its capacity building
requirements, this is a significant
opportunity for Australia to move beyond
the serious and ongoing relationship
challenges posed by last year's attacks on
Australia must see beyond the immediate if it
is to create a long-term partnership with India,
and must understand the broader cultural and
political agendas at work.
Australia should focus on -- and even learn
from -- the fact India is making huge budgetary
commitments to developing its human
resource and intellectual capacity through
education. India's 11th five-year plan aims to
spend 19 per cent of the government budget
on education, emphasizing people 78
development rather than infrastructure.
Of 220 million children now in school, just 18
million will go on to college-level education.
For observers familiar with the quality of India's
higher education products, especially from the
Indian institutes of technology and the rapidly
emerging private universities, any college
participation increase will produce a substantial
rise in India's intellectual capital at home and
The foreign universities bill is of great interest
to Australian universities, even if most will be
reluctant to get involved given their
experiences elsewhere in the world.
That will be reinforced by a bill provision
setting a registration fee of up to $11 million
for any institution wanting to establish itself in
Furthermore, the FEP bill's passage is a
tortuous one that all tertiary education
strategists should watch closely.
It is opposed fiercely by the Left on the broad
grounds that it will compromise Indian
sovereignty and return India to a colonial state
For once, some of that rhetoric is shared on
the Right, and that has a big influence on
attitudes at state level because of India's
• Some Indian observers see that as a quick
way to encourage quality competition,
• others as a slight to India's own
• yet others as an attempt to undermine or
even reject national values.
• The debate is as much about national
ideology as meeting student demand.
Stages & Areas of education:
• The ‘Ten plus Two’ • University level
stage or schooling • Existing system
level facilitates Indian
• During the Raj, elite students to
schools were participate in world
established in hill class education
stations for children imparted in Australia
of British officers/ based campuses with
personnel serving in a lesser extent of
India. Now Oz-Raj? ‘overseas franchises’ 83