Presentation on strategic compac

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Presentation on strategic compac Powered By Docstoc
					        Youth in Kenya:
       Force for change,
       or lost generation?
             Prepared by Paul Francis
             with Nyambura Githagui

   For presentation at WB ESSD Week Session on
‘Youth: Assets for Social and Economic Transformation’
                    March 31, 2005
•   Background
•   Conceptual framework and methodology
•   Situation of youth in Kenya
•   Youth policies and programs
•   Conclusions and recommendations of study
•   Follow up: JSDF-supported work on inclusion,
    participation and empowerment of youth
• 75% of Kenya’s population under 30;
• 8 million aged between 15 and 24;
• Their optimism and energy gives youth
  enormous potential to contribute to
• Challenge of growing up in a society
  where opportunity has been eroded by
  widespread institutional collapse and
        Objectives of study
• Identify nature and scope of issues facing
• Examine risk and protective factors
  determining outcomes for youth
• Identify intervention points
• Assist Kenya Government in policy
• Inform Bank’s operational programs
    Conceptual framework and
• ‘Ecological’ model of risk and protective
  factors developed and adapted with
  Kenya stakeholders
• Focus group discussion across Kenya
• Reanalysis of quantitative data
• Review of data and literature.
   Situation of youth in Kenya (1)
  – UPE, but secondary enrollment < 25%
  – Poor preparation for employment
  – Few opportunities: 60% of unemployed are under 30
    y.o. (esp. women)
  – 1.9 million working children (5-17 y.o.)
  – One in three AIDS cases among 15-30 y.o.;
    Prevalence varying from 1 to 24 % (higher for
    females), misconceptions about AIDS widespread.
  – Very poor mental health indicators (7% male and 10%
    females have attempted suicide; self-reported
    depression 7% women).
  Situation of youth in Kenya (2)
Crime, violence, substance abuse
  – Longstanding urban crime now accompanied by
    epidemic of rural crime, including extreme violence.
  – Driven by lack of hope or opportunity
  – More than 50% of convicted prisoners aged 16 - 25.
  – Youth perception of predatory behavior by police.
Physical and sexual abuse
  – 21% of 10-24 y.o. report abuse
  – 42% of 15-19 y.o. women, 50% of 20-29 y.o. have
    experienced violence since aged 15
  – 20-30% women undergo FGM
   Situation of youth in Kenya (3)
   – Perception of marginalization and voicelessness in
     family, community and national political life.
Youth living in slums: stratified disadvantage
   – Poor services (esp, housing and water); lower school
     enrollments; worse outcomes in terms of violence,
     substance abuse, HIV/AIDS, morbidity, mortality.
Young women: gendered disadvantage
   – Girls face early marriage, lower access to: education,
     employment opportunities, public space, information and
     social networks.
   – Violence and abuse; FGM; consequences of risky sexual
     behavior (HIV, school drop out due to pregnancy, unsafe
   Youth policies and programs
• National Youth Policy
• Other relevant policies include:
  – National Population Policy, Information and
    Communication Technology Policy, Totally Integrated
    Quality Education and Training (TIQET) initiative.
• Implementation gap
• Non-governmental initiatives – fragmented, high
  unit cost, dependent on external funding
• Good coverage in some areas: e.g. sexual and
  reproductive health
• Few initiatives in other areas: e.g. youth crime
  and violence, youth voice
            Conclusions and
        recommendations of study
• Main areas:
  –   Education and Training
  –   Employment and Entrepreneurship
  –   Voice and inclusion
  –   Crime and violence

• Subsidiary areas
  –   Physical and sexual abuse
  –   Mental health
  –   Substance abuse
  –   HIV/AIDS
  –   Out-of school youth
  –   Recreation and sports
      Recommendations e.g.1:
       Education and training
Problem: many youth being failed by limited
  access to, and relevance of, education
• Adapt vocational and technical training
  system to labor market
• Improve access to secondary education
• Create links between training institutes and
• Consider innovative ways of funding V&T
      Recommendations e.g.2:
      Youth voice and inclusion
Problem: youth are marginalized and
  excluded from decision making.
• Implementation of Youth Policy and
  establishment of National Youth Council
• Support youth advocacy and leadership
• Create for a to showcase positive
  achievements of youth
Follow up: inclusion, participation
  and empowerment of youth
 – Scaling-up and replication of innovative
   programs for youth focused on livelihood
   and well-being
 – Promotion of accountability mechanisms
   linking youth/civil society organizations
 – Capacity building for youth organizations

 To be supported by $1.8 m JSDF grant
              After thoughts
• Malaise of youth a reflection of the malaise of
• Youth as an object of social engineering:
  fragmentation vs. holistic vision
• Youth concerns linked to structural conflict
  within the households and communities of
  which youth are a part
• What are the entry points for addressing a wide
  and deep rooted social and moral crisis?
• Re-empowering the family and community in an
  age of globalization?
• Need for a social debate: what kind of society
  to Kenyans aspire to live in?