Human Anatomy Biology Fetal Movement

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					                         Human Anatomy and Physiology
                       Bristol Community College, Fall 2004
                                                           Professor: Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.
         Biology 33, Anatomy and Physiology : Study of the structure and function of human tissues,
organs and organ systems. Topics: introduction; tissues; integumentary, skeletal, muscular systems
and the nervous system. Laboratory includes occasional dissections. The course is intended primarily
for students in the health sciences. Prerequisites: High school biology and chemistry, preferably within
the last five years.
         This class is designed to familiarize the student with the structures of the human body, the
language used to describe it, and the way it works, using human skeletal material and dissection of
fetal pigs as a guide to the anatomy and interactive physiology labs to help understand how the
anatomy functions in a living person. The information presented is considered a fundamental base, as
well as a language, that is universal to the biomedical sciences.
         Anatomy and Physiology is a 15-week course that meets for three hours of lecture and two
hours of laboratory. However, expect to spend at least ten hours per week outside of class studying if
you expect to pass, more if you hope to excel. You must pass both the laboratory and lecture parts of
this course in order to receive a passing grade for the semester.

Lecture Text: Marieb, E.N. (2000) Human Anatomy and Physiology, 5TH edition,

Anatomy and Physiology as a Language: In many ways, this course involves learning a new
language. To learn a new language, it is essential to have direct experience with the objects or
material being described—in this case the human skeleton and fetal pig—and to find ways to ingrain
the words involved. It is best to hear the terms, write them down, touch the structures while dissecting,
draw the structures, label them, write their definitions, say them out loud and then repeat it all over
again. This can get to be a boring and repetitive process, but it is important to remember the power
that comes from being able to describe the details of the human body and how it works with precision,
and at a level that was previously not possible.

Keys to Success: Students often ask me what might be the best way to excel in this course. Every
student is an individual with their own strengths and weaknesses and every year I learn about new
ways to study and approach anatomy and physiology. But I do have a few tips that seem to be
universally useful to all students:
     PREPARATION: Students who get an A in this class always come prepared to lab. It is a
       simple fact. They have read ahead and they are already familiar with the systems and parts of
       the body and the terms to describe them and they know which figures in the lab manual or text
       apply to what we are covering that day.
     TIME: This course requires time outside of class in order to do well—at least 10 hours/week.
     REPETITION: Read it, hear it, see it, say it, DRAW IT (this seems to be key); then do it again.
     ATTITUDE: Students with a better attitude do better in this class.

Website: The website for this course serves as your guide and
allows me, as the instructor, to take the role of an organizer and explainer, rather than the holder of
information. Every presentation, along with note-taking handouts and links to other websites can be
found here. In addition, learning objectives and all logistical information regarding schedules, readings,
and grading are posted. If you have a question, please consult the website first and then send me an
email if you can’t find the answer.
                                                   Human Anatomy and Physiology Syllabus,
                                                 Bristol Community College, Fall 2004, Page 2
                               EVALUATION AND GRADING

Anatomy and Physiolgoy is mostly a factual subject with objective exams made up of principally
multiple choice questions used as the main evaluation tool.

Lecture Exams: Three lecture exams will be based on reading assignments and lecture
material. Exams will be a combination of multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, matching, true/false
and short answer questions. The exams are NOT cumulative and only test on the material from
the most recent section of the course. Make-up exams will be given only if arrangements are
made with the instructor PRIOR to the scheduled exam or if proof of a legitimate absence can
be provided.

Quizzes: Weekly quizzes are given to inspire the student to keep on top of studying and as a
gauge for how well one is doing in the class. If you are not doing well on the quizzes and find
them difficult, then that is a sign that you need to change your approach to studying for Anatomy
and Physiology. Each quiz is worth ten points and the quiz average then contributes 100 points
(like one lecture or lab exam) to the semester total. Quizzes are based on the material from the
previous week. Exam week and the week following exams will have no quizzes.

Grades: Lecture will account for approximately 75% of your final grade and lab will account for
approximately 25%. You must pass both lecture and lab with at least a “D” in order to get credit
for the class. For lecture, the point distribution is as follows:

               Lecture Exams                 300 points
               Quiz average                  100 points
               TOTAL POSSIBLE                400 POINTS

Letter grades are assigned according the following point (and percentage) accumulations. You
must have a passing percentage in both lab and lecture in order to pass the class.
               A: More than 352 points (88%)
               B: More than 312 points (78%)
               C: More than 264 points (66%)
               D: More than 216 points (54%)
               F: Less than points 216

Cheating: If you are caught cheating on an exam or quiz at any point in the semester
(including sharing information or conversing with other students), you will immediately be given
a failing grade for the semester.
                                                   Human Anatomy and Physiology Syllabus,
                                                 Bristol Community College, Fall 2004, Page 3


I. An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology: Chap.1, pages 1-23. (week 1)
Topics of anatomy and physiology, complimentarity of structure and function, structural
organization, maintaining life (characteristics, maintenance of boundaries, movement,
responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction and growth), survival needs,
Homeostasis (characteristics, negative and positive feedback imbalance), language of anatomy
(anatomical position and directional terms, regional terms, planes and sections), cavities and
membranes, regions and quadrants, and medical imaging.

1. Define the terms Anatomy and Physiology.
2. Describe the different levels of structural organization within the human body.
3. List and describe the organ systems of the body including location, function and
   representative organs.
4. List and describe the eight life functions of animals.
5. Explain homeostasis.
6. Explain feedback systems, including examples of positive and negative systems
7. What is homeostatic imbalance.
8. Define the anatomical position, regional names, and directional terms and planes and
9. Know the following body cavities and terms that apply to them:
        dorsal body cavity                      cranial cavity
        ventral body cavity                     serous membrane
        viscera                                 thoracic cavity
        abdominopelvic cavity                   pleural cavity
        pleura                                  pericardial cavity
        pericardium                             mediastenum
        peritoneum                              autopsy

10. Know the various types of medical imaging.

II. The Chemical Level of Organization: Chap. 2 pages 26-60.**
       **NOTE: This chapter will not be discussed in class. HOWEVER, you will be
       responsible for the information contained in this chapter since knowledge of
       chemistry is a prerequisite for this course.

CHAP. 2 OBJECTIVES: You should be familiar with the following terms:
matter      energy        atom              element         electrons
neutrons    valence       molecule          compound        anabolism
inorganic   organic       solvent           solute         solution
acid        base          salt              pH              buffer
hydrolysis  carbohydrate monosaccharide     peptides        catalyst
lipids      polysaccharidetriglycerides     saturated       enzyme
unsaturated proteins      DNA               RNA             ATP
protons     catabolism    suspension        dehydration
amino acid  lipoproteins disaccharide       ADP
                                                    Human Anatomy and Physiology Syllabus,
                                                  Bristol Community College, Fall 2004, Page 4

Be able to explain the following:
1. The pH scale and what it means, including buffers and what they do.
2. What are saccharide units and how are they combined to make complex molecules?

III. Cells: the living units: Chap. 3, pp. 64-109, **
        Animal cells, membranes, specializations of the plasma membrane, transport across
        membranes, organelles, cell division (somatic, sex cells and cancer cells), aging.
**NOTE: these are topics you should be familiar with although we will not discuss
        them in class.
plasma membrane                cytosol               organelles             cell membrane
phospholipids                  glycolipids           cholesterol            meiosis
diffusion                      equilibrium           osmosis                hypertonic
hypotonic                      isotonic              active transport       phagocytosis
pinocytosis                    mitosis               proteins               membrane junctions
microvilli                     desmosomes            filtration             bulk transport
membrane receptors
Be able to explain the following:
1. Identify the different organelles of the cell.
2. Explain the difference between mitosis and meiosis.
3. The fluid mosaic model of membrane structure.
4. What is cancer?

IV. The Tissue Level of Organization: Chap. 4 pp.114-144 (wks. 2-3). Types of tissues,
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous and membranes, tissue repair.
CHAPTER 4 OBJECTIVES: The Tissue Level of Organization
1. Explain the different types of tissues and their origins.
2. Define the different types of cell junctions.
3. Define and give some general features of epithelial tissue including arrangement of
   layers, cell shapes, and classification.
4. Describe the general features of connective tissue including the tissue cells and matrix.
5. Explain the classification of connective tissue; give examples of each and where they are found.
6. Define and explain the three types of muscle tissue.
7. Name the parts of a nerve cell (neuron).

V. Integumentary System: Chap. 5 pp.148-168 Time permitting, there will be a brief
discussion of the basics of skin anatomy and physiology.
1. Know the general anatomy of the skin.
2. Be able to name and describe the functions of the skin.
3. Name and describe at least 2 layers of the epidermis.
4. Know the differences between the dermis and the epidermis.
5. What causes skin color? What pigments are involved?
6. How are fingerprints formed? What is the significance of them?
7. Name and describe epidermal derivatives (hair, nails).
8. Name and describe dermal derivatives.
9. Know skin cancers.
                                                     Human Anatomy and Physiology Syllabus,
                                                   Bristol Community College, Fall 2004, Page 5

                                          EXAM ONE

VI. Skeletal System-Bone Tissue: Chap. 6, pp.172-194 (week 4).
Skeletal cartilage, function and classification of bone, anatomy (macro and micro structure),
bone development, growth and homeostasis, exercise and bone, aging.
1. Explain the five major functions of bone.
2. Know the classification of bone.
3. Explain the anatomy of a bone and know the terms associated with it, such as diaphysis,
   epiphysis, metaphysis articular cartilage, periosteum medullary cavity, endosteum.
4. Histology of bone: osseous tissue, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts,
   calcification, compact bone tissue, Volkmann's canals, Haversian canals, lamellae,
   lacunae, canaliculi, osteon, interstitial lamellae, spongy bone tissue, trabeculae.
5. Physiology of bone formation: ossification, intramembranous and endochondral
   ossification, chondroblasts.
6. Physiology of bone growth: 4 zones of the epiphyseal plate, metaphysis.
7. Bone homeostasis: remodeling, mineral, vitamin needs and hormonal regulation of
   remodeling; fracture and repair of bone, types of fractures, bone's, role in calcium
8. Homeostatic Imbalance: Osteoporosis, Osteomalacia, Rickets and Paget's Disease.
9. Know selected clinical terms.

VII. Skeletal System: Chap. 7, pp. 198-244, (week 5-6).
       types of bone, markings, divisions of the skeletal system, skull bones, vertebral
       column, thorax, appendicular skeleton (pectoral and pelvic girdles with associated
       appendages, comparison of male and female skeletons) fetal skull, clinical terms.

1. Types of bones: long, short, flat and irregular bones.
2. Surface markings: depressions, openings and processes.
3. Divisions of the skeletal system and which bones belong to each division.
4. Skull: divisions of the skull sutures, fontanels and major bones, including:
         frontal         parietal         temporal              vomer
         occipital       sphenoid         ethmoid               orbits
         nasal           maxilla          paranasal sinuses     foramen
         zygomatic       mandible         lacrimal
5. The Hyoid bone and its parts.
6. The vertebral column: divisions, curves, structure of typical vertebrae, types of vertebrae
   ie. cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygial.
7. The Thorax: the sternum and its parts; the ribs. Disorders: herniated disc, abnormal
   curves, spina bifida.
8. The Pectoral Girdle: Bones include;
         clavicle                 scapula        humerus                radius
         ulna                     carpals        metacarpals            phalanges
9. Processes of bones:
         acromion                 coracoid process       glenoid cavity
                                                      Human Anatomy and Physiology Syllabus,
                                                    Bristol Community College, Fall 2004, Page 6
       greater tubercle        lesser tubercle         lat. epicondyle
       med. epicondyle         capitulum               trochlea
       coronoid fossa          olecranon fossa         radial tuberosity
       head of radius          styloid process         head of ulna olecranon
10. Pelvic Girdle: Bones include;
       ilium           ischium         pubis                    pubic symphysis
       os coxa         femur           tibia                    patella
       fibula          tarsals         calcaneus                metatarsals
       phalanges       talus
11. Processes of Pelvic Girdle:
       Ischial spine                   acetabulum                       iliac crest
       obturator foramen               greater sciatic notch            pelvic brim
       greater trochanter              lesser trochanter                laterale picondyle
       lateral condyle                 medial epicondyle                medial condyle
       linea aspera                    head                             neck
       lateral malleolus               medial malleolus                 tibial tuberosity
12. Know how to distinguish between a male and a female pelvis.
13. Define clinical terms such as flatfoot, bunions, clawfoot.

VIII. JOINTS: Chap. 8, pp. 248-272, (week 7)
        classifications of joints, fibrous, cartilaginous,synovial, synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis,
        diarthrosis, joint movements, homeostatic imbalances.
1. Structural classification of joints.
2. Functional classification of joints.
3. Define and give examples of the three different types of synarthroses.
4. Compare the two types of amphiarthroses.
5. Label and define the parts of a diarthrosis.
6. Know the different types of diarthroses.
7. Explain the following disorders:
        rheumatism               arthritis        osteoarthritis                sprain
        lyme disease             bursitis         dislocation                   strain

                                           EXAM TWO
IX. Muscular System- Muscle Tissue: Chap.9, pp. 276-317, (wks 10 & 11).
        types of muscle tissue, functions, characteristics, anatomy and innervation of skeletal
        muscle, muscle contraction, muscle tension, cardiac muscle anatomy and physiology,
        smooth muscle anatomy and physiology, aging, regeneration and disorders of muscle
1. Types of muscle tissue
2. Functions of muscle tissue
3. Characteristics of muscle tissue
4. Nerve and blood supply, connective tissue components, motor units and neuromuscular
   junction, microscopic anatomy,
                                                     Human Anatomy and Physiology Syllabus,
                                                   Bristol Community College, Fall 2004, Page 7
5. Contraction of muscle: sliding filament , role of calcium and ATP, relaxation, muscle
   tone, metabolism
6. Adjusting muscle tension; twitch, tetanus.
7. Types of skeletal muscle fibers
8. Cardiac muscle tissue: anatomy, physiology
9. Smooth muscle tissue: anatomy, physiology
10. Disorders and clinical terminology

X. Muscular System: Chap. 10, pp. 322-381, (week 11)
      muscle movement, naming, injections into muscles, injuries.
Know selected muscles, their origins, insertions, action, intramuscular injections,

XI. The Nervous System: Chap. 11, pp. 386-424 (week 12)
        Organization of nervous system, histology of nervous tissue, classification of
        neurons, neurophysiology including action potentials, synapses, and neuro-
        transmitters, disorders and regeneration.
1. Explain the divisions of the nervous system.
2. Describe the functional anatomy of the nervous system, including neuroglia,
   myelination, neurons, axonal transport, classification of neurons, gray and white matter.
3. Explain major aspects of neurophysiology including membrane potential at rest, ion
   channels, action potentials, depolarization, repolarization, refractory period, all-or-none
   principle, transmission of synapse.
4. Describe the different neurotransmitters and their actions; describe compounds that alter
   conduction and synaptic transmission.
5. Describe regeneration of nervous tissue & disorders of the nervous system.

XII. The Central Nervous System: Chap. 12, pp. 428-471 (week 13)
        The brain, spinal cord anatomy and physiology, disorders.
CHAPTER 12 OBJECTIVES: The Brain, and Spinal Cord
1. Identify the principal parts of the brain including coverings, fluid, blood supply along
   with the following: brain stem, medulla, pons, reticular formation, midbrain, thalamus,
   hypothalamus, cerebrum, and cerebellum
2. In the cerebrum know the lobes, white vs. gray matter, limbic system, some functional
   areas, EEG, brain lateralization.
3. Describe the neurotransmitters found in the brain and their functions.
4. Describe the anatomy of the spinal cord including the meninges, external and internal
5. Explain the physiology of the spinal cord including the sensory and motor tracts, reflexes.
6. Describe spinal nerves including composition, distribution of selected nerves,
   dermatomes and disorders.

XII. The Peripheral Nervous System: Chap. 13, pp. 474-509 (week 14).
       Overview, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, reflexes.
1. Define peripheral nervous system and list its components.
2. Define nerves and describe their structure.
                                                   Human Anatomy and Physiology Syllabus,
                                                 Bristol Community College, Fall 2004, Page 8
3. Name the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and what region of the body is innervated by each.
4. Explain reflexes.

XIV. The Autonomic Nervous System: Chap. 14 pp, 512-531 (week 15)
        Comparison of somatic and autonomic systems, anatomy of autonomic pathways,
        physiological effects on the body of ANS, autonomic reflexes.
CHAPTER 14 OBJECTIVES: The Autonomic Nervous System
1. Compare the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
2. Describe the anatomy of the ANS, particularly the sympathetic and parasympathetic
3. Describe the ANS neurotransmitters and know their effects.
4. Explain the parasympathetic and sympathetic responses including such terms as energy
   conservation-restorative system, fight-or-flight response.
5. Explain visceral autonomic reflexes including the 5 components.

                                       EXAM THREE

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