PILOT SURVEY ON AGEING in Armenia

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					                            PILOT SURVEY ON AGEING
                                   in Armenia

                                 Employment of QUALITATIVE
                              (PARTICIPATORY) & QUANTITATIVE
                                          Methods


International Training Workshop
Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009
Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
Quantitative Methods
                                                Example of face-to-face structured interview
                                        Q1. According to your personal opinion, could you tell me for each
          Internet interviews           of the listed items is it a problem for old people or not?
     Self-administrated interview
                                                                                                         Yes   No       DN/NA
    Telephone interviews
                                    Q1_1        Health                                                    1     2          99

Face-to-face structured             Q1_2        Social isolation                                          1     2          99

interviews                          Q1_3        Values and attitudes in society towards old people        1     2          99
                                    Q1_4        …………………. Etc.                                             1     2          99

                                    Q1_25       Other /pls. specify/…………………                               1     2          99

                                    Q2. Which of the problems mentioned above in the MOST serious
                                    problem for old people, in your opinion?

                                    1           Health
                                    ….          …………………. etc.

                                    Q1_25       Other /pls. specify/…………………


                                    Q3. Using the scale from “1” to “5”, where “1” is the lowest, “5” is the
                                    highest assessments, how would you evaluate Government’s efforts
                                    in regard to elderly people?

                                               1                    2              3                 4              5
 International Training Workshop
 Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009              No efforts at all          Low         Medium           High           Very high
 Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva                                                                                                    2/17
Qualitative Methods

Example of in-depth interview: Ageing Survey, Armenia

                                                                                 Nominal Group
Current situation of elderly people                                            Institutional Diagrams
1. Could you describe the current situation of elderly people? Could        Observation
you describe briefly their main problems and needs in your personal       Desk research
opinion?
………………………………………………………………………………                                          In-depth interviews
2. Could you describe what had done by the
Government/Municipality so far?                                        Focus groups Discussions
………………………………………………………………………………
3. How could you assess the current situation with elderly people
and measures that are done/elaborated on governmental/municipal
level so far?
………………………………………………………………………………

Responsibility for elderly people




   International Training Workshop
   Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009                                                                            3/17
   Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
Quantitative and Qualitative Methods 1/3


Parameters                               Quantitative methods                       Qualitative methods
                                     Information is based on high number of
                                   respondents (quantity is important), use of     In-depth information, studying
                                       statistical procedures, information is            reasons, principle of
Type of information                presented usually in relative shares (%) in           understanding “why”.
                                      tables, graphs, information is very well   Information is not representative,
                                         structured. Information could be           it reflects personal opinions.
                                        representative for a certain group.

                                                 Close-ended                               Open-ended
Type of questions asked
                                              (What? How often?)                 (Why? In your opinion …………?)

                                   Many questions, covered broad range of
Number of topics/questions                                                               Few topics (2-5)
                                                   topics

                                     General assessments, public opinion              Attitudes, motivations,
Purpose (what to study)
                                            studies, trend studies                          perceptions



 International Training Workshop
 Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009                                                                                      4/17
 Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
Quantitative and Qualitative Methods 2/3

 Parameters                              Quantitative methods                    Qualitative methods
                                        100, usually > 200 up to 1300
 Number of respondents/Sample           (at least 50 units required for                  Av. 10 to 60
                                                   statistics)

                                            Preliminary elaborated                Only guidelines preliminary
 Tools                                    questionnaire is required,             required for FG and in-depth
                                      questionnaire is all the same for all     interviews; questions could be
                                                 respondents                  different for different respondents

                                                    Long time                             Short time
 Time to implement/Time-consumption
                                               (At least a month)                       (3 to 15 days)

 Number of researchers/people who
                                           >20, interviews network                   Could be one (1-4)
 gather information/HR consumption

                                                                               Low cost, not very expensive
                                         Expensive, sometimes very
                                                                               (1 000 to 5 000 €, but also
 Cost/Cost-consumption                            expensive
                                                                              could be lower than 1 000
                                       (5 000 to 20 000 € and more)
                                                                                            €)

 International Training Workshop
 Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009
                                                                                                              5/17
 Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
Quantitative and Qualitative Methods 3/3

 Parameters                              Quantitative methods                      Qualitative methods
                                        Special skills are not required;          Qualification requires. Special
 Skills of interviewers               qualification is not required; briefing   skills required for moderators and
                                               before each survey                       in-depth interviewers

                                      Use of codes and special statistical
 Data processing                                                                        Content analysis
                                                  programs

                                    Analysis supported by quantitative data           Analysis supported by
 Content of the outcome
                                       presented in tables and graphs.               respondents quotations

                                                                                     Expert opinion studies
                                     Baseline surveys; Household surveys,
                                                                                  Small communities studies
                                         trend or continuous surveys
                                                                                Studies among specific group of
                                             Large-scale surveys
 Suitable for:                                                                  population (illiterate persons, old
                                    Surveys with national coverage required
                                                                                          people, etc.)
                                    Comparative survey (different countries,
                                                                                 When in-depth information is
                                                 for instance)
                                                                                             needed


  International Training Workshop
  Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009                                                                                   6/17
  Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
                                  QUALITATIVE PARTICIPATORY
                                          METHODS
                                   Key word: PARTICIPATORY




International Training Workshop
Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009
Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
Qualitative Methods: Why to Employ Them?


               Because:
                    They study problems in depth, in details

                      They study reasons, consequences;

                      They give information about peoples opinions, attitudes,
               motivation, feelings;

                      We receive the information/feedback very quick

                      They are inexpensive in comparison to surveys employing
               quantitative methods
  International Training Workshop
  Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009                                                      8/17
  Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
 Why “PARTICIPATORY”?
Social Assessment of “Dospat” State Forestry   (Remark: Dospat is a small tow in South-West BG, population: 80% moslems.


 #1: interviewing old                 1                           2
 women in the mosque
 #2: FG with hunters




                                                                                                 #3: interviewing
                                                                                                 representatives of the
                                                                                                 mosque board of
                                                                                                 trustees
                                                                                              #4: interviewing
                                                                                              director of the State
                                                                                              Forestry and
                                                                                              representative of a
          3                                                                                 4 local NGO
    International Training Workshop
    Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009
                                                                                                                    9/17
    Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
 Why “PARTICIPATORY”? – International Training Workshop in Sankt Petersburg, Dec. 2008

                                                                          #1: interviewing a
                                                                    2     doctor in
                                                                          Gerontology
                                                                          Center
                                                                          #2: interviewing
                                                                          old people in
                                                                          Gerontology
                                                                          Center
   1


#3: interviewing
old people in
Gerontology
Center
#4: interviewing
old people in
Gerontology
Center
                                               3                                   4
    International Training Workshop
    Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009
                                                                                             10/17
    Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
Qualitative Methods: Aims and Objectives, Ageing Survey in Armenia



         The objectives of the qualitative survey:

               To assess human and social consequences of ageing;


                Assess the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the public
         in relation to ageing in their communities;


                To examine the capacity of governmental and non-
         governmental institutions to address issue of ageing.

  International Training Workshop
  Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009                                                     11/17
  Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
Qualitative Methods to be Employed



                     Stakeholder Analysis;

                      Group Discussions (Focus Groups);

                      In-depth Interviews;

                      Direct (Participatory) Observation;

                      Institutional Linkage Diagrams (Venn Diagrams);

                      Nominal Group Technique (Simple Ranking).


  International Training Workshop
  Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009                                             12/17
  Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
How to Choose a Method?




           Objectives: reasons for involvement and expected results;

            Topics: what we what to study – nature and scope of the issue

            Participants: our target group, who we collect information from?
     Who is affected, interested and can contribute the solution?

            Time

            Budget



  International Training Workshop
  Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009                                                    13/17
  Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
Qualitative Methods: Exemplary Target Groups: Ageing Survey in Armenia


Old people, divided into groups     Men & women; “young” pensioners (65 – 70 y.o.); “oldest” old people (80+);
by different demographic            old people living with their families, alone or in social centers; people living in
characteristics                     different regions in the country; old disabled people who lives in internats;
                                    homeless old people
Non-pensioners                      People in age 25+; people who have or do not have old person in a family;
                                    people from different regions in the country
Pensioners - experts                People who are recently pensioners, but they have worked with governmental
                                    or non-governmental organizations and have taken decisions in respect to
                                    ageing issues
Expert                              Representatives of different institutions, people who are engaged in ageing
                                    issues: Ministry of Labour and Social Issues; Ministry of Health; Ministry of
                                    Education and Science; Urban Development Ministry; Ministry of Culture;
                                    Ministry of Economy.
Family doctors
Representatives of mass media       Representatives of TV, radio and print media
NGO representatives                 Representatives of NGO dealing with elderly people
Municipalities representatives      Mayors, others
Union of Entrepreneurs
  International Training Workshop
  Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009                                                                                          14/17
  Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
                                  QUANTITATIVE METHODS
                                    Key word: QUANTITY




International Training Workshop
Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009
Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
How to Collect Quantitative Information




 1          Definition of general multitude, our target                7     Interviewing/information collection

 2          Definition of sample – size, type;                         8    Gathering of cards for interview

 3          Methodology design – methods, questionnaires               9    Coding and logical overview of cards

 4          Pilot test of questionnaire(s)                            10    Data input

 5          Print of questionnaire(s)                                 11    Data cleaning, weighting

  6         Briefing of interviewers                                  12    Data processing


                                                  Data analysis; preparing tables and
                                                 reports, calculating means, test of
                                                 hypotheses, etc. – report producing.


     International Training Workshop
     Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009                                                                                     16/17
     Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva
Some Fields of Applicability of Two Groups of Methods for Policy Making on Ageing


                  Studying public       Evaluating role      Evaluation of
                  attitudes and         of different         different programs
                  perceptions towards   institutions         (pension system,
                  elderly people        responsible for      for instance)
                                        old people



                                        Research on the
                    Studying Needs of   advantages and          Monitoring &
                    elderly people      disadvantages of        Evaluation of
                                        different living        Ageing Policy
                                        arrangements for
                                        older persons


                                        Studying access of   Post-Evaluation of
                                        elderly people to    some programs or
                                        knowledge,           actions implemented
                                        education and
  International Training Workshop       training
  Yerevan, 7 – 9 April 2009
                                                                                    17/17
  Prepared by: Ivayla Tasseva