Computer Technology Forecast by kimbrozic

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									        Computer
    Technology Forecast
               Jim Gray
          Microsoft Research
         Gray@Microsoft.com
http://~research.Microsoft.com/~Gray
                   Reality Check
• Good news
  – In the limit, processing & storage & network is free
  – Processing & network is infinitely fast
• Bad news
  – Most of us live in the present.
  – People are getting more expensive.
    Management/programming cost exceeds hardware cost.
  – Speed of light not improving.
  – WAN prices have not changed much in last 8 years.
         Interesting Topics
• I’ll talk about server-side hardware
• What about client hardware?
  – Displays, cameras, speech,….
• What about Software?
  – Databases, data mining, PDB, OODB
  – Objects / class libraries …
  – Visualization
  – Open Source movement
                                How Much Information
                                                                                             Yotta
                                     Is there?
                                                                             Everything
                                                                                             Zetta
                                                                                 !
 • Soon everything can be
                                                                              Recorded
       recorded and indexed                                                                   Exa
                                                                                All Books
                                                                               MultiMedia
 • Most data never be seen by humans
                                                                                             Peta
                                                                           All LoC books
 • Precious Resource:                                                          (words)       Tera
     Human attention                                                                 .Movi
            Auto-Summarization                                                         e     Giga
            Auto-Search
                                                                                A Photo
        is key technology.                                                                   Mega
        www.lesk.com/mlesk/ksg97/ksg.html
                                                                                  A Book
24 Yecto, 21 zepto, 18 atto, 15 femto, 12 pico, 9 nano, 6 micro, 3 milli                     Kilo
                  Moore’s Law
• Performance/Price doubles every 18 months
• 100x per decade
• Progress in next 18 months
     = ALL previous progress
  – New storage = sum of all old storage (ever)
  – New processing = sum of all old processing.
• E. coli double ever 20 minutes!



15 years ago
                  Trends:
      ops/s/$ Had Three Growth Phases
1890-1945
  Mechanical            1.E+09

                                                            doubles every
  Relay                          ops per second/$             1.0 years
                        1.E+06
  7-year doubling
1945-1985               1.E+03

  Tube, transistor,..
  2.3 year doubling     1.E+00

                                    doubles every                 doubles every
1985-2000               1.E-03
                                      7.5 years                     2.3 years

  Microprocessor
  1.0 year doubling     1.E-06
                             1880   1900   1920     1940   1960      1980   2000
What’s a Balanced System?


             System Bus

   PCI Bus                PCI Bus
Storage capacity               Disk TB Shipped per Year
                              1E+7
                                                1998 Disk Trend (Jim Porter)


beating Moore’s law
                                        http://www.disktrend.com/pdf/portrpkg.pdf.

                                                               ExaByte
                              1E+6
                                                disk TB
                                                growth:
• 5 k$/TB today (raw disk)    1E+5
                                                112%/y


                                                             Moore's Law:
                              1E+4                             58.7%/y


                              1E+3
                                 1988       1991        1994        1997        2000



              Moores law              58.70% /year
              Revenue                  7.47%
              TB growth              112.30% (since 1993
              Price decline           50.70% (since 1993
    Cheap Storage
    • Disks are getting cheap:
    • 7 k$/TB disks (25 40 GB disks @ 230$ each)
900                                                                      40
800         Price vs disk capacity
                                                                         35
700                                                                               raw k$/TB             IDE
                   IDE                                                   30
600                                                                                                     SCSI
                   SCSI                     y = 15.895x + 13.446         25
500
$




                                                                         20
400                                                                  $
300                                                                      15

200                                                                      10
                                         y = 5.7156x + 47.857                                                   7
100                                                                       5
    0                                                                     0
        0     10         20       30        40      50          60            0   10    20       30        40       50   60
                         Raw Disk unit Size GB                                            Disk unit size GB
Cheap Storage or Balanced System
• Low cost storage
  (2 x 1.5k$ servers) 7K$ TB
 2x (1K$ system + 8x60GB disks + 100MbEthernet)

• Balanced server (7k$/.5 TB)
  –   2x800Mhz (2k$)
  –   256 MB (400$)
  –   8 x 60 GB drives (3K$)
  –   Gbps Ethernet + switch (1.5k$)              2x800 Mhz
                                                   256 MB
  –   14k$ TB, 28K$/RAIDED TB
         The “Absurd” Disk

• 2.5 hr scan time
    (poor sequential access)
• 1 aps / 5 GB
    (VERY cold data)
• It’s a tape!
               100 MB/s

                200 Kaps
                               1 TB
   Hot Swap Drives for Archive or
         Data Interchange
• 25 MBps write
  (so can write
  N x 60 GB
  in 40 minutes)
• 60 GB/overnite
= ~N x 2 MB/second
@ 19.95$/nite                   17$
                         260$
                 240 GB, 2k$ (now)
                300 GB by year end.
• 4x60 GB IDE
  (2 hot plugable)
   – (1,100$)
• SCSI-IDE bridge
   – 200k$
• Box
   –   500 Mhz cpu
   –   256 MB SRAM
   –   Fan, power, Enet
   –   700$
• Or 8 disks/box
  600 GB for ~3K$ ( or 300 GB RAID)
   Hot Swap Drives for Archive or
         Data Interchange
• 25 MBps write
  (so can write
  N x 74 GB
  in 3 hours)
• 74 GB/overnite
= ~N x 2 MB/second
@ 19.95$/nite
       It’s Hard to Archive a Petabyte
     It takes a LONG time to restore it.
• At 1GBps it takes 12 days!
• Store it in two (or more) places online (on disk?).
  A geo-plex
• Scrub it continuously (look for errors)
• On failure,
   – use other copy until failure repaired,
   – refresh lost copy from safe copy.
• Can organize the two copies differently
   (e.g.: one by time, one by space)
               Disk vs Tape

• Disk                      • Tape
   – 60 GB                      – 40 GB
   – 30 MBps                    – 10 MBps
   – 5 ms seek time             – 10 sec pick time
   – 3 ms rotate latency        – 30-120 second seek time
                                                            Guestimates
   – 7$/GB for drive            – 2$/GB for media
                                                            Cern: 200 TB
                                  8$/GB for drive+library   3480 tapes
      3$/GB for ctlrs/cabinet
                                – 10 TB/rack                2 col = 50GB
   – 4 TB/rack                                              Rack = 1 TB
                                – 1 week scan
   – 1 hour scan                                            =20 drives

The price advantage of tape is narrowing, and
the performance advantage of disk is growing
At 10K$/TB, disk is competitive with nearline tape.
           Trends: Gilder’s Law:
     3x bandwidth/year for 25 more years
• Today:
    – 10 Gbps per channel
    – 4 channels per fiber: 40 Gbps
    – 32 fibers/bundle = 1.2 Tbps/bundle
•   In lab 3 Tbps/fiber (400 x WDM)
•   In theory 25 Tbps per fiber
•   1 Tbps = USA 1996 WAN bisection bandwidth
•   Aggregate bandwidth doubles every 8 months!


                    1 fiber = 25 Tbps
  Sense of scale
• How fat is your pipe?
• Fattest pipe on MS
  campus is the WAN!
                                      300 MBps OC48 = G2
                                             Or
                                           memcpy()


  94 MBps Coast to Coast


                                      90 MBps PCI
                           20 MBps disk / ATM / OC3
       Redmond/Seattle, WA

          Information Sciences Institute
                              Microsoft
                                 Qwest      New York
               University of Washington
             Pacific Northwest Gigapop
HSCC (high speed connectivity consortium)
                                DARPA
San Francisco,                          Arlington, VA
     CA


                             5626 km
                             10 hops
DC -> SEA
                          The Path
C:\tracert -d 131.107.151.194
Tracing route to 131.107.151.194 over a maximum   of 30 hops
  0                                               ------- DELL 4400 Win2K WKS
Arlington Virginia, ISI                                       Alteon GbE
  1     16 ms   <10 ms   <10 ms 140.173.170.65    ------- Juniper M40 GbE
Arlington Virginia, ISI Interface ISIe
  2    <10 ms   <10 ms   <10 ms 205.171.40.61     ------- Cisco GSR OC48
Arlington Virginia, Qwest DC Edge
  3    <10 ms   <10 ms   <10 ms 205.171.24.85     ------- Cisco GSR OC48
Arlington Virginia, Qwest DC Core
  4    <10 ms   <10 ms    16 ms 205.171.5.233     ------- Cisco GSR OC48
New York, New York, Qwest NYC Core
  5     62 ms    63 ms    62 ms 205.171.5.115     ------- Cisco GSR OC48
San Francisco, CA, Qwest SF Core
  6     78 ms    78 ms    78 ms 205.171.5.108     ------- Cisco GSR OC48
Seattle, Washington, Qwest Sea Core
  7     78 ms    78 ms    94 ms 205.171.26.42     ------- Juniper M40 OC48
    Seattle, Washington, Qwest Sea Edge
  8     78 ms    79 ms    78 ms 208.46.239.90     ------- Juniper M40 OC48
Seattle, Washington, PNW Gigapop
  9     78 ms    78 ms    94 ms 198.48.91.30      ------- Cisco GSR OC48
Redmond Washington, Microsoft
 10     78 ms    78 ms    94 ms 131.107.151.194   ------- Compaq SP750 Win2K WKS
 Redmond Washington, Microsoft                                SysKonnect GbE
                 “ PetaBumps”
• 751 mbps for 300 seconds = (~28 GB)
      single-thread single-stream tcp/ip
      desktop-to-desktop
      out of the box performance*
• 5626 km x 751Mbps =
   ~ 4.2e15 bit meter / second ~ 4.2 Peta         bmps

• Multi-steam is 952 mbps
                       ~5.2 Peta bmps
   •4470 byte MTUs were enabled on all routers.
   •20 MB window size
    The Promise of SAN/VIA:10x in 2 years
                                   http://www.ViArch.org/

• Yesterday:
   – 10 MBps (100 Mbps Ethernet)            250
                                                            Time µs to
   – ~20 MBps tcp/ip saturates 2                             Send 1KB
                                            200
     cpus
   – round-trip latency ~250 µs             150
                                                                   Transmit
• Now                                       100                    receivercpu
   – Wires are 10x faster                                          sender cpu
     Myrinet, Gbps Ethernet, ServerNet,…     50

   – Fast user-level
                                              0
     communication                                100Mbps   Gbps       SAN
       • tcp/ip ~ 100 MBps 10% cpu
       • round-trip latency is 15 us
• 1.6 Gbps demoed on a WAN
                           Pointers
• The single-stream submission:
  http://research.microsoft.com/~gray/papers/
  Windows2000_I2_land_Speed_Contest_Entry_(Single_Stream_mail).htm
• The multi-stream submission:
  http://research.Microsoft.com/~gray/papers/
  Windows2000_I2_land_Speed_Contest_Entry_(Multi_Stream_mail).htm
• The code:
  http://research.Microsoft.com/~gray/papers/speedy.htm
                                               speedy.h
                                               speedy.c
  And a PowerPoint presentation about it.
  http://research.Microsoft.com/~gray/papers/
                               Windows2000_WAN_Speed_Record.ppt
                    Networking
   • WANS are getting faster than LANS
     G8 = OC192 = 8Gbps is “standard”
   • Link bandwidth improves 4x per 3 years
   • Speed of light (60 ms round trip in US)
   • Software stacks
     have always been the problem.
Time = SenderCPU + ReceiverCPU + bytes/bandwidth

    This has been
     the problem
Rules of Thumb in Data Engineering
• Moore’s law -> an address bit per 18 months.
• Storage grows 100x/decade (except 1000x last decade!)
• Disk data of 10 years ago now fits in RAM (iso-price).
• Device bandwidth grows 10x/decade – so need parallelism
• RAM:disk:tape price is 1:10:30 going to 1:10:10
• Amdahl’s speedup law: S/(S+P)
• Amdahl’s IO law: bit of IO per instruction/second
              (tBps/10 top! 50,000 disks/10 teraOP: 100 M$ Dollars)
• Amdahl’s memory law: byte per instruction/second (going to 10)
                (1 TB RAM per TOP: 1 TeraDollars)
• PetaOps anyone?
• Gilder’s law: aggregate bandwidth doubles every 8 months.
• 5 Minute rule: cache disk data that is reused in 5 minutes.
• Web rule: cache everything!
http://research.Microsoft.com/~gray/papers/
    MS_TR_99_100_Rules_of_Thumb_in_Data_Engineering.doc
  Dealing With TeraBytes (Petabytes):
         Requires Parallelism
    parallelism: use many little devices in parallel
At 10 MB/s:                     1,000 x parallel:
1.2 days to scan                100 seconds scan.


    1 Terabyte                  1 Terabyte




          10 MB/s
                             Use     100 processors &
                                   1,000 disks
   Parallelism Must Be Automatic
• There are thousands of MPI programmers.
• There are hundreds-of-millions of people using
  parallel database search.
• Parallel programming is HARD!
• Find design patterns and automate them.
• Data search/mining has parallel design patterns.
Scalability: Up and Out
Up   •“Scale Up”
        –Use “big iron” (SMP)
        –Cluster into packs for availability


     •“Scale Out” clones & partitions
        –Use commodity servers
        –Add clones & partitions as needed




                                           Out
Everyone scales out
What’s the Brick?
 • 1M$/slice
   – IBM S390?
   – Sun E 10,000?
 • 100 K$/slice
   – HPUX/AIX/Solaris/IRIX/EMC
 • 10 K$/slice
   – Utel / Wintel 4x
 • 1 K$/slice
   – Beowulf / Wintel 1x
      Terminology for scaleability
• Farms of servers:                                     Farm
  – Clones: identical                                            Partition

     • Scaleability + availability
                                                Clone
  – Partitions:                                                  Pack
     • Scaleability                   Shared            Shared               Shared

  – Packs
                                      Nothing            Disk                Nothing



     • Partition availability via fail-over                          Active-
                                                                     Active
                                                                                  Active-
                                                                                  Passive


• GeoPlex for disaster tolerance.
Shared Nothing Clones   Shared Disk Clones                     Farm

                                                                        Partition


                                                       Clone
                                                                        Pack

                                             Shared            Shared               Shared
      Partitions         Packed Partitions   Nothing            Disk                Nothing


                                                                            Active-      Active-
                                                                            Active       Passive
          Unpredictable Growth
• The TerraServer Story:
  –   We expected 5 M hits per day
  –   We got 50 M hits on day 1
  –   We peak at 15-20 M hpd on a “hot” day
  –   Average 5 M hpd after 1 year
• Most of us cannot predict demand
  – Must be able to deal with NO demand
  – Must be able to deal with HUGE demand
  An Architecture for Internet Services?
• Need to be able to add capacity
  – New processing
  – New storage
  – New networking

• Need continuous service
  – Online change of all components (hardware and software)
  – Multiple service sites
  – Multiple network providers

• Need great development tools
  – Change the application several times per year.
  – Add new services several times per year.
  Premise: Each Site is a                                                                               Farm
• Buy computing by the slice (brick):
                                    Building 11            Log Processing
                                                       Ave CFG: 4xP6,
                                                                                 Staging Servers
                                                                                        (7)
                                                                                                         Ave CFG: 4xP5,
                                                                                                         512 RAM,
                                                                                                                                             The Microsoft.Com Site
                                                                                                         30 GB HD




  – Rack of servers + disks.
                                    Internal WWW       1 GB RAM,
                                                       180 GB HD                                         Ave Cost: $35K                                                                                                                                               European Data Center
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           www.microsoft.com premium.microsoft.com
                                                       Ave Cost: $128K                                   FY98 Fcst: 12                                                                                                       IDC Staging Servers
                                                       FY98 Fcst: 2
                                                                                                                                       MOSWest                                                                                                                                   (3)      Ave CFG: 4xP6,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ave CFG: 4xP6,
                                                    FTP Servers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   512 RAM,
                                                                                                                                                                                             SQLNet                                                                     512 RAM,
                                                 Ave CFG: 4xP5,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   30 GB HD               SQL SERVERS
                                                                                                                                                                                           Feeder LAN                                                                   50 GB HD
                                                 512 RAM,                                                                                                                                                                      SQL Consolidators                                                  Ave Cost: $35K
                                   Download      30 GB HD                                                                                     Router                                                                                                                    Ave Cost: $50K
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  FY98 Fcst: 1                (2)
                                                                                                                                                          DMZ Staging Servers                                                                                           FY98 Fcst: 1
                                   Replication   Ave Cost: $28K                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ave CFG: 4xP6,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Ave CFG: 4xP6,                                                              512 RAM,
                                                 FY98 Fcst: 0                                                   Router                                                                                                                   1 GB RAM,                         FTP
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Live SQL Servers                                                                                             160 GB HD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         160 GB HD                    Download Server                                Ave Cost: $80K
                                                  SQL Reporting                                                                                                                                                    Ave CFG: 4xP6,        Ave Cost: $83K                     (1)                                      FY98 Fcst: 1
                                           Ave CFG: 4xP6,                      Live SQL Server                                               MOSWest                                                               512 RAM,              FY98 Fcst: 2                                             Switched
                                           512 RAM,                                                                                          Admin LAN          Ave CFG: 4xP6,                                     160 GB HD                                                                      Ethernet
                                           160 GB HD                                                All servers in Building11                                   512 RAM,                                           Ave Cost: $83K
                                           Ave Cost: $80K                                           are accessable from                                         50 GB HD                                           FY98 Fcst: 12
                                                                                                    corpnet.                                                    Ave Cost: $35K




• Grow by adding slices
                                           FY98 Fcst: 2
                                                                                                                                                                FY98 Fcst: 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 search.microsoft.com
                                                                                                                                                                                          msid.msn.com                                                                    msid.msn.com                                   (1)
                                                                                              register.microsoft.com                           www.microsoft.com                               (1)
                                                 www.microsoft.com                                      (2) Ave CFG: 4xP6,                           (4)                                                                                                                       (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Router
                                                       (4)                                                          512 RAM,
                                                                                                                                                                                                         search.microsoft.com
                                           Ave CFG: 4xP6,                                                           30 GB HD
                                           512 RAM,                                                                                                                                                              (3)                                Japan Data Center
                                                                                                                    Ave Cost: $43K                                                                                                                                           www.microsoft.com                          SQL SERVERS
                                           50 GB HD                                                                 FY98 Fcst: 10                                                                                Ave CFG: 4xP6,
                                           Ave Cost: $50K                                                                                                                                                                                           premium.microsoft.com              (3)                                   (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 512 RAM,                                                                                               Ave CFG: 4xP6,
                                           FY98 Fcst: 17
                                                                                                                                               home.microsoft.com                                                30 GB HD                                   (1)         Ave CFG: 4xP6,                                  512 RAM,
                                                                                                            home.microsoft.com                                                    FDDI Ring                      Ave Cost: $28K                       Ave CFG: 4xP6,             512 RAM,                               160 GB HD
                                                                                                                   (4)                                (3)                          (MIS2)                        FY98 Fcst: 7                         512 RAM,                   50 GB HD                               Ave Cost: $80K
                                          premium.microsoft.com                                                                                                                                                                                       30 GB HD                   Ave Cost: $50K                         FY98 Fcst: 1
                                                                                                                            Ave CFG: 4xP6                                                                                                             Ave Cost: $35K             FY98 Fcst: 1
                                                  (2)
                                       Ave CFG: 4xP6,                                                                       512 RAM                                                                                                                   FY98 Fcst: 1                                                      msid.msn.com
                                       512 RAM,                                                                             28 GB HD
                                                                                                                                                                                                        activex.microsoft.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (2)                                                                                                        (1)




  – Spread data and
                                       30 GB HD                                        FDDI Ring                            Ave Cost: $35K      Ave CFG: 4xP6,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Switched
                                       Ave Cost: $35K                                   (MIS1)                              FY98 Fcst: 17       512 RAM,                                                         Ave CFG: 4xP6,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ethernet
                                       FY98 Fcst: 3                                                                                             30 GB HD                                                         256 RAM,
                                                                                                                                                Ave Cost: $28K                                                   30 GB HD
                                                                                                                                                FY98 Fcst: 3                                                     Ave Cost: $25K                           FTP
                                                                Ave CFG: 4xP5,                                                               cdm.microsoft.com                                                   FY98 Fcst: 2                        Download Server
                                                                256 RAM,
                                                                                                                                                    (1)                          Router                                                                    (1)       HTTP
                                                                12 GB HD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       search.microsoft.com
                                                                Ave Cost: $24K                                                                                                                                                                                 Download Servers                                        (2)
                                                                FY98 Fcst: 0                                                                                          Router                                                                                          (2)                      Router
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Internet
                                                                         msid.msn.com                                                          Router
                                                                              (1)                                                                                                                             Primary                                                                          2
                                                                                                                                   Router                                                                    Gigaswitch                                                                                                             2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OC3                               Ethernet
                                                                           premium.microsoft.com                                                                                                                            Internet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (100Mb/Sec Each)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (100 Mb/Sec Each)




    computation
                                                                                                                                   Router
                                          www.microsoft.com                        (1)                                                         Router
                                                (3)                                                                                                                                                          Secondary
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Gigaswitch
                                                                                                                                                                       Router                                                                              13
                                                                                                                                               FTP.microsoft.com                 Router                                                                   DS3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (45 Mb/Sec Each)
                                                                                     FDDI Ring                                                        (3)
                                                                                                                                               Ave CFG: 4xP5,
                                         home.microsoft.com                           (MIS3)
                                                                                                           msid.msn.com                        512 RAM,                                         www.microsoft.com
                                                (2)                                                             (1)                            30 GB HD                                               (5)
                                                                                                                                               Ave Cost: $28K
                                                                                                                                               FY98 Fcst: 0




    to new slices                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Internet
                                           Ave CFG: 4xP5,
                                                                                                                                             register.microsoft.com
                                                                                                                                                                                   FDDI Ring
                                           256 RAM,                                                                                                    (2)                          (MIS4)
                                           20 GB HD
                                           Ave Cost: $29K
                                           FY98 Fcst: 2                                            register.microsoft.com                                                                           home.microsoft.com
                                           register.msn.com                                                  (1)                             support.microsoft.com                                         (5)
                                                   (2)                                                                                                (2)
                                                                                                                                                Ave CFG: 4xP6,
                                                                         support.microsoft.com                                                  512 RAM,
                                                      search.microsoft.com        (1)                                                           30 GB HD
                                                              (3)                                                                               Ave Cost: $35K
                                                                                                                                                FY98 Fcst: 9




• Two styles:
                                 \\Tweeks\Statistics\LAN and Server Name Info\Cluster Process Flow\MidYear98a.vsd
                                 12/15/97




  – Clones: anonymous servers
  – Parts+Packs: Partitions fail over within a pack
• In both cases, remote farm for disaster recovery
    Clones: Availability+Scalability
• Some applications are
    – Read-mostly
    – Low consistency requirements
    – Modest storage requirement (less than 1TB)
• Examples:
    – HTML web servers (IP sprayer/sieve + replication)
    – LDAP servers (replication via gossip)
• Replicate app at all nodes (clones)
•   Spray requests across nodes.
•   Grow by adding clones
•   Fault tolerance: stop sending to that clone.
•   Growth: add a clone.
       Two Clone Geometries
• Shared-Nothing: exact replicas
• Shared-Disk (state stored in server)
Shared Nothing Clones      Shared Disk Clones
        Facilities Clones Need
• Automatic replication
   – Applications (and system software)
   – Data
• Automatic request routing
   – Spray or sieve
• Management:
   – Who is up?
   – Update management & propagation
   – Application monitoring.
• Clones are very easy to manage:
   – Rule of thumb: 100’s of clones per admin
     Partitions for Scalability
• Clones are not appropriate for some apps.
  – Statefull apps do not replicate well
  – high update rates do not replicate well
• Examples
  – Email / chat / …
  – Databases

• Partition state among servers
• Scalability (online):
  – Partition split/merge
  – Partitioning must be transparent to client.
Partitioned/Clustered Apps
• Mail servers
  – Perfectly partitionable
• Business Object Servers
  – Partition by set of objects.
• Parallel Databases
     • Transparent access to partitioned tables
     • Parallel Query
         Packs for Availability
• Each partition may fail (independent of others)
• Partitions migrate to new node via fail-over
   – Fail-over in seconds
• Pack: the nodes supporting a partition
   –   VMS Cluster
   –   Tandem Process Pair
   –   SP2 HACMP
   –   Sysplex™
   –   WinNT MSCS (wolfpack)
• Cluster In A Box
   now commodity
• Partitions typically grow in packs.
          What Parts+Packs Need
• Automatic partitioning (in dbms, mail, files,…)
   – Location transparent
   – Partition split/merge
   – Grow without limits (100x10TB)
• Simple failover model
   – Partition migration is transparent
   – MSCS-like model for services
• Application-centric request routing
• Management:
   – Who is up?
   – Automatic partition management (split/merge)
   – Application monitoring.
          Partitions and Packs
• Packs for availabilty

       Partitions         Packed Partitions
            GeoPlex: Farm pairs
•   Two farms
•   Changes from one
    sent to other
•   When one farm fails
    other provides service
•   Masks
    – Hardware/Software faults
    – Operations tasks (reorganize, upgrade move
    – Environmental faults (power fail)
 Services on Clones & Partitions
• Application provides a set of services
• If cloned:
   – Services are on subset of clones
• If partitioned:
   – Services run at each partition
• System load balancing routes request to
   – Any clone
   – Correct partition.
   – Routes around failures.
   Cluster Scenarios: 3- tier systems
A simple web site
Clones for availability                            SQL Database

Packs for availability


               Web File Store                  SQL Temp State




                                Load Balance             Front End
     Web Clients
                    Cluster Scale Out Scenarios
     The FARM: Clones and Packs of Partitions
           Packed Partitions: Database Transparency
          SQL Partition 3            SQL Partition 2       SQL Database
                                                          SQL Partition1




                        replication File StoreA
           Web File StoreB      Web                    SQL Temp State
Cloned
Packed
  file
servers


                                                                   Cloned
          Web                              Load Balance            Front Ends
                                                                   (firewall, sprayer,
          Clients                                                  web server)
                      Terminology
• Terminology for scaleability                          Farm

• Farms of servers:                                              Partition


  – Clones: identical                           Clone
     • Scaleability + availability                               Pack

  – Partitions:                       Shared
                                      Nothing
                                                        Shared
                                                         Disk
                                                                             Shared
                                                                             Nothing
     • Scaleability
                                                                     Active-      Active-
  – Packs                                                            Active       Passive


     • Partition availability via fail-over
• GeoPlex for disaster tolerance.
What we have been doing                                             Color Magnitude Diff/Ratio Distribution

                                                                                1.E+7

                                                                                1.E+6




      with SDSS                                                                 1.E+5

                                                                                1.E+4                              u-g




                                               Counts
                                                                                                                   g-r




• Helping move the data to SQL
                                                                                1.E+3                              r-i
                                                                                                                   i-z
                                                                                1.E+2

                                                                                1.E+1

   – Database design                                    -30   -20         -10
                                                                                1.E+0
                                                                                        0      10     20      30



   – Data loading
                                                                            Magnitude Diff/Ratio




• Experimenting with queries on a 4 M object DB
   – 20 questions like “find gravitational lens candidates”
   – Queries use parallelism,
     most run in a few seconds.(auto parallel)
   – Some run in hours (neighbors within 1 arcsec)
   – EASY to ask questions.
• Helping with an “outreach” website: SkyServer
• Personal goal:
  Try datamining techniques to “re-discover” Astronomy
              References (.doc or .pdf)
• Technology forecast:
 http://research.microsoft.com/~gray/papers/
 MS_TR_99_100_Rules_of_Thumb_in_Data_Engineering.doc

• Gbps experiments:
 http://research.microsoft.com/~gray/
• Disk experiments (10K$ TB)
 http://research.microsoft.com/~gray/papers/Win2K_IO_MSTR_2000_55.doc

• Scaleability Terminology
 http://research.microsoft.com/~gray/papers/MS_TR_99_85_Scalability_Terminology.doc

								
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