Water Risks Management at the Coastal Area of Lezha by dxu18403

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									 Water Risks Management
at the Coastal Area of Lezha
       Region, Albania

       Prof.Narin PANARITI
             ALBANIA




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             Geographical location

   between Tirana (the capital) and Shkodra
    (principal centre of North Albania
   fertile land
   the sea,
   and both surface and ground water resources,
   rich flora and fauna
   presence of a dense population and the
    development of a complex economy, mainly of
    the primary and tertiary sectors.

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             Water wealth
 lower streams of three relatively big rivers
  going through the area (Drini i Lezhës up
  North, Mati in the centre and Ishmi at
  South)
 The part of the Adriatic sea.
 Three lagoons (Kune, Vain and Patok),
  marshlands and seasonal wetlands.
 Ground water is one of the main resources
  of the area
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               Water related risks
   water related risks have always been a threat.
    Floods from rivers and heavy rains have been
    common until 1965,
   1965-1990 works for the riverbed management,
   for marshes reclamation and
   pumping of superfluous water.
   After 1990, due to damages to protection
    infrastructure and drainage systems, the flood
    risk is present again causing (almost every year)
    property and environmental damages.

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                 Rainfalls
 The average annual precipitations in Lezha
  are 1360 mm.
 66% of the precipitations fall in the period
  October-March.
 The heaviest rain in 24 hours (160.1 mm)
  has been recorded on 10.06.1968.



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                 Rainfalls
 The annual precipitations are sufficient to
  secure water reserves for the annual
  supply of:
 drinking,
 irrigation and industrial water.
 In summer time rains are rare so the
  tourist season is almost uninterrupted.


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                   Rainfalls
 heavy rains result in heavy floods of the
  agricultural lands, settlements, road and tourism
  infrastructure by causing considerable material
  and environmental damage. This area has been
  and continues to be the most risked one in the
  country in the last 20 years.
 The most damaged settlements have been those
  built recently on the formerly reclaimed
  marshlands.


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Human impacts and consequences
 Nowadays, Drini river mouth forms a flooded
  delta due to the tectonic movements and its
  artificial turn to Buna.
 River turn to Buna has had negative impacts on
  the coastline evolution, where the coastal
  erosion has dominated over the deposits
 solid matter deposits from Drini have been
  reduced by 13 times as compared to 1939
 The sea has progressed 400 m inland (in Vain
  and other places) and continues to erode an
  average of 2.5 m annually and damage tourism,
  too.
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Human impacts and consequences

   Mati used to discharge into the Northwest
    side of Patok lagoon.
 At the end of the „70ies, with the purpose
  of increasing the deposit of solid matter at
  the beach and the lagoon, its mouth was
  shifted into Southwest of the lagoon.
 For the same purpose Ishmi river mouth
  was shifted to Patok lagoon.

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Human impacts and consequences

 These interventions interrupted the natural
  connection of the lagoon with the sea.
 The consequences were catastrophic for Patok
  beach, which almost disappeared,
 while Mati created a littoral strip and a new
  beach at the south of its river mouth.
 Almost all the road and tourism infrastructure
  build up around the 70‟ies was destroyed.


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Human impacts and consequences

 After the construction of Ulza and Shkopet hydro
  power plants, water flows have been under
  control but the solid matter reduced.
 Solid matter has been largely affected by the
  intensive gravel extraction.
 For that reason the government has ordered the
  stopping of gravel extraction at certain rivers
  segments in certain periods of time.



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Photo from Shkopet lake




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                  Floods
 dense hydrographic network,
 heavy rains and
 irregular flows in the period November-
  April,
 the slight steepness of the field and
 the small altitude above sea level,
 the mainly clay soils and malfunction of
  drainage channels and pumping systems
 almost annual floods and damages.


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                      Floods
   The District of Lezha has been frequently
    affected by floods.
   1962-1963,
   1995-1996,
   2002-2004,
   2005, 2008,
   2009-2010.
   heavy rains associated with the flooding of
    about 8,000 hectares of land
   multiple houses, social and economic buildings,
    crops and infrastructure heavily damaged.
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                 Floods
 Flood consequences have affected almost
  all the local counties
 About 29 villages, 6,500 houses and about
  25,000 inhabitants are particularly under
  threat.
Damage of the
 dams of the reservoirs
 mountains dams
 hectares of cultivated land


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                   Floods
 power transmission lines
 Eroding of the soils, creating obstacles to
  the entrance of the houses and of the
  sewage system, as well
 of bridges
 draining channels
 Demolition of the embankments of the
  irrigation channels
 Animal feedstuff
 Livestock

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Floods




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         Actions already taken

 law nr.8756, dt. 26.3.2001 “on civil
  emergencies” recognizes the planning and facing
  of emergencies as duties of the government
 Central and local structures, permanent and
  temporary, are established for that purpose.
 The Ministry of Interior is in charge of planning
  and facing the emergencies, floods included.




                                                  20
         Actions already taken
 An Inter-ministerial Committee is also
  established for the civil emergencies, as well as
  a Technical Advisory Commission.
 Each ministry takes care of civil emergencies in
  the area of their competence.
 A number of responsibilities are given also to the
  regional and local level, the prefecture,
  municipalities and communes.
 Local commissions are established at the level of
  each municipality and commune. The state
  budget plans annual emergency funds under
  each ministry.

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       Needs for investments
 lack of funding at the local level
 the area is in urgent need to solve the
  problem.
 Protection infrastructure needs to be
  rehabilitated along the riverbeds, drainage
  canals need to be cleaned and deepened,
  pumping stations need to become
  operational, etc.

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    Actions needed to reduce flood risks
               and hazards
 Cognizance of such geo-morphological coastal processes,
  erosion rates, climate changes, human interventions,
  etc.
 Control over the Drini and Mati riverbeds, as well as over
  primary and secondary channels.
 of utmost importance that investments and other
  measures be taken.
 The riverbeds must be disciplined and maintained,
  drainage channels and river mouths cleaned up,
  dumping of urban waste at the river banks stopped,
  current pumping stations must be ready to work at all
  time and also new and bigger capacity pumping stations
  and mountainous dikes must be built, etc.


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    Actions needed to reduce flood risks
               and hazards
   the problem needs to be dealt more thoroughly
    and in an integrated way at the level of river
    basin management as a whole.
   Such approach is requested by the WFD
   Transposition of WFD into national legislation.
   a number of implementation and enforcement
    measures.
   River basin management plans


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 Regional Basin Agenciy (RBA) be effectively
  operational
 A sustainable institutional set-up for monitoring,
  enforcement and reporting must be established.
 increase of personnel, office equipment and
  technical assistance for those offices to run
  properly.
 International coordination is also necessary for
  the transbondary rivers, such as Drini in the
  case of our study area.

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    Actions needed to reduce flood risks
               and hazards
 Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and
  management of flood risks (FD).
 establish a framework for the assessment and
  management of flood risks, aiming at the
  reduction of the adverse consequences for
  human health, the environment, cultural
  heritage and economic activity associated with
  floods in the Community.
 Considering its aspirations for EU integration,
  Albania should also transpose this Directive, too,
  into national legislation.
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   for each river basin district a preliminary
    flood risk assessment must be undertaken
    based on available or readily derivable
    information




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            Goal of the paper
   new information and awareness on the
    forms and possibilities for sustainable
    management of the area in the future




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