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									Culture Typing versus Sample Specific Accuracy: An Examination of
Uncertainty Avoidance, Power Distance, and Individualism for
Business Professionals in the U.S. and Canada
Brent R MacNab, Reginald Worthley. Multinational Business Review. Detroit: Fall 2007. Vol. 15, Iss. 3; pg. 1,
23 pgs

Abstract (Summary)

Comparative cultural closeness between Canada and the U.S. established in part by the Hofstede (1980) study
continues to influence some business research efforts that assume cultural parity between the two nations.
Sampling business professionals, evidence emerges that cautions assuming cultural parity between Canada
and the U.S. based on typical and selected Anglo culture type dimensions. Contributing as an updated
empirical test of the Anglo culture type assumption between the two nations, uncertainty avoidance was higher
in the U.S. sample and varied more by country than by individual characteristics or by an indication of
professional discipline type. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Topic: Motivation for investigation culture

Undergoing prenatal screening for Down's syndrome: presentation
of choice and information in Europe and Asia
Sue Hall, Lyn Chitty, Elizabeth Dormandy, Amelia Hollywood, et al. European Journal of Human Genetics :
EJHG. Basel: May 2007. Vol. 15, Iss. 5; pg. 563, 7 pgs

Abstract (Summary)

To date, studies assessing whether the information given to people about screening tests facilitates informed
choices have focussed mainly on the UK, US and Australia. The extent to which written information given in
other countries facilitates informed choices is not known. The aim of this study is to describe the presentation of
choice and information about Down's syndrome in written information about prenatal screening given to
pregnant women in five European and two Asian countries. Leaflets were obtained from clinicians in UK,
Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Czech Republic, China and India. Two analyses were conducted. First, all relevant
text relating to the choice about undergoing screening was extracted and described. Second, each separate
piece of information or statement about the condition being screened for was extracted and then coded as
either positive, negative or neutral. Only Down's syndrome was included in the analysis since there was
relatively little information about other conditions. There was a strong emphasis on choice and the need for
discussion about prenatal screening tests in the leaflets from the UK and Netherlands. The leaflet from the UK
gave most information about Down's syndrome and the smallest proportion of negative information. By
contrast, the Chinese leaflet did not mention choice and gave the most negative information about Down's
syndrome. Leaflets from the other countries were more variable. This variation may reflect cultural differences
in attitudes to informed choice or a failure to facilitate informed choice in practice. More detailed studies are
needed to explore this further.

Other quote: It may not be appropriate to recommend a Northern European informed choice agenda for other countries. For example, the
Northern European informed choice model is based on individual autonomy which may not be appropriate in collectivist cultures. 13 Little
is known of the extent to which making informed rather than uninformed choices confers benefits. If there are few benefits, it may not be
appropriate to divert resources to facilitating informed choice. The data presented here are a first step towards exploring the different
values attached to informed choice across the world. (p. 568)

TOPIC: Cultural Dimensions in Informed Choice (Motivation)
Cross-national comparisons of human resources for health - what
can we learn?
CARL-ARDY DUBOIS, MARTIN MCKEE. Health Economics, Policy and Law. Cambridge: Jan 2006. Vol. 1,
Iss. 1; pg. 59, 20 pgs

Abstract (Summary)

After a long period of neglect, the issue of human resources for health (HRH) has recently emerged as a core
component on the international health agenda, with policy makers increasingly eager to learn from experience
elsewhere. This article investigates systematically the opportunities and challenges associated with the use of
cross-national comparisons of HRH policies and practices. It reviews the evidence in favour of using
international comparative studies on HRH, discusses emerging opportunities for developing a cross-national
research agenda to guide HRH policies in Europe, and highlights obstacles which may hinder the
implementation of comparative studies on HRH. While demonstrating many opportunities offered by the
comparative approach to improve understanding of human resources processes in the health sector, this article
also emphasizes the dangers of simplistic pleas for the transfer of human resource policies without taking into
account the context-specific factors and the generative capacity of the social actors in the design and
implementation of policy changes. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Other Quotes: Health systems stemming from specific political, historical, cultural, and
socio-economic traditions are likely to form different clusters, reflecting variations
in prevailing organization and practices. Thus, the particularistic
approach to a cross-national research agenda on HRH provides a framework
to explain diversification in HRH practices, and in particular to study affinities
between particular forms of health care systems and human resource practices. (p. 62)

This article argues that cross-national comparison provides opportunities for
gaining insights into many HRH issues that are of major concern to many countries,
learning how other countries have dealt successfully or otherwise with
these issues. Yet, as the detailed examination of the practical scope for doing
so within Europe showed, to take full advantage of cross-national comparison
of HRH requires, where possible, harmonizing concepts, methods, and
Cross-national comparisons of human resources for health 73
measures used in different countries, and where harmonization is not possible, a
much better understanding of the differences. (p. 73/74)

Topic: Culture in heath care resources (motivation)
Track 10: Economic, cultural and social aspects of public health
European Journal of Public Health. Oxford: Oct 2005. Vol. 15, Iss. S1; pg. 109
Author: McKee

Other quotes: The first finding was that for Western Europe the power
distance dimension and the uncertainty tolerance dimension
could be reduced to one single dimension. Together with
the masculinity/femininity dimension three groups of
countries could be distinguished: north western Europe (feminine/
high uncertainty tolerance), Southern Europe (high
uncertainty avoidance, masculine), and Central Europe
(high on masculinity, middle uncertainty avoidance). The individualism/
collectivism dimension was not relevant for industrialized
countries (only for developing/developed countries).
Relevant correlations were: sales of antibiotics for masculine/
feminine cultures, idem for mental health/happiness indicators.
Nurse/physician ratios were an indicator for uncertainty
Hostede’s cultural dimensions, although not specifically
developed for the health care sector, could be turned into relevant
health sector indicators. As cultural indicators are usually
are not taken into account in international policy making, the
results show that this habit had better change, certainly if the
inclination increases to transfer policy measures from one system
to another.

Topic: Cultural Dimensions as Indicators of Health Care (Motivation)

Age Identity and Subjective Well-Being: A Comparison of the United
States and Germany
Gerben J Westerhof, Anne E Barrett. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B : Psychological sciences and
social sciences. Washington: May 2005. Vol. 60B, Iss. 3; pg. S129, 8 pgs

Abstract (Summary)

Westerhof and Barrett investigate the theoretical relationship between age identity and subjective well-being
(SWB) in a cross-national context. Findings suggest that age identities play a role in more varied aspects of
psychosocial adaptation in the US than in Germany.

Other: p. S130/S131 discuss individualism as impacting SWB.

Topic: Importance of individualism (motivation for health care choice based
on cultural dimensions)
Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national
differences in antibiotic use in Europe?
Reginald Deschepper, Larissa Grigoryan, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Geert Hofstede, et al. BMC Health
Services Research [NLM - MEDLINE]. 2008. Vol. 8 pg. 123

Abstract (Summary)

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to
minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially
be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to
explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed) are
associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions
(Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation). METHODS:
Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-
specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by
three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and
Resistance in Europe (SAR), based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the
European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics
in ambulatory care (1997-2002), and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether
respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use
for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study
differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. RESULTS: Significant
positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three
studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62) and with self-medication (rho = 0.54) in the SAR study. Positive significant
correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two
studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study the correlations were insignificant). Masculinity was not
significantly correlated, except in one study after controlling for GDP (r = 0.81). For Individualism and Long-
Term Orientation no significant correlations were found. CONCLUSION: Power Distance is a cultural aspect
associated with antibiotic use, suggesting that the culture-specific way people deal with authority is an
important factor in explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use. There are indications that
Uncertainty Avoidance also plays a role but further research is needed to better understand the complex effect
of cultural dimensions.

Topic: Cultural dimensions and drug use
Determinants of self-medication with antibiotics in Europe: the
impact of beliefs, country wealth and the healthcare system
Larissa Grigoryan, Johannes G. M. Burgerhof, John E. Degener, Reginald Deschepper, et al. The Journal of
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Oxford: May 2008. Vol. 61, Iss. 5; pg. 1172, 8 pgs

Abstract (Summary)

Background: Self-medication with antibiotics occurs among the population in Europe, particularly in southern
and eastern countries. We studied the impact of predisposing factors (e.g. attitudes and knowledge concerning
antibiotic use and self-medication) and enabling factors (country wealth and healthcare system factors) on
self-medication with antibiotics in Europe. Methods: In this follow-up of a previous European survey, we
interviewed a subsample of 1101 respondents. A multilevel analysis with two levels (respondent and country)
was performed. Variables that were statistically significantly different between users and non-users of self-
medication were considered for inclusion into the multilevel regression analyses. Results: Predisposing factors
included individual-level characteristics. High perceived appropriateness of self-medication with antibiotics for
bronchitis and an attitude favouring antibiotic use for minor ailments were related to a higher likelihood of self-
medication. Enabling factors included individual and country data. At the individual level, perceived availability
of antibiotics without a prescription was related to increased probability of self-medication. At the country level,
higher gross domestic product (wealth) and exact dispensation of prescribed tablet quantities by pharmacies
were independently associated with lower likelihood of self-medication. Conclusions: Interventions aimed at
preventing self-medication should include public education, enforcing regulations regarding the sale of
antibiotics, and implementing laws for dispensing exact prescribed tablet quantities in pharmacies. With the
included determinants, we explained almost all the variance at the country level, but not at the individual level.
Future studies to increase our understanding of determinants of self-medication with antibiotics should focus
on individual-level factors such as doctor-patient relationships and patient satisfaction. [PUBLICATION

Health care factors included:

Topic: Cultural dimensions and drug use
(p. 360)
Note: Our study would differ from this as we investigate how the health care
system reflects individual cultural dimensions. E.g., if I have high
individualism, so I want a social system?

Topic: Health care system design (systems can be modified based on
population beliefs)
Subcultures in Greater China: A comparison of managerial values in
the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan
Gordon W Cheung, Irene Hau-Siu Chow. Asia Pacific Journal of Management. Singapore: Dec 1999. Vol.
16, Iss. 3; pg. 369

Abstract (Summary)

Managerial values in three regions of Greater China - Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Peoples' Republic - were
compared. It is posited that in addition to Confucian philosophy, political and economic systems also have
significant effects on the values of Chinese managers. Results show that despite the economic integration in
Greater China, managerial values have yet to be unified. Managers in Hong Kong, Taiwan and the PRC are
convergent in collectivism and uncertainty avoidance. On the other hand, managers in the PRC demonstrated
higher power distance and less concerned about deadlines and plans than managers in Hong Kong and
Taiwan. Materialism is also greater in the PRC and Hong Kong than in Taiwan.

Topic: Cultural Dimensions in China (motivation – not health care, but
general values)

Sales Growth of New Pharmaceuticals Across the Globe: The Role of
Regulatory Regimes
Stefan Stremersch, Aurélie Lemmens. Marketing Science. Linthicum: Jul/Aug 2009. Vol. 28, Iss. 4; pg. 690,
21 pgs

Abstract (Summary)

Prior marketing literature has overlooked the role of regulatory regimes in explaining international sales growth
of new products. This paper addresses this gap in the context of new pharmaceuticals (15 new molecules in 34
countries) and sheds light on the effects of regulatory regimes on new drug sales across the globe. Based on a
time-varying coefficient model, we find that differences in regulation substantially contribute to cross-country
variation in sales. One of the regulatory constraints investigated, i.e., manufacturer price controls, has a
positive effect on drug sales. The other forms of regulation such as restrictions of physician prescription
budgets and the prohibition of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) tend to hurt sales. The effect of
manufacturer price controls is similar for newly launched and mature drugs. By contrast, regulations on
physician prescription budgets and DTCA have a differential effect for newly launched and mature drugs.
Whereas the former hurts mature drugs more, the latter has a larger effect on newly launched drugs. In
addition to these regulatory effects, we find that national culture, economic wealth, and lagged sales also affect
drug sales. Our findings may be used as input by managers for international launch and marketing decisions.
They may also be used by public policy administrators to assess the role of regulatory regimes in
pharmaceutical sales growth. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Topic: Pharmaceutical sales
Hofstede's national culture as a guide for sales practices across
countries: The case of a MNC's sales practices in Australia and New
William H Murphy. Australian Journal of Management. Sydney: Jun 1999. Vol. 24, Iss. 1; pg. 37, 22 pgs
» Jump to indexing (document details)
Copyright Australian Graduate School of Management Jun 1999


When the multinational considers the global strategic sales effort, the temptation is to aggregate practices across
seemingly similar countries. While this eases administration, it can lead to sub-optimal local practice. This research
focuses on the attitudes of a multinational's sales forces in Australia and New Zealand toward the various practices
that are used to train, coach, and motivate the sales force. Scores on Hofstede's national culture dimensions, along
with other criteria, suggest similarities between the countries that could lead to the expectation that similar practices
will have similar effectiveness in each of the countries. However, the findings suggest that the multinational still needs
to customise practices in distinct aspects of the sales system. The findings lend credence to the claim that sales
practices need to be adapted to local needs-despite potential temptations for transferring practices across
(seemingly) like countries.

Other quotes: The sampling frame consisted of salespeople from the Australia and New Zealand sales forces
of a US based MNC whose involvement in each country spanned commercial, industrial, and health care
products. The decision to include only one company in the study had the advantage of controlling for company
culture, with the accompanying disadvantage of lack of power for analyses (small sample). However, given the
exploratory nature of this effort, the advantage of controlling for company culture was compelling-it meant that
differences between countries could more readily be attributed to sales practice effects than if this were a
multicompany study (Hofstede 1980a).

(p. 45)

Topic: Health care product sales
Patient satisfaction in Japan
Amira Elleuch. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance. Bradford: 2008. Vol. 21, Iss. 7; pg.

Abstract (Summary)

The purpose of this paper is to extend existing knowledge about health care quality and patient satisfaction by
exploring Japanese context having a different health care system and a different culture from the USA and
Europe. A structural equation model is used to explore links between quality perception and patient satisfaction
as well as between patient satisfaction and intentional behavior relying on 159 Japanese outpatient replies.
Japanese healthcare service quality is evaluated using its process characteristics (patient-provider interaction)
and physical attributes (settings and appearance). Process quality attributes were found to be patient
satisfaction antecedents. Satisfaction in turn predicts patient intentional behavior (to return and to recommend).
Japanese society cultural specificity seems to be an interesting background to understand Japanese evaluation
when patients assess health service quality. To improve Japanese patient satisfaction, cultural values such as
courtesy, empathy and harmony should be emphasized when delivering medical services. Satisfied consumers
are an important asset for the healthcare provider as they intend to reuse the service and to recommend it to
their families and friends. Both foreign and Japanese providers should adopt a consumer perspective to
enhance the service quality and then to maintain long-term relationships with their customers.

Topic: Patient behavior

Somatic, Affective and Behavioral Distress Reactions Across Cultures
Deniz Canel-Çinarbas, Stefanía Ægisdóttir. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling. The
Hague: Jun 2010. Vol. 32, Iss. 2; pg. 129

Abstract (Summary)

The purpose of the present study was to compare the expression and frequency of somatic, affective and
cognitive symptoms of distress across Turkish and U.S. university students. An open-ended free-list question
was used to elicit distress responses from 827 Turkish and U.S. participants. The coding was done using
classical content analysis. It was found that Turkish students reported equal amounts of affective, cognitive,
behavioral, somatic, interpersonal and coping responses, whereas the U.S. students reported more affective
and somatic symptoms than other response categories. U.S. students reported more affective and somatic
symptoms than the Turkish students and the Turkish students listed more behavioral, interpersonal, and coping
responses than the U.S. students. Turkish students' tendency to report more behavioral, coping, and
interpersonal responses is consistent with the collectivist nature of Turkish society. U.S. students' tendency to
report higher levels of somatic symptoms contradicts the findings from the WHO primary care study (Gureje et
al. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:989-995, 1997). Limitations of the study and research and counseling
implications of the findings are discussed.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT] NO FULL TEXT

Topic: Patient behavior
Communication style in primary health care in Europe
Atie van den Brink-Muinen, Heidi-Ingrid Maaroos, Heli Tähepõld. Health Education. Bradford: 2008. Vol. 108,
Iss. 5; pg. 384

Abstract (Summary)

Purpose - This paper aims to investigate doctor-patient communication in consultations of newly qualified
general practitioners (GPs) in a newly reorganised health care system and differences in consultation
characteristics and communication patterns between new European Union (EU)-countries (Estonia, Poland and
Romania) and the old West-European EU-countries. Design/methodology/approach - Observation of
videotaped doctor-patient consultations by means of Roter's Interactional Analysis System; GP, patient and
observer questionnaires. Data were collected from 92 GPs and 1,376 patients in Estonia, Poland and Romania
and compared with known data from old EU countries. Main outcome measures were verbal and nonverbal
communication of GPs and patients, as well as consultation characteristics. Findings - Differences were found
in the communication patterns of the new EU-countries Estonia, Poland and Romania compared to the old EU-
countries. For instance, the verbal contribution of the GPs in the new EU-countries was greater than in the old
EU-countries. Differences were also found between the three new EU-countries. In Romania there was more
psychosocial talk than in the two other new EU-countries, whereas in Poland and Estonia there was more
biomedical talk. The Estonian communication was more affective, the Polish and Romanian more instrumental.
In general, the differences were not found to be related to a "new-old" or "east-west" distinction. Clearly,
cultural norms and values play an important role in doctor-patient communication. Research
limitations/implications - The sampling method differed somewhat from one country to another. Practical
implications - With the integration of Europe in progress, cross-cultural aspects should be addressed when
doctors are being trained in communication skills in their undergraduate and postgraduate education.
Originality/value - This is the first study to investigate doctor-patient communication in newly reorganised health
care systems and differences in doctor-patient communication between new and old EU-countries.

Other quote: Besides differences in language, differences in health attitudes and health beliefs may also play a role
in (mis)communication between doctors and patients (Waitzkin and Britt, 1989; Payer,
1989; Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005; Ta¨hepo˜ld et al. (p. 394)

Topic: Doctor/patient communication
Doctors, Patients, and Perceived Job Image: An Empirical Study of
Stress and Nurses in Singapore
Vivien K. G. Lim, Edith C. Yuen. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. New York: Jun 1998. Vol. 21, Iss. 3; pg.

Abstract (Summary)

This study examined the relationships among three potential sources of stress, namely, demands from
patients/relatives, demands from doctors, and perceived job image, and several work-related outcomes,
namely, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intention to quit, and job-induced tension. Respondents
consist of nurses from two tertiary-care hospitals in Singapore. Findings of this study suggest that demands
from patients/relatives, doctors, and perceived job image were significantly associated with nurses' job
satisfaction, organizational commitment and job-induced tension. While demands from patients/relatives and
perceived job image were significantly associated with intention to quit, the relationship between demands from
doctors and nurses' intention to quit failed to reach statistical significance. Implications of the findings are

Other quotes: This study seeks to extend prior research on stress among the nursing
profession by focusing on nurses outside the Western context. Management
scholars argued that many popular management theories and career concepts
which reflected the North American culture may be less applicable in the context
of other cultures (e.g., Hofstede, 1980, 1991). A major argument put forth by
these researchers is that countries, as cultural settings, would vary in the degree
of prestige they assign to different career paths, which, in turn, would lead to
variations in how employees in different cultural units perceive and feel about
their careers. (p. 270)

Topic: Health care job stress/culture
Other quotes:

(p. 357) – culture within organization matters

(p. 368) – culture norms affect job satisfaction (may also affect patient choice)

Topic: Culture within the organization
Graber and Kilpatrick (2008): Culture and Values in the organization

This article describes theoretical literature on organizational
values. Cultural and religious influences on Americans and how they
may influence expectations from healthcare providers are discussed.
Organizational cultures and the training and socialization of the
numerous professional groups in healthcare also add to the considerable
heterogeneity of value systems within healthcare organizations. These
contribute to another challenge confronting healthcare managers -
competing or conflicting values within a unit or the entire organization.

Topic: Culture within health care organizations

The situatedness of work practices and organizational culture:
implications for information systems innovation uptake
Faraja Teddy Igira. Journal of Information Technology. London: Jun 2008. Vol. 23, Iss. 2; pg. 79, 10 pgs

Abstract (Summary)

This paper addresses work practices and organizational culture as situated actions and the implications for
information systems innovation uptake. It reports research being conducted in Tanzania that brings an
ethnographic research approach to understanding relations between local health care practices and health
information systems development, by asking how health workers' practices and everyday actions are
influenced by the context of their specific situation. The research is being conducted in the context of a globally
distributed open source software project to introduce and enhance health information systems in developing
countries. Drawing on cultural historical activity theory, the study highlights the need for understanding each
information system user's and each organization's specific and detailed work processes, and how situational
and organizational factors may come together with the health information systems innovation processes in
meeting the challenges discussed. In order to establish fully the potential of activity theory to innovation
processes, situatedness of work practices focusing on the organization context is emphasized. [PUBLICATION

Other quotes: Most definitions see culture as consisting of
several elements of which some are implicit and others are
explicit (Groeschl and Doherty, 2000). In this paper, culture
is seen as a system of shared meaning and expectations held
and shared by members of a group (Giddens, 1993;
Hofstede and Hofstede, 2004). According to Hofstede
(1991), there are three main factors that at least determine
the behaviour of a person in the workplace: national
culture, occupational culture, and organizational culture. (p. 81)

Topic: Culture within health care organizations (technology)
The relationship between organizational culture and withdrawal
intentions and behavior
Abraham Carmeli. International Journal of Manpower. Bradford: 2005. Vol. 26, Iss. 2; pg. 177, 20 pgs

Abstract (Summary)

The goal of the present study is to examine the influence of five dimensions of organizational culture (i.e. job
challenge, communication, trust, innovation and social cohesiveness) on employees' withdrawal intentions and
behavior. Specifically, three forms of employees' withdrawal intentions (i.e. from the occupation, job, and
organization), and one form of employees' withdrawal behavior (i.e. self-reported absenteeism) are examined.
The paper investigates these relationships among social workers in the Israeli health care system through a
structured questionnaire. Regression analyses were employed to test the research hypotheses. The findings of
this study indicate that an organizational culture that provides challenging jobs, diminishes employees'
absenteeism, and withdrawal intentions from the occupation, job, and the organization. The results also show
that other dimensions of organizational culture were not significantly correlated with the dependent variables,
with the exception of the relationship between a culture of innovation and employees' withdrawal intentions
from the job. This study contributes to a better understanding of the influence of organizational contexts (e.g.
culture) on the development of multiple withdrawal intentions and behaviors among social service employees in
the health care sector.

Topic: Culture within health care organizations

Incentive Preferences of Employees in Germany and the USA: An
Empirical Investigation**
Marjaana Rehu, Edward Lusk, Birgitta Wolff. Management Revue. Mering: 2005. Vol. 16, Iss. 1; pg. 81, 18 pgs

Abstract (Summary)

This study investigates performance reward preferences of employees in Germany and the USA. The
investigation uses the following three constructs: The Institutional Framework and its formal and informal
applications for incentive compensation, Diminishing Marginal Utility of individuals related to performance
rewards, and Incentive Schemes as motivational devices in organizations. Our empirical investigation is based
upon survey data collected form employees of a MNC in Germany and the USA using an enriched form of
Hofstede's cross-cultural questionnaire. Our results show that employees from these countries have different
preferences on incentives and further that incentive plans designed for one country might have non-motivating
consequences in the other. We also find that the logic of diminishing marginal utility applied to certain rewards.
Referencing these results, we suggest a method for organizations to develop effective and efficient incentive

Topic: Culture within heath care organizations (incentives)
Research note: Italian validation of the team climate inventory: A
measure of team climate for innovation
Paola Ragazzoni, Paola Baiardi, Anna Maria Zotti, Neil Anderson, M West. Journal of Managerial
Psychology. Bradford: 2002. Vol. 17, Iss. 4; pg. 325, 12 pgs

Abstract (Summary)

Innovation has long been an area of interest to social scientists, and particularly to psychologists working in
organisational settings. The team climate inventory (TCI) is a facet-specific measure of team climate for
innovation that provides a picture of the level and quality of teamwork in a unit using a series of Likert scales.
This paper describes its Italian validation in 585 working group members employed in health-related and other
contexts. The data were evaluated by means of factorial analysis (including an analysis of the internal
consistency of the scales) and Pearson's product moment correlations. The results show the internal
consistency of the scales and the satisfactory factorial structure of the inventory, despite some variations in the
factorial structure mainly due to cultural differences and the specific nature of Italian organisational systems.

Other quotes:


Topic: OD (team climate)

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