The model Project for renovation to increase
the efficient use of energy in Brewery by NEDO
at Bia Thanh Hoa Brewery in Vietnam
Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd. Shigeru Sakashita
An integrated energy saving system has been implemented at Thanh Hoa Beer
Brewery as an energy saving model project by NEDO. Feasibility study was
completed in 2003 and the installation of the system in 2004 and 2005. The system
has been started up since June 2005 and all the system has been in operation by
now in February 2006. The implemented system is composed of major 4 systems
together with a computer control system to manage the use of hot water
systematically. All these systems were developed since the oil crisis in 1978 in
Japan where natural resources are limited. This project is now in the process of
registration as a CDM project designated in the Kyoto Protocol. The conservation
of natural resources and protection of environment are becoming global issues. It is
our pleasure if this project becomes a pioneer and our report may be of any help to
the participants of this conference.
Following are the outline of the project, technology transfer and its details
1. Project outline
1-1 Project Scheme
Outline of NEDO model project to increase efficient use of energy.
In the developing economies of the Asia-Pacific region, energy demand is
predicted to continue rising dramatically along with economic growth. These
economies are now becoming highly interested in energy conservation technologies
that are already commercially available in industrialized economies. To respond to
the rising demand, NEDO is implementing various projects to disseminate these
technologies, including international fundamental research projects, to increase the
efficient use of energy.
The model projects, once implemented as part of the Activities Implemented
Jointly (AIJ) - a pilot phase project under the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change - were launched in Kazakhstan in FY2002 as part
of the Joint Implementation (JI) of the Kyoto Protocol. The projects contribute to
the accumulation of useful information for the concrete development of other
forthcoming JI and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects.
1-2 Outline of beer industry in Vietnam
The history of beer production started in
1890 by Hanoi Beer. The majority of
breweries are small scale local breweriesup
to now. The beer production has increased
dramatically in recent years driven by the
economic growth. In 2005, Vietnam
produced 1.2 million kL of beer which is
equivalent to Philippines. Because of that,
new construction of medium to large scale (100,000 to 200,000kL) breweries have
1-3 Project Site
Thanh Hoa Brewery is located
in Thanh Hoa city, about 150kM
south of Hanoi. Thanh Hoa is the
capital town of Thanh Hoa
Province which has one of biggest
population among local provinces.
The area is under rapid
development as an industrial zone
Thanh Hoa Brewery was established in 1987 as a medium scale plant and a part
of the state owned company Hanoi Beer. It produced 65,000kL of beer in 2005.
2. Outline of the brewery
Breweries are relatively large scale plants and highly energy consuming in the food
industry. As shown in figure XXX, the production process begins with receiving
material, preparation, brewing, fermentation 8fermentation, maturation, yeast
management, filtration etc), packaging, stock yard and shipping.
Basically, they divided to 3 processes, Brewing, Fermentation and Packaging and
they work in separate schedules.
Brewing is a batch process of 6 to 8 hours and operates 24 hours continuously.
Fermentation is a batch of 15 to 30 days and operates 24 hours continuously.
Packaging is a daily operation of 8 to 16 hours of continuous process. The
management of the brewery is generally divided to these 3 sections.
2-2 Energy consumption in brewery
As far as energy consumption is concerned, brewing requires high heat
consumption, particularly the wort kettle consumes one third (1/3) of steam
consumption of entire plant. Fermentation with maturation process consumes large
cooling energy by refrigeration system. This process consumes 60 to 70% of entire
cooling capacity. In the tropical environment, cooling load becomes relatively
large and refrigeration system consumes 30 to 40% of entire electricity
`Packaging process also consumes a lot of heat energy (steam). In general, steam
consumption of packaging process is 70 to 80% compared to brewing process for
steam consumption. But in Southeast Asian countries, it often exceeds the brewing
process and reaches 1.2 to 1.5 times bigger than brewing. We assume that the enrgy
consumption in this process is very much influenced by raw water temperature and
production technology. The energy consumption of entire brewery is 30 to 50
litre/HL for fuel and 15 to 30kWh/HL represented by specific consumption rates
for breweries with 100,000 to 200,00kL per year production. The total of fuel and
electricity becomes 70 to 100 Mcal/HL converted to primary energy. In other words,
production of 1HL of beer will emit 20 to 30kgs of CO2. The energy consumption
in KIRIN brewery KOBE plant where energy saving effect is most advanced in
Japan, is 38Mcal/HL and it is almost a half.
3. Energy Saving system (technology transfer)
In this project, it is intended to reduce emissions of GHG due to the substantial
energy saving by transferring energy saving technologies developed in Japan since
the Oil Crisis. Following are outline of 4 energy saving technologies transferred.
3-1 VRC System
As shown in the figure, it is a system to reutilize the discharged steam from the
wort kettles in the brewing process by the compressor for reheating steam. It is a
kind of most simple heat pump. The electric power required to drive this
compressor is only one fifteenth to one twentieth compared to the recovered steam
energy. Therefore, COP as heat pump system is 15 to 20 and it is very efficient
compared to the COP of 3 to 5 for air conditioning heat pumps. This technology
was developed with the subsidies from Japanese Government in the Moonlight
Project and widely used in breweries and alcohol distilleries in
3-2 Energy Saving Refrigeration System
As explained before, electricity consumption by refrigeration system is quite
large. Especially in tropical area, it shares 30 to 50% of entire plant. Energy
efficient refrigeration system will contribute to substantial reduction of entire
electricity consumption. At the same time, hot water can be recovered from
refrigeration system and reutilized in the plant which will contribute to the
reduction of fuel.
In this project, Cascade Cooling system and Dynamic Ice Storage and Transport
system have been implemented. From each system, hot water of 85 degree C is
recovered and utilized in the plant which reduces the fuel consumption.
3-2-1 Cascade Cooling System
There is a cooling process of hot wort to 8 to 10 degree C in the last of brewing
process. In this process, it consumes chilled water of 2 to 5 degree C almost same
as the amount of wort. The raw water temperature in tropical area is as high as 30
to 35 degree C and required cooling load becomes 40 to 50% of total cooling load.
In this project, Cascade cooling system has been implemented to reduce electricity
consumption about 30%. As shown below, small chilers are arranged in series to
produce chilled water with large temperature differential. By this system, COP will
be 8 that is almost double of conventional system and it is widely used in Japan.
3-2-2 Dynamic Ice Storage and Transport system
With this system, slurry ice can be efficiently stored and transported. The peak
electricity demand can be reduced and cheap electricity tariff can be used and
efficient operation of refrigeration system can be achieved by running
refrigeration compressors at full rated capacity. The transportation of slurry ice
means high transportable heat density. It reduces pump powers of secondary
refrigerant and piping diameter can be reduced that contribute to reduction of
investment cost. Flow diagram and comparison with conventional system are
3-3 Energy Saving system in Packaging process
Bottle washer and Tunnel Pasteurizer consume large energy in packaging process.
Heat consumption in Pasteurizer depends greatly on raw water temperature and
production technology in the packaging line. Water supply quantity increases as
water temperature rises. Consequently, steam consumption will be increased. In
addition, if operation rate of the packaging line declines, unnecessary steam will be
consumed due to interruption.
In tropical Southeast Asia, energy consumption in packaging line is larger
compared to other areas. In this project, a software to optimize the pasteurizer
operation and a heat pump to recover heat have been implemented. Pasteurizer and
heat pump system are shown in the figure below.
3-4 Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment System and Methane Gas Reuse System
The anaerobic wastewater treatment plant with separately collecting high BOD
wastewater have been implemented in addition to conventional aerobic wastewater
treatment. Treatment process efficiency can be increased by separately collecting
high BOD wastewater with more compact design and reduction of investment cost
as well. Generated methane gas is supplied to a boiler and generates steam. This
steam is supplied to the brewery.
4. Effects of Energy Saving
Energy saving is equivalent to 3,386 tons of oil per year. CO2 emission reduction
is estimated as 10,376 ton-Co2 per year.
5. Technology Transfer
Transfer of Energy saving technologies or implementation outside Japan have been
quite limited in the past. In Japan, energy saving technologies have been developed
and implemented since the Oil Crisis. But, in other countries, no integrated energy
saving systems like this project have ever been implemented. This time, NEDO
Japan and Vietnam MOI have agreed with joint implementation of energy saving
model project in Vietnam and integrated energy saving system was implemented.
This project contains idea of technology transfer together with feasibility study,
implementation, CDM procedures, Maintenance and training of operators. It is also
possible to train the group activity that is very difficult to proceed in private
industries. It may be possible to transfer the production technology developed and
most advanced in Japan.
5-1 Transfer of Hardware
As a means of transferring hardware, some advanced equipment such as heat pump,
VRC, refrigeration units have been transferred. Items such as vessels, piping,
packaging and so on that may be manufactured in Vietnam with technical
supervision were ordered to Vietnamese firms as much as possible by Mayekawa.
This was done for enabling proper maintenance after implementation and also for
inevitable cost reduction of energy saving equipment at the time of dissemination.
All the systems are operating without problem after half year of experiences with
5-2 Implementation of operating software
In Japan, process control and operation are fully automatic. Therefore, human
being is not involved in energy saving facility except for troubles. In case of
Vietnam, employees are more involved in operation of the process, therefore,
involvement of operators is considered as far as it does not disturbs the system. It
took time before operators understand and get used to the equipment. Manual
operation proved to be effective in case of power blackouts and brief interruptions.
5-3 Group Activity (KAIZEN) to increase efficiency and energy saving
In Japanese breweries, energy saving effect can be sometimes even increased as
the time elapses after implementing energy saving equipment. In case of one
brewery, amount of energy saving increased every year and 20% of reduction was
realized after 5 years even though no new equipment was installed during that time.
This is due to the fact that energy was saved in many areas of the plant and
improvement of operation of energy saving equipment together with proper
maintenance was achieved due to employees efforts with higher motivation after
the implementation of energy saving equipment. I case of Thanh Hoa Beer, a team
has been formed for energy saving activities by the decision of director Mr. Dung
and started group activity for energy saving from the beginning of this year and.
Further energy saving effects are expected by these activities,
This project is a national project jointly implemented by NEDO Japan and MOI
Vietnam. It may have not been realized if this was a private project. The reason is
not only the financial matter but also the lack of various supportive elements to
convince the host company (breweries) with the effectiveness of equipment. Many
visitors from various breweries have seen the new facility since last summer after
operation started. As a result, many breweries are now studying the system. This
news has been spreaded in neighbor countries and a brewery in Laos made a
decision to implement the same system in January this year after visiting Thanh
Hoa Beer. Feasibility study under NEDO scheme was carried out in this brewery in
2003 and they decided to implement the energy saving system as CDM project. It
was obvious that the effects of actual implementation is greater than just hearing
story or seeing the facility in Japan.
We would like to convey special thanks to the Government of Vietnam, MOI,
Government of Japan and NEDO. Also special thanks to Thanh Hoa Beer and RIB,
Researcg Institute of Brewing.