Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan April 2009

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					Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan              April 2009                                     1 q The Enduring Ledger
                                                  Incoming Brigades expand embedded trainer capabilities
                                                                                        and ANP
                                                  by MG Richard P. Formica
      Vol. 3, Issue 4         April 2009                                                  We already knew that the 48th
                                                  CSTC-A Commanding General            Infantry Brigade Combat Team
          Table of Contents                                                            from Georgia would succeed
Page 2: CG’s Message                              Our task in the Combined             the 33rd BCT from Illinois in
Page 3: CSM’s Message                             Security Transition Command-         August as Task Force Phoenix
Page 5: Up Close with General Bismullah           Afghanistan is to build              IX. The 4,000 new trainers
Mohammadi                                         sustainable capacity and             will come to us mostly in the
Page 6: CSTC-A Two-Brigade Concept                capability in the Afghan             form of a second BCT: the 4th
Page 7: Afghan Training; ETTs and OMLTs
Page 8: Counterinsurgency Guidance                National Security Forces             IBCT from the 82nd Airborne
Page 11: Building Relationships with the          (ANSF) – both in the Afghan          Division of Fort Bragg, North
ANSF                                              National Army (ANA) and the          Carolina. 4-82nd IBCT will join
Page 12: ANSF in Action                           Afghan National Police (ANP).        the 48th IBCT in September.
Page 14: Focus on: 278th Signal Company
Page 15: Capital Jumpstart: Training ANP             We do this through CSTC-A’s       With their arrival, we will
Page 16: EUPOL Update                             incredible organizational energy,    transition to a two-BCT concept
Page 17: APPF Graduation                          our partnership with many            for the provision of CSTC-A’s                 MG Formica
Page 18: Capability Milestones                    coalition allies, governmental       embedded trainers.
Page 19: Command & Staff College                                                                                             particularly in the East
Page 20: PMTs, VTTs                               and non-governmental                   This will be part of a new          and South, under General
Page 21: ANA Women Soldiers learn CLS             stakeholders, and with our           approach to how we generate           McKiernan’s concept, will
Page 22: Warrior of the Month                     significant resources.               and develop the ANSF. These           assume new responsibilities to
Page 23: ANAAC MedEvac                               But it is our embedded            additional forces will help us        provide embedded trainers for
               Editorial Staff                    trainers/mentors who have the        gradually replace the nearly          and partner with ANA units,
 CSTC-A Commanding General                        most profound impact on our          1500 trainers in embedded             ANP districts and ABP (Afghan
 Major General Richard P. Formica                 mission. These mentors build         training teams from Fort Riley,       Border Police) Kandaks.
 Command Sergeant Major                           critical trust with our Afghan       Kansas, and return them to             Our two-BCT concept,
 Command Sergeant Major Arthur                    partners at the Ministries and       the Army to fill other pressing       combined with the provision
 L. Coleman Jr.                                   General Staff and down to the        assignments.                          of more coalition OMLTs
 Public Affairs Director                          Kandak level in the ANA and            In addition, the Afghan             and POMLTs, and Special
 Lieutenant Colonel Chris Kubik                   to Police districts in the ANP.      Regional Security Integration         Operations Forces’ mentoring of
 Public Affairs Deputy Director                   These Embedded Training              Commands (ARSICs) as we               and partnering with select units,
 Navy Lieutenant Kent Laborde                     Teams (ETTs) and Police              know them will go away. Many          should substantially improve our
 NCOIC                                            Mentor Teams (PMTs) –along           of the duties they perform will       approach to training. This will
 Petty Officer 1st Class Cliff Williams           with Coalition Operational           now be accomplished by the two        result in increased numbers and
 Layout and Design                                Mentor Liaison Teams (OMLTs)         BCT headquarters and through          more capable ANA and ANP
 Petty Officer 2nd Class Paul Dillard             and Police Operational Mentor        their subordinate battalion task      formations throughout the battle
 Graphics                                         Liaison Teams (POMLTs) – are         forces.                               space.
 Petty Officer 2nd Class Edward Vasquez           the heartbeat of our mentorship         To implement this concept,          All of these new and powerful
 Contributors                                     program.                             we’ll consolidate the 48th IBCT       concepts and assets should
 Staff Sergeant Sarah Stegman                        It’s no secret that we’ve         in the North, Central and East;       enable us to mentor/train all of
 About the front cover: Photo by Stewart          been under-resourced in this         4-82nd IBCT will provide the          our fielded ANA units and about
 Nusbaumer. Soldiers from the Afghan              critical capability for years. Our   trainers in the South and West.       half of the ANP districts by the
 National Army’s 1st Kandak, 2nd Brigade,         predecessors had to spread ANA       They’ll establish their mentor        end of the year.
 201st Corps, receive instruction on their        trainers across the Army and         relationships with ANA units           At the heart of all this change
 new M-16s from Afghan instructors and            the Police – leaving shortages       and police districts and with         are the Soldiers, Sailors,
 Marines from ETT 2-7 as part of an initiative    of embedded trainers in both         the regional commanders in
 to equip the ANA with NATO weapons.
                                                                                                                             Airmen, Marines and Civilians
                                                  forces.                              whose battle space they provide       in our ETTs and PMTs. These
 Marine in foreground is Sergeant Uselton           Recently, however, we              trainers.
 and in background is Gunnery Sergeant                                                                                       teams work together to train
 Mario Garza.
                                                  received welcome news. As a             Both BCTs will be provided         and resource ANA, ANP and
 About the back cover: Photo by Petty             result of his strategic review,      two additional Colonels and           ABP units, building sustainable
 Officer 2nd Class Paul Dillard. Officers         President Obama announced            Command Sergeants Major /             capacity and capability.
 from Police District 1 and PMT members           the decision to deploy 4,000         Sergeants Major to serve as            They “listen to the mountains”
 from RPAC-K on the busy streets of Kabul.        additional trainers to our           directors for ANA and ANP             in order to establish close,
The    Enduring Ledger is a monthly               mission in Afghanistan.              development. These key                meaningful relationships with
publication of the Department of Defense and        This announcement:                 leaders will provide the vertical     their Afghan partners. Our ETTs
Combined Security Transition Command-                • reflects a significant and      integration of all mentors in their   and PMTs risk their lives every
Afghanistan (CSTC-A). This publication is
released monthly by the CSTC-A Public Affairs
                                                  demonstrable commitment to           respective BCTs. They also will       day.
Office, Camp Eggers, Kabul, Afghanistan. In       the development of the ANSF          provide senior-level interaction       It is to these ETTs and PMTs
accordance with DoD Instruction 5120.4, this         • reaffirms the US                with our Afghan partners and          that we remain indebted for their
DoD magazine is an authorized publication for     Government’s commitment to           with International Security
members of the U.S. military overseas. Contents                                                                              service and sacrifice.
of The Enduring Ledger are not necessarily        growth and reform in the ANSF        Assistance Force (ISAF)
the official view of, or endorsed by the U.S.        • opened the door for future      Regional Commanders.                   Yak Team Wahed!
government or DoD.                                growth of the both the ANA              Battle space owners –

       2 q The Enduring Ledger                                                                                                 
ANP continue to make great strides
                              by CSM Arthur L. Coleman Jr.        But my emphasis is down at the individual police as well as
                              CSTC-A Command Sergeant Major       at the teams and districts. As I visited one location a couple
                                 I would like to say              of weeks ago, I saw that one remarkable change has been in
                              “welcome” to all of our new         the area of weapons marksmanship training. This is one clear
                              arrivals: Army, Navy, Air           sign of reform.
                              Force, Marines, and Civilians.         As we move forward, the police senior enlisted
                              Congratulations to all of you       leadership— the Chief NCO of the Afghan National Police,
                              for your selection to this          Karim Khan— has taken a personal interest in current
                              command. What an exciting           operations as well as focusing on the fight. He has placed
                              time to be assigned to CSTC-A.      special emphasis on accountability of not only weapons, but
                              With the focus of war efforts       also on other key and essential equipment. This is another
                              clearly shifting towards our        clear example of growth not only in the NCO Corps of the
                              mission here, you’re truly in the   police, but also across the board. I ask that all of our mentors
                              right place at the right time to    continue to lean forward and put emphasis on teaching and
      CSM Coleman                                                 coaching, especially in mentoring your counterparts.
                             make a difference.
  First I would like to recognize the mentors for the Afghan         Another area is managing risk. At each level, there are
National Police. What an awesome year of building the             certain risks that are acceptable; however, always conduct a
Afghan Police, as well as the Afghan Border Patrol. The           risk assessment to make sure that the mission fits the risk.
Afghan Police in some cases are unsung heroes. On a                  Last but not least, this is a complex organization, and as
day-to-day basis they are becoming more and more the              we continue to build the Afghan National Security Forces,
cornerstone of the Afghan National Security Forces—making         it is important that we continue to build true partnerships
improvements in accountability, conducting voter registration     with our Afghan counterparts. I ask you to continue to seek
operations, and at the same time conducting police reform.        opportunities to reinforce Afghan lead roles.

                                                                                                    photo by Sgt. Jessica R. Dahlberg
An Afghan National Police officer checks a vehicle’s undercarriage during a vehicle-search class at the Parwan province’s
police headquarters in the Charikar district.                                                                                      3 q The Enduring Ledger
Up close with General Bismullah Mohammadi
  General Bismullah Mohammadi                                                        This is good for the people of
was in the 12th grade when the                                                       Afghanistan. We are trying our best to
Russians invaded Afghanistan. He                                                     build upon the relationship between the
joined the Mujahadin soon after,                                                     Afghan people and the Afghan National
serving in diverse capacities until                                                  Army, so that they will continue to see
the collapse of the Communist                                                        it as good.
regime.                                                                                 Right now, we have good equipment
  He commanded a unit at Bagram                                                      and good weapons. We have right
and later served as a leading                                                        around 30,000 M4s and M-16s, about
commander of the Northern Alliance                                                   2,000 up-armored HMMWVs, and
against the Taliban. General                                                         we have received some helicopters
Bismullah Mohammadi served as                                                        and some airplanes. Even though the
Deputy Defense Minister in the                                                       Afghan National Army is lacking some
Government of the Islamic Republic                                                   equipment, we still have had a lot of
of Afghanistan until four years ago,                                                 successes with NATO and ISAF forces.
when he became Chief of General                                                         We have been operating
                                             General Bismullah Mohammadi
Staff for the Afghan National Army                                                   independently for the last two years
                                               ANA Chief of General Staff
(ANA).                                                                               and almost 60 percent of our operations
                                           all of the people of Afghanistan.         have been independent. We want the
  In this capacity, he serves as the
commander of the Armed Forces of                                                     Afghan National Army to take the
                                             On progress in the ANA:                 lead, and NATO and ISAF forces to
Afghanistan, with the responsibility
to train, equip and exercise                  The creation of the Afghan             support the Afghan National Army.
command and control of the ANA.            National Army is a great success
He is an only son with three sisters.      story for the people of Afghanistan.       On international community
He has two sons and four daughters,           Six years ago, we set up the first     support and election security:
all of whom live in Kabul.                 Afghan National Kandak. Now                  I am sure the international
                                           we have 133 Kandaks. We have              community has Afghanistan at the
  On why the ANA is                        five Army Corps, one Air Corps,           center of their attention. They haven’t
important to Afghanistan:                  and we have established training          forgotten Afghanistan, and they are
                                           and education institutes. We’ve set       working on Afghanistan.
   The ANA is necessary for bringing
                                           up the Ministry of Defense along             The international community knows
peace and stability to Afghanistan
                                           with supporting commands such             what’s going on in Afghanistan and
because we have been engaged in
                                           as the logistical command and the         they know the threat to the rest of the
war for the last 30 years. Stability
                                           communications command.                   world. We are happy that they are
is not good here and the enemies of
                                              Our Army is well balanced.             here and that they are helping us with
Afghanistan are trying to make the
                                           We have Soldiers from all over            the threats against Afghanistan and
situation worse.
                                           the country and they are very             Pakistan.
   What most people in Afghanistan
                                           professional. The people of                  We are optimistic about the future
want is security and stability, but
                                           Afghanistan are the ANA. The people       of Afghanistan and of the Afghan
security is not possible unless we
                                           of Afghanistan know that the Afghan       National Army. We hope to overcome
have the defense sector and security
                                                                                     the problems and overcome the
sector under control. That is why          National Army defends their rights.
                                                                                     enemies of Afghanistan. The elections
the Afghan National Army is the            The people of Afghanistan do not
                                                                                     are upcoming; whatever is asked of
defender of the independence of            look at the Afghan National Army
                                                                                     us for the security of the elections,
Afghanistan. We will defend the            as a tribal or an ethnic Army — they
                                                                                     I am confident that we will be able
rights of the Afghan people. We need       think of it as a National Army. This is
                                                                                     to provide it and confident that we
the Afghan National Army, especially       why our citizens have a high opinion
                                                                                     will have a good election with good
in this era when the country is not        of the ANA.
stable, in order to defend the rights of      The size of the ANA is increasing.
5 q The Enduring Ledger                                               
By Army Colonel William H. Morris
CSTC-A Operations Director

   “For three years, our commanders have
been clear about the resources they need for
training. And those resources have been
denied because of the war in Iraq. Now, that
will change. The additional troops that we
deployed have already increased our training
capacity. And later this spring we will deploy
approximately 4,000 U.S. troops to train
Afghan security forces. For the first time,
this will truly resource our effort to train
and support the Afghan army and police.”
- President Barack Obama, remarks by the
President on a new strategy for Afghanistan
and Pakistan.

    With President Obama’s speech on a
new strategy for Afghanistan and Pakistan                                                                          Photo by Specialist Micah E. Clare
as a backdrop, the training and mentoring           Paratroopers from the 782nd Brigade Support Battalion, 4th Infantry Brigade
operational construct for the Combined             Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division watch as combat delivery system bundles
Security Transition Command-Afghanistan            carrying food and water come floating to the ground in the Paktika province of Af-
(CSTC-A) will go through a remarkable              ghanistan on Oct. 11, 2007. The 4th BCT is scheduled to return to Afghanistan this
transition over the next several months.           summer as part of the Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan.
    For almost four years, we have deployed        deploying, and will have deployed from the         Once these two BCTs are on the ground,
individual augmentees from across the              same state, post or camp.                          Afghan National Security Forces will benefit
services alongside Army National Guard                This is a significant change for the better     by having more trainers present here in
Brigade Combat Teams of Combined Joint             when considering the fundamental building          Afghanistan than ever before.
Task Force Phoenix to fill the ranks of our        blocks of great units: unity of command, unit         Right now, CSTC-A is able to meet just
great mentor and training teams. We will now       cohesion and family readiness. Although            over half of the current requirements to train
fill these mentor/trainer positions with a unit-   these BCTS are very capable— trained,              the Afghan National Army and the Afghan
based solution, comprised largely of two US        manned and equipped to conduct military            National Police. With these two brigades,
Army Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs).                  operations from high-intensity combat to           the command will be able to fully meet most
    We will continue to use the Combined           stabilization operations— they are deploying       requirements and bring greater capability to
Joint Task Force (CJTF) Phoenix structure          to Afghanistan for a definite purpose. That        our Afghan partners.
(led by a combined joint task force                purpose is to coach, teach and mentor the             This is truly a great improvement in the
headquarters) as the execution headquarters        Afghan National Security Forces.                   training and mentoring mission here in
for the two brigades.                                 The transition to a two-BCT operation           Afghanistan and is symbolic of the strong
    CJTF Phoenix will maintain a one-star          will begin in earnest over the summer and          commitment of the United States and our
commander from the Army National Guard,            early fall as the BCTs and their subordinate       Coalition forces to the Afghan National
and will consist of two brigade combat teams,      battalions deploy into theater. Our great          Security Forces and the people of the Islamic
one from the Army National Guard and one           Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines and             Republic of Afghanistan.
from the Active Component Army.                    Civilians of the current CJTF Phoenix will
    These BCTs will come with a greater            establish conditions for the reception, staging,
training and mentoring capability than has         onward movement and integration of these
ever been realized before in this theater.         forces.
Commanders will be able to field larger               As this occurs, some of our forward
training teams for the CSTC-A mission – a          operating bases will see a temporary rise in
very important factor when considering the         population. Planning is well underway for
vast area CSTC-A covers, and the threat in         new facilities and infrastructure to ensure
different areas of Afghanistan.                    these new CSTC-A units are well cared for
    These newly arriving CSTC-A units will         as they transition in support of our Afghan
provide the basis for Embedded Training            partners.
Teams (ETT) for the Afghan National Army              Currently the two brigades earmarked
and Police Mentor Teams (PMT) for the              for deployment are the 48th IBCT from the
Afghan National Police. Benefits of this unit                                                                Colonel William H. Morris
                                                   Georgia Army National Guard, and the 4th           Colonel Morris is the Operations Director
approach include the fact that teams will          IBCT, 82nd Airborne Division from Fort             for CSTC-A. He commanded the 2nd
come largely from the same unit, will have         Bragg, North Carolina. These BCTs will             Combat Aviation Brigade in Korea prior
trained together for at least a period of six      assume the training and mentoring mission          to assignment at CSTC-A; he redeploys
months (but sometimes for years) before            in late summer or early autumn of 2009.            to work in the Pentagon this summer.                                                                                                     6 q The Enduring Ledger
General Bismullah Mohammadi: training the Afghan National Army
By General Bismullah Mohammadi     we also have long-term courses    OMLTs.
ANA Chief of General Staff         and short-term courses. These        I was invited to NATO
   After six or seven years of     training courses have given us    headquarters, with whom
work, we have learned that         hope that in four or five years   we have been working for
the most important thing with      we will have educated and         almost three years. One of the
the Afghan National Army is        experienced officers and NCOs     requests that I made of them
education, training and good       in the Afghan National Army.      was a request for OMLTs for
leadership.                           Unfortunately, we lack         the Afghan National Army. I’m
   We have two kinds of            some of the Embedded              very happy that they promised
training. We have short-           Training Teams (ETTs) and         they will help us in this way.
term training, and for this        Operational Mentor Liaison           As I said before, we need
we have the Kabul Military         Teams (OMLTs) necessary           ETTs, OMLTs, and education.
Training Center (KMTC).            to properly develop the
                                                                     We would also like help with
At KMTC we train recruits,         ANA. This is especially true
                                                                     the development of KMTC and
noncommissioned officers           as we increase our numbers                                            Photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class
                                                                     some training equipment.
(NCOs) and officers.               from 80,000 to 134,000. We                                            Edward Vasquez
   For long-term training,         need the ETTs and OMLTs in
                                                                        But the most important thing     General Bismullah
                                                                     we are requesting from NATO         Mohammadi speaks after
we have institutes here            training and also in combat.                                          the opening ceremony for
in Afghanistan like the                                              forces is that the training we
                                      If we had these problems                                           the Afghan Military Medical
National Military Academy          solved two years ago, we          receive should meet a unified       School, marking the first
of Afghanistan. This is the        would have had many more          standard so ANA units receive       time the Afghan military has
first time in the history of       successes in the Afghan           only one kind of training.          had a medical school since
                                                                     Unfortunately in the past every     the time of the Taliban.
Afghanistan that we have had       National Army. That’s why we
a nationally-accredited military   are now working hard, and we      country, every nation, has          looking for some education
academy.                           are asking the North Atlantic     brought their own techniques        where they focus on the terrain
   We also have a commando         Treaty Organization (NATO)        and standards.                      and the geographic climate of
school, a school for               and International Security           Also, the environment of         Afghanistan. This will help us
communications, and a staff        Assistance Force (ISAF) to        Afghanistan is different from       greatly once we have a unified,
college at KMTC. Within those      help us regarding ETTs and        their home nations, so we are       standard method of training.

ETTs and OMLTs
   The Operational Mentor and Liaison Team (OMLT)
program is a key contribution by the international community
toward developing the Afghan National Army (ANA). They
are embedded in ANA Battalions (Kandaks), Brigades,
Garrisons and Corps Headquarters.
   OMLTs provide training and mentoring to support ANA
units’ operational deployments and often provide a liaison
capability between ANA and ISAF forces, coordinating
the planning of operations and ensuring ANA units receive
enabling support. They are composed of 12 to 19 personnel,
depending on the type of partner unit.
   OMLT training is a 3-phase process, consisting of national
training, pre-deployment training and in-theater training.
Currently there are 54 OMLTs on the ground with 12                             Photo by U.S. Navy Petty Officer 2nd Class Aramis X. Ramirez
confirmed new OMLT offers.                                           A graduate of the Basic Engineers course at Camp Hero
  ETTs                                                               shakes hands with Warrant Officer Wade Osmond, chief
                                                                     instructor for the Basic Engineer Course and member of
   Embedded Training Teams (ETTs) are small units with               a Canadian Operational Mentor and Liaison Team (OMLT).
valuable skill sets that qualify them to train in specialized        Fifteen graduates completed the four-week course, learning
areas. Each Embedded Training Team is trained and equipped           the fundamentals of mine detection and demolition, field
to mentor their Afghan counterparts in the development               defense, and basic carpentry.
of ANA logistical systems, infrastructure, and national              spectrum of operations in the Afghanistan National Security
capabilities. ETTs are a single-minded team, focusing energy         Force, adhering to counterinsurgency principles. Currently
and talents toward developing authoritative leadership,              there are 54 ETTs on the ground in Afghanistan.
systematic processes and increased capacity across the full

7 q The Enduring Ledger                                                                                      
                                       our presence in Afghanistan
                                       is in support of the Afghan
                                       people. Defend and engage
                                       the population: be viewed as
                                       supporters of all the people.
                                       Population-centric operations
                                       to influence the people should
                                       be the main effort with enemy-
                                       centric targeting operations in
                                       support. Increase interaction
                                       between security forces and
                                       the population. Move out of
                                       FOBs and spend more time with
                                       our partners in the ANP, ANA,
General David McKiernan,               and District and Provincial
Commander, U.S. Forces,                governments and be more
Afghanistan / Interna-                 visible in the communities
tional Security Assistance             they serve. In doing so, we
Force, Afghanistan                     legitimize ANSF by linking the
                                       provision of security services to
   “There is no purely military
                                       GIRoA; assure the population by
solution to the situation in
                                       removing insurgent intimidation;
Afghanistan. Ultimately, the
                                       marginalize insurgents by
solution must be a political one
                                       making their attacks on security
which is Afghan led. In the
                                       and governance infrastructure
meantime, the military must
                                       an attack on the population, thus
protect the people and provide
                                       forcing the enemy to undermine
the security space necessary for
                                       its own support base.
good governance, development
and a successful political
outcome.” General McKiernan               F    ollow an Integrated
                                               Approach to Achieve
                                       Comprehensive Effects. Focus
   Our operational imperative
                                       on governance, development,
is to protect the population                                                                                           photo by Specialist Joseph A. Wilson
                                       and security concurrently.
while extending the                                                             Afghan National Army Commandos with the 207th Kandak
                                       Success in Afghanistan will
legitimacy and effectiveness
                                       not come from the sole pursuit           patrol the city of Shindand, Herat Province, Afghanistan.
of GIRoA and decreasing                                                         The Commandos make frequent patrols through the area to
                                       of a security line of operation
the effectiveness of insurgent                                                  increase security measures.
                                       by military forces. Claims
elements. Political power is the                                                Support capacity building and            environment and anticipate
                                       that ISAF only does security
central issue in insurgencies and                                               integration amongst our security         change, instead of reacting to
                                       have no place in this campaign.
counterinsurgencies (COIN);                                                     partners to improve operations           it. Force the enemy to respond
                                       These lines of operation are
each side aims to influence the                                                 and accelerate development of            to us and seize windows of
                                       interdependent and are intended
people to accept its governance                                                 ANSF. Provide direction to               opportunity to influence the
                                       to be complementary and
or authority as legitimate. We                                                  partnering and mentoring units           population effectively. Plan
                                       comprehensive; failure in one
(ISAF, GIRoA, the Afghan                                                        to integrate ANA and ANP                 all our operations in an Action
                                       means mission failure on all.
people, and our international                                                   operations and, where practical,         (our tasks/intent), Reaction
                                       Work with all partners to form
partners) will prevail in                                                       encourage the ANA to assist in           (enemy’s), and Counteraction
                                       one team in support of the
this conflict and succeed in                                                    the development of the ANP.              (what we do to adapt to the
                                       “Integrated Approach.”1 Drive
securing and building a better                                                                                           enemy) mindset.
                                       this methodology at your level
Afghanistan. The principles
below apply in all phases of the
                                       for planning, coordination,
                                       execution, assessment, and
                                                                                   S   eize and Maintain
                                                                                       the Initiative. Adapt
                                                                                tactics and seize the initiative           G      ain Situational
                                                                                                                                  Understanding. Gain
“Shape, Clear, Hold, and Build”
                                       reporting. Maneuver units                before the enemy does                    a nuanced understanding of the
overarching framework and to
                                       need to work with the Afghan             the same. Continuously                   situation and dynamics at the
all levels of the ISAF chain of
                                       government and community                 incorporate lessons learned              local, district, and provincial
command. To succeed in this
                                       leaders, ANSF, the PRTs,                 into operations in order to be           levels. Share information, best
campaign, we must:
                                       PMTs, ETTs, OMLTs and                    more effective than the enemy.           practices, and intelligence across
                                       civilian agencies to make the
  B    e Population-Focused.
       Demonstrate that                sum greater than its parts.
                                                                                Proactively identify and plan
                                                                                for changes in the operational
                                                                                                                         and between levels to gain a
                                                                                                                         comprehensive understanding
1 Working with and aiming to achieve unity of effort with key partners (UNAMA, International Community representatives, etc.) to ensure efforts are
fully integrated from the outset. To achieve this we have to be proactive, identifying and seeking out the key stakeholders and developing the necessary
relationships with them.

8 q The Enduring Ledger                                                                                                       
of the environment. Collaborate
and share information with CF
and ANSF partners to further
increase their understanding of
the human terrain. Identify the
specific root causes of insecurity,
criminality or support to the
insurgency in your area of
operations, gain understanding
of what exactly “governance”
means to local Afghans, and
discern the influence of informal
structures of power. Staffs
should gather and display
‘information and intelligence’
about the human terrain for use
by operators at the local level
to make lethal and non-lethal
targeting and information
operations more effective.

  B      e Present in Key
         Population Areas.
Carry out smaller patrols,
                                                                                                                  photo by Specialist Joseph A. Wilson
                                      An Afghan National Army Commando with the 207th Kandak mans his M240 machine gun
support smaller detachments           during a routine patrol through the city of Shindand, Herat Province, Afghanistan. These elite
                                      Soldiers conduct frequent COIN operations to bring peace and stability to the region.
and encourage ANSF
counterparts to do the same.
These actions free up larger
numbers of similar ANSF units
                                           M       aintain the Trust
                                                   and Respect of
                                      Afghans. Live our values
                                                                             of self defense and our Rules of
                                                                             Engagement. We are fighting an
                                                                             enemy that often hides among
                                                                                                                   governance structures. On the
                                                                                                                   other hand, always support the
                                                                                                                   community’s shura, whenever it
to achieve a disproportionately       and act above reproach.                the civilian population or uses       truly represents the population.
greater effect. In those areas        Insurgent groups take advantage        innocent civilians as a shield,
where GIRoA officials and
international aid donors find
                                      of our failures and, because
                                      they are not constrained by
                                                                             both before and immediately
                                                                             after an attack, so the battle is
                                                                                                                          E    nable Afghan
                                                                                                                               Solutions and
                                                                                                                   Afghan Capacity. Foster
it difficult to generate the          the truth, sometimes our               often waged among civilians
                                                                                                                   Afghan (not western) solutions
personnel and resources required      successes, too. Be first with          and their property; thus it is
                                                                                                                   and help generate and retain
to penetrate into the countryside,    the truth. Demonstrate respect         imperative that we always
                                                                                                                   human capacity. Develop and
step into this vacuum and, at a       and consideration for the              demonstrate proportionality,
                                                                                                                   sustain an environment that
minimum, set the conditions for       Afghan people, their culture,          requisite restraint and the
                                                                                                                   enables individual mentoring/
their presence.                       customs, and religion. Avoid           utmost discrimination during
                                                                                                                   monitoring teams to perform
                                      insults, inappropriate gestures,       every action and engagement.
    B     e Persistent and Hold.
          Support GIRoA/
ANSF efforts to be seen as
                                      unnecessary brandishing of
                                      weapons, and aggressive driving
                                                                             Leadership at all levels and
                                                                             training, pre-deployment and
                                                                                                                   their tasks in support of
                                                                                                                   increasing GIRoA’s capacity,
                                                                                                                   effectiveness and legitimacy.
                                      that Afghans may perceive              reinforced in-theater, are the
more enduring than the                                                                                             Maneuver units, PRTs, and
                                      as offensive, threatening, or          keys to minimizing the potential
insurgency, which offers no                                                                                        mentors must work together to
                                      reckless. Whenever possible            for civilian casualties.
hope to the population. Do                                                                                         ensure those with appropriate
                                      allow and encourage ANSF or
not clear an area unless GIRoA
and the ANSF are able to hold
it. Establish an environment in
                                      NDS to search houses or fellow
                                      Afghans when it is required.
                                                                                   R      einforce Afghan
                                                                             and Legitimacy. Encourage
                                                                                                                   skills contribute to the
                                                                                                                   identification and development
                                                                                                                   of the right types of systemic
                                      While we will make mistakes,
which the population feels they                                              GIRoA to act in a transparent         investment and improvement in
                                      remember that your integrity is
can resist insurgents without fear                                           and accountable manner. Do            GIRoA infrastructure, processes,
                                      critical to this fight.
of consequence or retribution.                                               this by setting an example.           and staff performance.
This will only happen if the
population believes GIRoA will
outlast the insurgents and, in the
                                           P   ursue Relentlessly,
                                               but Protect Civilian
                                      Lives. Do not hesitate to
                                                                             When GIRoA (and ISAF) is
                                                                             accountable to the populace,
                                                                             its legitimacy is strengthened.
                                                                                                                      P  artner as Equals
                                                                                                                         and Promote Afghan
                                                                                                                   Credibility. Build institutional
longer term, offer the population     pursue the enemy and act               Facilitate solutions at the
                                                                                                                   and personal relationships with
greater prospects for security        decisively against him; however,       district and provincial level
                                                                                                                   your Afghan counterparts and
and prosperity. We will stay          always employ good tactical            that reinforce the rule of law
                                                                                                                   work with them as a team.
as long as we are invited and         judgment and proportionality           and GIRoA’s legitimacy; take
                                                                                                                   Working alongside GIRoA
needed…until the job is done.         in the application of firepower,       care not to strengthen local
                                                                                                                   counterparts (from national to
                                      consistent with the inherent right     powerbrokers working outside
2 Partner: a habitual relationship between ANSF and ISAF units that must pervade all aspects of the life of an ANSF unit through mutual cooperation and
responsibility for planning, preparation, execution, and post operational assessments towards the achievement of joint operational effects.
Mentor: coach and teach ANSF units, provide the conduit for command and control, and when required, support the operational planning and
employment of the ANSF unit to which they are aligned in order to support the development of a self-sufficient, competent and professional ANSF                                                                                                       9 q The Enduring Ledger
                                                                                                              Actors at the local level are
                                                                                                              the key to achieving tactical
                                                                                                              effects which collectively will
                                                                                                              help shape the operational
                                                                                                              and strategic environments.
                                                                                                              Cumulative success at the
                                                                                                              tactical level will provide
                                                                                                              time and space – literally
                                                                                                              and figuratively – for the key
                                                                                                              stakeholders at the operational
                                                                                                              and strategic level to make the
                                                                                                              necessary institutional changes
                                                                                                              required to ensure long term
                                                                                                              stability. That time and space
                                                                                                              will also allow the governance
                                                                                                              and development lines of
                                                                                                              operation to take effect. Provide
                                                                                                              direction but avoid putting
                                                                                                              unnecessary burden on those in
                                                                                                              the field.
                                                                       Photo by Lance Corporal Monty Burton
An Afghan National Policeman searches the undercarriage of a vehicle during a cordon
and search mission in Farah Province, Afghanistan. The ANP are increasingly in the lead of
counterinsurgency operations with coalition forces in support. The ANP were partnered with
                                                                                                                P     ass on Your Experience.
                                                                                                                      Pass on your story,
                                                                                                              especially to those coming
Marines of Company I, 3rd Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment (Reinforced), the ground combat                      in behind you, to maintain
element of Special Purpose Marine Air Ground Task Force – Afghanistan. SPMAGTF-A’s mission                    continuity of mission. The
is to conduct counterinsurgency operations, with a focus on training and mentoring the Afghan                 insurgents have been here longer
National Police.                                                                                              and the population will always
local level) presents us with       behavior of key population           enemy. Encourage moderate            be here; they will remember
opportunities to coach, teach       groups. Consistently find ways       Afghan Islamic groups, mullahs,      well after our rotations and the
and mentor. Treat your partners     to win the battle of perception.     and citizens to challenge the        passage of time cause us to
as equals and work with the         Every insurgent action is            legitimacy of the ideas and          forget.
mentors who are teaching and        designed to either influence         actions of extremist insurgent
                                                                                                                  These principles
coaching your partners. Promote     the attitudes and perceptions        elements.                               apply in all phases
the success and competence of       of these population groups                                                      of the “Shape,
your Afghan partners. Give
them credit for joint efforts.
                                    or to take advantage of local
                                    disenchantment to meet their
                                                                            E   nable the Tactical
                                                                                Fight. Appropriately
                                                                         authorize, resource, and
                                                                                                                   Clear, Hold and
                                                                                                                 Build” overarching
Partnering and mentoring (see       own ends. In the competition                                                 framework and to
footnote on previous page for       for influence, we must be more
                                                                         integrate tactical efforts within      all levels of the ISAF
definitions)2 enhances protection   agile and effective than the
                                                                         the ISAF command structure.            chain of command.
of the population and reinforces
GIRoA legitimacy by providing
the people of Afghanistan
with a more proficient and
effective government at the
national, regional, provincial
and district levels. Be creative
and diverse in your partnering
efforts. The ANA may be the
most effective security apparatus
in Afghanistan but its reach is
limited across the country. By
contrast, despite significant
challenges, the ANP’s reach
extends across Afghanistan and
is often the only link to GIRoA
for a majority of the population.

  W        in the Battle of
           Perceptions. Work
with GIRoA, ANSF and local
community leaders to inform                                                                            Photo by Army Staff Sergeant Marie Schult
and shape the perceptions,          Afghan National Army Commandos of the 207th Corps, accompanied by Coalition Forces,
attitudes, understanding and        advance on the enemy after receiving small-arms and rocket-propelled grenade fire during a
                                    routine combat reconnaissance patrol in Herat Province.
10 q The Enduring Ledger                                                                                          
  Three cups of chai: Building relationships
By Army Major Philip L. Burton

First impressions, body
language, tone of voice:
   You will be read in 10
minutes. The average Afghan
has the incredible ability to sum
up a person within 10 minutes.
   The first impression you
make with your counterpart
will stick. If it is negative, it
will take an immense amount of
time to overcome.
   Your body language and
posture is also important. How
you sit in a chair, the posture
of your shoulders and how you
use your hands to communicate
must be non-aggressive and
   Tone of voice is important in
everything you do. If you yell                                                              photo by U.S. Army Staff Sergeant Michael L. Casteel
at an Afghan, you are insulting     U.S. Army Major Robert Holbert takes notes as he talks and drinks tea with local school and
him — showing disrespect. If        Andar Special Needs School administrators at Nani, Afghanistan. Holbert was attached to the
this occurs, your counterpart       4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne. The 4th IBCT will return to Afghanistan this
will listen and then immediately    summer as part of Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan.
shut you out.
   After your initial assessment
of your ANA or ANP
                                         The Counterinsurgency Training Center
counterparts, do not go in and         The Counterinsurgency Training Center               Forces, USAID, and both the US Department of
say “this is #&$^%# up and           – Afghanistan (CTC-A) conducts the                    State and Defense.
we are going to fix it this way.”    Counterinsurgency Leaders Course –                       Over the five day course, the students receive
Instead, discuss with your           Afghanistan (CLC-A) in the last full week of          a variety of presentations that prepare them to
counterpart the shortcoming          each month.                                           participate in a number of practical exercises.
and ask if he can explain why          The first course for 2009 was conducted                These exercises guide the students in
the system is the way it is. He      from 24 to 29 JAN at CTC-A, Camp Julien,              identifying a population’s vulnerabilities and
will most likely explain things      Kabul. The course drew students from the              planning effective counterinsurgency operations
you have not considered.             Afghan National Army, Afghan National Police, to best secure the population.
   Once you have heard him           National Directorate of Security, Coalition
out, use the “I recommend”          wants to talk about.               his problems.                            Like most people, Afghans
route. In other words, use an                                                                                do not like to fail, nor do they
                                       Be patient. Western culture
approach that allows your
                                    tends to open a meeting with          “I highly recommend” want to appear incompetent in
counterpart to not only explain,
                                    the BLUF, bottom line up front,       Let ANA or ANP leadership          front of their mentors.
but allows him to recommend                                            make the decision; don’t make
                                    method. Afghan culture, on the
how to fix it.
                                    other hand, tends to be BLAE,      decisions for your counterparts.
   When you have gotten to this     bottom line at end.                If you do and it does not work,
stage, you are mentoring.                                              it will be your fault.
                                       Don’t contribute to
  Chai, more chai, then             U.S. dependency
                                                                          Discuss and make
even more chai:                                                        recommendations. If your
                                       “No” is a correct course of     counterpart does not heed your
   And then what is important…
                                    action: Expect your counterpart recommendation and yet still
TO THEM. Drinking chai is
                                    to find a method of least          makes a decision, it is still
an Afghan social event that
                                    resistance to solve his problem.   better than no decision. If your
carries significant weight. If
                                       When a problem arises, it       counterpart makes a decision          Major Philip L. Burton served as
you are invited to drink chai,
do your best to accept. It is not   will not be uncommon for your      that results in less than effective an S2/S3 advisor for the 2/1/203rd
                                                                                                             Corps in Khowst Province, and
uncommon to socialize for 45        counterpart to come to you and     results, he may listen to you in      as the Infantry Kandak Team
minutes, drink three cups of hot    ask you to fix it or to buy it.    the future.                           Chief for 1/3/203 Corps in Ghazni
                                       Simply say “No.” Assist your       Use this opportunity to            Province from May to December,
chai, and then only at the end of                                                                            2008. He currently serves as an
the event does your counterpart     counterpart in using the ANA or discuss lessons learned and              operations officer in the Michigan
get to the meat of what he          ANP systems in place to solve      review his initial decision.          National Guard.                                                                                               11 q The Enduring Ledger
12 q The Enduring Ledger   13 q The Enduring Ledger
Home station
Camp As Sayliyah, Qatar

Working	across	Camp	Eggers,	ISAF	
HQ, New Kabul Compound and Camp

Commanding Officer
Captain James J. Stall

Senior Non-Commissioned Officer
First Sergeant Phillip S. Barry, Jr.

“Go hard or go home.”

  The 278th Signal Company operates,
maintains,	and	protects	US	DISN	
communications services in the Kabul,                                                     Photos by Petty Officer 2nd Class Edward Vasquez
Afghanistan metropolitan area in            Private First Class Joshua Gerhart of the 278th Signal Company and Daryl Dowtin
support of US Central Command,              Sr., a contractor, check the alignment of a satellite dish.
International	Security	Assistance	Force,	
United States Forces – Afghanistan,
the	Combined	Joint	Task	Force	–	101	        “There’s always something going on.              •Network Operation Center
and the Combined Security Transition        It’s challenging having a command                Controls and monitors the
Command	-	Afghanistan	in	order	to	          with elements spread out all over town.        performance	of	local	area	networks.	
support	Operation	Enduring	Freedom.         A simple thing like taking a PT test           Monitors	LANs	for	Camp	Eggers,	Camp	
                                            requires multiple convoys and advance          Phoenix and New Kabul Compound.
                                                  —First Sergeant Phillip S. Barry, Jr.      •Help Desk
                                                                                             Trouble-shoots	communication	
                                            Duties and Responsibilities:                   problems	throughout	Camp	Eggers.	
                                               •Technical Control Facility                 Monitors and repairs all internet and
                                               The entry point for long haul               phone connections.
                                            communications, such as satellite
                                            uplinks,	for	sorting	to	the	proper	              •Outside/Inside Plant sections
                                            receiving device such as phones or               Responsible for phone cable, CAT 6
                                            the internet. Also handles outgoing            cable	and	fiber	optic	cable	both	inside	
                                            transmissions.                                 and outside the Camps.

                                            Unit Milestones:
                                            •	 The 278th Signal Company has positioned four Direct Signal Support Teams
                                               across	the	city,	providing	robust,	strategic	communications	to	the	Warfighter	
                                               and four major commands.
                                            •	 Recently	the	company	connected	a	major	fiber	link	from	Camp	Eggers	to	
                                               Bagram Air Field. This allows faster and more reliable communications to
                                               Afghanistan’s major hub.
                                            •	 The	company	is	in	the	process	of	taking	over	and	providing	the	communications	
                                               infrastructure at a new camp being built in the greater Kabul metropolitan area.
                                            •	 The	company	engineered	and	implemented	the	first-ever	DoD	operated	and	
Private Charles Echols and Private
First Class Taylor Harris, 278th Signal        maintained Video Teleconferencing (VTC) system between the White House
Company, inspect a tower server on             and the Afghanistan Presidential Palace.
Camp Eggers.                                                                                         14 q The Enduring Ledger
Police readiness improves through Capital Jumpstart
Story and photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class
Paul Dillard
CSTC-A Public Affairs
   Kabul, Afghanistan— Afghan
National Police (ANP) Officers from
Kabul Police District 8 (PD8) have
begun to rotate from their downtown
station	to	an	eight-week	basic	training	
course in Helmand. Throughout the
month,	groups	of	approximately	60	
officers could be seen moving through
Kabul	International	Airport.	In	most	
cases they carried only a single small
duffle bag. This was for many of them
their first flight; some had never left
Kabul before.
   For Sergeant Jawed of PD8, this was
a	dream	come	true.	“During	the	30	
years of war in Afghanistan, security
deteriorated	badly.	I	believe	the	police	
are	necessary	to	repair	and	take	care	of	
society	and	that	is	one	of	the	reasons	I	
became a police officer.”                     Afghan National Police Officers from Police District 8 in Kabul line up outside
   The desire of the ANP officers to          the gates of Kabul International Airport as a Non-commissioned Officer gains
                                              accountability, prior to their flight to Helmand to begin an eight-week course as part
begin training is strong. “We can’t wait      of Capital Jumpstart.
for our training to start,” said Sergeant
Shafiullah,	an	officer	with	PD8.	“It	         and we are anxious to begin. We are      populated and varied demographics,
has	been	a	week	of	canceled	flights,	         definitely ready to get started. This    special	care	is	taken	to	make	sure	
                                              training will be the best                                 that every group is
                                              thing	for	us.	It	will	be	   “I believe the police represented in the local
                                              great to finish all the                                   police departments,”
                                              scenarios so that we can      are necessary to said Army Colonel
                                              learn things to serve our      repair and take Anthony Libri, Regional
                                              country and our people.                                   Police Advisory
                                              I	think	it	will	be	a	great	 care of society and Command-Kabul	
                                                 PD	8	is	one	of	30	
                                                                            that is one of the (RPAC-K)	Commander.
                                                                                                          A Police Mentor
                                              Police Districts in          reasons I became Team from the Kabul
                                              and around Kabul. All
                                              districts will eventually
                                                                             a police officer.” area provided PD8 with
                                                                                                        officers from

                                              rotate their officers            —Sergeant Jawed          constant assistance as
                                              through a Regional                                        they prepared to leave
                                              Training Center as part of the Capital   Kabul.
                                              Jumpstart program. The difference           “By improving the quality of
                                              between Capital Jumpstart and regular    mentoring to the police departments
                                              Focused District Development (FDD)       and providing real life training to the
                                              is an FDD district will send an entire   police officers, we are able to improve
                                              police department to training all at     their ability to respond to any type of
                                              one time and return them to a police     emergency. This enhances the quality
                                              department	as	a	unit.	In	Kabul,	         of life for every Afghan citizen,” said
                                              CSTC-A	will	train	a	number	of	police	    Libri.
                                              from	all	30	PDs,	and	will	return	them	     “The training will greatly increase
                                              to their respective PDs after their      my	experience,”	said	Jawed.	“I	will	be	
                                              training is completed.                   able	to	apply	what	I	learn	and	increase	
Afghan National Police Officers from
Kabul’s PD8 board the bus at Kabul
                                                 “Kabul is a very different area       my professionalism. Hopefully there
International Airport on their way to their   when compared to any other area of       will	be	a	big	difference	in	how	I	am	
flight to Helmand.                            Afghanistan. Because of its densely      able to perform my job.”

15 q The Enduring Ledger                                                                                
Afghan National Police critical to election security
 Stories and Photos by Andrea Angeli
 and Aziz Basam
 EUPOL Press Office
   The	head	of	the	U.S.	Elections	
Assistance Team, Ambassador Timothy
Michael	Carney,	visited	EUPOL	March	28.
   Ambassador Carney’s team, consisting
of representatives from various U.S.
agencies, met with Police Commissioner
Kai Vittrup and engaged in a lengthy
discussion about the upcoming Afghan
   Ambassador Carney is the former
deputy assistant secretary of state for
South Asia and the current director for
                                                EUPOL officers oversee training at the Afghan National Police Academy during a
Asian Affairs on the National Security          week of intensive training for the Afghan National Police. Some 800 police officers
Council. He listened as Head of Mission         were trained in the week-long course. An additional 900 police will be trained in the
Vittrup	illustrated	in	detail	the	EUPOL	        near future.
plans to provide special training to the
Afghan	National	Police	(ANP)	tasked	            is free from intimidation.                      the Afghan people’s expression of their
with securing the forthcoming elections.           Both parties agreed that the performance     democratic rights at the polling stations
Officers	are	to	be	taught	the	importance	of	    of the ANP during the elections will be         by promoting a positive and peaceful
the election in giving voice to the will of     subjected to national and international         environment.
the Afghan people, and they will be trained     scrutiny. The ANP, along with other                EUPOL	will	monitor	and	stand	by	the	
to carry out their duties in facilitating the   partners	such	as	the	International	Security	    ANP in Operational Control Centers during
democratic process.                             Assisstance Force and the Afghan National       the elections.
   Training will emphasize Afghan police        Army, will be judged on their handling not         Assistant	Inspector	General	of	the	
roles and responsibilities in preserving        only of security during the elections, but      U.S. Department of Defense Ambassador
peace and public order and providing            also	on	their	face-to-face	dealings	with	the	   Kenneth	Moorefield	also	visited	EUPOL	
security. Afghan police will be trained to      Afghan people.                                  that day. He provided an overview of
take	all	appropriate	actions	to	ensure	the	        EUPOL	advises	the	Ministry	of	Interior	      the mission, current activities and plans
elections	take	place	in	a	peaceful,	open,	      in	planning	for	elections.	EUPOL	also	          in support of police reform and to help
impartial and supportive environment that       assists	the	ANP	in	its	task	of	facilitating	    strengthen the Rule of Law.

                                                                                               AP Photo— special thanks to Jason Straziuso
President Karzai attends the International Conference on Afghanistan at The Hague on March 31. Ministry of Defense Wardak is center in
the photo. The conference was co-chaired by Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Kai Eide, Afghan Minister of Foreign Affairs
Ranghin Dadfar Spanta and the Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs Maxime Verhagen. The conference reaffirmed the solid and long-term political
commitment of the international community in assisting the Afghan government in building a better future for Afghanistan and its people.                                                                                            16 q The Enduring Ledger
                                                                     must be Afghan citizens,          join	up.	We	have	to	make	
                                                                     be	physically	fit,	drug-free,	    the situation better. We need
                                                                     live in or be from the district   schools for our children, and
                                                                     selected	to	work	in,	with	        hospitals;	and	I	want	to	do	
                                                                     no criminal record and be         what	I	can,”	Beheshti	said.
                                                                     under the age of 45. Leaders         A U.S. Forces advisor
                                                                     also	take	into	consideration	     was impressed by what he
                                                                     whether or not the man is         saw in the students. “These
                                                                     trustworthy and respected by      guys are motivated,” he said.
                                                                     the community.                    “They have a spirit to protect
                                                                        The protection force will      what’s theirs. This is what
                                                                     work	closely	with	Afghan	         Afghanistan needs. They
                                                                     National Army, Police and         want	to	take	their	country	
                                                                     Coalition forces to protect       back.	Enough	is	enough.”
                                                                     their local community. They          A new class will begin
                                                                     will maintain security on         in	the	coming	weeks,	and	
                                 Photo by Army Captain Jamey Trigg   approaches to highways            the protection force will
More than 240 graduates of the first Afghan Public Protection        within their district, protect    continue to grow, according
Force training program were welcomed home by their
community during a March ceremony at the Jalrez District             key	government	facilities	and	    to the advisor.
Center in Wardak Province. Members of the Afghan Public              personnel, disrupt militant          General McKiernan
Protection Force will provide additional security to their local     attacks	and	deny	insurgent	       offered encouragement to the
communities.                                                         safe havens. Additionally,        graduating class, noting that
Story by Chief Petty Officer
                                                                     the force will provide crisis     the new force can rely on the
                                 new life of community
Brian K. Naranjo                                                     response to natural disasters     support of all the country’s
USFOR-A                             According to training
                                                                     and facilitate economic           security assets.
                                                                     development in their district.       “I	applaud	the	courage	of	
   KABUL, Afghanistan–           advisors, the APPF is an
                                                                        According to Beheshti,         these men to step forward in
Nineteen-year-old	Abuzer	        Afghan-led	program	that	will	
                                                                     Wardak	is	a	province	that	        representing the community;
Beheshti, along with 242 of      provide enhanced security
                                                                     greatly needs the added           but	they	know	that	if	they	
his	fellow	Wardak	province	      to	designated	districts	in	key	
                                                                     protection.	The	19-year-old	      run into problems, they can
citizens, became the first       provinces, bringing greater
                                                                     said	he’s	ready	to	go	back	       call the Afghan National
to graduate from the new         stability and strengthened
                                                                     and	make	a	difference.            Police, Afghan National
Afghan Public Protection         community development.
                                                                        “I	want	to	help	my	own	        Army or international forces
Force (APPF) program                “This is Afghans training
                                                                     people,” he explained.            that are out there. So they’re
March 26.                        Afghans for the security of
                                                                     “There are a lot of Taliban       not on their own.”
   After	a	rigorous	three-       Afghanistan,” said a chief
                                                                     in	Wardak,	and	they	take	our	
week	training	program,	          training advisor for U.S.
                                                                     young	boys	and	make	them	
the graduates proudly            forces in the area.
accepted their certificates          “This is purely an
of completion in front of        Afghan initiative,” General
a large audience including       McKiernan explained,
high-level	officials	from	the	   “to	develop	a	bottom-up	
Government	of	the	Islamic	       approach;	a	community-
Republic of Afghanistan,         based approach, to improve
Wardak	province	elders,	         security and to give a voice
General David McKiernan,         to the provincial government.
commander of the                 We are very optimistic in our
International	Security	          support of this program.”
Assistance Force and U.S.           The recruiting process
Forces-Afghanistan,	and	         began with nominations by
other distinguished guests.      community	leaders	in	Wardak	
   The ceremony, held            province, which was selected
at Camp Mehter Lam,              to facilitate mentoring and
an Afghan National               monitoring.                                                Photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Larry Baruwa
Police facility in eastern          Those selected must              The first members of the Afghan Public Protection Force stand
Afghanistan, officially          meet specific requirements          in ranks during the three-week initial training course held at
                                 for the duty. Participants          Camp Mehter Lam, an Afghan National Police training facility
welcomed the men to their                                            in eastern Afghanistan.

17 q The Enduring Ledger                                                                                   
Measuring ANSF Capabilities through Milestones
Why use                          The Training Readiness Assessment Tool
Capability                       The Training Readiness Assessment Tool
                                 (TRAT) is a report card that determines a
Milestones?                      unit’s capability milestone (CM) level and
                                 is	used	by	Embedded	Training	Teams	and	
                                 Police Mentoring Teams. A TRAT consists
  Capability milestones—
                                 of personnel, C2, training, sustainment &
introduced by the Combined       logistics, and overall assessment reports.
Security Transition              Each	category	has	pre-defined	criteria	that	
Command-Afghanistan	             determine the overall CM level of a unit.
(CSTC-A)	in	July	                For police mentoring teams this is called
2005—	aid	mentors	by	            the Police Training Readiness Assessment
expressing from a holistic       Tool (PTRAT). The TRAT/PTRAT are
perspective the incremental      monthly reports that are forwarded to the
improvements in capability       appropriate Afghan Regional Security
                                 Integration	 Command	 (ARSIC).	 The	
that training, mentoring and
                                 ARSICs	forward	the	reports	to	CSTC-A,	
resources will provide at
                                 which	tracks	all	ANA	and	ANP	units.
specific	points	in	time.

   Capability milestones
allow mentors to express
the overall capability
                                  What are units graded on?
                                                                                           Naval Station Norfolk, Va
improvement	and	value-            TRATs and PTRATs measure a unit’s readiness in           ANP Milestone Requirements
added from each of the            multiple categories, and each category has many           •	   Manning
individual components             subcategories. For example, the ANP category of pay       •	   Personnel Records
                                  reform has the following criteria: Are police paid
within a system.                                                                            •	   Pay Reform
                                  according to pay reform policy? Are police being
                                  paid on time? Are police paid by electronic funds
                                                                                            •	   Personnel Actions
   Capability milestones          transfer? Are police receiving all pay due to them? Is    •	   Tashkil	Equipment	List
also enable senior decision       pay discontinued for personnel discharged or absent       •	   Equipment	Accountability
makers	to	quickly	gauge	          without authorization for longer than 20 days?            •	   Supply System
                                  The following is a list of the basic categories:          •	   Maintenance
whether their overall
                                                                                            •	   Facilities
resource allocation                                                                         •	
                                  ANA Milestone Requirements                                     Formal Training
strategies are appropriate.        •	   Sustainment operations                              •	   Crime Handling Procedures
                                   •	   Intelligence                                        •	   Use of Force
  Capability milestones                                                                     •	
                                   •	   Medical                                                  Command and Control
improve alignment between          •	   Signal Support                                      •	   Governance/Rule of Law/Justice Sector
the subsystems of a large          •	   Personnel                                                Supporting	Efforts
scale security assistance          •	   Maintenance                                         •	   Rule of Law
program.                           •	   Communications                                      •	   Citizen	Support	for	GIRoA	and	ANP

Capability Milestone Descriptions
CM1: Independent Operations
Capable	of	conducting	primary	operational	missions.	Depending	on	the	situation,	units	may	require	specified	assistance	from	
Coalition forces or the international community.
CM2: Leading Operations with Coalition Support
                                                                   Naval Station reliance on, international community support.
Capable of conducting primary operational mission(s) with routine assistance from, orNorfolk, Va
CM3: Participating in Operations                                       Hometown: Davidson, NC.
                                                                       What is your past from, and is reliant on, international
Capable of partially conducting primary operational mission(s), but still require assistance deployment experience? 1 gulf
community support.                                                     cruise USS Ponce, 3 asia cruises USS Kitty Hawk
CM4: Not Yet Capable of Operational Missions                           What is your job at your home duty station? Ship
Formed	but	not	yet	capable	of	conducting	primary	operational	mission(s).	The	unit	may	be	capable,	available,	or	directed	to	undertake	
portions	of	its	operational	mission	but	only	with	significant	assistance	from,	and	reliance	on,	international	community	support.
                                                                       Job title and unit: Logistice Embedded Training Team/                                                                                             18 q The Enduring Ledger
Command and Staff College opens
Story and photos by Specialist Luke S.
CJTF Phoenix Public Affairs
   KABUL,	Afghanistan	–	April	2	marked	
the beginning of a new era of professional
military development for Afghan National
Security Forces as they celebrated the
opening of the Command and Staff College.
   Officers	of	the	Afghan	National	Army,	
Afghan National Police, as well as other
Afghan agencies will use the new CSC to
gain	formal	military	officer	training	and	
education. The courses offered at the CSC
have	been	designed	by	officers	of	the	ANA	
and Coalition forces, said Lt. Col. Alexander
Grabiec,	an	officer	mentor	with	the	Strategic	
Command	and	Staff	Course	office	at	Camp	
   “What’s important to see here is not that
the Command and Staff College opened,
but that four schools of training are open       Afghan National Army Soldiers, Coalition officer mentors and other members of the
under the CSC that span the entire gamut of      crowd applaud a speaker at the Command and Staff College opening ceremony.
professional	officer	training,”	he	said.         With four courses to offer, the CSC provides education and training to officers of the
   Six	years	ago,	officers	of	the	French	        Afghan National Security Forces from Lieutenant to General officers.
army opened the Command and General
                                                 offers operational training and education             With the biggest success story being the
Staff Course. The CGSC is an ANA school
                                                 to	one-	and	two-star	general	officers,	said	       move toward formal military education,
that	provides	officer	development	training	
                                                 Grabiec.                                           focus shifted towards resourcing and the
for Majors and junior Lieutenant Colonels.
                                                    “The French army deserves a lot of              systems of the CSC, said Grabiec.
Three	years	later,	French	officers	began	
                                                 credit,”	he	said.	“They	knew	six	years	               Multiple countries came together to help
another	officer	development	course.	That	
                                                 ago, before the idea for the CSC had even          the ANA create this college. The Canadian,
course, the Higher Command Staff Course,
                                                 been manifested, that
                                                 a professional military
                                                                                     “The Afghans are German, French, United
                                                                                                                    Kingdom and American
                                                 education system needed to           driving the train armies all helped to move the
                                                 exist in Afghanistan.”                                             ANA in the right direction,
                                                    With two courses already               on this ...              while building the two new
                                                 in place, the CSC was at the                                       courses and ultimately the
                                                 halfway	mark	to	becoming	a	            We just stood               CSC, said Grabiec.
                                                 reality. But what was needed
                                                 to complete the college were            behind them                   “The Afghans are driving
                                                                                                                    the train on this though,” he
                                                 two courses to bridge the
                                                 gaps. Newly commissioned
                                                                                       and whispered said. “We whispered behind
                                                                                                                    them and
                                                                                                                               just stood
                                                 officers	of	the	ANSF	had	no	            good ideas.”               ideas.”
                                                 formal training or educational                                        Coalition	officers	help	
                                                 courses available to them                    — Lt. Col. Grabiec ANA	officers	prepare	
                                                 until	they	reached	the	rank	                                       coursework,	but	Afghan	
                                                 of Major and junior Lieutenant Colonel.            officers	teach	everything	and	run	the	college.
                                                 And still, after that, there was no education         “The amazing part of this is all these
                                                 as	a	Colonel.	Given	that	it	takes	up	to	10	        countries	working	hand-in-hand	to	make	
                                                 years	for	an	officer	in	the	ANSF	to	become	        this	college	a	working	reality	for	the	ANSF,”
                                                 a	general,	many	of	the	general	officers	in	        Grabiec noted.
                                                 Afghanistan today had no professional
                                                 military training, Grabiec stated.                 Four schools of the CSC:
                                                    “This college has created a complete
                                                                                                       • Junior Officer Staff Course
                                                 throughput of training from Lieutenant to
                                                                                                       • Command and General Staff
                                                 General in the Afghan National Security
Afghan Deputy Minister of Defense
                                                 Forces,” Grabiec said.
General Mohammad Akram (right),
                                                    With	training	to	guide	officers	through	           • Higher Command and Staff
Major General Richard Formica (left),
and Afghan National Army officers cut            each	rank	of	their	career,	it	brings	a	standard	           Course
the ribbon opening the new Command               to	the	field	across	the	entirety	of	the	ANSF,	        • Strategic Command and Staff
and Staff College.                               he said.                                                   Course                                                                                                 19 q The Enduring Ledger
RPACs and PMTs: professionalizing the ANP
Petty Officer 1st Class Clifton   sustainable capacity and to
Williams                          improve the capabilities of
CSTC-A Public Affairs             the Afghanistan police,” said
   Regional Police Advisory       Army Colonel Anthony Libri,
Commands (RPACs) provide          RPAC-K	commander.	“We	
oversight to Police Mentor        mentor, teach, train, evaluate
Teams (PMTs) within their         and operate with the police
command. These PMTs               to ensure they develop into a
mentor, train, evaluate and       self-sustaining	organization.”
operate with the police they         The	RPAC-K	PMTs	are	
are assigned to in their areas    mostly made up of National
of operation.                     Guard Soldiers and DynCorp
   Regional Police Advisory       employees. The DynCorp
Command-Kabul	(RPAC-K)	           employees bring police
oversees the PMTs for             expertise to the PMTs and                                      Photo	by	Petty	Officer	2nd	Class	Paul	Dillard
the Kabul area, but also          serve as instructors at the       Colonel Abdul Rahimi (left), Chief of 1st District Police HQ,
mentors the Kabul Police          various training sites.           walks the busy streets of his district in Kabul with Army
                                                                    Colonel Anthony Libri (right), Commander of RPAC-K, and
Chief – Lieutenant General           The Soldiers come from
                                                                    several of his officers.
Abdul Rahman, four zone           various areas of the U.S.,
headquarters	and	30	district	     bringing a wide and varied        Capability Milestone (CM)          Afghanistan while protecting
police stations.                  amount of experience to the       rating based on various areas      themselves and the citizens of
   RPAC-K	coordinates	with	       program. All of the Soldiers      such as training, equipment        the community in which they
coalition members from            are given additional training     and facilities. We measure         serve.
Combined	Joint	Task	Force	        for the mission, and along        our success by the number             RPACs and PMTs across
Phoenix, Combined Security        with their DynCorp partners,      of police departments that         CSTC-A	train	police	on	
Transition	Command-               are able to train the police of   improve their overall CM           staff procedures, weapons
Afghanistan	(CSTC-A),	            Kabul.                            score. We are pleased to say       handling, police tactics,
United Nations American              “There are PMTs all over       that the majority of the Police    hands-on	training,	protection	
Mission to Afghanistan            Afghanistan and the number        departments improve their          measures and various other
(UNAMA),	International	           of the teams varies according     scores dramatically after they     subjects. They also prepare
Security Assistance Force         to the needs of the particular    have been given training and       the	ANP	for	their	eight-
(ISAF),	European	Police	          district,” said Libri. “The       the equipment they need.”          week	basic	training	course.	
(EUPOL),	Afghan	National	         goal	of	the	RPAC-K	PMT	              Many police departments         PMTs continue training after
Security Forces and the U.S.      program is to train and mentor    can now function on their          their department or distict
State Department.                 the Kabul police, and to          own	and	many	police	officers	      graduates on advanced police
   “Our job is to build a         improve	their	abilities.	Each	    -	both	men	and	women	-	            skills,	support	systems,	and	
                                  police department is given a      can enforce the laws of            Rule of Law.

   Understanding the Validation Transition Team
   1.	 The	 CSTC-A	 Validation	 Transition	 Team	 (VTT)	 supports	 the	 Afghan	 Regional	 Security	 Integration	
   Commands	 (ARSICs)	 and	 their	 Embedded	 Training	 Teams	 (ETTs)	 /	 Operational	 Mentoring	 and	 Liaison	
   Teams (OMLTs) by facilitating the Training Assessment and Validation Program for Afghanistan National
   Army (ANA) Units.                                                   “What we are: A specially
   2. VTT Command and Control:                                                trained, independent team
      -			Assigned	to	CJTF	Phoenix	for	admin	and	support.
                                                                              of observers assessing the
      -			Under	operational	control	of	CG	for	ANA	Development	                training level and combat
      -			Regional	Teams	under	tactical	control	of	ARSIC	commanders. readiness of ANA units”
       -	 Regional	 teams	 get	 all	 classes	 of	 supply	 and	 support	 from	 - Major Whitney Allen, Executive
      ARSICs.                                                                        Officer, Validation Transition Team
   3.		The	VTT	has	assessed	or	visited	33	units	since	December	2008.		Along	with	scheduled	first-time	assessments	
   and	validations	during	2009,	the	VTT	is	scheduled	to	re-validate	an	additional	34	units	previously	assessed	in	
   2008.                                                                                        20 q The Enduring Ledger
Female ANA soldiers learn Combat Lifesaver skills
Story by Lieutenant Colonel Tim Franklin
Photos by Sergeant James Sims
CJTF Phoenix Public Affairs
   KABUL, Afghanistan – Soldiers of
Capitol	Division’s	“Alpha”	Kandak	
had the opportunity to broaden their
military	skills	when	they	completed	
a	three-day	Combat	Lifesaver	Course	
(CLS) at Camp Phoenix in March.
Twenty-three	Alpha	Kandak	Soldiers,	
including nine women, went through
the CLS curriculum at Camp Phoenix
under the supervision and mentorship
of the Regional Division Advisory
Command	(RDAC)	Embedded	Training	
Team	(ETT).		
   The course was refresher training
for	the	14	male	Soldiers	who	attended,	
but was a milestone for the female
Soldiers. They are only the second
such	group	from	the	kandak	to	
complete the training, said Sergeant
1st	Class	Barbara	Smith,	RDAC	
administrative	non-commissioned	
                                        A male Afghan National Army Soldier prepares to administer an intravenous injection
officer in charge. According to Smith,  to a female ANA Soldier during CLS training conducted in March at Camp Phoenix
who organized the medical training      for Soldiers of Alpha Kandak, Capitol Division.

                                           course, training the female Soldiers is      to treat the three main preventable
                                           especially important because of Afghan       causes of combat deaths—blood loss,
                                           cultural traditions that normally restrict   lung	collapse	and	airway	blockage.
                                           females from treating males and vice            “My intent was to train the female
                                           versa.                                       Soldiers because of the cultural
                                              Despite these cultural restrictions,      differences here, where men can’t
                                           however, Brig. Gen. Mohammad                 treat women and women can’t treat
                                           Zadran, commander of Headquarters            men,” said Smith. “For the females
                                           Security and Support Brigade,                this training will help the readiness of
                                           Capitol Division, insisted that the          the	Kandak,	especially	on	medical	and	
                                           Alpha	Kandak	CLS	training	be	co-             humanitarian assistance missions out in
                                           educational.                                 the communities,” Smith added.
                                              “General Zadran was adamant that             The	skills	the	Alpha	Kandak	Soldiers	
                                           we train them together in order to           learned included airway management,
                                           achieve the same type of unit cohesion       management of penetrating chest
                                           seen in our units,” said Smith.              injuries, how to control bleeding,
                                              Alpha	Kandak	is	the	only	Afghan	          administering an intravenous drip and
                                           kandak	with	female	Soldiers	assigned.        medical evacuation procedures. These
                                              The goal of the CLS course was            CLS-trained	Soldiers	now	provide	
                                           to	give	non-medical	Soldiers	of	the	         a critical bridge between self aid,
                                           kandak	training	in	emergency	medical	        buddy aid and a trained medic. These
                                           skills.	While	these	skills	are	intended	     frontline	emergency	medical	skills	
                                           for use in combat, they can also             can mean the difference between life
                                           be	used	in	non-combat	situations.	           and death in situations where timely
                                           During the three days of training, the       treatment is essential.
Sergeant 1st Class Barbara Smith           ANA Soldiers received instruction               According to Smith, after completing
checks that an IV has been properly        and	hands-on	practice	in	various	            the	course	the	Alpha	Kandak	Soldiers	
administered during a Combat Lifesaver     emergency medical techniques to treat        are now more confident in their ability
Course conducted at Camp Phoenix for
Soldiers of the Afghan National Army.      and	stabilize	combat-related	injuries.	      to	keep	their	fellow	Soldiers	alive	if	
                                           The course curriculum focused on how         they are injured in action.

21 q The Enduring Ledger                                                                            
                                                                          Deployment Goals: My biggest goal was to help the Afghans
                                                                         set up a sustainable and viable training program for the future
                                                                         of its medics and patients. My personal goals were to study for
                                                                         promotion	and	go	to	the	gym	daily…so	far	so	good!		I	am	right	
                                                                         on	track	to	test	when	I	get	home	and	I	have	lost	18	pounds	and	
                                                                         feel great about this deployment.
                                                                         Life after Camp KAIA: I	will	be	returning	to	the	49th	Medical	
                                                                         Operation	Squadron	at	Holloman	AFB.		I	will	be	taking	on	a	
                                                                         new	flight	Non-Commissioned	Officer	in	Charge	position,	lots	of	
                                                                         work	ahead;	I	am	looking	forward	to	the	challenge!		I	will	also	
                                                                         be	returning	to	my	husband	Edward	and	my	son	Andrew,	age	2.
                                                                         Book I’m reading now: A Thousand Splendid Suns by Khaled
                                                                         Hobbies: Reading,	working	out,	watching	movies,	shopping	and	
                                                                         hanging out with family and friends
                 photo by Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Johann Westphall  Supervisor says: As the medical face of “mentor” success,
                                                                         Technical Sergeant Pahl ensured a seamless transition of
      Technical Sergeant Jennifer M. Pahl                                the Air Corps Southside Medical Clinic to the Northside
Home station: Holloman Air Force Base, N.M.                    “How many compound, ensuringHer tirelessuninterrupted by
Hometown: Roswell, N.M.                                        people can all at the “Grand Opening,” established the motto –
                                                                                   medical operations.              efforts, lauded
Job title and unit: Medical Technician Advisor, 438th            say they “On Time, the First Time.” She authored an NCO
Air	Expeditionary	Advisory	Group	(AEAG)                            helped
Best part of the deployment: My best experience                                                                        course, developed
                                                               build an Air professional development trainingthen plunged into
                                                                                   several medical lesson plans, and
was conducting airway, breathing and suction                      Corps?”          implementing	the	first	Afghan	friendly	critical	life-
training. The Afghans are very excited to learn about           — Tech Sergeant saving	skills	course	for	30	Afghan	medics.	
equipment	they	have	not	seen	before	and	it	makes	me	                Jennifer Pahl Supervisor name and duty title: Lieutenant Colonel
feel great to teach them something valuable that could
potentially	save	a	life	in	their	clinic.		I	feel	very	proud	to	be	       (Dr.)	Johann	S.	Westphall,	Medical	Team	Lead,	438th		AEAG
making	history	in	Afghanistan!		

   The wind snapped across the landscape at Adraskan, but hardly affected the proud professional policeman standing
in formation. The 322 Afghan National Civil Order Police and 65 Counter-narcotics graduates were the latest to join the
long gray police line. As they approached the podium for their certificates, each graduate shouted a joyful “I serve the
nation of Afghanistan” and held their certificates high above their heads.
   The professionalism and pride of these individuals symbolizes the changing image of the police in Afghanistan—
one by one. The police are consistently growing confidence as patrolmen and they are more than grateful to have
the opportunity of serving their country in a positive fashion. CSTC-A’s Police Development, in conjunction with the
Ministry of Interior (MOI) will continue to ensure that the citizens of Afghanistan are provided with high quality police
men and women who will execute their mission to the utmost of their abilities.
         —Brigadier General Anne Macdonald, CSTC-A Assistant Commanding General for Police Development                                                                                          22 q The Enduring Ledger
Air	Corps	makes	“first	flight”	medical	evacuation
By Technical Sergeant Jennifer M. Pahl              Support from both the ANA Surgeon          MEDEVAC-modified	helicopters	at	the	
438th Air Expeditionary Advisory                 General’s	office	and	the	Air	Corps	helped	    Kabul Wing, with plans to expand that
Group                                            the	nascent	capability	progress	quickly	      capability over the next several years
   In	March,	the	Afghan	National	Army	           from a mere “proof of concept” idea and       to other Air Corps facilities throughout
Air	Corps	(ANAAC)	Medical	Evacuation	            mission	to	a	working	MEDEVAC	system	          Afghanistan.
(MEDEVAC)	crews	assigned	to	the	Kabul	           ready for limited deployment throughout
Wing, Afghanistan accomplished their             Afghanistan.                                  Technical Sergeant Pahl is also the
“first	flight”	to	the	ANA	National	Military	         Colonel Abdul Rassoul Mayel, the          CSTC-A “Warrior of the Month” - see
Hospital in downtown Kabul. Behind               ANA Air Corps Surgeon General and lead        previous page.
this historic mission stood the 438th Air        Afghan proponent for the new capability,
Expeditionary	Advisory	Group	(AEAG),	            attributed success to “good leadership
who	mentored	flight	medics	for	proper	           within	the	ANAAC	and	great	teamwork	
patient loading procedures, appropriate          with our mentors.”
in-flight	medical	care,	handling	of	in-flight	      As	part	of	the	program,	Afghan	flight	
medical emergencies, and the safe transfer       medics attended extensive training on
of patients to hospital medical staff.           patient	configuration,	proper	litter	and	
   About the new capability, Master              strap	usage,	and	flight-line	driving	to	
Sergeant	McClure,	lead	MEDEVAC	                  include approaching the aircraft for
mentor,	said,	“after	a	total	of	12	weeks	        loading	and	off-loading	patients.
of	training,	Air	Corps	flight	medics	are	           	Captain	Jeremy	Hicks	stated	that	the	
prepared to respond to the call of duty.         medics received the training very well:
Missions are launched, medics deploy, and        “The	flight	medics	we	mentor	are	highly	                      photo courtesy of 438th AEAG
recovery of injured air crew, Soldiers, and      motivated	and	eager	to	learn	this	new	life-   Soldiers of an Afghan National Army Air
                                                 saving mission.”                              Corps MEDEVAC crew train to evacuate
Afghan civilians occur... it is the greatest                                                   casualties to the ANA National Military
feeling in the world.”                              Currently,	the	Air	Corps	has	5	MI-17	      Hospital.

COMISAF: Respect for Afghans is essential
Staff Report                                 Marines and Civilians. Referencing the     personnel will demonstrate respect and
CSTC-A PAO                                   consequences of poor judgment and the      consideration	for	Afghan	traffic	and	
   Are you that guy? That guy who drives     benefits	of	common	respect	for	others,	    pedestrians.”
like	a	maniac	through	the	streets	of	Kabul	  he directed that, “All personnel will         CSTC-A	fully	endorses	General	
or Kandahar, right down the middle of the    demonstrate respect for Afghans, Afghan    McKiernan’s tactical directive. As those
road	–	just	because	you	think	you	can?       culture,	Afghan	customs,	and	Islam	in	     who	work	closest	with	Afghans,	we	must	
   Well, according to General David          their actions and words.”                  understand the importance of respect for
McKiernan, Commander, United States             Of particular note to disrespectful     Afghans. The next time you get out into
Forces	Afghanistan	/	International	Security	 drivers, General McKiernan noted that,     traffic,	demonstrate	this	respect.	
Assistance Force, Afghanistan, your          “On	the	road	and	in	vehicles,	ISAF	           Yak	Team	Wahed!	One	Team	Together!
actions	might	be	more	far-reaching	than	
you	might	think.	
   In	his	tactical	directive	dated	December	
30th,	2008,	General	McKiernan	
emphasized the importance of maintaining
the support of the Afghan people in
this counterinsurgency war. General
McKiernan wrote that, “Our actions both
on	and	off	the	battlefield	are	important	
to our success. We must maintain our
professionalism at all times, and always
keep	in	mind	the	consequences	of	our	
actions. Respect for the Afghan people,
their culture, their religion, and their
customs is essential.”
   General McKiernan issued the tactical                                                                     photo by Fred W. Baker III
                                              U.S. Army Soldiers drive a convoy into the city of Gardez, Afghanistan— the Paktia
directive in part to increase awareness      provincial capital— to meet with local officials. The Soldiers are assigned to 1st
among Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen,             Battalion, 178th Infantry Regiment.                                                                                            23 q The Enduring Ledger
24 q The Enduring Ledger