Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan April 2009
www.cstc-a.com 1 q The Enduring Ledger
Incoming Brigades expand embedded trainer capabilities
by MG Richard P. Formica
Vol. 3, Issue 4 April 2009 We already knew that the 48th
CSTC-A Commanding General Infantry Brigade Combat Team
Table of Contents from Georgia would succeed
Page 2: CG’s Message Our task in the Combined the 33rd BCT from Illinois in
Page 3: CSM’s Message Security Transition Command- August as Task Force Phoenix
Page 5: Up Close with General Bismullah Afghanistan is to build IX. The 4,000 new trainers
Mohammadi sustainable capacity and will come to us mostly in the
Page 6: CSTC-A Two-Brigade Concept capability in the Afghan form of a second BCT: the 4th
Page 7: Afghan Training; ETTs and OMLTs
Page 8: Counterinsurgency Guidance National Security Forces IBCT from the 82nd Airborne
Page 11: Building Relationships with the (ANSF) – both in the Afghan Division of Fort Bragg, North
ANSF National Army (ANA) and the Carolina. 4-82nd IBCT will join
Page 12: ANSF in Action Afghan National Police (ANP). the 48th IBCT in September.
Page 14: Focus on: 278th Signal Company
Page 15: Capital Jumpstart: Training ANP We do this through CSTC-A’s With their arrival, we will
Page 16: EUPOL Update incredible organizational energy, transition to a two-BCT concept
Page 17: APPF Graduation our partnership with many for the provision of CSTC-A’s MG Formica
Page 18: Capability Milestones coalition allies, governmental embedded trainers.
Page 19: Command & Staff College particularly in the East
Page 20: PMTs, VTTs and non-governmental This will be part of a new and South, under General
Page 21: ANA Women Soldiers learn CLS stakeholders, and with our approach to how we generate McKiernan’s concept, will
Page 22: Warrior of the Month significant resources. and develop the ANSF. These assume new responsibilities to
Page 23: ANAAC MedEvac But it is our embedded additional forces will help us provide embedded trainers for
Editorial Staff trainers/mentors who have the gradually replace the nearly and partner with ANA units,
CSTC-A Commanding General most profound impact on our 1500 trainers in embedded ANP districts and ABP (Afghan
Major General Richard P. Formica mission. These mentors build training teams from Fort Riley, Border Police) Kandaks.
Command Sergeant Major critical trust with our Afghan Kansas, and return them to Our two-BCT concept,
Command Sergeant Major Arthur partners at the Ministries and the Army to fill other pressing combined with the provision
L. Coleman Jr. General Staff and down to the assignments. of more coalition OMLTs
Public Affairs Director Kandak level in the ANA and In addition, the Afghan and POMLTs, and Special
Lieutenant Colonel Chris Kubik to Police districts in the ANP. Regional Security Integration Operations Forces’ mentoring of
Public Affairs Deputy Director These Embedded Training Commands (ARSICs) as we and partnering with select units,
Navy Lieutenant Kent Laborde Teams (ETTs) and Police know them will go away. Many should substantially improve our
NCOIC Mentor Teams (PMTs) –along of the duties they perform will approach to training. This will
Petty Officer 1st Class Cliff Williams with Coalition Operational now be accomplished by the two result in increased numbers and
Layout and Design Mentor Liaison Teams (OMLTs) BCT headquarters and through more capable ANA and ANP
Petty Officer 2nd Class Paul Dillard and Police Operational Mentor their subordinate battalion task formations throughout the battle
Graphics Liaison Teams (POMLTs) – are forces. space.
Petty Officer 2nd Class Edward Vasquez the heartbeat of our mentorship To implement this concept, All of these new and powerful
Contributors program. we’ll consolidate the 48th IBCT concepts and assets should
Staff Sergeant Sarah Stegman It’s no secret that we’ve in the North, Central and East; enable us to mentor/train all of
About the front cover: Photo by Stewart been under-resourced in this 4-82nd IBCT will provide the our fielded ANA units and about
Nusbaumer. Soldiers from the Afghan critical capability for years. Our trainers in the South and West. half of the ANP districts by the
National Army’s 1st Kandak, 2nd Brigade, predecessors had to spread ANA They’ll establish their mentor end of the year.
201st Corps, receive instruction on their trainers across the Army and relationships with ANA units At the heart of all this change
new M-16s from Afghan instructors and the Police – leaving shortages and police districts and with are the Soldiers, Sailors,
Marines from ETT 2-7 as part of an initiative of embedded trainers in both the regional commanders in
to equip the ANA with NATO weapons.
Airmen, Marines and Civilians
forces. whose battle space they provide in our ETTs and PMTs. These
Marine in foreground is Sergeant Uselton Recently, however, we trainers.
and in background is Gunnery Sergeant teams work together to train
received welcome news. As a Both BCTs will be provided and resource ANA, ANP and
About the back cover: Photo by Petty result of his strategic review, two additional Colonels and ABP units, building sustainable
Officer 2nd Class Paul Dillard. Officers President Obama announced Command Sergeants Major / capacity and capability.
from Police District 1 and PMT members the decision to deploy 4,000 Sergeants Major to serve as They “listen to the mountains”
from RPAC-K on the busy streets of Kabul. additional trainers to our directors for ANA and ANP in order to establish close,
The Enduring Ledger is a monthly mission in Afghanistan. development. These key meaningful relationships with
publication of the Department of Defense and This announcement: leaders will provide the vertical their Afghan partners. Our ETTs
Combined Security Transition Command- • reflects a significant and integration of all mentors in their and PMTs risk their lives every
Afghanistan (CSTC-A). This publication is
released monthly by the CSTC-A Public Affairs
demonstrable commitment to respective BCTs. They also will day.
Office, Camp Eggers, Kabul, Afghanistan. In the development of the ANSF provide senior-level interaction It is to these ETTs and PMTs
accordance with DoD Instruction 5120.4, this • reaffirms the US with our Afghan partners and that we remain indebted for their
DoD magazine is an authorized publication for Government’s commitment to with International Security
members of the U.S. military overseas. Contents service and sacrifice.
of The Enduring Ledger are not necessarily growth and reform in the ANSF Assistance Force (ISAF)
the official view of, or endorsed by the U.S. • opened the door for future Regional Commanders. Yak Team Wahed!
government or DoD. growth of the both the ANA Battle space owners –
2 q The Enduring Ledger www.cstc-a.com
ANP continue to make great strides
by CSM Arthur L. Coleman Jr. But my emphasis is down at the individual police as well as
CSTC-A Command Sergeant Major at the teams and districts. As I visited one location a couple
I would like to say of weeks ago, I saw that one remarkable change has been in
“welcome” to all of our new the area of weapons marksmanship training. This is one clear
arrivals: Army, Navy, Air sign of reform.
Force, Marines, and Civilians. As we move forward, the police senior enlisted
Congratulations to all of you leadership— the Chief NCO of the Afghan National Police,
for your selection to this Karim Khan— has taken a personal interest in current
command. What an exciting operations as well as focusing on the fight. He has placed
time to be assigned to CSTC-A. special emphasis on accountability of not only weapons, but
With the focus of war efforts also on other key and essential equipment. This is another
clearly shifting towards our clear example of growth not only in the NCO Corps of the
mission here, you’re truly in the police, but also across the board. I ask that all of our mentors
right place at the right time to continue to lean forward and put emphasis on teaching and
CSM Coleman coaching, especially in mentoring your counterparts.
make a difference.
First I would like to recognize the mentors for the Afghan Another area is managing risk. At each level, there are
National Police. What an awesome year of building the certain risks that are acceptable; however, always conduct a
Afghan Police, as well as the Afghan Border Patrol. The risk assessment to make sure that the mission fits the risk.
Afghan Police in some cases are unsung heroes. On a Last but not least, this is a complex organization, and as
day-to-day basis they are becoming more and more the we continue to build the Afghan National Security Forces,
cornerstone of the Afghan National Security Forces—making it is important that we continue to build true partnerships
improvements in accountability, conducting voter registration with our Afghan counterparts. I ask you to continue to seek
operations, and at the same time conducting police reform. opportunities to reinforce Afghan lead roles.
photo by Sgt. Jessica R. Dahlberg
An Afghan National Police officer checks a vehicle’s undercarriage during a vehicle-search class at the Parwan province’s
police headquarters in the Charikar district.
www.cstc-a.com 3 q The Enduring Ledger
Up close with General Bismullah Mohammadi
General Bismullah Mohammadi This is good for the people of
was in the 12th grade when the Afghanistan. We are trying our best to
Russians invaded Afghanistan. He build upon the relationship between the
joined the Mujahadin soon after, Afghan people and the Afghan National
serving in diverse capacities until Army, so that they will continue to see
the collapse of the Communist it as good.
regime. Right now, we have good equipment
He commanded a unit at Bagram and good weapons. We have right
and later served as a leading around 30,000 M4s and M-16s, about
commander of the Northern Alliance 2,000 up-armored HMMWVs, and
against the Taliban. General we have received some helicopters
Bismullah Mohammadi served as and some airplanes. Even though the
Deputy Defense Minister in the Afghan National Army is lacking some
Government of the Islamic Republic equipment, we still have had a lot of
of Afghanistan until four years ago, successes with NATO and ISAF forces.
when he became Chief of General We have been operating
General Bismullah Mohammadi
Staff for the Afghan National Army independently for the last two years
ANA Chief of General Staff
(ANA). and almost 60 percent of our operations
all of the people of Afghanistan. have been independent. We want the
In this capacity, he serves as the
commander of the Armed Forces of Afghan National Army to take the
On progress in the ANA: lead, and NATO and ISAF forces to
Afghanistan, with the responsibility
to train, equip and exercise The creation of the Afghan support the Afghan National Army.
command and control of the ANA. National Army is a great success
He is an only son with three sisters. story for the people of Afghanistan. On international community
He has two sons and four daughters, Six years ago, we set up the first support and election security:
all of whom live in Kabul. Afghan National Kandak. Now I am sure the international
we have 133 Kandaks. We have community has Afghanistan at the
On why the ANA is five Army Corps, one Air Corps, center of their attention. They haven’t
important to Afghanistan: and we have established training forgotten Afghanistan, and they are
and education institutes. We’ve set working on Afghanistan.
The ANA is necessary for bringing
up the Ministry of Defense along The international community knows
peace and stability to Afghanistan
with supporting commands such what’s going on in Afghanistan and
because we have been engaged in
as the logistical command and the they know the threat to the rest of the
war for the last 30 years. Stability
communications command. world. We are happy that they are
is not good here and the enemies of
Our Army is well balanced. here and that they are helping us with
Afghanistan are trying to make the
We have Soldiers from all over the threats against Afghanistan and
the country and they are very Pakistan.
What most people in Afghanistan
professional. The people of We are optimistic about the future
want is security and stability, but
Afghanistan are the ANA. The people of Afghanistan and of the Afghan
security is not possible unless we
of Afghanistan know that the Afghan National Army. We hope to overcome
have the defense sector and security
the problems and overcome the
sector under control. That is why National Army defends their rights.
enemies of Afghanistan. The elections
the Afghan National Army is the The people of Afghanistan do not
are upcoming; whatever is asked of
defender of the independence of look at the Afghan National Army
us for the security of the elections,
Afghanistan. We will defend the as a tribal or an ethnic Army — they
I am confident that we will be able
rights of the Afghan people. We need think of it as a National Army. This is
to provide it and confident that we
the Afghan National Army, especially why our citizens have a high opinion
will have a good election with good
in this era when the country is not of the ANA.
stable, in order to defend the rights of The size of the ANA is increasing.
5 q The Enduring Ledger www.cstc-a.com
By Army Colonel William H. Morris
CSTC-A Operations Director
“For three years, our commanders have
been clear about the resources they need for
training. And those resources have been
denied because of the war in Iraq. Now, that
will change. The additional troops that we
deployed have already increased our training
capacity. And later this spring we will deploy
approximately 4,000 U.S. troops to train
Afghan security forces. For the first time,
this will truly resource our effort to train
and support the Afghan army and police.”
- President Barack Obama, remarks by the
President on a new strategy for Afghanistan
With President Obama’s speech on a
new strategy for Afghanistan and Pakistan Photo by Specialist Micah E. Clare
as a backdrop, the training and mentoring Paratroopers from the 782nd Brigade Support Battalion, 4th Infantry Brigade
operational construct for the Combined Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division watch as combat delivery system bundles
Security Transition Command-Afghanistan carrying food and water come floating to the ground in the Paktika province of Af-
(CSTC-A) will go through a remarkable ghanistan on Oct. 11, 2007. The 4th BCT is scheduled to return to Afghanistan this
transition over the next several months. summer as part of the Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan.
For almost four years, we have deployed deploying, and will have deployed from the Once these two BCTs are on the ground,
individual augmentees from across the same state, post or camp. Afghan National Security Forces will benefit
services alongside Army National Guard This is a significant change for the better by having more trainers present here in
Brigade Combat Teams of Combined Joint when considering the fundamental building Afghanistan than ever before.
Task Force Phoenix to fill the ranks of our blocks of great units: unity of command, unit Right now, CSTC-A is able to meet just
great mentor and training teams. We will now cohesion and family readiness. Although over half of the current requirements to train
fill these mentor/trainer positions with a unit- these BCTS are very capable— trained, the Afghan National Army and the Afghan
based solution, comprised largely of two US manned and equipped to conduct military National Police. With these two brigades,
Army Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs). operations from high-intensity combat to the command will be able to fully meet most
We will continue to use the Combined stabilization operations— they are deploying requirements and bring greater capability to
Joint Task Force (CJTF) Phoenix structure to Afghanistan for a definite purpose. That our Afghan partners.
(led by a combined joint task force purpose is to coach, teach and mentor the This is truly a great improvement in the
headquarters) as the execution headquarters Afghan National Security Forces. training and mentoring mission here in
for the two brigades. The transition to a two-BCT operation Afghanistan and is symbolic of the strong
CJTF Phoenix will maintain a one-star will begin in earnest over the summer and commitment of the United States and our
commander from the Army National Guard, early fall as the BCTs and their subordinate Coalition forces to the Afghan National
and will consist of two brigade combat teams, battalions deploy into theater. Our great Security Forces and the people of the Islamic
one from the Army National Guard and one Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines and Republic of Afghanistan.
from the Active Component Army. Civilians of the current CJTF Phoenix will
These BCTs will come with a greater establish conditions for the reception, staging,
training and mentoring capability than has onward movement and integration of these
ever been realized before in this theater. forces.
Commanders will be able to field larger As this occurs, some of our forward
training teams for the CSTC-A mission – a operating bases will see a temporary rise in
very important factor when considering the population. Planning is well underway for
vast area CSTC-A covers, and the threat in new facilities and infrastructure to ensure
different areas of Afghanistan. these new CSTC-A units are well cared for
These newly arriving CSTC-A units will as they transition in support of our Afghan
provide the basis for Embedded Training partners.
Teams (ETT) for the Afghan National Army Currently the two brigades earmarked
and Police Mentor Teams (PMT) for the for deployment are the 48th IBCT from the
Afghan National Police. Benefits of this unit Colonel William H. Morris
Georgia Army National Guard, and the 4th Colonel Morris is the Operations Director
approach include the fact that teams will IBCT, 82nd Airborne Division from Fort for CSTC-A. He commanded the 2nd
come largely from the same unit, will have Bragg, North Carolina. These BCTs will Combat Aviation Brigade in Korea prior
trained together for at least a period of six assume the training and mentoring mission to assignment at CSTC-A; he redeploys
months (but sometimes for years) before in late summer or early autumn of 2009. to work in the Pentagon this summer.
www.cstc-a.com 6 q The Enduring Ledger
General Bismullah Mohammadi: training the Afghan National Army
By General Bismullah Mohammadi we also have long-term courses OMLTs.
ANA Chief of General Staff and short-term courses. These I was invited to NATO
After six or seven years of training courses have given us headquarters, with whom
work, we have learned that hope that in four or five years we have been working for
the most important thing with we will have educated and almost three years. One of the
the Afghan National Army is experienced officers and NCOs requests that I made of them
education, training and good in the Afghan National Army. was a request for OMLTs for
leadership. Unfortunately, we lack the Afghan National Army. I’m
We have two kinds of some of the Embedded very happy that they promised
training. We have short- Training Teams (ETTs) and they will help us in this way.
term training, and for this Operational Mentor Liaison As I said before, we need
we have the Kabul Military Teams (OMLTs) necessary ETTs, OMLTs, and education.
Training Center (KMTC). to properly develop the
We would also like help with
At KMTC we train recruits, ANA. This is especially true
the development of KMTC and
noncommissioned officers as we increase our numbers Photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class
some training equipment.
(NCOs) and officers. from 80,000 to 134,000. We Edward Vasquez
For long-term training, need the ETTs and OMLTs in
But the most important thing General Bismullah
we are requesting from NATO Mohammadi speaks after
we have institutes here training and also in combat. the opening ceremony for
in Afghanistan like the forces is that the training we
If we had these problems the Afghan Military Medical
National Military Academy solved two years ago, we receive should meet a unified School, marking the first
of Afghanistan. This is the would have had many more standard so ANA units receive time the Afghan military has
first time in the history of successes in the Afghan only one kind of training. had a medical school since
Unfortunately in the past every the time of the Taliban.
Afghanistan that we have had National Army. That’s why we
a nationally-accredited military are now working hard, and we country, every nation, has looking for some education
academy. are asking the North Atlantic brought their own techniques where they focus on the terrain
We also have a commando Treaty Organization (NATO) and standards. and the geographic climate of
school, a school for and International Security Also, the environment of Afghanistan. This will help us
communications, and a staff Assistance Force (ISAF) to Afghanistan is different from greatly once we have a unified,
college at KMTC. Within those help us regarding ETTs and their home nations, so we are standard method of training.
ETTs and OMLTs
The Operational Mentor and Liaison Team (OMLT)
program is a key contribution by the international community
toward developing the Afghan National Army (ANA). They
are embedded in ANA Battalions (Kandaks), Brigades,
Garrisons and Corps Headquarters.
OMLTs provide training and mentoring to support ANA
units’ operational deployments and often provide a liaison
capability between ANA and ISAF forces, coordinating
the planning of operations and ensuring ANA units receive
enabling support. They are composed of 12 to 19 personnel,
depending on the type of partner unit.
OMLT training is a 3-phase process, consisting of national
training, pre-deployment training and in-theater training.
Currently there are 54 OMLTs on the ground with 12 Photo by U.S. Navy Petty Officer 2nd Class Aramis X. Ramirez
confirmed new OMLT offers. A graduate of the Basic Engineers course at Camp Hero
ETTs shakes hands with Warrant Officer Wade Osmond, chief
instructor for the Basic Engineer Course and member of
Embedded Training Teams (ETTs) are small units with a Canadian Operational Mentor and Liaison Team (OMLT).
valuable skill sets that qualify them to train in specialized Fifteen graduates completed the four-week course, learning
areas. Each Embedded Training Team is trained and equipped the fundamentals of mine detection and demolition, field
to mentor their Afghan counterparts in the development defense, and basic carpentry.
of ANA logistical systems, infrastructure, and national spectrum of operations in the Afghanistan National Security
capabilities. ETTs are a single-minded team, focusing energy Force, adhering to counterinsurgency principles. Currently
and talents toward developing authoritative leadership, there are 54 ETTs on the ground in Afghanistan.
systematic processes and increased capacity across the full
7 q The Enduring Ledger www.cstc-a.com
our presence in Afghanistan
is in support of the Afghan
people. Defend and engage
the population: be viewed as
supporters of all the people.
to influence the people should
be the main effort with enemy-
centric targeting operations in
support. Increase interaction
between security forces and
the population. Move out of
FOBs and spend more time with
our partners in the ANP, ANA,
General David McKiernan, and District and Provincial
Commander, U.S. Forces, governments and be more
Afghanistan / Interna- visible in the communities
tional Security Assistance they serve. In doing so, we
Force, Afghanistan legitimize ANSF by linking the
provision of security services to
“There is no purely military
GIRoA; assure the population by
solution to the situation in
removing insurgent intimidation;
Afghanistan. Ultimately, the
marginalize insurgents by
solution must be a political one
making their attacks on security
which is Afghan led. In the
and governance infrastructure
meantime, the military must
an attack on the population, thus
protect the people and provide
forcing the enemy to undermine
the security space necessary for
its own support base.
good governance, development
and a successful political
outcome.” General McKiernan F ollow an Integrated
Approach to Achieve
Comprehensive Effects. Focus
Our operational imperative
on governance, development,
is to protect the population photo by Specialist Joseph A. Wilson
and security concurrently.
while extending the Afghan National Army Commandos with the 207th Kandak
Success in Afghanistan will
legitimacy and effectiveness
not come from the sole pursuit patrol the city of Shindand, Herat Province, Afghanistan.
of GIRoA and decreasing The Commandos make frequent patrols through the area to
of a security line of operation
the effectiveness of insurgent increase security measures.
by military forces. Claims
elements. Political power is the Support capacity building and environment and anticipate
that ISAF only does security
central issue in insurgencies and integration amongst our security change, instead of reacting to
have no place in this campaign.
counterinsurgencies (COIN); partners to improve operations it. Force the enemy to respond
These lines of operation are
each side aims to influence the and accelerate development of to us and seize windows of
interdependent and are intended
people to accept its governance ANSF. Provide direction to opportunity to influence the
to be complementary and
or authority as legitimate. We partnering and mentoring units population effectively. Plan
comprehensive; failure in one
(ISAF, GIRoA, the Afghan to integrate ANA and ANP all our operations in an Action
means mission failure on all.
people, and our international operations and, where practical, (our tasks/intent), Reaction
Work with all partners to form
partners) will prevail in encourage the ANA to assist in (enemy’s), and Counteraction
one team in support of the
this conflict and succeed in the development of the ANP. (what we do to adapt to the
“Integrated Approach.”1 Drive
securing and building a better enemy) mindset.
this methodology at your level
Afghanistan. The principles
below apply in all phases of the
for planning, coordination,
execution, assessment, and
S eize and Maintain
the Initiative. Adapt
tactics and seize the initiative G ain Situational
“Shape, Clear, Hold, and Build”
reporting. Maneuver units before the enemy does a nuanced understanding of the
overarching framework and to
need to work with the Afghan the same. Continuously situation and dynamics at the
all levels of the ISAF chain of
government and community incorporate lessons learned local, district, and provincial
command. To succeed in this
leaders, ANSF, the PRTs, into operations in order to be levels. Share information, best
campaign, we must:
PMTs, ETTs, OMLTs and more effective than the enemy. practices, and intelligence across
civilian agencies to make the
B e Population-Focused.
Demonstrate that sum greater than its parts.
Proactively identify and plan
for changes in the operational
and between levels to gain a
1 Working with and aiming to achieve unity of effort with key partners (UNAMA, International Community representatives, etc.) to ensure efforts are
fully integrated from the outset. To achieve this we have to be proactive, identifying and seeking out the key stakeholders and developing the necessary
relationships with them.
8 q The Enduring Ledger www.cstc-a.com
of the environment. Collaborate
and share information with CF
and ANSF partners to further
increase their understanding of
the human terrain. Identify the
specific root causes of insecurity,
criminality or support to the
insurgency in your area of
operations, gain understanding
of what exactly “governance”
means to local Afghans, and
discern the influence of informal
structures of power. Staffs
should gather and display
‘information and intelligence’
about the human terrain for use
by operators at the local level
to make lethal and non-lethal
targeting and information
operations more effective.
B e Present in Key
Carry out smaller patrols,
photo by Specialist Joseph A. Wilson
An Afghan National Army Commando with the 207th Kandak mans his M240 machine gun
support smaller detachments during a routine patrol through the city of Shindand, Herat Province, Afghanistan. These elite
Soldiers conduct frequent COIN operations to bring peace and stability to the region.
and encourage ANSF
counterparts to do the same.
These actions free up larger
numbers of similar ANSF units
M aintain the Trust
and Respect of
Afghans. Live our values
of self defense and our Rules of
Engagement. We are fighting an
enemy that often hides among
governance structures. On the
other hand, always support the
community’s shura, whenever it
to achieve a disproportionately and act above reproach. the civilian population or uses truly represents the population.
greater effect. In those areas Insurgent groups take advantage innocent civilians as a shield,
where GIRoA officials and
international aid donors find
of our failures and, because
they are not constrained by
both before and immediately
after an attack, so the battle is
E nable Afghan
Afghan Capacity. Foster
it difficult to generate the the truth, sometimes our often waged among civilians
Afghan (not western) solutions
personnel and resources required successes, too. Be first with and their property; thus it is
and help generate and retain
to penetrate into the countryside, the truth. Demonstrate respect imperative that we always
human capacity. Develop and
step into this vacuum and, at a and consideration for the demonstrate proportionality,
sustain an environment that
minimum, set the conditions for Afghan people, their culture, requisite restraint and the
enables individual mentoring/
their presence. customs, and religion. Avoid utmost discrimination during
monitoring teams to perform
insults, inappropriate gestures, every action and engagement.
B e Persistent and Hold.
ANSF efforts to be seen as
unnecessary brandishing of
weapons, and aggressive driving
Leadership at all levels and
training, pre-deployment and
their tasks in support of
increasing GIRoA’s capacity,
effectiveness and legitimacy.
that Afghans may perceive reinforced in-theater, are the
more enduring than the Maneuver units, PRTs, and
as offensive, threatening, or keys to minimizing the potential
insurgency, which offers no mentors must work together to
reckless. Whenever possible for civilian casualties.
hope to the population. Do ensure those with appropriate
allow and encourage ANSF or
not clear an area unless GIRoA
and the ANSF are able to hold
it. Establish an environment in
NDS to search houses or fellow
Afghans when it is required.
R einforce Afghan
and Legitimacy. Encourage
skills contribute to the
identification and development
of the right types of systemic
While we will make mistakes,
which the population feels they GIRoA to act in a transparent investment and improvement in
remember that your integrity is
can resist insurgents without fear and accountable manner. Do GIRoA infrastructure, processes,
critical to this fight.
of consequence or retribution. this by setting an example. and staff performance.
This will only happen if the
population believes GIRoA will
outlast the insurgents and, in the
P ursue Relentlessly,
but Protect Civilian
Lives. Do not hesitate to
When GIRoA (and ISAF) is
accountable to the populace,
its legitimacy is strengthened.
P artner as Equals
and Promote Afghan
Credibility. Build institutional
longer term, offer the population pursue the enemy and act Facilitate solutions at the
and personal relationships with
greater prospects for security decisively against him; however, district and provincial level
your Afghan counterparts and
and prosperity. We will stay always employ good tactical that reinforce the rule of law
work with them as a team.
as long as we are invited and judgment and proportionality and GIRoA’s legitimacy; take
Working alongside GIRoA
needed…until the job is done. in the application of firepower, care not to strengthen local
counterparts (from national to
consistent with the inherent right powerbrokers working outside
2 Partner: a habitual relationship between ANSF and ISAF units that must pervade all aspects of the life of an ANSF unit through mutual cooperation and
responsibility for planning, preparation, execution, and post operational assessments towards the achievement of joint operational effects.
Mentor: coach and teach ANSF units, provide the conduit for command and control, and when required, support the operational planning and
employment of the ANSF unit to which they are aligned in order to support the development of a self-sufficient, competent and professional ANSF
www.cstc-a.com 9 q The Enduring Ledger
Actors at the local level are
the key to achieving tactical
effects which collectively will
help shape the operational
and strategic environments.
Cumulative success at the
tactical level will provide
time and space – literally
and figuratively – for the key
stakeholders at the operational
and strategic level to make the
necessary institutional changes
required to ensure long term
stability. That time and space
will also allow the governance
and development lines of
operation to take effect. Provide
direction but avoid putting
unnecessary burden on those in
Photo by Lance Corporal Monty Burton
An Afghan National Policeman searches the undercarriage of a vehicle during a cordon
and search mission in Farah Province, Afghanistan. The ANP are increasingly in the lead of
counterinsurgency operations with coalition forces in support. The ANP were partnered with
P ass on Your Experience.
Pass on your story,
especially to those coming
Marines of Company I, 3rd Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment (Reinforced), the ground combat in behind you, to maintain
element of Special Purpose Marine Air Ground Task Force – Afghanistan. SPMAGTF-A’s mission continuity of mission. The
is to conduct counterinsurgency operations, with a focus on training and mentoring the Afghan insurgents have been here longer
National Police. and the population will always
local level) presents us with behavior of key population enemy. Encourage moderate be here; they will remember
opportunities to coach, teach groups. Consistently find ways Afghan Islamic groups, mullahs, well after our rotations and the
and mentor. Treat your partners to win the battle of perception. and citizens to challenge the passage of time cause us to
as equals and work with the Every insurgent action is legitimacy of the ideas and forget.
mentors who are teaching and designed to either influence actions of extremist insurgent
coaching your partners. Promote the attitudes and perceptions elements. apply in all phases
the success and competence of of these population groups of the “Shape,
your Afghan partners. Give
them credit for joint efforts.
or to take advantage of local
disenchantment to meet their
E nable the Tactical
authorize, resource, and
Clear, Hold and
Partnering and mentoring (see own ends. In the competition framework and to
footnote on previous page for for influence, we must be more
integrate tactical efforts within all levels of the ISAF
definitions)2 enhances protection agile and effective than the
the ISAF command structure. chain of command.
of the population and reinforces
GIRoA legitimacy by providing
the people of Afghanistan
with a more proficient and
effective government at the
national, regional, provincial
and district levels. Be creative
and diverse in your partnering
efforts. The ANA may be the
most effective security apparatus
in Afghanistan but its reach is
limited across the country. By
contrast, despite significant
challenges, the ANP’s reach
extends across Afghanistan and
is often the only link to GIRoA
for a majority of the population.
W in the Battle of
with GIRoA, ANSF and local
community leaders to inform Photo by Army Staff Sergeant Marie Schult
and shape the perceptions, Afghan National Army Commandos of the 207th Corps, accompanied by Coalition Forces,
attitudes, understanding and advance on the enemy after receiving small-arms and rocket-propelled grenade fire during a
routine combat reconnaissance patrol in Herat Province.
10 q The Enduring Ledger www.cstc-a.com
Three cups of chai: Building relationships
By Army Major Philip L. Burton
First impressions, body
language, tone of voice:
You will be read in 10
minutes. The average Afghan
has the incredible ability to sum
up a person within 10 minutes.
The first impression you
make with your counterpart
will stick. If it is negative, it
will take an immense amount of
time to overcome.
Your body language and
posture is also important. How
you sit in a chair, the posture
of your shoulders and how you
use your hands to communicate
must be non-aggressive and
Tone of voice is important in
everything you do. If you yell photo by U.S. Army Staff Sergeant Michael L. Casteel
at an Afghan, you are insulting U.S. Army Major Robert Holbert takes notes as he talks and drinks tea with local school and
him — showing disrespect. If Andar Special Needs School administrators at Nani, Afghanistan. Holbert was attached to the
this occurs, your counterpart 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne. The 4th IBCT will return to Afghanistan this
will listen and then immediately summer as part of Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan.
shut you out.
After your initial assessment
of your ANA or ANP
The Counterinsurgency Training Center
counterparts, do not go in and The Counterinsurgency Training Center Forces, USAID, and both the US Department of
say “this is #&$^%# up and – Afghanistan (CTC-A) conducts the State and Defense.
we are going to fix it this way.” Counterinsurgency Leaders Course – Over the five day course, the students receive
Instead, discuss with your Afghanistan (CLC-A) in the last full week of a variety of presentations that prepare them to
counterpart the shortcoming each month. participate in a number of practical exercises.
and ask if he can explain why The first course for 2009 was conducted These exercises guide the students in
the system is the way it is. He from 24 to 29 JAN at CTC-A, Camp Julien, identifying a population’s vulnerabilities and
will most likely explain things Kabul. The course drew students from the planning effective counterinsurgency operations
you have not considered. Afghan National Army, Afghan National Police, to best secure the population.
Once you have heard him National Directorate of Security, Coalition
out, use the “I recommend” wants to talk about. his problems. Like most people, Afghans
route. In other words, use an do not like to fail, nor do they
Be patient. Western culture
approach that allows your
tends to open a meeting with “I highly recommend” want to appear incompetent in
counterpart to not only explain,
the BLUF, bottom line up front, Let ANA or ANP leadership front of their mentors.
but allows him to recommend make the decision; don’t make
method. Afghan culture, on the
how to fix it.
other hand, tends to be BLAE, decisions for your counterparts.
When you have gotten to this bottom line at end. If you do and it does not work,
stage, you are mentoring. it will be your fault.
Don’t contribute to
Chai, more chai, then U.S. dependency
Discuss and make
even more chai: recommendations. If your
“No” is a correct course of counterpart does not heed your
And then what is important…
action: Expect your counterpart recommendation and yet still
TO THEM. Drinking chai is
to find a method of least makes a decision, it is still
an Afghan social event that
resistance to solve his problem. better than no decision. If your
carries significant weight. If
When a problem arises, it counterpart makes a decision Major Philip L. Burton served as
you are invited to drink chai,
do your best to accept. It is not will not be uncommon for your that results in less than effective an S2/S3 advisor for the 2/1/203rd
Corps in Khowst Province, and
uncommon to socialize for 45 counterpart to come to you and results, he may listen to you in as the Infantry Kandak Team
minutes, drink three cups of hot ask you to fix it or to buy it. the future. Chief for 1/3/203 Corps in Ghazni
Simply say “No.” Assist your Use this opportunity to Province from May to December,
chai, and then only at the end of 2008. He currently serves as an
the event does your counterpart counterpart in using the ANA or discuss lessons learned and operations officer in the Michigan
get to the meat of what he ANP systems in place to solve review his initial decision. National Guard.
www.cstc-a.com 11 q The Enduring Ledger
12 q The Enduring Ledger www.cstc-a.com www.cstc-a.com 13 q The Enduring Ledger
Camp As Sayliyah, Qatar
Working across Camp Eggers, ISAF
HQ, New Kabul Compound and Camp
Captain James J. Stall
Senior Non-Commissioned Officer
First Sergeant Phillip S. Barry, Jr.
“Go hard or go home.”
The 278th Signal Company operates,
maintains, and protects US DISN
communications services in the Kabul, Photos by Petty Officer 2nd Class Edward Vasquez
Afghanistan metropolitan area in Private First Class Joshua Gerhart of the 278th Signal Company and Daryl Dowtin
support of US Central Command, Sr., a contractor, check the alignment of a satellite dish.
International Security Assistance Force,
United States Forces – Afghanistan,
the Combined Joint Task Force – 101 “There’s always something going on. •Network Operation Center
and the Combined Security Transition It’s challenging having a command Controls and monitors the
Command - Afghanistan in order to with elements spread out all over town. performance of local area networks.
support Operation Enduring Freedom. A simple thing like taking a PT test Monitors LANs for Camp Eggers, Camp
requires multiple convoys and advance Phoenix and New Kabul Compound.
—First Sergeant Phillip S. Barry, Jr. •Help Desk
Duties and Responsibilities: problems throughout Camp Eggers.
•Technical Control Facility Monitors and repairs all internet and
The entry point for long haul phone connections.
communications, such as satellite
uplinks, for sorting to the proper •Outside/Inside Plant sections
receiving device such as phones or Responsible for phone cable, CAT 6
the internet. Also handles outgoing cable and fiber optic cable both inside
transmissions. and outside the Camps.
• The 278th Signal Company has positioned four Direct Signal Support Teams
across the city, providing robust, strategic communications to the Warfighter
and four major commands.
• Recently the company connected a major fiber link from Camp Eggers to
Bagram Air Field. This allows faster and more reliable communications to
Afghanistan’s major hub.
• The company is in the process of taking over and providing the communications
infrastructure at a new camp being built in the greater Kabul metropolitan area.
• The company engineered and implemented the first-ever DoD operated and
Private Charles Echols and Private
First Class Taylor Harris, 278th Signal maintained Video Teleconferencing (VTC) system between the White House
Company, inspect a tower server on and the Afghanistan Presidential Palace.
www.cstc-a.com 14 q The Enduring Ledger
Police readiness improves through Capital Jumpstart
Story and photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class
CSTC-A Public Affairs
Kabul, Afghanistan— Afghan
National Police (ANP) Officers from
Kabul Police District 8 (PD8) have
begun to rotate from their downtown
station to an eight-week basic training
course in Helmand. Throughout the
month, groups of approximately 60
officers could be seen moving through
Kabul International Airport. In most
cases they carried only a single small
duffle bag. This was for many of them
their first flight; some had never left
For Sergeant Jawed of PD8, this was
a dream come true. “During the 30
years of war in Afghanistan, security
deteriorated badly. I believe the police
are necessary to repair and take care of
society and that is one of the reasons I
became a police officer.” Afghan National Police Officers from Police District 8 in Kabul line up outside
The desire of the ANP officers to the gates of Kabul International Airport as a Non-commissioned Officer gains
accountability, prior to their flight to Helmand to begin an eight-week course as part
begin training is strong. “We can’t wait of Capital Jumpstart.
for our training to start,” said Sergeant
Shafiullah, an officer with PD8. “It and we are anxious to begin. We are populated and varied demographics,
has been a week of canceled flights, definitely ready to get started. This special care is taken to make sure
training will be the best that every group is
thing for us. It will be “I believe the police represented in the local
great to finish all the police departments,”
scenarios so that we can are necessary to said Army Colonel
learn things to serve our repair and take Anthony Libri, Regional
country and our people. Police Advisory
I think it will be a great care of society and Command-Kabul
PD 8 is one of 30
that is one of the (RPAC-K) Commander.
A Police Mentor
Police Districts in reasons I became Team from the Kabul
and around Kabul. All
districts will eventually
a police officer.” area provided PD8 with
rotate their officers —Sergeant Jawed constant assistance as
through a Regional they prepared to leave
Training Center as part of the Capital Kabul.
Jumpstart program. The difference “By improving the quality of
between Capital Jumpstart and regular mentoring to the police departments
Focused District Development (FDD) and providing real life training to the
is an FDD district will send an entire police officers, we are able to improve
police department to training all at their ability to respond to any type of
one time and return them to a police emergency. This enhances the quality
department as a unit. In Kabul, of life for every Afghan citizen,” said
CSTC-A will train a number of police Libri.
from all 30 PDs, and will return them “The training will greatly increase
to their respective PDs after their my experience,” said Jawed. “I will be
training is completed. able to apply what I learn and increase
Afghan National Police Officers from
Kabul’s PD8 board the bus at Kabul
“Kabul is a very different area my professionalism. Hopefully there
International Airport on their way to their when compared to any other area of will be a big difference in how I am
flight to Helmand. Afghanistan. Because of its densely able to perform my job.”
15 q The Enduring Ledger www.cstc-a.com
Afghan National Police critical to election security
Stories and Photos by Andrea Angeli
and Aziz Basam
EUPOL Press Office
The head of the U.S. Elections
Assistance Team, Ambassador Timothy
Michael Carney, visited EUPOL March 28.
Ambassador Carney’s team, consisting
of representatives from various U.S.
agencies, met with Police Commissioner
Kai Vittrup and engaged in a lengthy
discussion about the upcoming Afghan
Ambassador Carney is the former
deputy assistant secretary of state for
South Asia and the current director for
EUPOL officers oversee training at the Afghan National Police Academy during a
Asian Affairs on the National Security week of intensive training for the Afghan National Police. Some 800 police officers
Council. He listened as Head of Mission were trained in the week-long course. An additional 900 police will be trained in the
Vittrup illustrated in detail the EUPOL near future.
plans to provide special training to the
Afghan National Police (ANP) tasked is free from intimidation. the Afghan people’s expression of their
with securing the forthcoming elections. Both parties agreed that the performance democratic rights at the polling stations
Officers are to be taught the importance of of the ANP during the elections will be by promoting a positive and peaceful
the election in giving voice to the will of subjected to national and international environment.
the Afghan people, and they will be trained scrutiny. The ANP, along with other EUPOL will monitor and stand by the
to carry out their duties in facilitating the partners such as the International Security ANP in Operational Control Centers during
democratic process. Assisstance Force and the Afghan National the elections.
Training will emphasize Afghan police Army, will be judged on their handling not Assistant Inspector General of the
roles and responsibilities in preserving only of security during the elections, but U.S. Department of Defense Ambassador
peace and public order and providing also on their face-to-face dealings with the Kenneth Moorefield also visited EUPOL
security. Afghan police will be trained to Afghan people. that day. He provided an overview of
take all appropriate actions to ensure the EUPOL advises the Ministry of Interior the mission, current activities and plans
elections take place in a peaceful, open, in planning for elections. EUPOL also in support of police reform and to help
impartial and supportive environment that assists the ANP in its task of facilitating strengthen the Rule of Law.
AP Photo— special thanks to Jason Straziuso
President Karzai attends the International Conference on Afghanistan at The Hague on March 31. Ministry of Defense Wardak is center in
the photo. The conference was co-chaired by Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Kai Eide, Afghan Minister of Foreign Affairs
Ranghin Dadfar Spanta and the Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs Maxime Verhagen. The conference reaffirmed the solid and long-term political
commitment of the international community in assisting the Afghan government in building a better future for Afghanistan and its people.
www.cstc-a.com 16 q The Enduring Ledger
must be Afghan citizens, join up. We have to make
be physically fit, drug-free, the situation better. We need
live in or be from the district schools for our children, and
selected to work in, with hospitals; and I want to do
no criminal record and be what I can,” Beheshti said.
under the age of 45. Leaders A U.S. Forces advisor
also take into consideration was impressed by what he
whether or not the man is saw in the students. “These
trustworthy and respected by guys are motivated,” he said.
the community. “They have a spirit to protect
The protection force will what’s theirs. This is what
work closely with Afghan Afghanistan needs. They
National Army, Police and want to take their country
Coalition forces to protect back. Enough is enough.”
their local community. They A new class will begin
will maintain security on in the coming weeks, and
Photo by Army Captain Jamey Trigg approaches to highways the protection force will
More than 240 graduates of the first Afghan Public Protection within their district, protect continue to grow, according
Force training program were welcomed home by their
community during a March ceremony at the Jalrez District key government facilities and to the advisor.
Center in Wardak Province. Members of the Afghan Public personnel, disrupt militant General McKiernan
Protection Force will provide additional security to their local attacks and deny insurgent offered encouragement to the
communities. safe havens. Additionally, graduating class, noting that
Story by Chief Petty Officer
the force will provide crisis the new force can rely on the
new life of community
Brian K. Naranjo response to natural disasters support of all the country’s
USFOR-A According to training
and facilitate economic security assets.
development in their district. “I applaud the courage of
KABUL, Afghanistan– advisors, the APPF is an
According to Beheshti, these men to step forward in
Nineteen-year-old Abuzer Afghan-led program that will
Wardak is a province that representing the community;
Beheshti, along with 242 of provide enhanced security
greatly needs the added but they know that if they
his fellow Wardak province to designated districts in key
protection. The 19-year-old run into problems, they can
citizens, became the first provinces, bringing greater
said he’s ready to go back call the Afghan National
to graduate from the new stability and strengthened
and make a difference. Police, Afghan National
Afghan Public Protection community development.
“I want to help my own Army or international forces
Force (APPF) program “This is Afghans training
people,” he explained. that are out there. So they’re
March 26. Afghans for the security of
“There are a lot of Taliban not on their own.”
After a rigorous three- Afghanistan,” said a chief
in Wardak, and they take our
week training program, training advisor for U.S.
young boys and make them
the graduates proudly forces in the area.
accepted their certificates “This is purely an
of completion in front of Afghan initiative,” General
a large audience including McKiernan explained,
high-level officials from the “to develop a bottom-up
Government of the Islamic approach; a community-
Republic of Afghanistan, based approach, to improve
Wardak province elders, security and to give a voice
General David McKiernan, to the provincial government.
commander of the We are very optimistic in our
International Security support of this program.”
Assistance Force and U.S. The recruiting process
Forces-Afghanistan, and began with nominations by
other distinguished guests. community leaders in Wardak
The ceremony, held province, which was selected
at Camp Mehter Lam, to facilitate mentoring and
an Afghan National monitoring. Photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Larry Baruwa
Police facility in eastern Those selected must The first members of the Afghan Public Protection Force stand
Afghanistan, officially meet specific requirements in ranks during the three-week initial training course held at
for the duty. Participants Camp Mehter Lam, an Afghan National Police training facility
welcomed the men to their in eastern Afghanistan.
17 q The Enduring Ledger www.cstc-a.com
Measuring ANSF Capabilities through Milestones
Why use The Training Readiness Assessment Tool
Capability The Training Readiness Assessment Tool
(TRAT) is a report card that determines a
Milestones? unit’s capability milestone (CM) level and
is used by Embedded Training Teams and
Police Mentoring Teams. A TRAT consists
of personnel, C2, training, sustainment &
introduced by the Combined logistics, and overall assessment reports.
Security Transition Each category has pre-defined criteria that
Command-Afghanistan determine the overall CM level of a unit.
(CSTC-A) in July For police mentoring teams this is called
2005— aid mentors by the Police Training Readiness Assessment
expressing from a holistic Tool (PTRAT). The TRAT/PTRAT are
perspective the incremental monthly reports that are forwarded to the
improvements in capability appropriate Afghan Regional Security
Integration Command (ARSIC). The
that training, mentoring and
ARSICs forward the reports to CSTC-A,
resources will provide at
which tracks all ANA and ANP units.
specific points in time.
allow mentors to express
the overall capability
What are units graded on?
Naval Station Norfolk, Va
improvement and value- TRATs and PTRATs measure a unit’s readiness in ANP Milestone Requirements
added from each of the multiple categories, and each category has many • Manning
individual components subcategories. For example, the ANP category of pay • Personnel Records
reform has the following criteria: Are police paid
within a system. • Pay Reform
according to pay reform policy? Are police being
paid on time? Are police paid by electronic funds
• Personnel Actions
Capability milestones transfer? Are police receiving all pay due to them? Is • Tashkil Equipment List
also enable senior decision pay discontinued for personnel discharged or absent • Equipment Accountability
makers to quickly gauge without authorization for longer than 20 days? • Supply System
The following is a list of the basic categories: • Maintenance
whether their overall
resource allocation •
ANA Milestone Requirements Formal Training
strategies are appropriate. • Sustainment operations • Crime Handling Procedures
• Intelligence • Use of Force
Capability milestones •
• Medical Command and Control
improve alignment between • Signal Support • Governance/Rule of Law/Justice Sector
the subsystems of a large • Personnel Supporting Efforts
scale security assistance • Maintenance • Rule of Law
program. • Communications • Citizen Support for GIRoA and ANP
Capability Milestone Descriptions
CM1: Independent Operations
Capable of conducting primary operational missions. Depending on the situation, units may require specified assistance from
Coalition forces or the international community.
CM2: Leading Operations with Coalition Support
Naval Station reliance on, international community support.
Capable of conducting primary operational mission(s) with routine assistance from, orNorfolk, Va
CM3: Participating in Operations Hometown: Davidson, NC.
What is your past from, and is reliant on, international
Capable of partially conducting primary operational mission(s), but still require assistance deployment experience? 1 gulf
community support. cruise USS Ponce, 3 asia cruises USS Kitty Hawk
CM4: Not Yet Capable of Operational Missions What is your job at your home duty station? Ship
Formed but not yet capable of conducting primary operational mission(s). The unit may be capable, available, or directed to undertake
portions of its operational mission but only with significant assistance from, and reliance on, international community support.
Job title and unit: Logistice Embedded Training Team/
www.cstc-a.com 18 q The Enduring Ledger
Command and Staff College opens
Story and photos by Specialist Luke S.
CJTF Phoenix Public Affairs
KABUL, Afghanistan – April 2 marked
the beginning of a new era of professional
military development for Afghan National
Security Forces as they celebrated the
opening of the Command and Staff College.
Officers of the Afghan National Army,
Afghan National Police, as well as other
Afghan agencies will use the new CSC to
gain formal military officer training and
education. The courses offered at the CSC
have been designed by officers of the ANA
and Coalition forces, said Lt. Col. Alexander
Grabiec, an officer mentor with the Strategic
Command and Staff Course office at Camp
“What’s important to see here is not that
the Command and Staff College opened,
but that four schools of training are open Afghan National Army Soldiers, Coalition officer mentors and other members of the
under the CSC that span the entire gamut of crowd applaud a speaker at the Command and Staff College opening ceremony.
professional officer training,” he said. With four courses to offer, the CSC provides education and training to officers of the
Six years ago, officers of the French Afghan National Security Forces from Lieutenant to General officers.
army opened the Command and General
offers operational training and education With the biggest success story being the
Staff Course. The CGSC is an ANA school
to one- and two-star general officers, said move toward formal military education,
that provides officer development training
Grabiec. focus shifted towards resourcing and the
for Majors and junior Lieutenant Colonels.
“The French army deserves a lot of systems of the CSC, said Grabiec.
Three years later, French officers began
credit,” he said. “They knew six years Multiple countries came together to help
another officer development course. That
ago, before the idea for the CSC had even the ANA create this college. The Canadian,
course, the Higher Command Staff Course,
been manifested, that
a professional military
“The Afghans are German, French, United
Kingdom and American
education system needed to driving the train armies all helped to move the
exist in Afghanistan.” ANA in the right direction,
With two courses already on this ... while building the two new
in place, the CSC was at the courses and ultimately the
halfway mark to becoming a We just stood CSC, said Grabiec.
reality. But what was needed
to complete the college were behind them “The Afghans are driving
the train on this though,” he
two courses to bridge the
gaps. Newly commissioned
and whispered said. “We whispered behind
officers of the ANSF had no good ideas.” ideas.”
formal training or educational Coalition officers help
courses available to them — Lt. Col. Grabiec ANA officers prepare
until they reached the rank coursework, but Afghan
of Major and junior Lieutenant Colonel. officers teach everything and run the college.
And still, after that, there was no education “The amazing part of this is all these
as a Colonel. Given that it takes up to 10 countries working hand-in-hand to make
years for an officer in the ANSF to become this college a working reality for the ANSF,”
a general, many of the general officers in Grabiec noted.
Afghanistan today had no professional
military training, Grabiec stated. Four schools of the CSC:
“This college has created a complete
• Junior Officer Staff Course
throughput of training from Lieutenant to
• Command and General Staff
General in the Afghan National Security
Afghan Deputy Minister of Defense
Forces,” Grabiec said.
General Mohammad Akram (right),
With training to guide officers through • Higher Command and Staff
Major General Richard Formica (left),
and Afghan National Army officers cut each rank of their career, it brings a standard Course
the ribbon opening the new Command to the field across the entirety of the ANSF, • Strategic Command and Staff
and Staff College. he said. Course
www.cstc-a.com 19 q The Enduring Ledger
RPACs and PMTs: professionalizing the ANP
Petty Officer 1st Class Clifton sustainable capacity and to
Williams improve the capabilities of
CSTC-A Public Affairs the Afghanistan police,” said
Regional Police Advisory Army Colonel Anthony Libri,
Commands (RPACs) provide RPAC-K commander. “We
oversight to Police Mentor mentor, teach, train, evaluate
Teams (PMTs) within their and operate with the police
command. These PMTs to ensure they develop into a
mentor, train, evaluate and self-sustaining organization.”
operate with the police they The RPAC-K PMTs are
are assigned to in their areas mostly made up of National
of operation. Guard Soldiers and DynCorp
Regional Police Advisory employees. The DynCorp
Command-Kabul (RPAC-K) employees bring police
oversees the PMTs for expertise to the PMTs and Photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class Paul Dillard
the Kabul area, but also serve as instructors at the Colonel Abdul Rahimi (left), Chief of 1st District Police HQ,
mentors the Kabul Police various training sites. walks the busy streets of his district in Kabul with Army
Colonel Anthony Libri (right), Commander of RPAC-K, and
Chief – Lieutenant General The Soldiers come from
several of his officers.
Abdul Rahman, four zone various areas of the U.S.,
headquarters and 30 district bringing a wide and varied Capability Milestone (CM) Afghanistan while protecting
police stations. amount of experience to the rating based on various areas themselves and the citizens of
RPAC-K coordinates with program. All of the Soldiers such as training, equipment the community in which they
coalition members from are given additional training and facilities. We measure serve.
Combined Joint Task Force for the mission, and along our success by the number RPACs and PMTs across
Phoenix, Combined Security with their DynCorp partners, of police departments that CSTC-A train police on
Transition Command- are able to train the police of improve their overall CM staff procedures, weapons
Afghanistan (CSTC-A), Kabul. score. We are pleased to say handling, police tactics,
United Nations American “There are PMTs all over that the majority of the Police hands-on training, protection
Mission to Afghanistan Afghanistan and the number departments improve their measures and various other
(UNAMA), International of the teams varies according scores dramatically after they subjects. They also prepare
Security Assistance Force to the needs of the particular have been given training and the ANP for their eight-
(ISAF), European Police district,” said Libri. “The the equipment they need.” week basic training course.
(EUPOL), Afghan National goal of the RPAC-K PMT Many police departments PMTs continue training after
Security Forces and the U.S. program is to train and mentor can now function on their their department or distict
State Department. the Kabul police, and to own and many police officers graduates on advanced police
“Our job is to build a improve their abilities. Each - both men and women - skills, support systems, and
police department is given a can enforce the laws of Rule of Law.
Understanding the Validation Transition Team
1. The CSTC-A Validation Transition Team (VTT) supports the Afghan Regional Security Integration
Commands (ARSICs) and their Embedded Training Teams (ETTs) / Operational Mentoring and Liaison
Teams (OMLTs) by facilitating the Training Assessment and Validation Program for Afghanistan National
Army (ANA) Units. “What we are: A specially
2. VTT Command and Control: trained, independent team
- Assigned to CJTF Phoenix for admin and support.
of observers assessing the
- Under operational control of CG for ANA Development training level and combat
- Regional Teams under tactical control of ARSIC commanders. readiness of ANA units”
- Regional teams get all classes of supply and support from - Major Whitney Allen, Executive
ARSICs. Officer, Validation Transition Team
3. The VTT has assessed or visited 33 units since December 2008. Along with scheduled first-time assessments
and validations during 2009, the VTT is scheduled to re-validate an additional 34 units previously assessed in
www.cstc-a.com 20 q The Enduring Ledger
Female ANA soldiers learn Combat Lifesaver skills
Story by Lieutenant Colonel Tim Franklin
Photos by Sergeant James Sims
CJTF Phoenix Public Affairs
KABUL, Afghanistan – Soldiers of
Capitol Division’s “Alpha” Kandak
had the opportunity to broaden their
military skills when they completed
a three-day Combat Lifesaver Course
(CLS) at Camp Phoenix in March.
Twenty-three Alpha Kandak Soldiers,
including nine women, went through
the CLS curriculum at Camp Phoenix
under the supervision and mentorship
of the Regional Division Advisory
Command (RDAC) Embedded Training
The course was refresher training
for the 14 male Soldiers who attended,
but was a milestone for the female
Soldiers. They are only the second
such group from the kandak to
complete the training, said Sergeant
1st Class Barbara Smith, RDAC
A male Afghan National Army Soldier prepares to administer an intravenous injection
officer in charge. According to Smith, to a female ANA Soldier during CLS training conducted in March at Camp Phoenix
who organized the medical training for Soldiers of Alpha Kandak, Capitol Division.
course, training the female Soldiers is to treat the three main preventable
especially important because of Afghan causes of combat deaths—blood loss,
cultural traditions that normally restrict lung collapse and airway blockage.
females from treating males and vice “My intent was to train the female
versa. Soldiers because of the cultural
Despite these cultural restrictions, differences here, where men can’t
however, Brig. Gen. Mohammad treat women and women can’t treat
Zadran, commander of Headquarters men,” said Smith. “For the females
Security and Support Brigade, this training will help the readiness of
Capitol Division, insisted that the the Kandak, especially on medical and
Alpha Kandak CLS training be co- humanitarian assistance missions out in
educational. the communities,” Smith added.
“General Zadran was adamant that The skills the Alpha Kandak Soldiers
we train them together in order to learned included airway management,
achieve the same type of unit cohesion management of penetrating chest
seen in our units,” said Smith. injuries, how to control bleeding,
Alpha Kandak is the only Afghan administering an intravenous drip and
kandak with female Soldiers assigned. medical evacuation procedures. These
The goal of the CLS course was CLS-trained Soldiers now provide
to give non-medical Soldiers of the a critical bridge between self aid,
kandak training in emergency medical buddy aid and a trained medic. These
skills. While these skills are intended frontline emergency medical skills
for use in combat, they can also can mean the difference between life
be used in non-combat situations. and death in situations where timely
During the three days of training, the treatment is essential.
Sergeant 1st Class Barbara Smith ANA Soldiers received instruction According to Smith, after completing
checks that an IV has been properly and hands-on practice in various the course the Alpha Kandak Soldiers
administered during a Combat Lifesaver emergency medical techniques to treat are now more confident in their ability
Course conducted at Camp Phoenix for
Soldiers of the Afghan National Army. and stabilize combat-related injuries. to keep their fellow Soldiers alive if
The course curriculum focused on how they are injured in action.
21 q The Enduring Ledger www.cstc-a.com
Deployment Goals: My biggest goal was to help the Afghans
set up a sustainable and viable training program for the future
of its medics and patients. My personal goals were to study for
promotion and go to the gym daily…so far so good! I am right
on track to test when I get home and I have lost 18 pounds and
feel great about this deployment.
Life after Camp KAIA: I will be returning to the 49th Medical
Operation Squadron at Holloman AFB. I will be taking on a
new flight Non-Commissioned Officer in Charge position, lots of
work ahead; I am looking forward to the challenge! I will also
be returning to my husband Edward and my son Andrew, age 2.
Book I’m reading now: A Thousand Splendid Suns by Khaled
Hobbies: Reading, working out, watching movies, shopping and
hanging out with family and friends
photo by Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Johann Westphall Supervisor says: As the medical face of “mentor” success,
Technical Sergeant Pahl ensured a seamless transition of
Technical Sergeant Jennifer M. Pahl the Air Corps Southside Medical Clinic to the Northside
Home station: Holloman Air Force Base, N.M. “How many compound, ensuringHer tirelessuninterrupted by
Hometown: Roswell, N.M. people can all at the “Grand Opening,” established the motto –
medical operations. efforts, lauded
Job title and unit: Medical Technician Advisor, 438th say they “On Time, the First Time.” She authored an NCO
Air Expeditionary Advisory Group (AEAG) helped
Best part of the deployment: My best experience course, developed
build an Air professional development trainingthen plunged into
several medical lesson plans, and
was conducting airway, breathing and suction Corps?” implementing the first Afghan friendly critical life-
training. The Afghans are very excited to learn about — Tech Sergeant saving skills course for 30 Afghan medics.
equipment they have not seen before and it makes me Jennifer Pahl Supervisor name and duty title: Lieutenant Colonel
feel great to teach them something valuable that could
potentially save a life in their clinic. I feel very proud to be (Dr.) Johann S. Westphall, Medical Team Lead, 438th AEAG
making history in Afghanistan!
The wind snapped across the landscape at Adraskan, but hardly affected the proud professional policeman standing
in formation. The 322 Afghan National Civil Order Police and 65 Counter-narcotics graduates were the latest to join the
long gray police line. As they approached the podium for their certificates, each graduate shouted a joyful “I serve the
nation of Afghanistan” and held their certificates high above their heads.
The professionalism and pride of these individuals symbolizes the changing image of the police in Afghanistan—
one by one. The police are consistently growing confidence as patrolmen and they are more than grateful to have
the opportunity of serving their country in a positive fashion. CSTC-A’s Police Development, in conjunction with the
Ministry of Interior (MOI) will continue to ensure that the citizens of Afghanistan are provided with high quality police
men and women who will execute their mission to the utmost of their abilities.
—Brigadier General Anne Macdonald, CSTC-A Assistant Commanding General for Police Development
www.cstc-a.com 22 q The Enduring Ledger
Air Corps makes “first flight” medical evacuation
By Technical Sergeant Jennifer M. Pahl Support from both the ANA Surgeon MEDEVAC-modified helicopters at the
438th Air Expeditionary Advisory General’s office and the Air Corps helped Kabul Wing, with plans to expand that
Group the nascent capability progress quickly capability over the next several years
In March, the Afghan National Army from a mere “proof of concept” idea and to other Air Corps facilities throughout
Air Corps (ANAAC) Medical Evacuation mission to a working MEDEVAC system Afghanistan.
(MEDEVAC) crews assigned to the Kabul ready for limited deployment throughout
Wing, Afghanistan accomplished their Afghanistan. Technical Sergeant Pahl is also the
“first flight” to the ANA National Military Colonel Abdul Rassoul Mayel, the CSTC-A “Warrior of the Month” - see
Hospital in downtown Kabul. Behind ANA Air Corps Surgeon General and lead previous page.
this historic mission stood the 438th Air Afghan proponent for the new capability,
Expeditionary Advisory Group (AEAG), attributed success to “good leadership
who mentored flight medics for proper within the ANAAC and great teamwork
patient loading procedures, appropriate with our mentors.”
in-flight medical care, handling of in-flight As part of the program, Afghan flight
medical emergencies, and the safe transfer medics attended extensive training on
of patients to hospital medical staff. patient configuration, proper litter and
About the new capability, Master strap usage, and flight-line driving to
Sergeant McClure, lead MEDEVAC include approaching the aircraft for
mentor, said, “after a total of 12 weeks loading and off-loading patients.
of training, Air Corps flight medics are Captain Jeremy Hicks stated that the
prepared to respond to the call of duty. medics received the training very well:
Missions are launched, medics deploy, and “The flight medics we mentor are highly photo courtesy of 438th AEAG
recovery of injured air crew, Soldiers, and motivated and eager to learn this new life- Soldiers of an Afghan National Army Air
saving mission.” Corps MEDEVAC crew train to evacuate
Afghan civilians occur... it is the greatest casualties to the ANA National Military
feeling in the world.” Currently, the Air Corps has 5 MI-17 Hospital.
COMISAF: Respect for Afghans is essential
Staff Report Marines and Civilians. Referencing the personnel will demonstrate respect and
CSTC-A PAO consequences of poor judgment and the consideration for Afghan traffic and
Are you that guy? That guy who drives benefits of common respect for others, pedestrians.”
like a maniac through the streets of Kabul he directed that, “All personnel will CSTC-A fully endorses General
or Kandahar, right down the middle of the demonstrate respect for Afghans, Afghan McKiernan’s tactical directive. As those
road – just because you think you can? culture, Afghan customs, and Islam in who work closest with Afghans, we must
Well, according to General David their actions and words.” understand the importance of respect for
McKiernan, Commander, United States Of particular note to disrespectful Afghans. The next time you get out into
Forces Afghanistan / International Security drivers, General McKiernan noted that, traffic, demonstrate this respect.
Assistance Force, Afghanistan, your “On the road and in vehicles, ISAF Yak Team Wahed! One Team Together!
actions might be more far-reaching than
you might think.
In his tactical directive dated December
30th, 2008, General McKiernan
emphasized the importance of maintaining
the support of the Afghan people in
this counterinsurgency war. General
McKiernan wrote that, “Our actions both
on and off the battlefield are important
to our success. We must maintain our
professionalism at all times, and always
keep in mind the consequences of our
actions. Respect for the Afghan people,
their culture, their religion, and their
customs is essential.”
General McKiernan issued the tactical photo by Fred W. Baker III
U.S. Army Soldiers drive a convoy into the city of Gardez, Afghanistan— the Paktia
directive in part to increase awareness provincial capital— to meet with local officials. The Soldiers are assigned to 1st
among Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Battalion, 178th Infantry Regiment.
www.cstc-a.com 23 q The Enduring Ledger
24 q The Enduring Ledger www.cstc-a.com