CASH FLOW FORECAST

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					                Social Enterprise Navigator

As students you are about to embark on a new journey , the aim of this toolkit is to
take you on a social enterprise road trip, be prepared to learn a lot of new things and
work in ways that might be a bit different. Before you embark on the social enterprise
road trip you will need to think about planning your route and look forward to the final
destination. One of the key things you have to remember is that along the journey
you will have guidance, you will get information about the different destinations on
your social enterprise trip and supplied with lots of maps!. So how are you going to
get all this help?

The aim of this toolkit is to provide you with all the necessary information to start
developing a social enterprise within your school. The tool kit will provide you with
resources and hints and tips to develop a successful social enterprise that has been
created by students, with a bit of help from your teachers. To find out what other
schools in Leeds have been up to, the tool kit includes lots of case studies. The
purpose of these case studies is to provide you with lots of information but
demonstrate that everybody can develop and run a social enterprise, and that no two
schools are the same. The case studies will help you to think about ideas and
understand that every school is at different destinations.



Starting the trip

What is a social enterprise?

A social enterprise is a business that trades either services or a product in order to
create profits that are reinvested back into social aims. These social aims could be
social or environmental but social enterprises are distinctive because their social aim
is central to what they do. Most importantly social enterprises need to make money
to compete in the business market so that they can invest in their social aims.

Got the idea?

      Social enterprise is about
      Solving social problems in new and innovative ways
      Improving the quality of life in difficult and excluded communities
      Making the most of under used resources and buildings to meet social needs
      Helping people to take charge of their lives and make positive changes
So now you know what social enterprise is, what are the benefits?



Benefits to students

      Social enterprise offers diverse learning giving students a chance to
       experience participative learning
      Social enterprise offers pupils to engage in the wider fabric of their community
       which goes beyond their school walls. It encourages them to think about the
       problems in their community and identify solutions, whilst developing business
       skills
      Studying social enterprise meets a number of curriculum links in particular
       citizenship and business studies
      Engaging in social enterprise will enable students to develop cohesive links
       with the wider community, and help raise the profile of the school.



Social Enterprise & Your school

      Engaging pupils with social enterprise activity has a number of direct benefits
       to school development
      Better engagement/attendance and behaviour
      Better motivation amongst staff and students
      Getting young people, community members, staff, governess and
       professionals
      Working together
      School can become a community hub



The benefits of social enterprise to pupils and schools are endless, so why not just
have a go?



Getting started

Before you embark on your social enterprise road trip, we need to think about what
is already happening in your school. In order to do this a mapping exercise will need
to be undertaken of current enterprise activity within your school. You will need to
work with the senior management team to ensure that all the different activity is
recorded.
Resource one Mapping exercise.

You should have found out lots of different information, perhaps there is some
activity that you want to develop further or you want to try something completely
different. What ever you decide to do one of the most important steps it to raise the
profile what social enterprise and get other people involved in your school.

Teachers Notes

                                 Ready steady go

                                Identifying your group

How are you going to make social enterprise successful? To make any business
successful you need to shout about what you want to do and recruit a group. You
can do this in a number of ways.

Group size

Speak to your teacher

Public what you are doing

Assembly

Student council

Get someone to speak to you about it



Remember at this point it’s about getting people to understand social enterprise, get
them exited and promote learning by doing!



Teachers Note

Key stage

Curriculum focused

Lunchtime activity



                           Getting some group work going!

At this stage you will have a group of people that are interested in social enterprise.
When establishing any new group , you need to turn them into team. In this section
you will have a number of resources that will help you work together as a group and
work towards developing a team.

Task 2 Ice Breaker

The objective of this ice breaker is to encourage everyone to talk to each other

To start the process of introducing them to each other



This session should take 20 minutes, you should get your teacher to facilitate the ice
breaker.

   1. Put students into pairs
   2. Tell each pair to decide if they are a butterfly or a moth
   3. Tell moths to form a circle facing outwards, and the butterflies to form a circle
      facing towards their partners
   4. Read out a topic from the list below and tell them to chat about it together for
      a minute
   5. At the end of the minute blow a whistle and tell the butterfly circle tpo rotate
      one place clockwise. Repeat step 4
   6. Continue until all the butterfly’s have met all the moths.

Discussion topics

My favourite television show

The best film I have ever seen

Where I want to be in 10 years time

The scariest thing that I have ever done.



                                 Task Building bridges

Now that members of your group know each other , you could undertake another
challenging activity that will develop team working skills and encourage creative
thinking. To make it challenging you have 40 minutes for this task.

Aim: Develop teamwork skills, encourage creative thinking

Materials, Newspaper, A4 paper, pens masking tape, felt pens, large tin of sweets,
shoe box.

Time: 40 minutes
Each group is to build a bridge using limited amounts of newspaper and masking
tape. The bride has to be strong enough to hold a large tin of sweets, and tall
enough to pass aa shoe box container underneath it. The bridge must be completely
free standing, it can not be attached to a wall, or a piece of furniture.



Each group must nominate someone who will collect the instruction from their
teacher. They must take this information back to their groups and spend five minutes
to present the problem and plan how they are going to build the bridge. When five
minutes are up the group will have 30 seconds to discuss their strategy....the next
step is to build the structure in silence.

When time is up each group will present their structure... and the teacher will
undertake the judging!! The group with the structure that hold the tin of sweets and
looks attractive wins the chocolates.



                       Social Enterprise in your community

You should hopefully have a group of students who have expressed an interest in
social enterprise, and are beginning to gel as a group. In order to get students thiking
about developing social enterprise they need lots of ideas, a good place to start is by
getting them to explore their local community. The next exercise is about getting the
students a real good look at your wider community; many of you probably live in the
community around your school. However have you really looked around? What’s
good about your community and what are the problems ?



Exploration Community walk

Teachers Note

The intention of this task is to find out what community means to stundents in
your class, and developing greater self awareness of the issues in their
locality. This task will enable young people to think about what is good about
their community and where the needs are.

Preparation: Ensure permission is sought from parents as students will be
leaving school premises.

Time: 30 minutes

Task: split studnts in groups of three, assign a member of staff to a group. As
the students walk around the local area. Get them to think about there things.

What are the positive things about the area
What are the things they don’t like?

Is there anything missing?



Following the walk you should act as a facilitator and listen to the views of the
young people, you should get some shared insights leading to discussions
about how improvements can be made.



The community walk exercise will have provided you with some ideas and helped
you to think about the needs of your community. Hopefully you should now have a
understanding of what social enterprise is. The next activity is looking at a number of
different businesses and deciding whether they are social enterprise.



               Keep it or bin it Social Enterprise activity




                                  The Ideas Bank
The next part of your road trip is generating ideas for your social enterprise, using
creative thinking techniques. By the end of this session your social enterprise group
will come up with a range of different ideas, and as a group with guidance from your
teacher you will develop your social enterprise.



The community walk and the school mapping activity might have given already have
given you some ideas. However we want you to get really creative and explore every
idea no matter how crazy.

When exploring ideas there are some basic rules to get you going.

Suspend analysis and judgement. If you immediately evaluate and criticise every
idea you come up with, you will automatically limit the number of ideas you produce,
so you actually limit your chances of coming up with anything unique. So always list
every idea, no matter how impractical it may be.

Go numbers: The more ideas you generate, the more chance some of them will be
good ones. Experinces show that out of 60 ideas one will be the winner!
Dont go with the crowd. If you are always cautions and practical, you are unlikely to
come up with groundbreaking ideas, if you come up with wild ideas they probably will
not work, however this sometimes leads you to thinking outside of the box and can
provide you with stepping stones so that you can work them up.

Take a break. Short sharp sessions are likely to be productive, if you spend too long
on idea generating, after a while our brains tire and stop us from thinking freely

Task

      Scamper Technique
      Wishful thinking
      Thinking hats



In the last task, you started your road trip and using the different creative think ideas
you will have selected a idea for your social enterprise. By this stage you should
have a group of students who want to take it to the next level. Remember if some
people want to drop out of the road trip, it doesn’t matter what they have learn has
been valuable.



Teachers Note

At this point you need work with your teacher as you will have you fellow road
passengers who want to turn the idea in to a social enterprise. The next step is about
forming your company. Before we begin to do that here are some hints and tips on
what makes a good team.

                                     The Big Idea



                                   What is a team?

The way a team is led will have a major impact upon the success a business

Commitment to people
Most team members are primarily concerned about relationship and about being
valued as a team member, before they are concerned about the task that the team is
to undertake. Feeling secure in a group environment is an important pre-requisite
before individual contribution.

Desire to Support and Serve
Whilst team members want to see the ability to lead from the front, they are also
strongly motivated by the ability to lead from the back Enthusiasm, Energy,
Inspiration and Expertise
Unsurprisingly team members want to be inspired and motivated by team leadership
which has the energy and enthusiasm to fire them up. However, they also want to
feel secure that the team leader has themselves, or has access to, the necessary
expertise to lead the team in the right direction. The leader doesn't have to be the
most knowledgeable of the subject at hand, but if they are not, they must encourage
the input of others.

Willingness to shoulder responsibility.
Team leaders are tested under pressure. When challenges arise, as they inevitably
will, the leader will need to take responsibility to ensure that they are fixed as far as
possible and that the team is strengthened as a result. This does not mean that the
leader should admit that issues beyond their control are in any way their fault,
(although they should be honest in admitting their mistakes), but rather adopt a
proactive stance to ensure the team is not deflected from its course.

Ability to achieve more as a team.
Teams only become a team once there is some synergy within the group ie the team
process adds value to that which a disparate group of individuals would achieve
undirected.




                      What roles are needed to run a business?

Explanation of different roles

        Marketing
            Carrying out market research (see separate section)
            Establishing target market

        Sales
               Identifying where to sell product/service using market research.
               Negotiating price/quantities with suppliers.
               Securing appropriate sales outlets.

        Finance
             Completing all accounts (see              separate    section    on
                Accounts/Business Planning)
             Reporting company’s        financial     position    to   directors/
                Shareholders.

        Production (of product) or Operations (a service)
            Establishing best method of production (job/batch/flow)
            Costing production and calculating break-even point.
            Deciding on resources needed for production.
            Responsibility for quality assurance.
           Design logo / brand image.
        Customer Service
            Deciding on sales policy to include returns policy / exchange
                policy/refunds policy.
            Maintaining good customer service relations.
       Human Resources
           Maintaining good working relationships in company.
           Employing staff (drawing up job description / person
             specification, placing adverts, designing job application form &
             carrying out interviews).

       Company Secretary
           Circulating agenda to all team members before meeting.
           Liaison with business adviser / consultant regarding meetings
             producing minutes of all meetings and circulation to all team
             members and business adviser/consultant.

       Managing Director
           Chair meetings.
           Motivate team.
           Ensure all team on task and have the right resources to carry
              out their job roles efficiently.
           Encourage all team members to contribute in meeting.




Identify the sort of skills you might need to carry out your social enterprise
successfully



Teachers Note Brainstorm session.......

Key Personnel in your company

               Job title                                      Individual name
Managing Director

Assistant Managing Director

Company Secretary

Marketing Director

Sales Director

Finance Director

Production/ Operation Director

Human Resources Manager

Customer Service Manager

IT Manager
Designers



                              Testing the idea will it work?

Your team should now be a company, and in the last task you will have assigned
members of the team into job roles. The next stage is all about testing your social
enterprise idea, and your team needs to think about the big question will it work.



Undertaking market research



Lesson content/student activity:

(Introduction/starter activity)




Identify competitor products and prices charged (this could be set as a homework from the
previous week). Identify their strengths and weaknesses (fill in SWOT analysis)

(Development)



In order to ensure the company collects data which will inform them as to whether this idea will
work and where the market is, they need to carry out quality market research.



 A.   Secondary Research
          Using existing data e.g. MINTEL reports (from central library in Leeds)
          Identify trends, competition & potential demand.

          NB this may not be appropriate if they have carried out good competitor research on the
          internet and this is up to date. If their competitors are doing something similar then it is
          likely their idea will work.
 B.   Primary Research
           Collecting first hand information from a target group using questionnaires, focus
               groups & interviews (telephone or face to face)
           Questions need to allow analysis therefore ‘open’ questions should be kept to a minimum
               unless public opinion is required. Multiple choice answers are good ways of collecting
               data.
           Questions will need to cover the following:
                   1. Whether the target group would buy the product/service.
                2. The price they would be willing to pay. NB these needs to link to research into
                   the competitor prices otherwise they will select prices which are not viable.
                3. Colour/Size/Quantity etc.
                4. Frequency with which target group purchase similar products/ services.
                5. Where they will shop (look at all options available to their target group)



1. Agree the questions to be asked – divide group up to do research which may be in or out of
school (providing teacher is present and permission and risk assessments have been carried out
for a group walk about). This could be set as a homework activity.




2. IT Manager to type up questionnaire ready for distribution/ use in next session or when
agreed.



3. Use an appropriate software package to analyse the data (schools to support this)

   Research needs analysing and presenting in a meeting to show whether there will be
   sufficient demand to support their business idea.




Your market research will have highlighted whether your idea going to work, the next
stage is for your company to undertake a swot analysis of the competitors. A swat
analysis is a tool that helps you to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and
threats. By undertaking this activity your company will develop an understanding
about possible l competitors, and the implications for your social enterprise



                                    SWOT Analysis

At this point you should ve really passionate about your idea, and you want to take it
to the next level, and this is where it really gets exiting!. A swot analysis is a really
useful tool to analyse certain aspects of your business idea. SWOT stands for
strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats.

The following shows the strengths and weaknesses of our competitors’ product/
service.
Our Swot Analysis ________________



Strengths                             Weaknesses
What are the really good bits about   Whets the potential weakness
your idea




Opportunities                         Threats
What are the market opportunities     What could go wrong




Teachers Note
                             Aagh Business planning



You are probably at a stage where you are thinking, this road trip is getting staled.
Don’t worry the process your company has undertaken at different stages will all
come together. In the previous task we have thought about your idea, testing the
idea and finding out about potential competitors. You should now be at a stage
where you can identify what your social enterprise will be and have some clear aims.
As a company you need to get this down on paper and be able to sell your social
enterprise idea to other people in your school community. What you are doing is is
actually the start of the next important phase business planning!

                          Business Aims and Objectives

Business Name




Business idea and target market




Business Aims

1.

2.

3.

4.



Business Objectives

1.
2.


3.


4.


5.




Writing a business plan does not have to be a scary process, and there is no right
and wrong way of doing it. The main purpose of a business plan is to formulate your
ideas in to action. It is a working document that you review and update while your
business is changing. A business plan needs to be reviewed regularly at your board
meeting. To make it easier for you we have included a business plan template for
you!
            Template


Business Name:_____________________________________

                 Executive Summary
Personal Aims and Objectives
  Business Aim/s




Business Objectives
Key Personnel / Contractors
                SWOT - your business

                    Date: - -

 STRENGTHS                             WEAKNESSES




OPPORTUNITIES                           THREATS
                SWOT - your competitor

                     Date: - -

 STRENGTHS                               WEAKNESSES




OPPORTUNITIES                             THREATS
Market Information




Products and Services
             Pricing Your Products and Services

Competitor       Product / Service                Price
          Your products / services                           Proposed price




                                 Pricing Your Products and Services

Notes on sales volumes, price, variations and constraints
Marketing and Sales Plan
The Numbers

              This easier than you think remember, your budget is about how much it is going to cost you. Your cashflow

                                                            The budget



                                                              Cash Flow


                                            CASH FLOW FORECAST
                                           LEFT FOOT SPORTS SHOP


                       July          August            Sept           October            Nov              Dec

   Receipts

   Bank b/f


 Cash receipts

   Total In



   Payments
   Total out



   Bank c/f

                                        CASH FLOW FORECAST
                                       LEFT FOOT SPORTS SHOP

                    July      Aug            Sept        Oct       Nov       Dec

   Receipts

   Bank b/f        100,000   105,000        101,000     101,000   107,000   117,000

 Cash receipts     42,000    34,000         40,000      44,000    48,000    50,000

   Total In        142,000   139,000        141,000     145,000   155,000   167,000

   Payments

   Total out       37,000    38,000         40,000      38,000    38,000    40,000

   Bank c/f        105,000   101,000        101,000     107,000   117,000   127,000




Word/c.marsden/s
                                             TIMELINE



Use this timeline to plan your marketing. Remember to build in time for design of materials, printing
and distribution. Record the name of the person that will be responsible for getting these jobs done
and by when.



Include details of any publicity stunts you will put on, and any other media you intend to use to
advertise your product e.g. local radio / newspapers / website



       Task                                                                      Date Due
              Equipment

What?             Supplier         Price




        Supplier Contact Details
Supplier Name   Phone               E-mail   Website




                        Premises / Venue
                   Breakdown of All Costs

ITEM DESCRIPTION                                    COST £




                                            TOTAL
Where will you get the funds you need to start your enterprise?
Ideas for raising some money for your social enterprise