Symptoms and causes - Eastern Eq by pengtt


									sudan issue brief
Human Security Baseline Assessment
Small Arms Survey                                                                                               Number 16   April 2010

Symptoms and causes
Insecurity and underdevelopment
in Eastern Equatoria

        astern Equatoria state (EES) is      The survey was supplemented by qual-            24,789 (± 965) households in the
        one of the most volatile and         itative interviews and focus group              three counties contain at least one
        conflict-prone states in South-      discussions with key stakeholders in            firearm.
ern Sudan. An epicentre of the civil         EES and Juba in January 2010.                   Respondents cited traditional lead-
war (1983–2005), EES saw intense                 Key findings include:                       ers (clan elders and village chiefs)
fighting between the Sudanese Armed                                                          as the primary security providers
                                                Across the entire sample, respond-
Forces (SAF) and the Sudan People’s                                                          in their areas (90 per cent), followed
Liberation Army (SPLA), as well                 ents ranked education and access
                                                                                             by neighbours (48 per cent) and reli-
numerous armed groups supported                 to adequate health care as their
                                                                                             gious leaders (38 per cent). Police
by both sides, leaving behind a legacy          most pressing concerns, followed
                                                                                             presence was only cited by 27 per
of landmines and unexploded ordnance,           by clean water. Food was also a top
                                                                                             cent of respondents and the SPLA
high numbers of weapons in civilian             concern in Torit and Ikotos. Security
                                                                                             by even fewer (6 per cent).
hands, and shattered social and com-            ranked at or near the bottom of
                                                                                             Attitudes towards disarmament
munity relations.                               overall concerns in all counties.
                                                                                             were positive, with around 68 per
    EES has also experienced chronic            When asked about their greatest
                                                                                             cent of the total sample reporting a
food insecurity, a lack of basic services,      security concerns, respondents in
                                                                                             willingness to give up their firearms,
and few economic opportunities. Cattle          Torit and Ikotos cited cattle rustling,
                                                                                             and 63 per cent anticipating that
rustling, armed robbery, and banditry           natural threats (primarily drought),
                                                                                             disarmament would significantly
are endemic. With little or no official         and instability arising from armed
                                                                                             increase security in their area.
security presence in many areas of the          groups. Magwi county residents
                                                                                             However, attitudes vary consider-
state, protracted cycles of revenge             expressed concern about disputes
                                                                                             ably depending on local perceptions
attacks over natural resources, and             over natural resources, followed by
                                                                                             of security.
land in particular, are common. The             natural threats.
Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA),            Killings—including spontaneous,
which ended the civil war, did not              intentional, and revenge killings—
result in a tangible peace dividend for         accounted for 40 per cent of all          Context
most EES communities; in fact, the              crimes reported in the last 12            Located in the south-eastern corner of
return of war-era refugees to ancestral         months. Based on weighted data,           Southern Sudan, EES shares borders
villages and the recent arrival of inter-       an estimated 5,587 households             with Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda
nally displaced persons (IDPs) from             (± 470) in three counties experi-         (see Map). Like the communities across
other parts of Sudan have exacerbated           enced one killing over the period.        those borders, EES is populated pri-
tensions over land and resources.               The most frequently reported              marily by agro-pastoralists who have
    To assess perceptions of develop-           weapon used to commit a crime—            long suffered from a range of devel-
ment, governance, and security chal-            including killings—was the AK-47          opment and governance problems,
lenges in EES, the Small Arms Survey            or other automatic rifle. However,        including ‘a lack of basic services,
and Danish Demining Group under-                an equal percentage of crimes—            unreliable water supplies, poor lead-
took a household survey of almost               including killings—were committed         ership, depressed local economies,
2,400 households in Torit, Magwi, and           with no weapon at all.                    insufficient responses to drought,
Ikotos counties in November and                 Almost 40 per cent (38 per cent) of       widespread poverty, and extremely
December 2009.1 The survey gauged               all surveyed households reported          poor health and education’.3 Within
respondent views on pressing security           firearm ownership, with much              the East and Horn of Africa region,
and development issues, with a particu-         higher rates in Ikotos (63 per cent)      EES is noticeably prone to conflict,
lar focus on armed violence; victims            and Torit households (53 per cent)        which is exacerbated by a culture of
and perpetrators; motivations; weapons;         than in Magwi (15 per cent). Based        cattle rustling and widespread access
disarmament; and security providers.2           on these responses, an estimated          to and use of firearms.4 Governments

      Eastern Equatoria State

                                                                                                                                                         E T
                                                                      J O N G L E I

                                                                                                                                                             H I
                                                                                                                                                                          S U D A N

                                                                                                                                                                 O P
                                      S                        U                       D                   A                    N
                 W h i te N i l e

                                                                                                                                                                   I A
                                                                                  North                                     Kapoeta
                                                   Lafon                                                                      East
        CENTRAL                                                  E A S T E R N                         E Q U A T O R I A
       EQUATO RIA                                        Lafon
             Juba                                                                      Kapoeta            South                                Ilemi Triangle
                                                                                                                                            (disputed territory)
                                                    To r i t                               Budi                                                                          Surveyed counties
                                                              Torit                                                                                  Y                   International boundary
                                                                                               Chukudum                                     N                            State boundary
                                                        Palataka      Gilo                                                          E                                    County boundary
                                       Magwi                                      Ikotos
                                                              Upper                                                                                                      Main roads

                                    Pageri                                                                                                                               State capital
                                    Loa                                                                                                                                  Main towns
                                                                                           N       D                                    0        km         50           Other towns
                                                                 U           G     A

    have periodically attempted to ‘pacify’                                      militarizing pastoralists and increas-                         was not possible to sample from every
    these marginalized communities using                                         ing their reliance on weapons in inter-                        county; Magwi, Torit, and Ikotos coun-
    aggressive, militarized tactics—includ-                                      communal conflicts.                                            ties were considered representative of
    ing forcible disarmament—generally                                               EES was also deeply affected by                            the south-western region of the state.
    without addressing underlying griev-                                         the presence of the notorious Ugandan                              In this study, 2,392 households were
    ances or improving access to services.                                       rebel group the Lord’s Resistance Army                         surveyed, with one individual queried
         Livelihoods in EES consist of sub-                                      (LRA). The LRA entered Sudan in                                per household. The sample included
    sistence agriculture (mainly sorghum                                         1991 and by 1994 was an organized                              1,186 men and 1,201 women, achieving
    and millet) and livestock, and to a lesser                                   proxy force on the government side                             intended gender parity between the
    extent fishing, natural resource exploi-                                     against the SPLA and its allies. Its                           ages of 14 and 98. Respondents came
    tation, and mining and trade.5 Very few                                      brutal operations isolated the region                          from the Latuka (30 per cent), Acholi
    alternative opportunities exist. The                                         from humanitarian assistance; thou-                            (23 per cent), Madi (21 per cent), Lango
    region is beset by chronic insecurity,                                       sands fled the force’s almost daily                            (20 per cent), and other clans (6 per
    a lack of tenure rights, a total lack of                                     ambushes and abductions, often of                              cent). The survey methodology and
    infrastructure, and the absence of a                                         children.8 For part of the latter phase                        sampling frame is outlined in Box 1.
    legal framework or institutions to en-                                       of the civil war, the LRA effectively                              The survey reveals that sources of
    courage investment. Among the vast                                           controlled Magwi county, among other                           insecurity and violent conflict in the
    majority of the population, chronic                                          areas, and terrorized its communities.9                        three counties are multi-faceted and
    poverty is the norm.6                                                        The effect of the LRA’s domination                             complex. Respondents reported wide-
         The state is also home to a number                                      differentiates Magwi from both Torit                           ly different causes, frequencies, and
    of IDPs and a large number of returnees                                      and Ikotos.                                                    types of violent crimes. In particular,
    who had fled the violence and insecu-                                                                                                       there were clear distinctions between
    rity of the civil war. It experienced                                                                                                       Magwi’s security environment and
    regular aerial bombardments, attacks                                                                                                        those of Torit and Ikotos. For this reason,
    by ground forces, and protracted fight-                                      About the survey                                               Magwi is considered separately.
    ing not only between the SAF and the                                         In November and December 2009,
    SPLA, but also involving armed mili-                                         the Small Arms Survey and Danish
    tia, such as the Equatorian Defence                                          Demining Group undertook a house-                              Crime and violence in Torit
    Forces (EDF), EDF II, Boya Forces,                                           hold survey to gauge community per-
    Didinga Forces, Lafon Forces, and                                            spectives on pressing security and                             and Ikotos
    Toposa and Mundari militias.7 Arms                                           development concerns.10 Due to EES’s                           Almost one-third of both Torit (28 per
    from both armies flowed to the region,                                       large area, covering over 85,000 km2, it                       cent) and Ikotos (31 per cent) house-

2   Sudan Issue Brief               Number 16       April 2010
                                                                                                                hold members reported incidents of
Box 1 Survey methodology and analysis
                                                                                                                crime and armed violence against one
Sampling                                                                                                        of their household members in the last
Data from the Southern Sudan Relief and Rehabilitation Commission (SSRRC) and UN planning figures pro-          12 months. Killings—including spon-
                                                                                                                taneous, intentional, and revenge
duced a population of 354,215 in the counties of Torit, Ikotos, and Magwi, composed of 64,520 households
                                                                                                                killings—were the most commonly
with an average of 5.49 members. Magwi county contained an estimated 30,934 households (48 per cent of
                                                                                                                reported crime across all counties sur-
the entire sample), Torit county 18,168 households (28 per cent), and Ikotos 15,418 households (24 per cent).
                                                                                                                veyed, accounting for 42 per cent of
Using a confidence level of 95 per cent and a confidence interval of 2, two-staged sample size calculations
                                                                                                                all reported crimes in Torit and 47 per
yielded a sample size of 2,315 households.                                                                      cent in Ikotos (see Figure 1). Assault,
     Populations were grouped according to socio-economic status, experience of violent events, and ethnic      beating, fighting, and shooting (com-
membership. Ethnicity was defined according to tribal (clan) membership and language spoken. Each county        bined into one category in the survey)
was defined by its ethnicity. Because of the relative homogeneity of the three counties, however, it was        came second, with 19 per cent of
not meaningful to treat each as a separate, unique cluster. A two-stage random stratified sampling plan         respondents in both Torit and Ikotos
was applied; the first stratum was the county level, the second stratum was the boma (village) level. Using     reporting such incidents. Automatic
probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling, the chances of a boma being selected in a particular county    rifles (AK-47) were used in 46 per cent
reflected its population size. Rural and peri-urban sampling was calculated based on data from the South        of killings in Torit, and 42 per cent of
Sudan Human Rights Council that established the proportion of peri-urban to rural households at 30 per          those in Ikotos.
cent to 70 per cent (1:2.3).                                                                                        Torit and Ikotos are heavily affected
     Before arriving in the target boma, the programme manager and the enumeration superviser, who              by cattle raiding and ensuing revenge
                                                                                                                attacks, and to a lesser extent by ‘ban-
oversaw a group of ten enumerators, personally contacted the boma chief to receive permission to survey
                                                                                                                ditry’. Focus groups reported that raids
the area. Once granted permission, the entire team of ten enumerators travelled to the boma to meet with
                                                                                                                commonly involve three to four per-
the chief and to begin sampling. The enumeration team started in the putative boma centre, usually defined
                                                                                                                petrators operating at night. In Torit,
by the presence of a central marketplace or concentrated market activity. The group then split into pairs
                                                                                                                cattle raids are perceived to occur on
and chose a direction randomly;11 every Nth household was designated to be selected.12                          a weekly basis;14 estimates put the
     A number of limitations to the survey design and implementation should be noted. First, one side           resulting death toll at 15–20 per month.15
effect of PPS sampling is that smaller villages had a lower chance of being selected, potentially introduc-     Violence typically takes place only
ing a bias. Second, a small number—no more than five—selected bomas had to be dropped because they              after cattle are discovered to be miss-
required days of hiking to reach. Third, non-response was difficult to quantify but probably constituted        ing and attempts are made to recover
14 to 20 per cent. A number of households declined to participate before formal questioning even began.         them—and during subsequent revenge
In other cases, no female respondent was available. Finally, because the survey is drawn from one region        attacks.16 Clashes thus erupt once the
of the state, it is not representative of all of Eastern Equatoria.                                             village youths (monyomiji) track down
                                                                                                                their assets in a neighbouring village.
                                                                                                                When recovery is not successful, sub-
Data analysis
                                                                                                                sequent revenge and counter-attacks
Prior to analysis, the data was validated and cleaned using stringent filtering criteria. Any cases present-
                                                                                                                follow. Retaliation may eventually be
ing more than five per cent error were to be identified as invalid and removed.13 Using this threshold, no      directed at any member of the perpe-
cases were removed.                                                                                             trators’ village and can escalate into
     Analysis of the data was conducted by strategic use of weighting, complemented by statistically deter-     full-blown village warfare. In the
mined confidence intervals. Two sets of weights were applied to the data. First, the sample was weighted        heated atmosphere, violence can be
to maintain county-level proportions of those provided by the census data. Second, in order to accurately       triggered by rumours and proceed
extrapolate findings to the total population of the three counties, the data was weighted for 1) selection      even if traditional compensation is
probability within the overall population, 2) non-response bias, and 3) post-stratification adjustments.        paid.17 For example, in Ikotos county
The combination of these three elements allowed inference, at the population level, of the impact and           in November 2009, revenge attacks
frequency of certain events or experiences.                                                                     between the Logir and the Dongotono
     Finally, due to non-response and sampling biases the confidence intervals were increased from 2 to 4.      escalated into serious clashes between
This allowed the team to report findings within a greater margin of error, increasing the probability of
                                                                                                                these two Lango sub-clans, leading to
                                                                                                                two weeks of fighting and serious
locating the true value or percentage within the reported interval.
                                                                                                                insecurity between villages, until the
                                                                                                                SPLA was brought in to stop the fight-
Interpreting bar graphs                                                                                         ing.18 Quick action to recover stolen
In each bar graph presented in this Issue Brief, the data includes an error margin, or confidence interval,     cattle, based on reliable information
of 95 per cent confidence. This means that the range within the error margin has a 95 per cent chance of        and good collaboration with local
including the true opinion of the sample. This is also important for judging whether different responses to     communities—especially the youth—
the same question are statistically significant. Depending on the number of responses, even a difference        is thus key to preventing violence.
of ten percentage points or more between two answers to a question may not reflect statistical significance.        Notably, whereas conflict over cattle
In this case, ranking responses is inappropriate. To determine whether different responses are significant,     previously involved separate ethnic
refer to the confidence interval lines included on each bar graph.                                              groups and villages separated by great
                                                                                                                distances, in Torit and Ikotos they

    increasingly involve neighbouring            Figure 1 Types of reported crime by county
    villages. For example, in Hyala payam,
                                                     Magwi   Torit       Ikotos
    Torit county, residents of the villages
    of Hyala Central, Ileu, Ilole, Lofi, and     PER CENT REPORTED

    Lugurunj are now reportedly raiding          60%

    and killing each other, despite being
    from the same tribe (Latuka) and inter-      50%
    marrying.19 Many interviewed villagers
    pointed to a complete breakdown of           40%
    inter-village relations, their fear of
    being shot when walking to another
    village even during the daytime, and
    mounting divorce cases as families
    made up of members from different            20%
    villages are unable to stay together in
    a hostile environment.20 Similar evi-        10%
    dence was found in Ikotos Central
    village, where increased raiding and
    attacks among neighbouring villages                              Killing         Threat/       Assault/        Domestic       Robbery/
                                                                                  intimidation     shooting        violence         theft
    was also reported as a new phenom-
    enon that was putting significant strain                                                     TYPE OF CRIME
    on local social relations.21
        In addition to violence associated       the long-standing practice of cattle                 reportedly pushing youths to obtain
    with cattle raiding, villagers also re-      raiding has many facets. It involves                 livelihoods through ‘parallel ways’.25
    ported significant levels of killings        acts of bravery and the initiation to                    Generational break. The breakdown
    due to banditry and armed robbery,           manhood; it also serves to increase                  of old community relations and struc-
    committed by small criminal gangs,           both individual and village wealth.                  tures has also had a significant effect
    occurring both inside and outside the        Recently, however, the dynamics of                   on the younger generation’s ability to
    community. Attacks reportedly often          cattle raiding, and the nature of the                marry. For example, youths used to be
    involve looting of trucks for food and       violence associated with it, have                    able to rely on fathers and uncles to
    cash, as well as attacks at gunpoint         reportedly changed.                                  help with the payment of cows as a
    against people travelling between                Firearms. The widespread posses-                 dowry; since many male relatives died
    villages. In both Torit and Ikotos           sion of firearms allows relatively small             during the war, however, youths have
    banditry and armed robbery seem to           and loosely organized groups to raid                 neither cattle nor family support
    have increased significantly over the        large numbers of cattle. The absence                 structures. Complicating matters, the
    past year, with a peak of cases recorded     of a state security presence, and the                destruction of the traditional social
    towards the end of 2009.22                   breakdown of traditional village                     fabric has made the gradual payment
        The proximity of the attackers and       authority structures—exacerbated by                  of dowries much less accepted than
    the unpredictability of the attacks          a crisis in the relationship between                 before, putting intense pressure on
    greatly enhance people’s feeling of          younger and older generations—con-                   young people to acquire large numbers
    insecurity. Across the three counties,       tribute to a culture of lawlessness and              of cattle all at once.
    a surprisingly high percentage of crimes     impunity.                                                Food insecurity. Severe drought and
    reportedly take place during the day             Sponsorship. Respondents believe                 food insecurity, affecting large parts
    (55 per cent) as well as in the home         that relatives of villagers in high-level            of EES since April 2009, was widely
    (28 per cent), with the exception of         state and army positions are sponsor-                reported as another key reason for
    Ikotos, where slightly more reported         ing raiding for personal profit and to               increasing levels of armed violence
    crimes took place in the streets than in     generate a wider support base, thereby               and insecurity. Violence peaked at the
    the home. These findings imply that          fuelling local cycles of violence. These             end of 2009, coinciding with the height
    attackers are often nearby and familiar      sponsors reportedly provide weapons                  of the migratory period for cattle keep-
    with the environment. For example,           and ammunition and guarantee pro-                    ers, who in the face of drought have
    women in Hyala Central village re-           tection from prosecution for the per-                to venture farther into unfamiliar or
    counted how attackers had shot two           petrators.24 Chiefs and other village                hostile territory in search of pasture
    men through a small window in a house        authorities are said to be just as involved          and water points. For example, in Isoke
    while their wives and babies were lying      in acts of banditry as other members                 payam, Ikotos county, 40 out of 60 re-
    next to them. According to the women         of the community.                                    ported violent incidents from September
    interviewed, the attackers clearly knew          Livelihoods. Lack of employment                  to December 2009 involved gunshot
    the place and their victim, yet escaped      opportunities, idleness, and increasing              injuries. Where one to two gunshot
    unidentified.23                              desperation and impatience to see tan-               wounds per month was the previous
        According to focus group discus-         gible peace dividends and a more equal               norm, by the end of 2009 the rate had
    sions and key informant interviews,          distribution of available resources are              increased to one to two per week.26

4   Sudan Issue Brief   Number 16   April 2010
Box 2 Magwi county                                                                                                  Victim profiles and gender
Causes and dynamics of insecurity in Magwi county are very different from those of Torit and Ikotos. Two            dimensions
historical facts help explain why: Magwi is the only county in EES that is populated primarily by farmers; it       Youths are reportedly the primary
also experienced widespread displacement during the war. Magwi was the site of heavy fighting during the            victims of crime, with the mean age of
civil war as well as after the signing of the CPA, when the LRA was headquartered in Owiny-Kibul until being        victims across the three counties at 26.5
flushed out in 2007.27 Consequently, it became one of the most inaccessible and underserved areas in the            years. Three-quarters of the victims
state both during and after the war, while at the same time hosting a large influx of returnees and IDPs in         are under 31; roughly 10 per cent are
the post-CPA period.28                                                                                              under 16. Across all locations and
      Interviewed Magwi residents reported that disputes over natural resources, followed by natural threats,
                                                                                                                    ages reported, more than two-thirds
are the most prevalent security concerns in the county. Perceived levels of insecurity and in particular
                                                                                                                    (67 per cent) are men, reflective of the
armed violence are generally much lower than in Torit and Ikotos. In Magwi, 14 per cent of respondents
                                                                                                                    fact that cattle raiding and predatory
reported that a household member had been a victim of a crime in the last 12 months, compared to 28 per
                                                                                                                    armed violence are typically committed
cent in Torit and 31 per cent in Ikotos. However, the potential for conflict, especially over land, as well as
conflict linked to the reintegration of large numbers of returnees, is very high. In Magwi, 22 per cent of          by and against men. However, focus
households experienced threats or intimidation, compared to 14 per cent in Torit and 5 per cent in Ikotos           groups reported that in recent years
(see Figure 1). But while respondents in Magwi, like Torit and Ikotos, reported killing as the most frequently      women have been increasingly tar-
occurring crime (30 per cent), the actual numbers were far lower than in the other two counties. Magwi              geted, in particular during revenge
households reported a higher percentage of spontaneous killings than Torit or Ikotos.                               attacks. Many people interviewed
      Focus group interviews in Magwi suggest that land has become a key source of conflict in the post-CPA         agreed that this was a recent change
period, largely since the influx of returnees and IDPs beginning in 200729 and exacerbated by the unequal           that had significantly altered local
distribution of services and the marginalization of particular communities. Political actors initiate and exploit   conflict dynamics. Focus group par-
these conflicts as a means of extending their constituencies into newly created administrative areas. The           ticipants in Torit and Ikotos counties
principle of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement that ‘the land belongs to the people’ has unleashed             said that women and girls were shot
a struggle for power and influence, fuelling splits along tribal lines as each group seeks to defend and            at water points, in fields while culti-
demarcate its own ‘homeland’. The traditionally welcoming attitude towards ‘foreigners’30 and the ease              vating food, while collecting firewood,
with which they used to settle has given way to widespread suspicion regarding possible land encroach-
                                                                                                                    and when walking between villages.38
ment by rival communities.
                                                                                                                    They are also increasingly forced to
      These conflicts in Magwi take diverse forms. Returnees may find their land occupied by earlier return-
                                                                                                                    request armed youths to escort them.39
ees or members of the host community who have taken over the land. In Nimule, for example, mainly Dinka
IDPs settled on Madi land during the latter’s absence. Tensions remain high despite some fruitful initiatives
                                                                                                                    In Hyala Central village (Torit) women
undertaken by the state and local governments to resolve the issue.31 In some areas, especially close to            reported having to retreat into the
the Aswa river, Madi returnees are prevented from returning from Uganda because their land is occupied.             house after dark for fear of attack.40
In Nimule town, permanent structures have sometimes been erected by the occupiers of the plots, or the                  Women also play an instrumental
entire plot may have been sold to foreign businessmen, making the peaceful settlement of land disputes              role in motivating and encouraging
extremely complicated. In one instance in 2009, serious fighting erupted and one person was killed when             young men to go out on cattle raids.
a Madi landowner found that his land had been sold by an SPLA commander to a Somali businessman who                 They compose songs to shame those
planned to construct a petrol station.32 Frequent armed threats are reported when people try to resolve             who have not yet gone raiding or who
the issues peacefully, in particular when confronting IDPs from SPLA members’ families. Locals perceive             have come back empty-handed. This
the relatives of soldiers to be privileged, close to the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS), and protected         behaviour increases the pressure on
by SPLA commanders. Complicating matters, IDPs often reject the authority of the Magwi county adminis-              young men to secure the necessary heads
tration, relying instead on their own chiefs and court system, as well as a special GoSS police force not           of cattle for a dowry.41 Respondents
drawn from the EES state police and paid directly by Juba.
                                                                                                                    said that educating girls to reject raided
      Border disputes over new or pending administrative boundaries are also a source of conflict, whether
                                                                                                                    cows as part of their dowries, and to
at the boma, payam, county, or state level. Politicians jockeying for power mobilize along tribal and iden-
                                                                                                                    delay their marriages, would prevent
tity lines, even though the underlying grievance is almost always a lack of development and the unequal
                                                                                                                    violence by reducing the pressure on
distribution of services among all groups. For example, the Ijire people, currently under the administration
of Obbo boma, want to create their own boma and move it under the Torit county administration; the con-
                                                                                                                    young boys to find large numbers of
flict is reportedly primarily about the lack of development and facilities in Obbo.33                               cows.42
      While most communities associate the creation of a new payam or changes to county boundaries with                 Rape and sexual assault are seldom
an increase in service delivery as well as additional administrative positions, politicians are often more          reported (3 per cent across all counties),
interested in widening their political constituencies and exploiting natural resources. Indeed, in many cases,      but anecdotal evidence suggests that
powerful individuals issue contracts to companies without the knowledge of the communities involved.34              they occur frequently. In Ikotos, focus
Several ongoing local border disputes have the potential to seriously escalate due to the number of par-            groups reported at least several
ties involved as well as the interests at stake.                                                                    monthly incidents of women being
      Recent reports also point to an increase in mob justice cases, many involving accusations of poison-          raped and their food stolen when
ing, in the Madi corridor of Magwi county.35 Allegations of poisoning are often based on little more than           coming to the market from outside
hearsay; youths reportedly mobilize quickly to kill the accused and burn down their homes. For example,             villages.43 Investigation and prosecu-
on 17 October 2009, a mob burned down 10 tukuls (huts) in Iriya village (Loa boma, Pageri payam) based              tion is rare, even when the attacker is
on rumours that individuals were practising witchcraft. A woman was thrown into her burning tukul, and
                                                                                                                    known, for fear of revenge. The SPLA
another couple died in the fire.36 In some areas, whole villages have refused to settle on their traditional
                                                                                                                    reportedly also harass and sexually
land because of the presence of a person suspected of poisoning. This complex phenomenon may be an
                                                                                                                    abuse women in areas where they are
indication of the growing dissatisfaction with the current lack of law enforcement and the absent legal
system, with local youths increasingly taking matters into their own hands.37
                                                                                                                    stationed, such as Nimule, where the
                                                                                                                    army barracks are situated within the

    settlements of the general population.              hold misunderstandings into violence.      lating for the entire population, this
    In Nimule prison, where men and                     In Magwi, the dynamics of resettlement     study estimates that approximately
    women are held together in one room,                and reintegration of large numbers of      7,000 households possess them.49 Even
    there are reported cases of women                   people returning from different regions    though reports of ERW usage in vio-
    prisoners ‘disappearing’ for the night              and countries with diverse experiences     lent incidents are infrequent, private
    and being brought back the next morn-               are also aggravating misunderstand-        ownership and unsafe storage of these
    ing by the police officer in charge.44              ings and conflicts between and within      devices is a risk factor for accidents.
        Early pregnancy (‘defilement’) cases            families.47                                    Focus groups highlighted several
    are common in Magwi, according to                                                              accidents involving official stockpiles
    focus groups, ranking among the top                                                            of unexploded ordnance (UXO)50 col-
    three issues causing disputes in the                Instruments: small arms and                lected by demining groups and await-
    county, and often inspiring revenge                                                            ing destruction by the SPLA in Magwi
    crimes against the accused or his                   explosive remnants of war                  county. UXOs are often kept for months
    family.45 Because early pregnancy is                Civilian small arms possession is an       or longer in official stockpiling areas,
    shameful for the family concerned,                  important facet of local security dynam-   unguarded and unprotected. Besides
    disputes are often settled at the family            ics in EES. Because official state secu-   being easily accessible to anyone in
    level or with the help of a chief, unlike           rity providers are largely absent, or      the community, they are also suscepti-
    in Torit and Ikotos, where perpetra-                perceived as being inefficient, partial,   ble to fires and explosions. For example,
    tors can expect serious punishment.                 and corrupt, many communities rely         in Lobone payam, Magwi county, a fire
    Another consequence is female school                on small arms for protection and secu-     broke out and spread to an UXO stock-
    dropouts, which are reportedly very                 rity—as well as for crime and violence.    pile in September 2009, causing an
    high in Magwi.46                                    At the same time, the survey findings      explosion that killed one person.51 In
        Domestic violence was reported                  suggest that high levels of firearm        Obbo boma, Magwi county, a ‘mentally
    across all counties, particularly in                ownership coincide with perceptions        disturbed’ community member took a
    Magwi, where it accounted for 18 per                of low security and increased levels of    UXO from a stockpile in October 2009
    cent of all reported crimes, compared               armed crime and violence.                  and placed it in a fire where children
    to 9 per cent in Torit and 6 per cent in                Almost 40 per cent (38 per cent) of    were roasting sweet potatoes; the ex-
    Ikotos. Focus groups reported that                  the total sample reported firearm own-     plosion killed one of the children and
    alcohol consumption by both men                     ership within their household. This        seriously injured another.52 Prompt
    and women is a factor, turning house-               means that approximately 24,789 (±965)     removal and destruction of UXO stock-
                                                        households in the three counties con-      piles by SPLA and partner organiza-
    Figure 2 Firearm possession by county               tain at least one firearm. Reported        tions, and increased sensitization of
        Magwi    Torit     Ikotos
                                                        ownership was highest in Ikotos,           communities to the risks associated
                                                        where 65 per cent of all households        with these weapons, could reduce the
                                                        said they had a gun, compared to 53        frequency of these incidents.
                                                        per cent in Torit and 15 per cent in           Some local residents acquired their
                                                        Magwi (see Figure 2). Actual owner-        firearms in the post-CPA period, but
    90%                                                 ship rates are probably much higher;       most did so during the war.53 In addi-
                                                        interviews suggested that at least every   tion to active arming by the SPLA and
    80%                                                 male community member over 20 years        the SAF, small arms, ammunition and
                                                        of age owns a gun in Ikotos, with some     ERW fell into civilian hands when
                                                        households having as many as eight         garrison towns such as Torit or Pajok
                                                        to nine guns.48 There was a significant    changed sides54 and residents accessed
                                                        correlation between the level of arms      abandoned supplies. Across the three
                                                        ownership and crimes committed             counties, about 50 per cent of respond-
                                                        with a gun. In Ikotos, 33 per cent of      ents reported that the supply of arms
    50%                                                 all crimes were reportedly carried out     has decreased in the last 12 months,
                                                        with an AK-47 or similar automatic         while 39 per cent said it has remained
    40%                                                 rifle, compared to 28 per cent in Torit    the same, with little significant varia-
                                                        and 11 per cent in Magwi. In Ikotos, 42    tion in the counties. The reported ease
                                                        per cent of all killings were committed    of acquiring a weapon varied, how-
                                                        with an AK-47 or similar weapons; in       ever: 40 per cent of respondents in
                                                        Torit the figure was 46 per cent and in    Ikotos reported difficulty in acquiring
    20%                                                 Magwi 18 per cent.                         firearms, compared to 49 per cent of
                                                            Across all three counties, 10 per      respondents in Torit and 73 per cent
    10%                                                 cent of households surveyed reported       in Magwi.
                                                        possessing explosive remnants of war           Purchasing was the most commonly
                                                        (ERW). The figures were higher in Torit    reported method of acquiring small
                         Yes                    No      (15 per cent) and Ikotos (18 per cent)     arms (35 per cent over all areas), in
                 DOES YOUR HOUSEHOLD OWN A FIREARM?     than in Magwi (4 per cent). Extrapo-       particular in Ikotos (44 per cent) and

6   Sudan Issue Brief          Number 16   April 2010
Figure 3 Firearm acquisition by county                                                                 campaigns,62 significantly reducing
                                                                                                       the legitimacy of such exercises in the
    Magwi    Torit   Ikotos
                                                                                                       eyes of local communities. Focus
PERCENTAGE                                                                                             groups also singled out the continuous
70%                                                                                                    flow of ammunition from the SPLA as
                                                                                                       a key factor fuelling local cycles of
60%                                                                                                    violence. Poor controls and irregular
                                                                                                       salary payments for soldiers were
50%                                                                                                    seen as major reasons influencing
                                                                                                       SPLA members to sell their ammuni-
                                                                                                       tion at local markets.

                                                                                                       Impact and perceptions of
20%                                                                                                    small arms and light weapons
                                                                                                       As noted, while small arms feature in
10%                                                                                                    violence in all three counties, they are
                                                                                                       by no means the only tool—or neces-
                                                                                                       sarily the dominant one—used to
             Was purchased     Was given by         Was given by       Was given by a      Found it    threaten or commit violence. In Magwi,
                              a friend/family        the SPLA           militia group   lying around
                                                                                                       the survey found that killings were 44
                                                MEANS OF ACQUISITION                                   times more likely to involve a stick than
                                                                                                       an automatic rifle when compared to
                                                                                                       Torit, and 20 times more when compared
Torit (31 per cent), though less so in                  which can occur repeatedly. Many               to Ikotos. The majority of Magwi’s
Magwi (24 per cent) (see Figure 3).                     soldiers have reportedly stockpiled            population fled to Uganda during the
During the war, informal commerce                       weapons in this way, anticipating              war; the county had access to educa-
in small arms was common in Eastern                     payouts for weapons as part of CPA-
                                                                                                       tion and avoided involvement in armed
Equatoria, with Agoro market (Ikotos                    mandated disarmament, demobiliza-
                                                                                                       conflict, and residents generally do not
county) on the Ugandan border acting                    tion, and reintegration (DDR) efforts,58
                                                                                                       approve of arms carrying in public
as a centre for the trading of black-                   which have already begun in EES.59
                                                                                                       places. Even in Torit, where a strong
market arms and ammunition.55 While                         The survey found that the SPLA was
                                                                                                       tradition of armed violence exists,
this market was officially closed in 2003,              the second-most commonly reported
                                                                                                       more crimes were committed without
cross-border arms and ammunition                        source of firearms (29 per cent) after
                                                                                                       a weapon (32 per cent) than with an
trade is reported to continue, though                   purchasing (35 per cent);60 however,
                                                                                                       automatic rifle (28 per cent). The impli-
its scale is difficult to establish.56 Focus            Magwi residents were significantly
                                                                                                       cation is that the availability of weapons
groups in Ikotos county suggested                       more likely to report having received
                                                                                                       should not be considered the primary
that weapons are still acquired from                    their firearms from the SPLA (55 per
                                                                                                       cause of violence, but rather a risk and
Uganda in exchange for cows. Until                      cent) than both Torit (30 per cent) and
recently, Uganda People’s Defence                       Ikotos residents (16 per cent) (see            enabling factor. In the context of poten-
Force (UPDF) troops stationed in                        Figure 3). This may be due to the arm-         tial community security programmes,
Magwi county to pursue the LRA                          ing of local communities in Magwi to           it also points to the necessity to focus on
were also reported to sell arms and                     counter the LRA in the absence of a            comprehensive programming that ad-
ammunitions to the local population.                    robust police and army presence.               dresses the root causes of local violence.
In addition, arms are being traded                      Survey respondents said the SPLA                    Among households reporting fire-
along traditional pastoralist cattle                    was also the primary source of ERW             arm ownership, the primary reason
routes, in particular on the Ethiopian                  (42 per cent) in Magwi (49 per cent),          given was village protection (77 per
and Kenyan borders. The Buya sea-                       Torit (49 per cent), and Ikotos (34 per        cent). Personal protection from gangs
sonal movement north to Jonglei state,                  cent). In addition, Ikotos and Torit           and criminals was the second most com-
where they come in close contact with                   residents identified militia groups as         mon response (40 per cent), followed
the Murle, is also believed to facilitate               significant sources of ERW and small           by personal protection from wildlife
arms and ammunition flows allegedly                     arms (17 per cent and 9 per cent,              (33 per cent). Variations in this response
from Khartoum to local militias.57                      respectively).                                 reflect differing levels of insecurity.
     Since the end of the civil war, de-                    Focus groups reported that politi-         In Torit and Ikotos, where both threats
mobilized or relocated fighters have                    cal patronage was a factor influencing         to household members and criminal
returned to EES with their personal                     arms flows from SLPA stocks to local           victimization were reported more fre-
service weapons; sometimes they also                    communities.61 Arms provided are said          quently than in Magwi, ‘protection of
receive new weapons as they join local                  to be typically recycled from stockpiles       the village’ was also a more frequent
police, prison, or wildlife services,                   collected during civilian disarmament          reason given for gun possession.

    Institutions: formal and                     Figure 4 Ranking police and traditional leaders’ approach to crime
    informal security providers                        Police   Traditional leaders

    Most respondents (85 per cent) reported      MEAN RATING

    that some kind of security institution       4.0

    is present in their area. The vast major-
    ity of these (90 per cent) said that tra-
    ditional leaders and boma chiefs are         3.0
    their primary security providers, fol-
    lowed by neighbours (48 per cent) and        2.5
    religious leaders (38 per cent). Official
    security providers were at the bottom        2.0

    of the list: only 27 per cent said the
    police and 8 per cent said the SPLA
    were present in their area.                  1.0
        Recognition of certain security
    groups varied across the three counties:     0.5
    Magwi county respondents reported
    a stronger police presence (32 per cent)     0
                                                                     Trust            Efficiency    Accessibility    Familiarity   Transparency
    than both Ikotos (18 per cent) and Torit
    (28 per cent). Conversely, in Ikotos and
    Torit, ‘neighbours’ were more often
    reported (52 per cent and 56 per cent,       obstacle to modernization and democ-                        Exacerbating matters, the formal
    respectively) than in Magwi (41 per          ratization of the state, and that the                   court system, especially at the county
    cent). These differences were statisti-      government should involve the youth                     and state level, is not sufficiently
    cally significant.                           more.63 In fact, some villages have re-                 developed, so the most serious cases
        Given the negligible presence of         cently elected relatively young chiefs,                 are often delayed considerably. This
    official state security providers, the       but their authority and legitimacy re-                  invites revenge killings as impatient
    majority of crimes and disputes con-         mains questionable to some villagers.64                 victims take justice into their own
    tinue to be reported to traditional              Widespread gun ownership and                        hands. The increasing numbers of
    authorities. Indeed, 59 per cent of all      use among local youths has also con-                    mob justice cases over allegations of
    respondents said they would report a         tributed to the erosion of traditional                  witchcraft, poisoning, and other crimes
    crime to traditional authorities first;      authority. There are reports of chiefs                  in Magwi county (see Box 2) is, accord-
    16 per cent would inform the nearest         hesitating to expose criminals to the                   ing to several key informants, a result
    family member; and only 11 per cent          authorities or even actively cooperat-                  of growing dissatisfaction with the
    would report a crime to the police.          ing with them for fear of retaliation.65                prevailing justice system and a lack of
    The differences in these responses           Some chiefs have even been attacked                     law enforcement in the state.68
    across counties were small. In places        and shot, something that was unthink-
    where both police and traditional            able in years past. Key informants high-                The police and the SPLA
    authorities were present, 43 per cent        lighted the need to protect chiefs and                  When asked to rank the police on a
    would still report a crime to the tradi-     establish collective decision-making                    scale of 0 to 4 in terms of trust, effi-
    tional authorities, compared to 32 per       and local conflict resolution processes.66              ciency, accessibility, familiarity, and
    cent who would go to the police.                 There is also considerable confu-                   transparency regarding their approach
                                                 sion today over the applicability of                    to crimes and disputes, respondents
    Traditional authorities                      traditional and modern authority and                    ranked them far below traditional
    Focus group interviews revealed that         justice systems; while traditional                      authorities in areas where both are
    despite their continued presence, tra-       authorities have faded, state authority                 present (see Figure 4). Similarly, focus
    ditional authorities have been severely      has not effectively filled their place.                 groups cited a lack of impartiality,
    weakened by the civil war, the prolif-       Whereas chiefs used to be able to judge                 corruption, and criminal involvement
    eration of small arms in civilian hands,     on all cases during the war, whether                    as some of the reasons for their low
    the breakdown of traditional commu-          civilian or criminal, they now rule                     opinion of both the police and the SPLA.
    nity relations, and the transition from      only on local disputes, investigating                   For example, when police are trucked
    traditional to modern state authority.       criminal cases in conjunction with                      in to respond to a specific security
    Indeed, some chiefs in power today           police, and referring the most serious                  threat, respondents suggested that
    are not traditional leaders but appoint-     cases to the formal county or state                     certain villages receive preferential
    ees installed by the SPLA (or the            courts. Cooperation between chiefs                      coverage and others none, depending
    Government of Sudan during the               and police is often fraught with prob-                  on local connections to high-level com-
    war) to control and extract resources,       lems, as police officers are perceived                  manders or politicians. In other cases,
    and they lack legitimacy in the eyes of      to be incompetent or corrupt, even                      residents claimed that unjustified
    local communities. At the same time,         setting suspects free in exchange for                   force and punishments are applied.69
    some youths believe that chiefs are an       small bribes.67                                         Focus group interviewees also said

8   Sudan Issue Brief   Number 16   April 2010
that the police are often too weak or             In the absence of any official secu-           unprotected and fell victim to attacks
easily overpowered by local armed             rity provider in many areas, youths                by neighbouring tribes, resulting in them
communities. In Torit county, police          currently take over the task of protect-           losing their livestock, and turning them
allegedly fear confronting cattle raiders,    ing local villages and enforcing the               further against the state authorities.79
for example, and thus do not investigate      law. While traditional structures such             Moreover, even government officials
cases thoroughly, unless backed up by         as the monyomiji used to have clear rules          acknowledge that the previous cam-
the SPLA.70 While the official security       of engagement, as well as responsibili-            paign yielded only limited results,
forces are sometimes successful in re-        ties for protecting villages, it is perhaps        with most people handing over old,
covering stolen cattle, known culprits        not surprising that in the current secu-           non-functioning guns while hiding
are often left alone, exacerbating what       rity vacuum, traditional structures are            serviceable ones in their homes or
interviewees characterized as endemic         also being used for criminal purposes.78           remote areas.80
lawlessness, lack of follow-up and            This situation points to the urgent                    Nevertheless, survey findings
commitment, and weak governance.71            need to find interim security solutions            suggest a favourable attitude towards
     Like elsewhere in Southern Sudan,        that focus on communities’ security                disarmament, with around 68 per cent
local police in the three counties are        needs, while integrating both tradi-               of the total sample reporting a willing-
primarily former SPLA soldiers who            tional and modern systems and focus-               ness to give up firearms and a majority
demobilized following the signing of          ing on mutual trust and a division of              of 63 per cent anticipating that future
the CPA. Five years later, they still lack    responsibilities.                                  disarmament would very much increase
transport, communications equipment,                                                             household security. Magwi respond-
arms, and ammunition, as well as                                                                 ents (71 per cent) were significantly
trained manpower, and thus remain             Disarmament                                        more likely to say they would comply
ill-equipped to face the security chal-       While the SPLA and the GoSS remain                 with disarmament than both Torit (63
lenges in the state.72 The Torit police       committed to civilian disarmament, in              per cent) and Ikotos respondents (66
commissioner estimates that there             the current security vacuum the issue              per cent) and much less likely to hide
should be 2,000 police officers per state,    is particularly sensitive. Without a               some or all of their firearms (8 per cent,
with around 120 officers deployed in          guarantee of security after guns are               as against 26 per cent and 25 per cent
every county.73 In practice, police offic-    collected, disarmed communities are                for Torit and Ikotos). Ikotos (56 per
ers tend to stay close to urban centres,      vulnerable to attacks from neighbour-              cent) and Torit (59 per cent) respond-
however, mainly because rural areas           ing and cross-border communities.                  ents were significantly less optimistic
lack accommodation, food, and trans-          Uneven disarmament of competing                    than people in Magwi (68 per cent)
port.74 In Ikotos county, for example,        communities also incentivizes rearma-              about a potential significant increase in
there is a total of 100 police officers, of   ment. In Torit and Ikotos, communities             household security after a disarmament
whom 50 are based in Ikotos Central.          disarmed in 2009 were reportedly left              campaign in their area (see Figure 5).
     Despite the current poor reputation
of the police, interviewees revealed
that they would welcome better                Figure 5 Anticipated effect of disarmament by county
equipped, trained, and more easily                Magwi    Torit   Ikotos
accessible and strategically located          PERCENTAGE
police as their security provider.75          80%
     Interviewees said that they fear
the SPLA, which currently provides
security in some areas. Grievances
against the army include the rape
and sexual harassment of local women          60%
and the extortion of communities’
natural resources (such as timber). In        50%
a recent incident in Khor Engliz on
the Juba–Torit road, a civilian chal-
lenged an SPLA soldier cutting down
trees, who apprehended the challenger.
The arrest sparked the mobilization           30%
of the entire village, heavily armed,
against the nearby SPLA barracks.             20%
A violent clash was avoided only by
calling in the local authorities, who
prevented the army from attacking.76
The SPLA reportedly also reminds
people of the civil war, and thus has         0
                                                            Would very       Would some-    Would not make   Would some-       Would very
a limited capacity to resolve disputes                     much decrease    what decrease    a difference    what increase    much increase
or deal with criminal incidents in an                        security          security                        security         security

impartial manner.77                                                                           RESPONSE

         In Ikotos, where the perception of       level) are failing to do this, or are part     on community–police relations and
     security is lowest, 42 per cent said         of the problem—as when local power-            ultimately on the effectiveness of local
     security had worsened in the county          brokers get involved in land disputes          policing. The inclusion of parallel
     over the past year compared to 26 per        for personal gain.                             conflict management and local peace
     cent in Torit and only 15 per cent in            Moreover, local government insti-          and reconciliation initiatives could
     Magwi. Further, 67 per cent of Ikotos        tutions are seriously understaffed and         also help ensure that ‘community
     respondents said they were concerned         underfunded, without the infrastruc-           security’ does not become a synonym
     about their household members’ safety,       ture, transport, equipment, or manpower        for vigilantism.
     significantly more than in both Torit        to deliver even the most elementary                As has been documented in other
     (54 per cent) and Magwi (48 per cent).       services. Investment and capacity              areas of Southern Sudan, the commu-
     This indicates the degree to which           building in local institutions that can        nities in the three counties viewed the
     communities rely on guns, especially         respond to communities’ needs is               rule of the gun as one forced upon
     in the more insecure areas of the state;     therefore desperately needed and should        them by necessity. In most cases they
     it also highlights the need for a com-       be an essential part of any effort to tackle   expressed a great willingness to give
     prehensive strategy for alternative          insecurity and underdevelopment.               up their weapons if the army and the
     security provision in these communi-             Ultimately, reducing violence and          state government provided security.
     ties, before disarmament takes place.        insecurity—both real and perceived—            But even recently, and despite the
         In focus groups, interviewees said       requires eliminating the culture of            wider intention of both the army and
     that disarmament should proceed by           impunity with which crimes are com-            the GoSS to disarm Southern civilians,
     sensitizing local communities in parallel    mitted. It is difficult to see how that        the SPLA was arming EES communities
     with simultaneous, voluntary arms col-       shift can take place without a more            against external threats, an implicit
     lections, and that this should be followed   visible and capable law enforcement            admission of its inability to protect them.
     by forceful disarmament if necessary.        presence. Deployment is currently                  Selective civilian disarmament
     This would avoid the current problem         limited to towns, while rural areas are        will soon restart in EES. To avoid the
     of neighbouring villagers raiding and        devoid of police. Police posts along           bloodshed and community predation
     attacking disarmed areas.81 As disarma-      major cattle and trading routes, and           that disarmament has caused elsewhere,
     ment is set to restart in EES, there is      on well-known escape routes, are also          it should be simultaneous, include
     a small window of opportunity for            lacking. A joint initiative for a ‘rapid       meaningful security guarantees, and
     community engagement to ensure it            reaction force’ by the Torit county            draw on local community initiatives
     is peaceful and well-organized.              commissioner, the SSRRC, and the               and civil society networks. Without
                                                  police is an innovative starting point.82      the latter, the SPLA—which will con-
                                                  The periodic rotation of security forces       duct the disarmament—will not have
     Reflections                                  would also help prevent the formation          an adequate understanding of local
     Respondents provided a wealth of             of long-term patronage networks and            security dynamics and potential con-
     specific, well-considered recommen-          limit corruption, bias, and profiteering.      flicts. Initiatives such as the Eastern
     dations for mitigating particular                Building up the capacity of the            Equatoria Action Network on Small
     sources of violence and insecurity.          police to anticipate and prevent crime         Arms, engaged in building a civil
     These include educating girls to reject      and enforce the law is an even greater         society network for sensitization and
     dowries of stolen cattle; moving swiftly     challenge than their increased deploy-         awareness on small arms, are impor-
     to locate and restore stolen cattle before   ment. The police force urgently needs          tant.83 Initial reports from ongoing
     revenge attacks take place; expediting       not only adequate equipment, transport,        disarmament exercises in Jonglei seem
     the removal and destruction of ERW;          and communication facilities, but also         to suggest that similar organizations
     reorienting traditional clan structures      training in global standards in law            play a pivotal role in community sen-
     such as the monyomiji back to their          enforcement, conflict prevention, weap-        sitization and awareness raising both
     original community functions; and            ons use, and respect for human rights.         before and during campaigns.
     preventing the recirculation of guns         Support is also needed for the court               Perhaps the most striking and
     after disarmament efforts. These are         systems, both official and customary,          worrisome finding of this survey was
     all worth pursuing. But without better       which are currently incapable of provid-       the constantly repeated view that com-
     governance and more development,             ing justice and compensation to victims        munities had been abandoned by their
     violence is likely to continue despite       or holding perpetrators to account.            state, their police, and the Juba govern-
     these steps. Remedies must therefore             These are long-term challenges.            ment. After decades of war, the CPA
     address both the symptoms and the            In the meantime, the responsibility for        has not addressed the profound sense
     causes of insecurity.                        village and household security remains         of marginalization among these commu-
         As respondents ranked insecurity         in the hands of community members.             nities. With the approach of national
     far below natural resource and devel-        Supporting communities to exchange             elections and the close of the interim
     opment concerns—and given the                information, identify and attempt to           period in 2011, Eastern Equatorians
     linkages between violence, cattle, and       preempt conflicts, and liaise more             continue to face chronic underdevel-
     land issues—it is clear that redressing      closely with the police would help to          opment, natural resource competition,
     the marginalization of these commu-          provide an important stopgap until             and pervasive insecurity—indicators
     nities would reduce the incentives and       state services improve. In fact, support-      of some of the deep internal challenges
     motivations for violence. Currently,         ing ‘ground-up’ community security             a newly independent Southern Sudan
     GoSS institutions (at the Juba and state     efforts could have a positive impact           may face in the future.

10   Sudan Issue Brief   Number 16   April 2010
Notes                                               22 Interviews with INGO and UN represen-
                                                       tatives, Torit and Ikotos counties, 15–25
                                                                                                            cause of girls not graduating from school
                                                                                                            in EES, where marital life often starts as
This Issue Brief was produced by Irina                 January 2010.                                        early as age 14 (IRC, 2010, p. 2).
Mosel and Ryan Murray, based on the 2009            23 Interviews with women, Hyala payam,             47   Interview with chairlady of St. Monica
                                                       Torit county, 16 January 2010.                       Women’s Association, Magwi county,
Small Arms Survey–Danish Demining                   24 Focus group discussions across Torit and             19 January 2010.
Group Eastern Equatoria Security Percep-               Ikotos counties, 15–25 January 2010.            48   Interview with a youth, Ikotos county,
tions Survey.                                       25 Interviews with women and youths, Ikotos             23 January 2010.
                                                       county, 20–24 January 2010.                     49   The precise survey findings indicate that
                                                    26 Interview with INGO official, Isoke payam,           6,909 (±1,340) households may harbour
1    Households in each of the payams (admin-
                                                       Ikotos county, 23 January 2010.                      ERW.
     istrative districts) of the three counties
                                                    27 The LRA assembled in Owiny-Kibul in late        50   UXOs typically include ERW as well as
     were surveyed, with the exception of
     Himodonge payam in Torit county.                  2006 as a Juba-sponsored peace process               other forms of ordnance—such as bullets—
2    This Issue Brief presents the survey results      got under way. After LRA leader Joseph               found in conflict zones.
     using the ‘armed violence lens’ of the            Kony failed to sign a Final Peace Agree-        51   Interview with paramount chief, Magwi
     Organisation for Economic Co-operation            ment several times, the peace process fell           county, 19 January 2010.
     and Development’s Development Assis-              apart. See Schomerus (2007, pp. 34–39).         52   The accused was subsequently jailed for
     tance Committee. See OECD (2009).              28 The Office of the United Nations High                the incident. Interview with Magwi county
3    Munyes (2007, p. 7). See also Mc Evoy and         Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)                    commissioner, Magwi, 22 January 2010.
     Murray (2008, pp. 12–21).                         documented almost 53,000 officially             53   Interviews with government officials, Torit
4    Mc Evoy and Murray (2008, p. 12).                 assisted returnees to the area by March              county, 15 January 2010; see also, Schomerus
5    EES (2007, p. 14).                                2010. Email correspondence with UNHCR                (2008, p. 49) and Mc Evoy and Murray
6    EES (2007, pp. 12–13).                            official, Nimule, 27 March 2010. The actual          (2008, p. 19).
7    McEvoy and Murray (2008, p. 17).                  number is likely to be much higher.             54   For example, places such as Palotaka in
8    Schomerus (2007, pp. 10, 18).                  29 Interview with Magwi county commis-                  Magwi county have been used as SAF,
9    Schomerus (2007, p. 21).                          sioner, Magwi, 22 January 2010.                      SPLA, and UPDF as well as LRA head-
10   Previously, in 2008, the Small Arms Survey     30 Locally, members of other communities                quarters over the past decade, leaving a
     had conducted a household survey of               are seen as ‘foreigners’.                            legacy of arms and ammunitions in the
     selected communities in Eastern Equatoria      31 The ‘Nimule Resolution’ of January 2009,             hands of the civilians in the area.
     and Turkana North district in northern            the outcome statement of a conference           55   Schomerus (2008, p. 50).
     Kenya. See McEvoy and Murray (2008).              organized by both EES and Jonglei state         56   See also, Lewis (2009, p. 54).
11   Because households were usually situated          governments, stipulates that the return         57   Interview with UN Mission in Sudan
     along a main artery or in a concentrated          of IDPs should be facilitated from Jonglei           official, Torit, 18 January 2010.
     block, random selection was limited to            back to their home communities with their       58   Interview with government officials, Torit
     prevent enumerators from travelling down          cattle; those preferring to stay in EES are          and Magwi counties, 15–21 January 2010.
     roads with no households.                         expected to agree to integrate into the local   59   The DDR caseload for EES is expected to
12   Every Nth household was determined by             community, lose their cattle, and abide by           be 2,300. Interview with EES DDR bureau
     dividing the total population size of the         the regulations of the local administration.         officials, 18 January 2010.
     boma by the number of questionnaires           32 Vuni (2009).                                    60   Note that some of the weapons declared
     needed in the specific boma. The former        33 Interviews with state officials, youth               as ‘purchased’ may also have been sourced
     figure was calculated from SSRRC popu-            groups, and civil society leaders, Magwi             from the SPLA.
     lation data, and the latter from the popu-        county, 21–22 January 2010.                     61   Some of the arms come from successful
     lation data and the total sample size.         34 Interview with INGO staff, Juba, 14 Janu-            cattle raids. Interviews with traditional
13   Error was defined as the presence of a            ary 2010.                                            leaders and youths in Torit and Ikotos
     missing or invalid response (that is, a        35 Interview with state officials, youth groups,        counties, 15–25 January 2010.
     response that was illegible, incoherent,          and civil society leaders, Magwi county,        62   For details on recent civilian disarma-
     or did not adhere to the response option          21 January 2010; interview with church               ment campaigns in Southern Sudan, see
     limitations of the particular question).          official, Diocese of Torit, Torit, 25 January        O’Brien (2009).
14   Interview with police major, Torit county         2010.                                           63   Interview with key informants among
     police station, 18 January 2010.               36 See Eastern Equatoria Today (2010).                  local youths and civil society, Magwi town,
15   Interview with United Nations Mission          37 Interview with church official, Diocese of           21 January 2010.
     in Sudan official, Torit, 18 January 2010.        Torit, Torit, 25 January 2010.                  64   Field observation by Irina Mosel, January
16   Interview with Torit county commissioner,      38 Focus group discussions with women                   2010.
     Torit, 15 January 2010.                           across Torit and Ikotos counties, 16–25         65   Interviews with county and state govern-
17   Interview with church official, Diocese of        January 2010.                                        ment officials, Torit and Ikotos counties,
     Torit, Isoke payam, Ikotos county, 23 Jan-     39 Interview with INGO representative,                  January 2010.
     uary 2010; see also Eaton (2008) for the          Isoke payam, Ikotos county, 23 January          66   Interview with Torit county commissioner,
     importance of the dynamics surrounding            2010.                                                Torit, 15 January 2010.
     revenge attacks.                               40 Focus group discussions with women in           67   In Magwi, two formally appointed county
18   Interviews with international non-govern-         Hyala Central, Torit county, 16 January 2010.        judges reportedly left their posts after two
     mental organization (INGO) and church          41 See Ochan (2007, p. 14) for examples in              months because of a lack of cases. Local
     officials, Isoke payam, Ikotos county,            Ikotos.                                              police allegedly preferred to solve cases
     23 January 2010.                               42 Interview with SSRRC state director, Torit           themselves through bribery. Interview
19   Traditionally, the Buya and the Didinga           county, on 18 January 2010.                          with key informants in Magwi town,
     used to raid villages in Hyala payam, but      43 Interview with boma chief, Ikotos Central,           21 January 2010.
     attacks between neighbouring villages             24 January 2010.                                68   Interviews with church official, Torit town,
     within the payam were less common. See         44 Interview with key informant, Magwi                  and key informants, Magwi county,
     Ochan (2007).                                     county, 21 January 2010.                             21 January 2010.
20   Focus group discussions with women             45 Interview with paramount chief, Magwi           69   Interviews with youths and authorities
     and youths in Hyala payam, Torit county,          county, 19 January 2010.                             in Ikotos county, 14–25 January 2010.
     16 January 2010.                               46 Interview with Pajok payam administrator,       70   Interview with a police major, Torit county
21   Focus group discussion with women Peace           20 January 2010. A recent International              police station, 18 January 2010.
     Committee members, Ikotos Central, Ikotos,        Rescue Committee protection report finds        71   Interview with the governor of Eastern
     24 January 2010.                                  that early pregnancies are the primary               Equatoria state, 18 January 2010.

     72 Interviews with government and police              have been equipped with mobile satellite          Monyomiji. n.d. ‘Engaging Monyomiji.’
        officials, Torit, Magwi, and Ikotos counties,      telephones and are linked with a ‘quick              <>
        15–25 January 2010.                                reaction unit’ at the police headquarters         Munyes, John. 2007. ‘The International
     73 Interview with Torit state police commis-          in Torit, which is sent out immediately              Conference on Peace and Development
        sioner, Torit, 25 January 2010.                    after notice of a livestock theft has been           among the “Ateker” communities in the
     74 In Hyala payam, Torit county, for example,         received. Interview with Torit county                Horn of Africa, Juba, Southern Sudan.’
        it was reported that all four recently de-         commissioner, Torit, 15 January 2010.                Unpublished concept paper. 22 July.
        ployed policemen were based in Torit            83 Interview with UN official, Torit,                O’Brien, Adam. 2009. Shots in the Dark:
        town because of a lack of food resulting           18 January 2010.                                     The 2008 South Sudan Civilian Disarma-
        from the ongoing drought.                                                                               ment Campaign. HSBA Working Paper
     75 Interviews across Magwi, Torit, and Ikotos                                                              No. 16. Geneva: Small Arms Survey.
        counties, 14–25 January 2010.                                                                           January.
     76 Interview with community security and           Bibliography                                         Ochan, Clement. 2007. Responding to Violence
        small arms control official, Torit, 25 Janu-    Eastern Equatoria Today. 2010. ‘Witchcraft              in Ikotos County, South Sudan: Government
        ary 2010.                                           in Magwi County.’ 15 January. <http://              and Local Efforts to Restore Order. Medford,
     77 For an account of the complex relation-              MA: Feinstein International Center.
        ship between Equatorians and the SPLA               in-magwi-county>                                    December.
        during the civil war, see Schomerus (2008,      Eaton, Dave. 2008. ‘The Business of Peace:           OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-opera-
        pp. 20–22).                                         Raiding and Peace Work along the Kenya–             tion and Development). 2009. ‘Armed
     78 See, for example, Monyomiji (n.d.) on               Uganda Border (Part I).’ African Affairs,           Violence Reduction: Enabling Develop-
        the outcomes of a conference held in                Vol. 107, No. 426, pp. 89–110.                      ment.’ Paris: OECD. <http://browse.
        Torit in November 2009 on ‘Engaging             EES (Eastern Equatoria State). 2007. State Strate-
        the Monyomiji’.                                     gic Plan. Unpublished draft report. April.          4309151E.PDF>
     79 In Bur, Torit county, for example, some         IRC (International Rescue Committee). 2010.          Schomerus, Mareike. 2007. The Lord’s Resist-
        have decided not to participate in the 2010         ‘Girls’ Education in Eastern Equatoria              ance Army in Sudan: A History and Overview.
        elections because they perceived the 2009           State.’ January.                                    HSBA Working Paper No. 8. Geneva:
        disarmament campaign as partial and             Lewis, Mike. 2009. Skirting the Law: Sudan’s            Small Arms Survey. September.
        politically motivated.                              Post-CPA Arms Flows. HSBA Working                ——. 2008. Violent Legacies: Insecurity in Sudan’s
     80 Interviews with state government officials,         Paper No. 18. Geneva: Small Arms Survey.            Central and Eastern Equatoria. HSBA Work-
        Torit, 18 January 2010.                             September.                                          ing Paper No. 13. Geneva: Small Arms
     81 Interview with security adviser to the          Mc Evoy, Claire and Ryan Murray. 2008.                  Survey. June.
        governor, Eastern Equatoria state, Torit,           Gauging Fear and Insecurity: Perspectives        Vuni, Isaac. 2009. ‘E. Equatoria Governor,
        18 January 2010.                                    on Armed Violence in Eastern Equatoria and          Interior Minister Testify before SSLA
     82 Though still operating on a very limited            Turkana North. HSBA Working Paper                   on Insecurity.’ Sudan Tribune (Juba).
        scale, police units stationed in some payams        No. 14. Geneva: Small Arms Survey. July.            14 February.

                  HSBA project summary                                             Credits
                 The Sudan Human Security Baseline Assessment                      Series editor: Emile LeBrun
                 (HSBA) is a multi-year project administered by                    Copy editor: Tania Inowlocki
                 the Small Arms Survey. It has been developed                      Design and layout: Richard Jones (rick@
     in cooperation with the Canadian government, the United
     Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), the United Nations
     Development Programme (UNDP), and a wide array of
                                                                                   Contact details
     international and Sudanese NGO partners. Through the                          For more information or to provide feedback,
     active generation and dissemination of timely empirical                       contact Claire Mc Evoy, HSBA Project Manager, at
     research the project supports violence reduction initiatives,       , or Klaus Ljoerring
     including disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration                      Pedersen, Danish Demining Group Horn of Africa &
     programmes; incentive schemes for civilian arms collection;                   Armed Violence Reduction, at
     and security sector reform and arms control interventions                     Sudan Human Security Baseline Assessment
     across Sudan. The HSBA also offers policy-relevant advice                     Small Arms Survey, 47 Avenue Blanc
     on redressing insecurity.                                                     1202 Geneva, Switzerland
         Sudan Issue Briefs are designed to provide periodic
     snapshots of baseline information in a timely and reader-                     t +41 22 908 5777 f +41 22 732 2738
     friendly format. The HSBA also generates a series of longer
                                                                                   Danish Demining Group
     and more detailed Working Papers in English and Arabic,
                                                                                   Borgergade 10, 3rd floor
     available at
                                                                                   1300 Copenhagen, Denmark
         The HSBA receives direct financial support from the UK
     Government Global Conflict Prevention Pool, the Norwe-                        t +45 3373 5000
     gian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Netherlands Min-                    w
     istry of Foreign Affairs. The project has previously received
     direct support from the Global Peace and Security Fund at
     Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada and the
     Danish International Development Agency (Danida).

12   Sudan Issue Brief Number       April 2010
     Sudan Issue Brief Number 6 16April 2007

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