Curriculum Development by tyndale

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									How Do We Define Curriculum?
 Curriculum is that which is taught at
 Curriculum is a set of subjects.
 Curriculum is content.
 Curriculum is a sequence of courses.
 Curriculum is a set of performance
How Do We Define Curriculum?
 Curriculum is all planned learning for
  which the school is responsible.
 Curriculum is all the experiences
  learners have under the guidance of the
   John Delnay (1959.)
How Do We Define Curriculum?
 According to Bandi & Wales (2005), the most common
  definition derived from the word Latin root, which
  means “racecourse.”
 Bandi & Wales (2005) also stated that “ for many
  students, the school curriculum is a race to be run, a
  series of obstacles or hurdles (subjects) to be passed.”
How Do We Define Curriculum?
 It is important to keep in mind that schools in the
 Western Civilization have been heavily influenced
 since the fourth century B.C. by the philosophies of
 Plato and Aristotle and the word curriculum has been
 used historically to describe the subjects that are being
 taught during the classical period of Greek
How Do We Define Curriculum?
 The interpretation of the word curriculum has
 broaden in the 20th century to include subjects other
 that the Classics. Today school documents, newspaper
 articles, committee reports, and many academic
 textbooks refer to any and all subjects offered are
 prescribed as the curriculum of the school.
Curriculum as a Discipline
 Curriculum as a discipline is a subject of study, and on
  the Graduate level of Higher Education a major field
  of study.
Curriculum as a Discipline
    Graduate and undergraduate students take
    courses in:
   Curriculum development
   Curriculum theory
   Curriculum Evaluation
   Secondary School Curriculum
   Elementary School Curriculum
   Middle School Curriculum
   Community College Curriculum
   Curriculum in Higher Education
History of Curriculum

   Three focus points for Curriculum Decisions
History of Curriculum
1. The Nature of Subject Matter
 Content of the curriculum, and what subject matter to include in
   the curriculum.
 The subject matter of history should be based on evens that
   actually happened in the past.

2. The Nature of the Society
 If the curriculum is to have utilitarian values, then it must lead
  the student not only to knowledge of the external world for its
  own sake, but also to knowledge that can be applied in the world.
History of Curriculum
3. The Nature of the Individuals
 The third basic focal point around which decisions about
  curricula can be made is the nature of the individual.
 The curriculum is also a set of suggestions to the teacher
  about how to take advantage of the present opportunities
  worthwhile, growth for each student in the long run.
 The History of Curricula of American school during the
  20th century is, therefore, a history of these three focal
  points for deciding on content ad making other curriculum
History of Curriculum
      Colonial Era and the Early United States
 Curriculum was not an issue in Colonial America
  during the early years of the United States.
 Colonies along the Atlantic seaboard were under
  British control during the 17th/18th centuries.
  These immigrants were from many European
 Despite their differences the settlers shared
  common assumptions about education.
History of Curriculum
First Common Assumptions:
 Few people needed formal Education.
 Mass Education was not heard.
Second Common Assumptions:
 Formal Education should be directed at bringing
  people into conformity with some prevailing idea
  of what and Educated person should be.
History of Curriculum

Given these assumptions about education and how
they worked out in schools of colonial America, the
focus point of the curriculum was the nature
of subject matter.
Colonial America
The Harvard Curriculum
   Logic
   Physics
   Rhetoric
   History
   Ethnic
   Politics
   Geometry
   Astronomy
   Literacy Studies
Colonial America
Franklin’s Academy
 1749. Benjamin Franklin challenge prevailing beliefs about
  education and the curriculum.
 Curriculum –focused on Latin & Greek for those preparing
  be ministers
 French, German, and Spanish for those preparing to be
 Everyone would study English, through reading, writing,
  and orating.
19th    Century
Common School Movement
 The expansion of the curriculum. Reports of the National
  Education Association.
 1876. A course of study from primary school to university.
 1893. The Committee of Ten
 1895. The Committee of 15
20th       Century
   The Cardinal Principals of Secondary Education

Seven Objectives:
 Health
 Command of fundamental process
 Worthy Home Membership
 Vacation
 Citizenship
 Worthy use of leisure
 Ethical Character
20th   Century
Franklin Bobbit Actively Analysis
 Curriculum Organization
 New principles for guiding curriculum decisions
 Child Center Pedagogy
 1927 Yearbook
The Eight Year Study
 New Idea about curricula
Foundations of Curriculum
1. Social Forces

2. The Treatment of Knowledge

3. Human growth & development

4. Learning as a process

5. Technology
20th   Century
After World War II
 Progressive Education influenced curriculum and practices
 Sputnik and the National Response
 Curriculum Reform movement
 A Nation at Risk
Foundations of Curriculum
 Social Forces

 The Treatment of Knowledge

 Human growth & development

 Learning as a process

 Technology
Philosophy and Curriculum Design
 Philosophies and curriculum leaders

 Five Educational Philosophies
 Perennialism
 Idealism
 Realism
 Experimentalism
 Existentialism
Eight Common Curriculum Design
1. Content-based instruction
purpose: knowledge, acquisition
activity: facts, data, and representative form

2. Shell Based Instruction
purpose: process and manipulation
activity: practice, ordering application

3. Inquiry Approach
purpose: awareness, interest
activity: unknown, sampling

4. Conceptual Learning
purpose: understanding
activity: big ideas, familiarity
Eight Common Curriculum Design
5. Interdisciplinary Learning
purpose: making connection
activity: application

6. Cooperative Learning
purpose: coordinating social skills
activity: group work

7. Problem Solving
purpose: apply skills
activity: current events

8. Critical and Creative Thinking
purpose: construction of new forms
activity: model building, imagination

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