Major Nickel Producers of the Wo

					Processing Technology vs
   Nickel Laterite Ore
     Characteristic

        Agus Superiadi
         PT Inco.Tbk
      Presentation Outlines
Types of Nickel Deposit
World Nickel Mineral Resources
Nickel Laterite Development
Processing Technology of Nickel Laterite
Processing vs Ni Laterite Ore Characteristic
Summary
     Types of Nickel Deposits
Sulphide nickel deposits
 – Nickel as nickel sulphide  pentlandite, millerite
 – Nickel ores processed through milling and smelting

Laterite nickel deposits
 – Oxide Ni deposits: Ni as hydroxide in the ferruginous zone
 – Clay silicate deposits: Ni as clay silicate
 – Hydrous silicate deposits: Ni as hydrous-silicate in saprolite

 – Nickel ores processed through pyro-metallurgy (smelting) or
   hydro-metallurgy (leaching)
    WORLD’S LAND-BASED Ni RESOURCES


             Mt       %     Contained   Relative
             Ore      Ni     Nickel       %
                               Mt
SULPHIDES   10,594   0.58      62        31%


LATERITES   10,382   1.32     140        69%


TOTAL       20,976   0.96     202        100%
        WORLD Ni PRODUCTION & RESOURCES

 PRIMARY Ni PRODUCTION     WORLD Ni RESOURCES


60%                                         70%

SULPHIDE                              LATERITE


              LATERITE   SULPHIDE




                   40%   30%
     LATERITE vs. SULPHIDE DEPOSITS




                                               CUBA
                 PHILIPPINES

                  INDONESIA



                               NEW CALEDONIA




            AUSTRALIA



LATERITES                                      SULPHIDES
     World Nickel Laterite Deposits




                                        Albania
                                         Greece
        Cuba                                       India   Burma
                 Dominican
                  Republic     Ivory Coast                         Philippines
Guatemala
                  Venezuela                    Ethiopia
      Columbia                   Burundi                           Indonesia
                      Brazil                 Zimbabwe                  PNG
                                                Madagascar Australia           New
                                                                               Caledonia


                        Producing Countries
                        Non Producing Countries
         World Nickel Laterite Resources
         (Distribution by Contained Nickel)

           America   Other
                      4%            Caribbean
     Africa  8%
                                      25%
      8%
Australia
  8%


Philippines
                                        New
     11%
                   Indonesia          Caledonia
                      16%               20%
       DEFINITION OF LATERITES

Nickel laterites are:
 – Residual soils
 – Have developed over mafic/ultramafic rocks
 – Through processes of chemical weathering and supergene
   enrichment
 – Under tropical climatic conditions


Laterites are source of metals:
 – Ni, Co, Cr, Fe (from laterites derived from ultramafic rocks)
 – Al (from laterites derived from aluminous rocks)
      Laterisation
                SiO2
                                  PATH OF
                                LATERISATION
                               All compositions are shown
                               in terms of the three oxides

                   Hard
                 Saprolite
      Bedrock

                             Soft
                             Saprolite



                                         Limonite

MgO                               FeO or F2O3
                   LATERITE PROFILE
           On Unserpentinised Peridotite, Sorowako




Red Laterite (Hematite)


Yellow Laterite (Limonite)




Saprolite zone


Bedrock pinnacle
             Considerations for developing
                a nickel laterite project
Nickel grade; cobalt grade
Resource tonnage / Life of Mine / scale of operation
Ore chemistry and mineralogy
Upgradeability of ore
Process selection
Availability of cheap power supply
Selection of fuel
Availability of raw materials: water, silica flux, aggregate
Availability of infrastructure
Location of project
Mining method
Environmental considerations
Negotiations with local and central governments
Funding of the project
Selection of engineer and contractor
    PROCESSING OF Ni LATERITES
Pyrometallurgical processing
(Ore is melted)
 – Ferro-nickel
 – Ni-matte
 – Ni Pig Iron
Hydrometallurgical processing (Leaching by acid)
 – PAL (Pressure acid leaching) – HPAL
 – AL (Atmospheric Leaching)
 – Heap Leaching
Combined pyro and hydro process (Caron)
(Ore is reduced at high temperature, then leached)
                Ferro-Nickel Projects in the world
Project             Owner          Country          Remarks
Cerro Matoso        BHP-B          Columbia
Codemin             Anglo          Brazil
Doniambo            SLN/Eramet     New Caledonia
Exmibal             Ex. Inco       Guatemala        Mothballed
Falcondo            Falconbridge   Dominican Rep.
Fenimark            FENI (govt.)   Macedonia        Closed
Hyuga               Sumitomo       Japan            Imported ore
Larymna             Larco          Greece
Loma de Hiero       Anglo          Venezuela
Morro do Niquel     Anglo          Brazil           Closed
Oheyama             Nippon Yakin   Japan            Imported ore
Onca-Puma           Vale Inco      Brazil
PAMCO               Nippon Steel   Japan            Imported ore
Pomalaa             ANTAM          Indonesia        Some imported ore


               Nickel-Matte Projects of the world
Project            Owner           Country          Remarks
Sorowako           PT Inco         Indonesia
Doniambo           SLN/Eramet      New Caledonia
                HPAL Projects of the world
Project          Owner           Country         Remarks
Moa Bay          Cuba Niquel     Cuba            First HPAL
Bulong                           Australia       Shut down
Cawse            Norilsk         Australia
Murrin-Murrin    Minara          Australia
Coral Bay        Sumitomo        Philippines
Goro             Vale Inco       New Caledonia   Under construction
Ramu River                       PNG             Under construction
Ravensthorpe     BHP-B           Australia       Under construction


                CARON Projects of the world
Project          Owner           Country         Remarks

Nicaro           Union del Niq   Cuba

Punta Gorda      Union del Niq   Cuba

Nonoc                            Philippines     Closed

QNI              BHP-Billiton    Australia       Imported ores

Tocantins        Niquel Toc.     Brazil
           Heap Leach Projects of the world
Project         Owner      Country     Remarks
Caldag          European   Turkey      First Heap Leach
                Nickel                 project

Ravensthorpe    BHP-B      Australia   Part of flow sheet
Murrin-Murrin   Minara     Australia   Expansion of project


Piaui           Vale       Brazil      Being fast-tracked for
                                       production
     PYROMETALLURGICAL PROCESSING

  Ferro-Nickel Process        Nickel-Matte Process

 Upgrading in the mine       Upgrading in the mine

      Drying of ore               Drying of ore

 Upgrading after drying      Upgrading after drying

       Calcining                   Calcining

Electric Furnace Smelting   Electric Furnace Smelting

    Refining Furnace               Converting

  Ferro-Nickel Product        Nickel-Matte Product
      20 – 50% Ni                    78% Ni
         PYROMETALLURGY
Important concerns:
  Slag should not attack refractory (S/M ratio)
  Melting temperature should be suitable (S/M; Fe)
  Olivine should not be introduced to the furnace
  Appropriate reduction of ore prior to smelting
  Ni/Fe ratio in the ore for ferro-nickel operation
  HYDROMETALLURGICAL PROCESSING
             HPAL Process                          Heap Leaching Process

Ore Preparation: wetting, screening,           Ore Preparation: wetting, screening,
crushing, ore beneficiation                    crushing, ore beneficiation
Pre Heating through flash steam                Heap Formation

                                               Acid Dripping
Pressure Acid Leach in autoclave
                                               Pregnant solution
Heat recovery from leached pulp
                                               Sequential Precipitation of metals
CCD thickening and washing
                                               Neutralization
Neutralisation of pregnant solution
                                               Ni/Co concentrate
Precipitation of metals by adding H2S/alkali

Solid/liquid separation

Ni/Co products as mixed sulphides, oxides,
hydroxides
       HYDROMETALLURGY
Important concerns:
HPAL
  Amounts of soluble Mg and Al in ore (acid consumers)
  Acid to ore ratio required for process
  Minimum operating temperature required to leach
  What is the appropriate pressure during leaching
  Retention time in the autoclave
  Rheological behaviour during slurrying
  How to recover metals in the back end of processing
  What product to make

Heap Leaching
  Clay content
  Fe content
  Moisture content
  Weather
                                        Hydro vs Pyro
                                                                       Hydro-
                                        Good     Hydro      Hydro
                                                                        Pyro




                 Limonite Development
                                                           Hydro-      Hydro-
                                        Fair     Hydro
                                                            Pyro        Pyro


                                        Poor                Pyro       Pyro


                                                  Poor       Fair      Good


                                               Saprolite Development

Note:
The selection of processing technology must consider:
• Ore characteristic (Chemistry and Mineralogy)
• Ni/Co grades (include potential upgrading)
• Metal recovery
• Mineability (Ore thickness and continuity)
• Capital and Operating costs (potential hydro-electric power, Residual Storage Facility,
Water source, Limestone source,
  Existing infrastructure, etc)
• Market demand
                                 Hydro vs Pyro
           Item      Hydrometalurgy Pyrometalurgy                                   Note

Ore type             Limonitic     Saprolitic       Hydro needs low Mg, Pyro needs high Mg

Energy Requirement   Low           High             Pyro needs 3-4 times more energy

Technology Risk      High          Low              Sulphuric Acid with High Pressure/Temperature

Environmental Risk   High          Low              Sulphuric Acid and other dangerous Chemicals

Metal Recovery       High          Low              Pyro-nickel losses into dusts and slags, Co can not be separated

Capital Cost         High          Very High        The capital cost for Pyro can be lower if hydro-power available

Operating Cost       Low           High             Hydro - less energy, higher metal recovery, Co credit
                    Pyrometallurgy

                          Electricity    Capital    Operating
Process       Main Feed
                           Require        Cost        Cost
 Fe-Ni
Smelting      Saprolite   Very High     Very High     High

Ni Matte
Smelting      Saprolite   Very High     Very High     High


Ni Pig Iron   Limonite    Moderate      Moderate    Very High
                       Hydrometallurgy

            Main        Electricity    Capital    Operating
Process
            Feed         Require        Cost        Cost
 HPAL      Limonite        Low          High        Low

 Caron     Saprolite    Moderate      Very High     High
 Heap
 Leach     Limonite     Very Low      Moderate      Low

Chloride   Limonite
 Leach     Saprolite    Moderate        High        Low
                  SUMMARY
Ore Characteristics (chemistry and mineralogy) are very critical in
selecting processing technology.

HPAL is a preferred technology (if the ore is rich in limonite)
because less energy required.

Ferronickel and Nickel matte smelter is a good alternative for
saprolitic laterite ore with potential hydro electric power.

Heap Leach and NPI are attractive since less capital investment
required.

A Feasibility Study (Geology, Mining, Processing including
Metallurgical testworks, Infrastructures, AMDAL, etc) is required to
justify the project execution.
THANK YOU

				
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