Educational Marginalization In National Education Plans

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					Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2010

Educational Marginalization
In National Education Plans




                        International Institute
                        for Educational Planning
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This report has been prepared by Candy Lugaz and a team from the IIEP Documentation Centre 
(Corinne Bitoun, Aurore Hagel, Lynne Sergeant, Asunción Valderrama and Aude Zeiler), in collaboration 
with Anton De Grauwe. 

The plans used for the analysis are available from               at http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org 

IIEP/DOC/GMR2010/2009.01 b (Final version)

 

 

 

7‐9, rue Eugène Delacroix. 75116 Paris 
www.iiep.unesco.org 
                                                  Table of contents 


1.  Background ...................................................................................................................... 3


2.  The vulnerable, marginalized, who are they? .................................................................. 5
       Causes and categories of marginalization ..........................................................................5 

3.  Targets, objectives and strategies by EFA Goal .............................................................. 8 
       Goal 1: Early childhood care and education .....................................................................8 

       Goal 2 - Provide free and compulsory primary education for all .....................................10 

       Goal 3: Promote learning and life skills for young people and adults ..............................16 

       Goal 4: Increase adult literacy by 5 per cent....................................................................20 

       Goal 5: Achieve gender parity by 2005, gender equality by 2015 .....................................21 

       Goal 6: Improve the quality of education .......................................................................22 

4.  Planning in a post-conflict setting: Afghanistan / Sierra Leone .................................... 28


5.  Attention to girls in disadvantaged and rural areas: Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali and
Niger ..................................................................................................................................... 32


6.  Attention to girls in disadvantaged and rural areas: Comparing targets and strategies in
Egypt and Morocco ............................................................................................................... 34


7.  Attention to ethnic minorities/language: Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay and Peru ...... 35


8.  Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 36


Annex 1: Population HDI and GDP of analyzed countries .................................................. 41 
Annex 2: List of plans and terminology ............................................................................... 42 
Annex 3: Overview of marginalized groups targeted by specific strategies for each country51 




                                                                   1
                                                                             Table of figures
Figure 1: Cloud tag generated with TagCrowd using the content of the terminology file, Annex 2, Column “Terms
      used to refer to the marginalized” ...................................................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2: Marginalized groups emphasized in African national plans (cloud tag generated with TagCrowd using,
      Annex 2, Column “Categories of marginalized groups” ................................................................................................ 7
Figure 3: Marginalized groups emphasized in Latin American national plans (cloud tag generated with TagCrowd
      using Annex 2, Column “Categories of marginalized groups” ..................................................................................... 7
Figure 4: Marginalized groups emphasized in Asian national plans (cloud tag generated with TagCrowd Annex 2,
      Column “Categories of marginalized groups” ................................................................................................................. 7
Figure 5: ECCE strategies focusing on marginalized children ................................................................................................. 9
Figure 6: Marginalized groups focused on by strategies put forward to achieve EFA Goal 1, by number of plans ... 10
Figure 7: Number of educational plans with specific targets for marginalized groups in Goal 2 ................................... 11
Figure 8: Number of plans with strategies related to EFA Goal 2, and focused on marginalized groups .................... 13
Figure 9: Number of references to marginalized groups in the strategies related to Goal 2 ............................................ 13
Figure 10: Strategies for those marginalized groups which are the least covered in the plans concerning EFA Goal 2
      (less than five references in the plans) ............................................................................................................................. 14
Figure 11: Number of references to disadvantaged groups by EFA Goal 2 – strategies in Africa ................................. 15
Figure 12: Number of references to disadvantaged groups by EFA Goal 2 – Strategies in Latin America .................. 16
Figure 13: Marginalized groups focused on by the strategies put forward to achieve EFA Goal 3 related to secondary
      education, by number of plans ......................................................................................................................................... 17
Figure 14: Marginalized groups focused on by the strategies put forward to achieve EFA Goal 3 related to TVET
      provision, by number of plans. ......................................................................................................................................... 19
Figure 15: Marginalized groups focused on by the strategies put forward to achieve EFA Goal 3 related to TVET
      relevance, by number of plans .......................................................................................................................................... 19
Figure 16: Marginalized groups focused on by the strategies put forward to achieve EFA Goal 4, by number of plans
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20
Figure 17: Number of plans to girls in strategies related to Goal 2 ...................................................................................... 21
Figure 18: Number of plans dedicated to strategies related to EFA Goal 6, and focused on marginalized groups .... 23
Figure 19: Number of references to marginalized groups in the strategies related to Goal 6 .......................................... 24
Figure 20: Strategies foreseen for marginalized groups least covered in the plans concerning EFA Goal 6 (less than
      five references in the plans) ............................................................................................................................................... 24
Figure 21: Number of references to disadvantaged groups by EFA Goal 6 – Strategies in Africa ................................ 26
Figure 22: Number of references to disadvantaged groups by EFA Goal 6 – Strategies in Latin America .................. 26
Figure 23: Groups identified as being marginalized in the plans of Afghanistan and Sierra Leone................................ 28
Figure 24: Comparing the range of strategies targeting marginalized groups in the education plans of Afghanistan
      and Sierra Leone .................................................................................................................................................................. 29
Figure 25: Challenges identified concerning marginalization ................................................................................................. 29
Figure 26: Detailed targets for marginalized groups ................................................................................................................ 30
Figure 27: Strategies for marginalized groups in Afghanistan and Sierra Leone ................................................................ 31
Figure 28: Targets concerning girls in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger ...................................................................... 32
Figure 29: Proposed strategies (ordered by frequency) ........................................................................................................... 33
Figure 30: Targets concerning girls in Egypt and Morocco ................................................................................................... 34
Figure 31: Proposed strategies concerning girls in Egypt and Morocco .............................................................................. 34
Figure 32: Proposed strategies in Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay and Peru ....................................................................... 35
Figure 33a: Prevalence of strategies to achieve Goal 2 for all disadvantaged groups, in Africa ...................................... 38
Figure 33b: Prevalence of strategies to achieve Goal 2 for all disadvantaged groups, in Latin-America ....................... 38
Figure 34a: Prevalence of strategies to achieve Goal 6 for all disadvantaged groups, in Africa ...................................... 39
Figure 34b: Prevalence of strategies to achieve Goal 6 for all disadvantaged groups, in Latin-America ....................... 39 




                                                                                                  2
    EDUCATIONAL MARGINALIZATION IN NATIONAL EDUCATION PLANS


    1. Background

Purpose of the study

In 2005 and 2006, IIEP undertook for the GMR studies1 examining the references made in
national education documents – EFA plans, MDG reports, PRSPs – to EFA Goals in general, as
well as to out-of school children. These analysis identified the extent to which these goals were
covered in the documents, and therefore in national education policies, across several regions of
the world.

The purpose of the present study is more focused. Its objective is to identify the ways in which
marginalization is included in national educational plans across the EFA goals, using the plans
available in the IIEP Planipolis database.

This study has been limited to the analysis of national education plans. It does not include other
national documents. Limiting the review to the analysis of plans limits the scope of the study.
Indeed, a plan is only a plan; it reflects intentions and not achievements. The information
provided here is therefore not exhaustive. It is important to bear in mind that policies or
strategies not included in the national education plans are not reflected in this study. This does
not mean that the country in question does not have policies regarding this issue, but that they
are not part of the national education plan.

However, it is useful to identify the level of priority given to marginalized groups in these plans,
and to examine the extent to which specific strategies are foreseen for these groups, for each of
the EFA Goals. The purpose of this contribution is therefore to identify policy trends and
concerns as reflected in education plans, not to assess their implementation.


Presentation of the study

The forty-four national education plans which have been analyzed in this study are from
developing or transition countries, with a population of over 500,000. They were developed in or
after 2005. Nine plans are from Central or South America, 18 from Africa, 10 from Asia, three
from Arab States and four from Europe. Their situations are very different in terms of GDP per
capita and number of inhabitants2 but every country faces the issue of marginalization.

Comparing documents of the same type should allow for an easier and fairer comparison
between countries. The mere fact of extracting from each plan the different terms used to
describe marginalization is meaningful and instructive3. Comparing the list in Annex 2 with the
table presented in Annex 3 gives a very interesting overview of marginalized groups targeted by
specific strategies for each country.




1
  An analysis of selected recent and current national education policies and plans (2006/ED/EFA/MRT/PI/15)
and Review of national education planning documents in 45 countries (2007/ED/EFA/MRT/PI/)
2
  See Annex 1 Population HDI and GDP of analyzed countries
3
  See Annex 2 List of plans and terminology


                                                     3
However, although all the documents are national plans, they are quite different and we need to
be aware of these differences in this comparative exercise4. The length and scope of the plans are
very different, from 17 pages (Nepal) to 575 (Egypt). Three of them are individual chapters
included in national development plans (Bhutan, India, and Nepal). Twenty-two include a
situational analysis which may be dispersed throughout the plan (Kenya), be the plan’s first
chapter (Egypt), or represent nearly half of the document (Peru). Some plans include very
detailed goals and strategies targeting specific marginalized groups (Mozambique or Afghanistan)
whilst others are more general reports on the situation of education (Brazil). Some countries
have developed one plan since 2005; others have developed several. Some are self-contained
documents (Morocco), whereas in other countries the information is to be found in three or four
different plans, if not on the Ministry of Education website (Brazil).



Political issues play an important role. Some plans are the result of negotiations and discussions
between political parties and civil society representatives, agreements and dissensions being
clearly shown in the document (Colombia and Guatemala). The status of these documents is not
clear, as they coexist with another national plan. It can be inferred that the first is the fruit of a
political compromise, and the second the political agenda implemented by the governing party.


The inclusion, or not, of a detailed budget has not been given consideration. Some countries do
not include budgetary information in the plans, but detailed information is available from
external sources. For those including a detailed budget, it is not easy or even possible to
determine which part of the budget is solely allocated to marginalized groups. For example, plans
may include a cost for infrastructure, although it doesn’t specify whether this is for building
schools in disadvantaged parts of the country (i.e. Benin).



This paper addresses different questions:
   • Which groups are identified as “marginalized” by the various countries? An analysis of
       the terminology used in the different plans will help us understand who are the
       marginalized.
   • Do the plans propose any specific targets for the marginalized groups, for each of the six
       EFA goals?
   • What, if any, strategies are foreseen in the plans to achieve the EFA Goals, for these
       groups?


This analysis identifies several trends, in particular the groups which are given more - or less -
attention in the plans, across regions and in specific countries. It also compares the prevalence of
certain strategies between two regions in particular, namely Latin-America and sub-Saharan
Africa5. Finally, the ways in which some countries are dealing with key aspects like planning in
post-conflict settings, girls in rural areas or attention to language/ethnic groups, are compared.




4
    See Annex 2 List of plans and terminology
5
    These were the only two regions with a sufficient number of countries for a sensible comparison to be feasible.


                                                          4
    2. The vulnerable, marginalized, who are they?

Causes and categories of marginalization

Within the Concept Note for the 2010 Global Monitoring Report (January 2009) the following
definition of marginalization is put forward:

Marginalization is related to but different from inequality. While academic definitions vary, the GMR will use the
term to describe situations of acute and persistent disadvantage in education (as distinct from the overall
distribution of education opportunity).

Education-for-all perspectives have varied in their approach to marginalization. The Jomtien Declaration
incorporated an explicit commitment to ‘under-served groups’ including “the poor; street and working children;
rural and remote populations; nomads and migrant workers; indigenous peoples; ethnic, racial and linguistic
minorities; refugees; those displaced by war; and people under occupation.” The Dakar Framework has a more
implicit commitment, referring to “children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities.”

The 44 education plans analysed for the purposes of this report focus on the following
potentially marginalized groups, clustered in different categories:

    •    Gender-related: girls (interestingly, although in some countries girls now outperform
         boys, boys were never mentioned as a disadvantaged or marginalized group);
    •    Culture-related: children belonging to specific castes, ethnic groups or tribes, religious
         groups, children speaking specific language,
    •    Location-related: children living in conflict-affected areas, refugees and displaced
         persons, child soldiers, nomads, rural, (pastoralist...), children living in urban slums, street
         children;
    •    Poverty-related: working children, over-aged children, poor/vulnerable children, single
         mothers;
    •    Special groups: disabled children, gifted children, children living with HIV and Aids,
         orphans.


The above categorization raises the issue if a specific category should not be created for conflict-
related groups, including child soldiers, refugees and displaced persons. The analysis will show
though that rather few countries pay specific attention to these groups.

Vulnerability and marginalization are present in every country. Even the more developed
countries have categories of the population which may be defined as vulnerable or marginalized.
Even if poverty is not always present, other factors such as disability or linguistic/ethnic
particularities can be sources of marginalization and underachievement. In some cases, the
proportion of vulnerable inhabitants is so high that it becomes difficult to define them as
“marginalized” unless we accept that marginalization can be applied to the majority of the
population. The poorest countries do not usually define criteria to identify those vulnerable, as
this can apply to almost all the population. An exhaustive collection of terms used to define
marginalized persons is included in Annex 2. Although the categories are many and very
different, reflecting the particular situation of countries, some terms recurrently occur.

The cloud tag in Figure 1 represents the prevalence with which terms referring to marginalized
groups are used in all the plans. Three brief comments can be made:



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       -   Firstly, “special needs children”, “vulnerable or disadvantaged children”, “rural or remote
           areas”, “girls”, and “poor” are the terms most frequently used.
       -   Secondly, whereas “rural” or “girls” are univocal terms, “vulnerable”, “disadvantaged” or
           “poor” are polysemic terms with very different meanings depending on the countries. If
           we take the case of “special needs children” this category does not necessarily cover the
           same groups in all countries. While it mainly includes children with disabilities, in
           Georgia “special needs children” are defined by the Ministry of Education as: children with
           disabilities and handicaps; members of ethnic minorities; street children; children with social problems;
           children with emotional disorders, speech and behaviour problems; and girls who have problems of access
           to and retention in schools and in Tajikistan, children from rural areas, with disabilities, and
           especially talented children. Children with special needs are mentioned in all plans even if the
           scope is very different. In some countries it is clearly an addendum to a list of targeted
           populations, without a clear strategy attached.
       -   Thirdly, some terms seem to indicate that the marginalized are specific groups with
           specific needs: “special-needs”, “disabilities”, orphans”, “HIV/Aids”. To some extent,
           their marginalization is the result of their specificity. Other terms, in particular
           “disadvantaged children” and “disadvantaged groups”, may indicate that their
           marginalization is the result of action or inaction by others. The term “marginalized” is
           very rarely used.

Figure 1: Cloud tag generated with TagCrowd using the content of the terminology file, Annex 2, Column
“Terms used to refer to the marginalized”




Some groups receive more attention in some regions, as emphasized by the Cloud tags given
below for Africa, Latin America and Asia6 (see Figures 2, 3 and 4 below). These three tags do not
include the same list of terms used in the previous tag; they use 17 terms which “summarize” all
of the groups mentioned in the plans. Here again, a number of comments can be made. Firstly,
in all three regions, we notice that children with special needs, poor and vulnerable children as
well as children living in rural areas receive most attention. Secondly, some groups appear in only
one region: this is the case for single-mothers in Latin-America, for the issue of “caste” in Asia
and, maybe most surprisingly, for the issue of HIV-Aids in Africa. In the same vein, some

6   Central Asia, East Asia, South and West Asia


                                                          6
groups are absent from one region: the terms “child labour”, “nomads”, “orphans” do not
appear in Latin-America. Thirdly, while some issues or groups are present in all three regions,
they do not receive the same attention. Girls receive less attention in Latin America compared to
Africa and Asia, while the issue of ethnicity receives little attention in Africa. Children living in
urban areas on the other hand receive more attention in Latin American countries.

Figure 2: Marginalized groups emphasized in African national plans (cloud tag generated with TagCrowd
using, Annex 2, Column “Categories of marginalized groups”




Figure 3: Marginalized groups emphasized in Latin American national plans (cloud tag generated with
TagCrowd using Annex 2, Column “Categories of marginalized groups”




Figure 4: Marginalized groups emphasized in Asian national plans (cloud tag generated with TagCrowd
Annex 2, Column “Categories of marginalized groups”




                                                  7
    3. Targets, objectives and strategies by EFA Goal

This analysis looks into the existing targets and identifies the main strategies put forward by the
44 national plans for each EFA Goal, the main marginalized groups covered by these strategies,
as well as those groups quoted in only a few countries. See Annex 3 for an overview of
marginalized groups targeted by specific strategies for each country. As can be seen, in some
cases marginalized groups are targeted by the plans, but no strategy exists in the document in this
regard; in others the opposite is true, with the absence of reference to these groups as a target,
while specific strategies are foreseen in the plans.

Goal 1: Early childhood care and education

Targets and objectives

Generally speaking, there is little reference to marginalized groups in targets related to Goal 1:
While nearly 70 % of the country plans analyzed do include specific targets for ECCE, only 30 %
refer to marginalized groups (13 national plans amongst the 44 analyzed, with around one or two
countries per region, except in Latin America where seven national plans include such a
reference to marginalized groups in relation to ECCE). When targets do exist, they mainly focus
on poor children, those living in rural areas, and with special needs, such as the following:

        “Educational materials and resource packages will be produced and distributed to the neediest 50 per cent
        of the 5-year-old population (immediately prior to entering schools)” (Georgia).

        “En 2015, insertion dans le préscolaire public de près de 50% des enfants en milieu rural et 10% des
        enfants en milieu urbain défavorisé ” (Morocco).

        “For 2030, establishment of a pre-primary year in primary schools for all children aged 5/6 years, to be
        developed first of all in the schools serving the poorest populations and OVCs” (Namibia).

Some plans also focus on children from ethnic groups: this is mainly the case in Latin America
(Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay). More rarely, they focus on girls, OVCs and children living
in urban areas.

Strategies and education-specific interventions

EFA Goal 1 includes in its formulation a reference to the disadvantaged. Indeed, the full goal
reads as follows: “Expand and improve comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the
most vulnerable and disadvantaged children”. Nearly all the plans (42 plans out of 44) include the
expansion of ECCE among the objectives and refer to the formulation of the EFA goal. As
such, it could be concluded that they consider the expansion of EECE a strategy which will help
marginalized groups in general. However, when one goes into some more detail, the picture is
different. Firstly, as mentioned above, only 13 plans out of 44 include targets for ECCE.
Secondly, less than half of the countries (19 out of 44) have identified some specific strategies
focussed on the disadvantaged (see Figure 5). In the other plans, such focussed and specific
strategies are absent. They may have an ECCE policy, but this policy is not described as
specifically targeting vulnerable children. In a few countries, ECCE comes under another
Ministry (in Mozambique for instance the Ministry of Health or Welfare) and is practically absent
from the education plans.




                                                       8
 
Figure 5: ECCE strategies focusing on marginalized children

ECCE for the              ECCE for the                   ECCE mentioned in        ECCE not
marginalized with         marginalized without           general                  mentioned
specific strategies       specific strategies
reported
Brazil                    Afghanistan                    Angola                   Czech Republic
Dominican Republic        Benin                          Ethiopia                 Mozambique
Egypt                     Bhutan                         Indonesia
Gambia                    Burkina Faso                   Mali
Georgia                   Cambodia                       Niger
Guatemala                 Central African Republic       Palestinian Autonomous
                                                         Territories
Guyana                    Colombia                       Uganda
Honduras                  Croatia
Kenya                     Ecuador
Mauritius                 Guinea
Moldova R                 India
Mongolia                  Kyrgyzstan
Morocco                   Latvia
Namibia                   Nepal
Peru                      Nigeria
Rwanda                    Paraguay
Sierra Leone
South Africa
Tajikistan

The strategies mentioned in the plans can be grouped under three broad headings:

    -   Provision of material goods:
           • Integral care which covers not only educational needs but also health, food and
                maternal care;
           • Provision of educational kits (uniforms, schoolbags, pencils, boards).

    -   Teaching/learning issues:
           • Specific teacher training;
           • Specific curriculum design.

    -   Parents and community role:
            • Partnership with private sector, NGOs, PTAs, communities to finance ECCE
                centres;
            • Parent and community awareness.

The choice of a particular strategy is frequently influenced by the age range of children attending
ECCE. In Central and South American countries this range can be as large as 0 to 5 years and
consequently strategies are more oriented to integral care. In countries where ECCE is only
intended for children aged 5, teaching/learning issues are more important. In both cases, ECCE
is seen as a way to improve educational attainment in primary education but its role in fighting
absolute poverty is not always highlighted.




                                                     9
As shown in Figure 6, these strategies foreseen in the plans to achieve ECCE mainly focus on
poor and vulnerable children, marginalized groups in general, as well as children living in rural
areas. It is also interesting to note that a number of plans (16 out of 44) provide specific
strategies for children with special needs.

Figure 6: Marginalized groups focused on by strategies put forward to achieve EFA Goal 1, by number of
plans




Goal 2 - Provide free and compulsory primary education for all

Targets and objectives

Almost 70% of the national plans analyzed include specific references to marginalized groups in
relation to Goal 2. They focus on four main groups: girls (18 plans out of 44), children with
special needs/disabled children (14 plans) children living in rural areas (13 plans), as well as poor
and vulnerable children (8 plans) (see Figure 7 below).

Some groups receive more attention in some regions, such as ethnic groups in Latin America
(Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay), though they also appear in the Afghanistan and
India plans. Examples of some targets are given below:

        En 2016 se ha garantizado el acceso, permanencia y gratuidad de la educación desde la atención integral
        de primera infancia hasta la educación media para todos, pertinente y descentralizada y otorgando
        prioridad a las poblaciones marginales, grupos étnicos y sectores en condición de vulnerabilidad
        (Colombia)

        Las metas del Plan Estratégico consideran beneficiar a los hondureños y hondureñas, incluyendo a los
        niños y niñas, adultos y jóvenes en riesgo social, poblaciones con capacidades especiales, grupos étnicos y
        afro descendientes (Honduras)




                                                       10
        Ensure that at least 60% of learners are female, and that minority groups, Kuchi and people with
        disabilities are specifically targeted. At least 35% of Kuchi children (Nomads) will have access to
        specially adapted programs of formal education by 2010 (Afghanistan)

Figure 7: Number of educational plans with specific targets for marginalized groups in Goal 2




Groups which appear only in a few plans include the following:

    -   Over-aged children:
        • « Au moins 50% des enfants non scolarisés ayant dépassé l’âge scolaire accèdent à l’éducation
           alternative accélérée en 2015 » (Benin) ;
        • « The program focuses on reaching not only children at the appropriate admission age (age 7) but
           also out-of-school children, those who didn’t get the opportunity to enter schools at their appropriate
           age. Therefore, a target of over 100% GER is set due to the inclusion of overage children in total
           enrolment” (Ethiopia).

    -   Children living in urban areas:
        • “Elevar à 50% a melhoria das condições higiénico-sanitárias das escolas Primárias nas zonas peri-
            urbana e rural” (Angola);
        • “Construction/renovation of physical facilities/equipment in public learning institutions in
            marginalized areas, particularly in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALS) and urban slums by
            2008” (Kenya).

    -   Children speaking specific languages:
        • “%de niños que hablan lenguas originarias atendidos con programas de EIB De 0 a 5 años: 0.11%
            (2005) 7.34 (2011), Primaria: 6.7 (2005) 7.34 (2011), Secundaria 0.65 (2005) 3.75 (2011)”
            (Peru).

    -   Nomads (see the quotation given above concerning Afghanistan).

    -   Orphans:
              o “Percentage of OVCs enrolled in each phase of education” (Namibia).



                                                      11
As shown in Figure 7, some groups are not mentioned in these plans, when targets are defined
for Goal 2. This is the case of the following groups:
       • working children;
       • children living in conflict-affected areas;
       • children belonging to specific castes;
       • children living with HIV;
       • single mothers;
       • refugees.

Strategies and education-specific interventions

The different strategies covered by the plans to achieve EFA Goal 2 have been grouped under
three sections: incentives, structures and content. More details are given below:

   -   Incentives:
       • Community sensitization;
       • Abolish fees;
       • Stipends/incentives/scholarships for teachers and households;
       • School feeding.

   -   Structures:
       • School Transportation;
       • Water and sanitation in schools/health programs;
       • School building/infrastructure.

   -   Content:
       • School calendars/timetables;
       • Language of instruction.

All country plans analyzed include at least one strategy which focuses on marginalized groups in
order to achieve EFA Goal 2. As shown in Figure 8 the strategy that is the most often put
forward by the plans refers to school buildings and infrastructures (42 plans out of 44), and in
particular to the availability of latrines. Much importance is also given to:
    • School feeding (32 plans);
    • Stipends, incentives and scholarships (31 plans);
    • Community sensitization (27 plans);
    • Water and sanitation health programmes (25 plans).

The strategies least covered by the plans refer to school transportation (7 plans) as well as school
calendars and timetables (8 plans).

Some strategies receive more emphasis in some regions. This is the case of those related to
language instruction, which are more present in regions such as Latin America (Guatemala,
Paraguay, Peru) and South and West Asia (Afghanistan, India, Nepal), characterized by the
existence of several cultural and linguistic groups. Latin American countries (in particular the
Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Guyana) also provide strategies referring to school
calendars and timetables.




                                                  12
Figure 8: Number of plans with strategies related to EFA Goal 2, and focused on marginalized groups




Figure 9 below refers to the number of times marginalized groups are mentioned in the plans,
for all the strategies related to Goal 2. One group may be mentioned several times in one plan, in
relation to several strategies. This is the case for instance of children from ethnic groups in
Nepal, who fall under several strategies such as community sensitization, fee abolition,
stipends… This explains why the number of references given in Figure 9 exceeds the number of
plans.

As shown by this Figure, the groups which are the most covered by the strategies are
marginalized groups in general, poor children, children living in rural areas, girls, and children
with special needs.

Figure 9: Number of references to marginalized groups in the strategies related to Goal 2




                                                    13
Among the groups which are less represented in the strategies (less than five references to these
groups in the plans) are working children, religious groups and refugees. The strategies that are
provided for these groups are presented in Figure 9.

Figure 10: Strategies for those marginalized groups which are the least covered in the plans concerning
EFA Goal 2 (less than five references in the plans)
Marginalized group         Country                 Strategy
                           India                   School buildings/infrastructure
Working children
                           Sierra Leone            Community sensitization
                           Afghanistan, Kenya      School buildings/infrastructure
Religious groups
                           Nigeria                 Community sensitization
                           Czech     Republic,     Community sensitization
Refugees                   Moldova
                           Czech Republic          Language of instruction

The strategies which appear most often in the plans mainly focus on the following groups:
   - School buildings and infrastructure: children with special needs as well as those living in
        rural areas (respectively 28 and 24 plans);
   - School feeding: poor and vulnerable children (18 plans);
   - Stipends, incentives, scholarships for households: poor and vulnerable groups (18 plans),
        as well as girls (14 plans);
   - Community sensitization: marginalized groups in general (13 plans), children with special
        needs and girls (12 plans).

Comparison Africa/Latin America

It is interesting and useful to compare the groups as well as the strategies emphasized with regard
to Goal 2 in Africa and Latin America (see Figures 11 and 12). In these graphs, the marginalized
groups were grouped together under different items: poverty-related, location-related, etc.

A comparison of the two graphs shows that some groups receive more attention in one region
compared to the other. This is the case of:
   - Girls, who are the focus of a number of plans in Africa, while there is only one reference
      to them in the plans from Latin America. In Africa, the strategies refer to stipends,
      community sensitization and water and sanitation/health programmes;
   - Cultural groups (children belonging to ethnic groups,…), who are more focused in Latin
      America.


The other main strategies that are envisaged to improve the access of other disadvantaged
groups to primary education are fairly similar, some of them, however, being more focused in
one region than the other. Thus:


    -   The main strategy which is envisaged in both regions concerning access to primary
        education of location-related groups refers to school buildings and infrastructure (nearly 15
        references in the plans in Africa, and seven in Latin America). Several references are also
        made in both regions to school feeding programmes. In Africa, some attention is given
        to the language of instruction, community sensitization and programmes related to



                                                    14
         stipends, scholarships and incentives for households, whilst in Latin America, some
         references are made to school transportation.

    -    Concerning poverty-related groups, much attention is given in both regions to school feeding
         programmes and to stipends, scholarships and incentives for households. Some attention
         is also given in Africa to community sensitization.

    -    Concerning children with special needs: in Africa the focus is on community sensitization,
         and then on school buildings, while in Latin America, some attention is given to this last
         strategy, but also to stipends, scholarships and incentives for households as well as
         school transportation.

    -    More differences appear between both regions concerning the strategies proposed to
         improve the access of disadvantaged groups in general: the strategies proposed in African
         countries consist mainly of community sensitization and school buildings, whereas the
         focus in Latin America is on school feeding and stipends, scholarships and incentives for
         households.

Overall, the strategies related to school transportation are not mentioned in African country
plans, while they receive much attention in Latin America.


Figure 11: Number of references to disadvantaged groups by EFA Goal 2 – strategies in Africa




Note:
Gender-related: girls
Culture-related: caste, ethnicity/tribes, language, race, religion
Location-related: conflict-affected areas, refugees and displaced persons, child soldiers, nomads, rural, (pastoralist...),
urban slums, street children
Poverty-related: child labour, over-aged, poor/vulnerable, single mother




                                                           15
Figure 12: Number of references to disadvantaged groups by EFA Goal 2 – Strategies in Latin America




Note:
Gender-related: girls
Culture-related: caste, ethnicity/tribes, language, race, religion
Location-related: conflict-affected areas, refugees and displaced persons, child soldiers, nomads, rural, (pastoralist...),
urban slums, street children
Poverty-related: child labour, over-aged, poor/vulnerable, single mother




Goal 3: Promote learning and life skills for young people and adults

Many plans aim to achieve this goal by further developing secondary education or by
strengthening technical and vocational education or by doing both. Our analysis therefore
examines separately secondary education and TVET.


Targets and objectives

Only 30% of the plans analyzed include targets for marginalized groups, in relation to secondary
education. Most of them aim at achieving gender parity at this level. Other plans focus on specific
groups. This is the case of:

Cambodia, with a focus on out-of-school children, as well as children living in rural areas :
   • “Expand Re-entry opportunities for out-of-school youths: an additional 5,000 students supported each
       year in grades 7-9 from 2008 onwards”; “In co-operation with NGO providers, expand equivalency
       programs from around 5,000 students in 2004-05 to 30,000 per annum from 2006 (…) (grades 7-9 -
       10,000, grades 10-12 - 5,000). The target groups will be 60% females”.
   • “The Net Enrolment Ratio in lower secondary in rural areas will increase from 23.7% in 2005 to 50%
       in 2010”.
Rwanda, with a focus on girls and “children from marginalized backgrounds”:
   • “Reduce disparities in Secondary Education. Indicative target: in 2008, proportions of girls and children
       marginalized backgrounds attending public SE schools raised to 50% (TC) and 48% (US)”
Mauritius, with a focus on children with special needs:


                                                           16
    • “Increased integration of students with special education needs”.

As for TVET, very few plans – 5 plans out of 44 - include specific targets for marginalized
groups. In these cases, they mainly focus on girls (Benin, Ethiopia, Gambia, Mauritius), and in
one case, on poor and vulnerable youth. This is the case of the plan of Mongolia, which states:
       “Expenditures for free distribution of textbooks for children of vulnerable groups studying in TEVT will
       reach 178.1 million MNT in 2006-2010 and 289.8 million MNT in 2011-2015 annually”
       (Mongolia).


Strategies and education-specific interventions

This section examines the strategies that relate to secondary education and TVET. For TVET,
these were grouped under two items so as to facilitate the analysis, namely:
           - The provision of education through non-formal education;
           - The relevance of educational programs.

Secondary education

The majority of the plans analyzed (35 out of 44) include strategies related to secondary
education, for marginalized groups. As shown in Figure 13, these strategies mainly focus on
three groups:
    • Children living in rural areas (19 plans);
    • Poor and vulnerable children (18 plans);
    • And girls (15 plans).

Figure 13: Marginalized groups focused on by the strategies put forward to achieve EFA Goal 3 related to
secondary education, by number of plans




                                                      17
Specific attention is given by a few countries on the following groups:
   • Children belonging to specific castes: India and Nepal;
   • Children speaking specific languages: Ecuador;
   • Children belonging to ethnic groups/tribes: Georgia, India, Nepal, Tajikistan;
   • Children living with HIV: Ethiopia, Gambia, South Africa;
   • Nomads: Mongolia;
   • Orphans: Kenya and Tajikistan;
   • Children belonging to specific religious groups/race: Nigeria;
   • Children living in urban areas: Kenya, Morocco, Uganda.


TVET

80% of the plans analyzed (35 out of 44) include strategies which focus on marginalized groups
to achieve EFA Goal 3 and which relate to the strengthening of TVET. These strategies were
grouped under two categories so as to facilitate the analysis, namely:
    • The provision of education through non-formal education;
    • The relevance of educational programs.

Half of these strategies refer to TVET provision and non-formal education. As shown in Figure
14, these plans mainly focus on marginalized groups in general, and poor and vulnerable children
(respectively 15 and ten plans). Several plans also focus on children living in rural areas (8 plans),
and girls (7 plans). The following groups are focused only by a few plans e.g.:

    •   Over-aged children: Afghanistan, Benin, Brazil, Ecuador, Dominican Republic;
    •   Children belonging to ethnic groups/tribes: Croatia, Cambodia, Ecuador, India;
    •   Children with special needs: Croatia, Paraguay;
    •   Children speaking specific languages: Cambodia, Ecuador;
    •   Working children: India;
    •   Children living with HIV: Mozambique;
    •   Children belonging to specific castes: India.




                                                 18
Figure 14: Marginalized groups focused on by the strategies put forward to achieve EFA Goal 3 related to
TVET provision, by number of plans.




Half of the plans analyzed include strategies for marginalized groups referring to TVET
relevance. As shown in Figure 15, these strategies mainly apply to marginalized groups in general
(16 plans), and more specifically to girls (8 plans), poor and vulnerable children and children with
special needs (6 plans), as well as children living in rural areas (5 plans). In Nepal, the plan
focuses on the following groups: working children, children living in conflict-affected areas,
children belonging to specific castes and children belonging to ethnic groups/castes. Croatia also
gave specific attention in its plan to children living in conflict-affected areas.

Figure 15: Marginalized groups focused on by the strategies put forward to achieve EFA Goal 3 related to
TVET relevance, by number of plans




                                                   19
Goal 4: Increase adult literacy by 50 per cent

Targets and objectives

Concerning Goal 4, only eight plans out of the 44 analyzed include specific targets related to
marginalized groups, and they all refer to women. These countries are Benin, Cambodia, Egypt,
Guinea, India, Mongolia, Namibia, and Nepal.

Strategies and education-specific interventions

70% of the plans analyzed (31 out of 44) include strategies for achieving EFA Goal 4, which are
focused on marginalized groups. Most of them focus on these groups in general (24 plans) and
others on girls and women (14 plans) as well as on groups living in rural areas (7 plans). Some
groups are more specifically focused by some plans (see Figure 16). This is the case of:
    - Youth living in conflict-affected areas: Colombia;
    - Youth belonging to specific castes: India and Nepal;
    - Youth belonging to ethnic groups/tribes: Afghanistan, Croatia, Ecuador, India, Nepal;
    - Youth living with HIV: CAR;
    - Single mothers: Colombia;
    - Nomads: Afghanistan;
    - Youth belonging to religious groups/race: Afghanistan;
    - Youth living in urban areas: India.

Figure 16: Marginalized groups focused on by the strategies put forward to achieve EFA Goal 4, by
number of plans




                                                   20
Goal 5: Achieve gender parity by 2005, gender equality by 2015

Targets and objectives

As already seen above, several plans include specific references for girls concerning the
achievement of Goals 2 and 3 (concerning secondary education). Five of them (Burkina Faso,
Gambia, Georgia, Guinea, and Namibia) contain targets related to gender parity itself, referring
to a gender parity index. The plans of Burkina Faso and Georgia only refer to gender parity in
primary education, and those of Gambia and Namibia, to secondary education. The plan of
Guinea refers to both levels.

Strategies and education-specific interventions

In-depth analysis of the strategies to increase gender parity, and therefore the access of girls to
primary and secondary education, requires examination of Goals 2, 3 and 6, in addition to Goal
5:

    -   Concerning Goal 2, and as shown in Figure 17 below, we notice that the main strategies
        are stipends, incentives and scholarships for households (14 references in the plans),
        community sensitization (12 references), water and sanitation/health programmes as well
        as school building (11 references respectively).

    -   Regarding secondary education, 15 plans out of 44 include strategies for girls. They mainly
        refer to girls’ retention at secondary level.

    -   More precisely, the strategies proposed in the plans and which fall under Goal 5 are
        mainly aimed at addressing abuse in schools: 11 plans out of 44 foresee such strategies.
        These plans mainly focus on girls, others on specific groups such as:
        • Children living with HIV (Rwanda);
        • Orphans and children with special needs (Sierra Leone).

Figure 17: Number of plans to girls in strategies related to Goal 2




                                                     21
The recruitment of female teachers also constitutes a strategy to increase the access of girls to
education and therefore to achieve gender parity. Eleven plans – mainly from African countries
– include such strategies. The issue of female teachers is also related to Goal 6; additional
information is given in this regard in the section below.



Goal 6: Improve the quality of education

Targets and objectives

17 plans out of 44 include targets related to Goal 6. However, only four of them (Kenya,
Mauritius, Mozambique and Afghanistan) refer to marginalized groups. Some of them focus on
girls:

   • Increased pupil retention and attendance, particularly amongst girls (Kenya);
   • Achieve gender equality in learner achievement. (…) Reduce gender gap in performance by 2015
     (Mauritius)

The plan of Mauritius also refers to children with special needs:

   • All SEN (Special Education Needs) children to enjoy access to relevant and high quality education by
     2020 (Mauritius).

The plans of Mozambique and Afghanistan include specific references to the teaching staff and
other education staff (hostel supervisors):

   • Increase the number of female primary and secondary teachers by 50% by 2010 (Afghanistan);
   • Directores de escola e supervisores dos internatos formados, com ênfase especial em consciencialização e
     prevenção do HIV/SIDA (Mozambique)

Strategies and education-specific interventions

The strategies proposed in the plans with regard to Goal 6 can be grouped under two items:

   -   Teachers
          • Working conditions and incentives (i.e.Attracting teachers to rural areas or
              increasing the proportion of teachers from targeted groups)
          • Teacher education;
          • Teachers sensitization;
          • Strategies focused on female teachers.

   -   Teaching and learning methods

           •    ICT/Distance education;
           •    Tutoring;
           •    Textbooks and learning materials;
           •    Curriculum relevance.



                                                    22
All the country plans analyzed include at least one strategy which focuses on marginalized groups
in order to achieve EFA Goal 6. As shown by Figure 18, these strategies mainly focus on
curriculum relevance (30 plans), as well as teachers’ working conditions and incentives (28 plans).
Nearly half of the plans include strategies related to teacher education (24 plans), textbooks and
learning methods (23 plans), and teachers’ sensitization (22 plans). Less attention is given in
general to tutoring and remedial instruction and female teachers (11 plans respectively), as well as
to ICT and distance education (9 plans). The preoccupation with female teachers is mainly
present in African countries (9 plans out of 11 include this strategy).



Figure 18: Number of plans dedicated to strategies related to EFA Goal 6, and focused on marginalized
groups




                                                  23
As shown in Figure 19, the groups which are most covered by these strategies are children with
special needs/disabled children (58 references to these groups in the plans), children living in
rural areas, girls, as well as poor and vulnerable groups.

Figure 19: Number of references to marginalized groups in the strategies related to Goal 6




Figure 20 below gives more information on the strategies envisaged for the groups that are least
covered by the plans, with respect to achieving EFA Goal 6.

Figure 20: Strategies foreseen for marginalized groups least covered in the plans concerning EFA Goal 6
(less than five references in the plans)

Marginalized group Country                    Strategy
Working children   Mali                       Curriculum relevance
                   India                      Teachers’ education, textbooks
Children belonging
                   Nepal                      Teachers’ working conditions and
to specific castes
                                              incentives, curriculum relevance
                          Mongolia            Tutoring
Nomads                    Nigeria             Teachers’ working conditions and
                                              incentives
                          Rwanda              Teachers’ sensitization, curriculum
Orphans
                                              relevance
                          Dominican Republic, Curriculum relevance
Over-aged children
                          Paraguay
                          Afghanistan,        Teachers’ education
Refugees                  Czech Republic      Teachers’ sensitization, curriculum
                                              relevance
Children living in        Uganda              Teachers’ working conditions and
urban areas                                   incentives

The strategies which appear most often in the plans mainly focus on the following groups:
   • Curriculum relevance: children with special needs (19 plans);
   • Teachers’ working conditions and incentives: children living in rural areas (18 plans);
   • Teacher education: children with special needs (10 plans);


                                                    24
   • Textbooks and learning methods: children with special needs (12 plans) as well as poor
     and vulnerable children (9 plans);
   • Teachers’ sensitization: girls (12 plans), and children with special needs (8 plans).


Comparison Africa/Latin America

Figures 21 and 22 below reflect the number of references that are given to each strategy related
to Goal 6, by disadvantaged groups in Africa (Figure 18) and Latin America (Figure 19). As in
Figures 8 and 9 above, the marginalized groups were grouped in these graphs under different
items: poverty-related, location-related, etc.

As was noted for Goal 2, some groups receive more attention in one region compared to the
other in the strategies envisaged to achieve EFA Goal 6. This is the case of:
   • Girls, who are the focus of a number of plans in Africa. In these cases, strategies mainly
        refer to teachers’ sensitization and curriculum relevance. In Latin America, only two
        references are made in the plans to teachers’ sensitization strategies;
   • Cultural groups (children belonging to ethnic groups, castes…) receive more attention in
        Latin America. The main strategies refer to textbooks, and then to curriculum relevance
        as well as teachers’ education. In Africa, three references are made to teacher education.

The main strategies that are envisaged to as regards to Goal 6 are the following:

   -   For location-related groups, the main strategy which is envisaged in Africa refers to teachers’
       working conditions and incentives, whereas the focus is put on textbooks and learning
       methods in Latin America.

   • Concerning poverty-related groups, the focus in both regions is mainly on strategies related to
     curriculum relevance. In Latin America, some attention is also given to textbooks and
     learning methods.

   • In Africa, several strategies are envisaged for children with special needs: curriculum
     relevance, textbooks and learning methods, teachers’ sensitization, teachers’ education. In
     Latin America, two strategies are emphasized: curriculum relevance and textbooks and
     learning methods.

   • Concerning disadvantaged groups in general, the strategy that is mainly envisaged in Africa
     refers to teachers’ working conditions and incentives, whereas in Latin America the plans
     focus on curriculum relevance and textbooks and learning methods.

Generally, there is more focus on curriculum relevance and textbooks and learning methods in
Latin America than in Africa.




                                                 25
Figure 21: Number of references to disadvantaged groups by EFA Goal 6 – Strategies in Africa




Note:
Gender-related: girls
Culture-related: caste, ethnicity/tribes, language, race, religion
Location-related: conflict-affected areas, refugees and displaced persons, child soldiers, nomads, rural, (pastoralist...),
urban slums, street children
Poverty-related: child labour, over-aged, poor/vulnerable, single mother

Figure 22: Number of references to disadvantaged groups by EFA Goal 6 – Strategies in Latin America




Note:
Gender-related: girls
Culture-related: caste, ethnicity/tribes, language, race, religion
Location-related: conflict-affected areas, refugees and displaced persons, child soldiers, nomads, rural, (pastoralist...),
urban slums, street children
Poverty-related: child labour, over-aged, poor/vulnerable, single mother




                                                           26
While the sections below show the most common strategies among the regions, it is worth to
mention some more unusual strategies to reach disadvantaged groups. A non-exhaustive
selection of them is presented below.


                                               Unusual strategies

Nepal: Sports Development Program
The Sports Development Program intends to produce competitive players up to the level of international standard,
by integrating sports and extracurricular activities from school to higher education and by providing one sports
teacher for each and every secondary school. Among these sports teachers 1,000 will be from women, Dalits,
backward groups and castes, Janajatis, Madhesis, conflict affected and displaced groups.

Namibia: “Relief” teachers
As many others countries Namibia is facing a shortage of teachers due to the HIV and AIDS pandemic. A teacher
relief system will be established to overcome this problem, partly by recruiting retired teachers and by training
members of the National Youth Service as relief teachers

Honduras - Providing educational services with transparency
Discrimination in educational provision or in access to education is a factor of marginalization as is the unavailability
of an educational system. Transparency is presented as a way to fight marginalization by ensuring that:
     - There is no restriction in educational access to persons who do not have enough resources or who are in a
         situation of social or economic fragility
     - Services are provided under state controlled minimum standards
     - Situations that can lead to inequality in accessing educational services are avoided
     - Terms of provision are constantly and publicly known
     - Denunciations and complaints in case of ineffective or restrictive provision are enabled
     - Legal action can be taken to allow for immediate restoration of services or to ensure improvement of
         services if those provided are inadequate
     - Schools are built in different locations without discrimination in the choice of settlements
     - Practices and programmes guarantee full respect to minorities and to the characteristics of different social
         sectors.

Conclusion

Interestingly, we notice that marginalized groups in general receive less attention in the plans at
the level of targets and objectives (except for Goals 2 and 4), while most of them include
strategies for them, to achieve EFA Goals.

However, some groups receive much attention in the plans. This is the case of the following
groups:
   - poor and vulnerable children,
   - girls,
   - children living in rural areas,
   - children with special needs.

Children from ethnic groups are particularly emphasized in Latin America.

However, the following marginalized groups receive much less attention, in the plans:
  - working children;
  - children living in conflict-affected areas;
  - refugees;
  - children belonging to specific castes;
  - children living with HIV;
  - Single mothers.


                                                          27
    4. Planning in a post-conflict setting: Afghanistan / Sierra Leone

This section examines and compares the attention given to marginalized groups in two post-
conflict settings: Afghanistan and Sierra Leone.

As shown by Figure 23, both plans identify several categories of disadvantaged groups. If they
each mention in this regard children with disabilities and girls – in certain regions in Sierra Leone –
they then refer to different groups, according to the specificity of their context and needs:
in Afghanistan, attention is given for instance to nomads and returning refugees’ children;
in Sierra Leone, mention is made of orphans, children who are heads of households, child
soldiers and children who are sexually exploited and abused.

While the plan of Afghanistan include broad categories of children - over-aged, pre-school
children, girls… - the plan of Sierra Leone appear to be more specific in this regard.

Figure 23: Groups identified as being marginalized in the plans of Afghanistan and Sierra Leone

                   Afghanistan                                           Sierra Leone

   -   Girls not allowed to attend schools “during        -   The poor
       the time of the Taliban”
                                                          -   Girls in certain regions
   -   Kuchi (nomads)
                                                          -   Children with disabilities (the war left many
   -   Over-aged                                              without limbs)
   -   Pre-school children                                -   Orphans
   -   Children with disabilities                         -   Children heads of households
   -   Returning refugees’ children                       -   Child soldiers, many of whom are now
                                                              entering into young adulthood, need special
                                                              services
                                                          -   Children who are sexually exploited and
                                                              abused


The information given by Figure 24 allows making a more in-depth analysis. This figure indicates
the number of strategies foreseen for marginalized groups. Both plans give specific attention to
girls. However, we notice that:
     - The Afghanistan plan pays much interest to ‘identity’ groups e.g. to children from
        specific ethnic groups/tribes/religious groups, speaking specific languages, and nomads,
        while they receive much less attention in Sierra Leone. The Afghanistan plan also
        includes several strategies for children living in rural areas.
     - In Sierra Leone, the focus is mainly put on girls, poor and vulnerable groups and children
        with special needs (12 strategies proposed). The other groups mentioned above – child
        soldiers, orphans – receive less attention. In other cases – children who are heads of
        households, children who are sexually exploited and abused, child soldiers - no specific
        strategies are finally developed in the plan.




                                                     28
Figure 24: Comparing the range of strategies targeting marginalized groups in the education plans of
Afghanistan and Sierra Leone




As noticed with Figures 25 and 26, the challenges and targets are more quantified in the plan of
Afghanistan compared with the one of Sierra Leone. However, in both cases, the emphasis is laid
on issues related to access, teachers, gender and school building.

Figure 25: Challenges identified concerning marginalization

    Area                         Afghanistan                                  Sierra Leone
Access          • Access to school in particular for girls    • Meeting the cost of an expanding
                and Kuchi children. Half of school-age        education system
                children are estimated to be out-of-school,   • Meeting the cost of all ‘free schooling’
                with significant gender and regional          programmes and their consequences
                disparities
Teachers        • Number of teachers has grown but only       • Preponderance of untrained and
                22% meet the minimum qualifications of        unqualified teachers especially at the primary
                Grade 14.                                     level.
                                                              • Obtaining an improved distribution of
                                                              qualified teachers
                                                              • Frequent absences from school through
                                                              illness such as malaria and dysentery
                                                              • Training teachers for special needs
                                                              students
Gender          Only 28% of the teacher force are female.     • Need for concrete programmes to address
                They teach primarily in urban areas.          gender based violence within schools
                                                              • Obtaining more female role models




                                                   29
School          • Over 3,500 school have been built since     • Meeting the cost of post-war
buildings       1380 [2001]. Only 25% of schools have         reconstruction
                usable buildings however. Thousands of        • Obtaining an equitable distribution of
                communities lack easy access to schools.      educational institutions
                • Nearly 6% of schools have been burned       • Providing girl friendly environments in our
                or closed down due to terrorism in the last   educational institutions
                18 months [1386=2007].                        • Adapt and build facilities
                                                              • Provide special needs equipment and
                                                              materials
Literacy/       • An estimated 11 million of Afghans are      • Meeting skills training needs and the
Manpower        illiterate.                                   provision of a literate and skilled middle
                                                              level manpower
                                                              • Addressing the gross disparities in male :
                                                              female enrolment rates at the post-primary
                                                              level
Curriculum      • Thousands of children are being
                indoctrinated in hatred and intolerance in
                madrassas [p.11].
Other                                                         • Danger and potential effect of HIV/AIDS
                                                              on education
                                                              Providing for those with Special Needs


Figure 26: Detailed targets for marginalized groups

            Groups                       Afghanistan                   Sierra Leone
Gender                         Increase the number of female GER from 104% in 2007 to
                               primary      and     secondary 105% by 2015 for girls
                               teachers by 50% by 2010
                               NER by 2010 at least 60% for
                               girls. Ensure that at least 60% of
                               learners are female
Special needs                  NER in primary school of 45%
                               and 30% for boys and girls with
                               disabilities, respectively by 2010
Nomads                        At least 35% of Kuchi children
                              (Nomads) will have access to
                              specially adapted programs of
                              formal education by 2010
Literacy                      Increase literacy by 50%


Concerning the strategies, it is interesting to notice that they are quite similar in Afghanistan and
Sierra Leone (see Figure 27 extracted from Annex 3). They are more oriented toward providing
an adequate infrastructure than to content.

We can however see some differences:
- Abolish fees is mentioned in Sierra Leone and not mentioned in Afghanistan
- Language of instruction, ICT and Distance Education, Tutoring and Textbooks are mentioned in
Afghanistan, and not mentioned in Sierra Leone.




                                                      30
Figure 27: Strategies for marginalized groups in Afghanistan and Sierra Leone




                                                                                31
     5. Attention to girls in disadvantaged and rural areas: Benin, Burkina Faso,
        Mali and Niger


Comparing targets and strategies in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger


Rural girls are considered as a priority group in all these four countries, Benin, Mali and
Niger giving more emphasis than Burkina Faso. In Mali they are the focal point for
strategies : « Dans la réflexion sur les stratégies, le choix a été fait de focaliser les stratégies clés sur le
groupe cible le moins scolarisé que constituent les filles en milieu rural. En apportant des solutions
pertinentes pour leur scolarisation, on répond aussi aux besoins des garçons et on atteint la proportion la
plus importante des enfants non scolarisés du Mali, qui est aussi la plus pauvre ». However, the table
below shows that despite this affirmation, Mali does not indicate specific targets for girls.



Figure 28: Targets concerning girls in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger

Benin                         Burkina Faso            Mali                              Niger
-    GER: 83% in              -   GER: 66.6% in       -    GER (including girls’) :     -    GER Girls:
     2005 to 125%                 2006 to 78.2% by         72,2% in 2006 to                  44% in 2006 to
     by 2015                      2010 with a              105% by 2015                      63.3% by 2010
-    GIR: 92% in                  particular effort   -    Fundamental cycle            -    GIR Girls in
     2005 to 115%                 towards girls            intake ratio (including           primary
     by 2015                  -   Gender parity            girls’): 67.6% in 2006            education: 51%
-    GRC: 42% in                  index : 1 by 2010        to 90% in 2015                    in 2006 to 73%
     2005 to 110%                                     -    Primary education                 by 2010
     by 2015                                               completion ratio             -    GER in rural
-    GER Girls                                             (including girls’):               areas: 52% in
     Secondary: 31%                                        43.2% in 2006 to                  2006 to 66% by
     in 2005 to 44%                                        82.5% by 2015                     2010
     by 2015
-    Girls retention
     ratio: 46% in
     2005 to 96% by
     2015
GER: Gross enrolment ratio
GIR: Gross intake ratio
GRC: Gross completion ratio




                                                      32
The figure below shows that some strategies are recurrent in the four countries:
   - community sensitization (advocacy, sensitization campaigns, facilitators);
   - stipends and incentives (affirmative action, school kits);
   - water and sanitation (separate latrines for boys and girls);
   - female teachers (recruitment, incentives, affirmative action)
   - and teachers’ sensitization (including gender issues in teacher education, teacher’s
       attitude toward girls), except in Burkina Faso.

Address abuse in schools is not mentioned by Mali and Niger but the Mali plan includes,
among strategies addressing gender disparity, a sensitization campaign on ethics as well as
the elaboration of a teacher code. Strategies like “school feeding” are not exclusively
targeting girls but they are mentioned as ways to improve access to education in particular
for girls.

Excepting tutoring and remedial instruction, all others strategies are more oriented towards
providing an adequate infrastructure than to the content of education.

Figure 29: Proposed strategies (ordered by frequency)
                                                        Benin   Burkina Faso   Mali   Niger
Community sensitisation
Stipends, incentives, scholarships for
households
Water and sanitation in schools/health
programs
Female teachers
Teachers' sensitization
School feeding
School building/infrastructure
TVET/skills
Tutoring / Remedial instruction
Address abuse in schools
Abolish fees
School calendars/Timetables




                                                33
    6. Attention to girls in disadvantaged and rural areas: Comparing targets and
       strategies in Egypt and Morocco

Both countries admit that they have seen little improvement in girls’ enrolment despite
their efforts: in Egypt, the “1993 First Lady’s Initiative for Girls Education” and the “Girls’
Education Initiative”, launched following the Dakar Declaration; in Morocco, the
government’s commitment since 2001 through the “Charte nationale d’éducation et de
formation”.

“School building/infrastructure” and “Textbooks and learning methods” are common
strategies for these two countries.

In Egypt school building is orientated to the provision of “Community Based Education”
delivered through « One Classroom Schools », « Community Schools », and “Girls’
Friendly Schools”.

In Morocco, the model is based on large schools regrouping children from the same
community and providing school transportation and dormitories.

Regarding textbooks, in Egypt it is the production and provision of books which is
proposed while in Morocco this strategy refers to the elimination of gender stereotypes
from textbooks. Strategies in Egypt are less diversified than in Morocco but the plan clearly
states a strong commitment to “placing girls’ education as a top priority”. In Morocco, one
of the modalities of “School transportation” is quite original: girls are given mountain bikes
to be able to reach their school by themselves. As usual, “Water and sanitation in schools”
stands for latrines for girls.

Figure 30: Targets concerning girls in Egypt and Morocco
Egypt                                            Morocco
‐ GER 4-5 year-old children: from 18.1%          Enrolment ratio Girls Primary in rural areas:
   in 2006 to 60% by 2011/12 (of which           88.7% in 2006-2007.
   girls’ accounts for: from 47% to 49%)         There is no specific target provided for 2015
‐ GER from 113.8% in 2005 to 100.6%              except the general statement that the
   by 2011/12 (of which girls’ accounts          NAJAH Programme aims to eliminate
   for: from 47% to 49%)                         disparities between the sexes by 2015, in
                                                 equal access of children to compulsory
                                                 education.
Figure 31: Proposed strategies concerning girls in Egypt and Morocco
                                                     Egypt     Morocco
School building/infrastructure
Textbooks and learning methods
School transportation
Community sensitisation
Water and sanitation in schools/health
programs
Female teachers
Teachers' sensitization




                                               34
    7. Attention to ethnic minorities/language: Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay and
       Peru

In spite of percentages of indigenous population varying from 5% in Paraguay to 45% in
Peru, these countries clearly identify them as a disadvantaged group. But despite the many
references to cultural and linguistic diversity, there are no specific targets provided
regarding this area.

Strategies concerning the use of textbooks in indigenous languages are the most frequently
mentioned, followed by the language of instruction. In both cases, it mainly concentrates
on the use of vernacular languages or in the provision of bilingual (Spanish / indigenous)
materials. Peru is the only country mentioning the adaptation of learning standards from a
“bilingual and intercultural perspective”.

Strategies regarding teacher education in indigenous languages are proposed by Peru and
Guatemala. They include in-service training of indigenous teachers to ensure quality of
education (Peru) or creation of positions for bilingual teachers in schools in indigenous
areas (Guatemala). In Ecuador, special attention is given to ensure that the school uniform
is compliant with cultural identity.

Regarding other strategies, the mention “taking into account the country’s cultural
diversity” seems to be a mandatory addendum but without specific programmes being
proposed. Indigenous people are targeted by strategies but at the same level than other
marginalized groups (poor, vulnerable, rural, urban) of which they constitute a significant
part. This does not mean that specific policies do not exist in these countries but pointing
to a group due to its ethnic or linguistic characteristics is too a delicate matter to be raised
in a document like an national education plan.


Figure 32: Proposed strategies in Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay and Peru
                                                   Ecuador Guatemala Paraguay Peru
Textbooks and learnings methods
ECCE
School building/infrastructure
Language of instruction
Stipends, incentives, scholarships for
households
Teacher education
Tutoring / Remedial instruction
Curriculum relevance
TVET/skills
School feeding
School transportation
Adult literacy
Working conditions and incentives
Secondary




                                              35
    8. Conclusion



It is somewhat hazardous to draw many strong conclusions from an exercise such as this,
for two reasons at least. Firstly, the character of the documents: these are plans, therefore
general policy intentions which reflect a political consensus at a certain moment in time.
But the consensus may not survive for long (some countries have indeed made new plans
before the existing plan period was completed) and the implementation of the plan may be
very different from its original intentions. Secondly, because of the nature of our analysis: it
attempted to cover a wide range of documents, from 44 countries in different continents
and therefore the analysis imperatively had to remain at the surface of these documents. In
a few cases, our analysis went a bit deeper but the coverage of the exercise did not allow
for an in-depth analysis of plan and policy formulation in a few selected countries.

With these caveats in mind, we can nonetheless suggest a number of conclusions.

The marginalized which appear in the plans are a fairly diverse group. In total, we found
more than 40 terms to identify what could be considered “marginalized” or
“disadvantaged” people. This plethora of terms can be summarized into 17 groupings
which fit quite well with the original categories of the GMR: gender-related, culture-related,
location-related, poverty-related and special groups, though one could add a specific
category entitled conflict-related. This image of diversity however tends to disappear when
one looks in more detail at the regularity with which terms are used. A few very general
categories – the poor, the rural, girls, special needs – crop up by far the most regularly,
while in many cases there is no identification of any specific group. This is true both for an
analysis of the plans in general and for the analysis we did by EFA goal. There are some
differences by region, as we discussed earlier. Nonetheless in all three main regions, the
main groups are the “poor-vulnerable”, the “rural” and the “special needs”.

The term “marginalized” itself is very seldom used. In many case, the connotation of the
terminology used is that the disadvantaged or marginalized are the victims of their own
characteristics (the popularity of the term “special needs” is instructive in this regard).
There seems to be little recognition of the process of marginalization. Very few plans in
any case contain an analysis of the situation of marginalized or disadvantaged groups.
There is little diagnosis underpinning the identification of these groups neither of the
causes which explain their position.

Countries are expected to translate the EFA goals into specific targets; some of the goals
are already defined as measurable targets. Interestingly, rather few countries propose
specific measurable targets for disadvantaged groups. Quite a few of what the plans
propose as “targets” are fairly general statements. In contrast, many more plans propose a
series of strategies focused specifically on marginalized or disadvantaged groups without
identifying related targets. However, as we have seen, many of those strategies also remain
of a rather general nature.




                                              36
 Before making some comments on the strategic options reflected in the plans, we may first
reflect on the reasons for this somewhat surprising disconnect between targets and
strategies: why do few plans include specific targets, although they do identify strategies.
There may be three reasons which go beyond this specific question and help us understand
the fairly general and at times superficial character of the plans when they discuss
marginalization.

    • Firstly, few countries have been able to collect detailed data on the situation of
      disadvantaged groups. This is particularly true when these groups are defined in
      very general terms or when the terminology used is open to interpretation. Not
      surprisingly, it is much easier to define targets for “girls” (an evident category) and
      also for “rural areas” than for the poor or the disadvantaged.
    • Secondly, and related to this first point, the targets and strategies are not grounded
      into a profound analysis of the situation of the disadvantaged groups. Without such
      an analysis, it is difficult to define targets and equally difficult to propose specific
      strategies, therefore leading country plans to opt for general statements and the
      adoption of strategies around which there is a general consensus.
    • Thirdly, the lack of specific targets may also reflect an unwillingness to commit to
      specific promises. Committing to strategies is probably easier than committing to
      targets.

The analysis of the strategies proposed in the plans shows firstly the enduring popularity of
what could be called “traditional” strategies, in other words the same strategies that have
been proposed since many years to expand access, improve quality and reach the
unreached. “School construction” and “school feeding” are the most prevalent strategies
for EFA goal 2; “stipends, incentives, scholarships” and “community sensitization” are the
typical responses to achieve gender equality (goal 5) while quality improvement (goal 6)
demands greater curriculum relevance and an amelioration in the working conditions and
the training of teachers. It is interesting though to note that, in order to achieve goal 3, 80
% of the plans propose the development of TVET, which has been a somewhat neglected
area in recent years, although very few (5 plans out of 44) identify more or less specific
targets.

Two strategic “domains” do not receive much attention in the plans. Firstly, the issue of
the content of education: although improving curriculum relevance is recognized as a key
strategy for quality enhancement, the same or similar strategies are not prevalent for other
goals. With regard to Goal 2 for instance, content is not mentioned though some attention
is given to language of instruction. These issues are completely absent with regard to Goal
5. A more detailed analysis of the attention given to ethnic minorities in four Latin-
American countries shows more attention to this theme, but the plans do not go into detail
and the references to taking into account cultural diversity do not translate into a genuine
attempt to propose innovative approaches.

A second neglected area of strategic reforms is that related to management. Management
reforms (decentralization, school autonomy, strengthening public accountability and so on)
are not regularly referred to. There are some exceptions though, as the example of
Honduras’s attempt strengthen transparency demonstrates.

Finally, there is some difference but rather little in the choice of strategies between
countries or in function of the groups identified as disadvantaged. As figures 10 and 20
show, more or less the same strategies are proposed for fairly specific groups (working


                                              37
children, nomads, refugees) as for the more general groups. There is however somewhat
more difference between countries and regions, but these differences remain rather
marginal. Figure 33a and 33b compare the strategies proposed to achieve Goal 2 for all
disadvantaged groups combined, between Africa and Latin-America7.

Figure 33a: Prevalence of strategies to achieve Goal 2 for all disadvantaged groups, in Africa




Figure 343b: Prevalence of strategies to achieve Goal 2 for all disadvantaged groups, in Latin-
America




7
    These graphs are based on figures 11 and 12.


                                                   38
The graphs show some differences between the two regions. Most striking may be the
complete absence of community sensitization in Latin-America while this is the most
popular strategy in Africa. The explanation lies in the attention given to girls’ enrolment in
the latter region: community sensitization is indeed the main strategy foreseen to attract
this group into school, while girls’ enrolment is no longer a problem in Latin-America.
Beyond this issue, there is little variation between the two regions: school buildings,
stipends and school feeding are popular in both, while fee abolition has entered on the
agenda in several countries.

A somewhat similar exercise, related to EFA goal 6, is reflected in Figures 34a and 34b.

Figure 354a: Prevalence of strategies to achieve Goal 6 for all disadvantaged groups, in Africa




Figure 364b: Prevalence of strategies to achieve Goal 6 for all disadvantaged groups, in Latin-
America




                                                  39
There are again some differences between the two regions: Latin-America shows more
interest into pedagogical matters, such as learning methods, curriculum and remedial
instruction. Africa counts more on addressing teacher-related issues. This may reflect the
particularly preoccupying situation of teachers in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a process of
de-professionalization has taken place.

The analysis of these plans leaves as a final overall impression, on the one hand a
recognition of the need to work towards addressing the specific needs of the disadvantaged
and the marginalized groups, but on the other hand, a lack of analysis of the specific
situation of these groups, a lack of identification of who the marginalized are and what
causes their marginalization and, as a result, an adoption of fairly general strategies which
may not be sufficiently adapted to the specific constraints and resistances which these
groups face.




                                             40
Annex 1: Population HDI and GDP of analyzed countries
                                                               GDP                 Population                      Population                                      Population,
                                                               per                     living                         living                                            total
                                                           capita                     below                           below                                          (millions)
                                                        (PPP US$)                          1€                              2€
                                                                                           a                               a                  1975                 2005                  2015b
                                                       2005                             day                             day
                                                                                           (%)                             (%)

HDI Rank                                                                       1990-2005a                     1990-2005a

High Human Development
       Czech Republic                                 20                     <2                             <2                              10                   10,2                  10,1
32                                                    538            z                               z                               z                    z                     z                      z
       Latvia                                         13                     <2                             4,7                             2,5                  2,3                   2,2
45                                                    646            z                               z                               z                    z                     z                      z
       Mauritius                                      12                     ..                             ..                              0,9                  1,2                   1,3
65                                                    715            z                               z                               z                    z                     z                      z
70     Brazil                                         8 402          z       7,5                     z      21,2                     z      108,1         z      186,8          z      210             z
Medium Human Development
75     Colombia                                       7 304          c               7               z             17,8              z      25,3          z       44,9          z        50,7          z
79     Dominican Republic                             8 217          c              2,8              z             16,2              z       5,3          z        9,5          z        10,9          z
87     Peru                                           6 039          z              10,5             z             30,6              z      15,2          z       27,3          z        30,8          z
89     Ecuador                                        4 341          z              17,7             z             40,8              z       6,9          z       13,1          z        14,6          z
95     Paraguay                                       4 642          c              13,6             z             29,8              z       2,8          z        5,9          z          7           z
96     Georgia                                        3 365          z              6,5              z             25,3              z       4,9          z        4,5          z         4,2          z
97     Guyana                                         4 508          c               ..              z              ..               z       0,7          z        0,7          z         0,7          z
107    Indonesia                                      3 843          z              7,5              z             52,4              z      135,4         z       226,1         z        251,6         z
111    Moldova                                        2 100          z               <2              z             20,8              z       3,8          z        3,9          z         3,6          z
112    Egypt                                          4 337          z              3,1              z             43,9              z      39,2          z       72,8          z        86,2          z
114    Mongolia                                       2 107          z              10,8             z             44,6              z       1,4          z        2,6          z         2,9          z
115    Honduras                                       3 430          c              14,9             z             35,7              z       3,1          z        6,8          z         8,3          z
116    Kyrgyzstan                                     1 927          z               <2              z             21,4              z       3,3          z        5,2          z         5,8          z
118    Guatemala                                      4 568          c              13,5             z             31,9              z       6,2          z       12,7          z        16,2          z
       South Africa                                     11                          10,7                           34,1                     25,7                  47,9                   50,3
121                                                    110           c                               z                               z                    z                     z                      z
122    Tajikistan                                     1 356          z              7,4              z             42,8              z       3,4          z        6,6          z         7,7          z
126    Morocco                                        4 555          z               <2              z             14,3              z      17,3          z       30,5          z        34,3          z
       India                                          3 452                         34,3                           80,4                     613,8                   1                      1
128                                                                  c                               z                               z                    z      134,40         z       302,50         z
131    Cambodia                                       2 727          c              34,1             z             77,7              z       7,1          z        14           z        16,6          z
133    Bhutan                                           ..           d,e             ..              z              ..               z       0,4          z        0,6          z         0,7          z
142    Nepal                                          1 550          z              24,1             z             68,5              z       13,5         z       27,1          z        32,8          z
148    Kenya                                          1 240          z              22,8             z             58,3              z       13,5         z       35,6          z        46,2          z
154    Uganda                                         1 454          c               ..              z              ..               z       10,9         z       28,9          z         40           z
155    Gambia                                         1 921          c              59,3             z             82,9              z       0,6          z        1,6          z         2,1          z
Low Human Development
158    Nigeria                                        1 128          z              70,8             z             92,4              z       61,2         z       141,4         z        175,7         z
160    Guinea                                         2 316          z               ..              z              ..               z        4           z         9           z        11,4          z
161    Rwanda                                         1 206          c              60,3             z             87,8              z       4,4          z        9,2          z        12,1          z
162    Angola                                         2 335          c               ..              z              ..               z       6,8          z       16,1          z        21,2          z
163    Benin                                          1 141          z              30,9             z             73,7              z       3,2          z        8,5          z        11,3          z
169    Ethiopia                                       1 055          c               23              z             77,8              z       34,2         z        79           z         101          z
171    Central African Republic                       1 224          c              66,6             z              84               z       2,1          z        4,2          z          5           z
172    Mozambique                                     1 242          c              36,2             z             74,1              z       10,6         z       20,5          z        24,7          z
173    Mali                                           1 033          z              36,1             z             72,1              z       5,4          z       11,6          z        15,7          z
174    Niger                                           781           c              60,6             z             85,8              z       4,9          z       13,3          z        18,8          z
176    Burkina Faso                                   1 213          c              27,2             z             71,8              z       6,1          z       13,9          z        18,5          z
177    Sierra Leone                                    806           z               57              f             74,5              f       2,9          z        5,6          z         6,9          z
Without HDI Rank
       Afghanistan                                        ..         z                ..             z                ..             z       13,3         z        25,1         z         35,6         z
Source: Data from Human Development Report 2007/2008 http://hdrstats.undp.org
† Denotes indicators used to calculate the human poverty index (HPI-1). For further details, see Technical note 1.
Notes:
a.Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified. b.Data refer to medium-variant projections. c.World Bank estimate based on regression. d.Data refer to a year other than that
specified. e.In the absence of an estimate of GDP per capita (PPP US$), an HDRO estimate of 3,413 (PPP US$) was used, f.Data refer to a year or period other than that specified, differ from the standard
definition or refer to only part of a country.
Source:
column 1: World Bank. 2007b. World Development Indicators 2007. CD-ROM. Washington, D.C., unless otherwise specified; aggregates calculated for HDRO by the World Bank.
column 2 and 3: World Bank. 2007b. World Development Indicators 2007. CD-ROM. Washington, D.C.
column 4: UN (United Nations). 2007e. World Population Prospects 1950-2050: The 2006 Revision. Database. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. New York. Accessed July 2007.
column 5 and 6: UN (United Nations). 2007e. World Population Prospects 1950-2050: The 2006 Revision. Database. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. New York. Accessed July
2007.




                                                                                                   41
Annex 2: List of plans and terminology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             IIEP – GMR 2010 – ANALYSIS OF 44 NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANS 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                        Categories of marginalized                                                                                  Groups mentioned 
                                                               PLANS                                                                                 Definition of marginalization                                                Terms used to refer to the marginalized 
                                                                                                              Plans for marginalized groups                                                      groups                                                                                               exceptionnally  
AFRICA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
Angola             Angola. Minstério da Educação. 2008? Plano de Desenvolvimento de Médio Prazo           Angola. Ministério da Educação.                                             Girls                           ‐ crianças, que vivem em zonas de maior incidência de vulnera‐         
                   ‐ Educação (Draft, unpublished). 25 p.                                                 2005. Estratégia de alfabetização e                                         Poor‐vulnerable                 bilidade social 
                                                                                                          recuperação do atraso escolar,                                              Special‐needs                   ‐ crianças com necessidades educativas especiais 
                                                                                                          2006‐2015. 45 p.                                                                                            assimetrias regionais 
                                                                                                          http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/u
                                                                                                          pload/Angola/Angola_Estrategia_d
                                                                                                          e_Alfabetizacao.pdf  
                                                                                                          Angola. Ministério da Educação. 
                                                                                                          2006. Plano estratégico de 
                                                                                                          desenvolvimento da educação 
                                                                                                          especial em Angola 2007‐2015. 
                                                                                                          42p. 
                                                                                                          http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/u
                                                                                                          pload/Angola/Angola_Estrategiapa
                                                                                                          raEducacaoEspecial.pdf 
Benin              Benin. Ministère des enseignements primaire et secondaire, MEPS. 2006. Plan                                                                                        Special‐needs                   Enfants à besoins  spécifiques                                         
                   décennal de développement du secteur de l'éducation 2006‐2015. Tome 1. 173 p.                                                                                      Girls                           Filles 
                   http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Benin/Benin_Plan decennal education                                                                                       Rural                           Zones rurales 
                   T1.pdf                                                                                                                                                             Over‐aged                       un ménage présumé « pauvre » ;  filles des ménages les plus 
                   Benin. Ministère des enseignements primaire et secondaire, MEPS. 2006. Plan                                                                                        Poor‐vulnerable                 pauvres ; enfants défavorisés ; déscolarisés précoces et les 
                   décennal de développement du secteur de l'éducation 2006‐2015: document de                                                                                         Child‐labour                    jeunes non scolarisés ; couches sensibles et défavorisées ; 
                   synthèse. 57 p.                                                                                                                                                                                    groupes et régions défavorisés ; groupes sociaux sensibles 
                   http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Benin/Benin_Plan decennal Synthese.pdf                                                                                                                    Enfants non scolarisés ayant dépassé l’âge scolaire/d’entrée à 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      l’école 
Burkina Faso       Burkina Faso. Ministère de l'enseignement de base et de l'alphabétisation, MEBA.                                                                                   Special‐needs                   Enfants à besoins spécifiques                                          
                   2007. Plan décennal de développement de l'éducation de base: Phase II (2008‐                                                                                       Girls                           Education intégratrice 
                   2010): objectifs, stratégies, actions et coûts. 77 p.                                                                                                                                               
                   http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Burkina Faso/Burkina Faso PDDEB Phase                                                                                                                     2 groupes distingués et mentionnés à plusieurs reprises: 
                   2 2008‐2010.pdf                                                                                                                                                                                    ‐  enfants à handicap léger qu’il est toujours possible d’intégrer 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      à l’école classique 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ‐ les enfants dont le handicap nécessite des mesures 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      spécifiques (enfants aveugles, sourds‐muets, 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      encéphalopathes…) 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Filles 
Central African    Central African Republic. Ministère de l'éducation nationale, de l'alphabétisation,                                                                                Poor‐vulnerable                 Enfants vulnérables                                                    
Republic           de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche. 2008. Stratégie nationale du                                                                                       Orphans                         Soutien à la demande des populations vulnérables (enfants 
                   secteur de l'éducation 2008‐2020. 106 p.                                                                                                                           Special‐needs                   issus de milieu défavorisés, pauvres, orphelins, filles) et des 
                   http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Central African                                                                                                           Ethnicity                       enfants à besoins spéciaux 
                   Republic/CAR_education_strategy_2008_2020.pdf                                                                                                                      Rural                           Orphelins du SIDA 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Campagnes spécifiques pour certaines minorités ethniques 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      sous‐scolarisées tels que les peuhls et les pygmées. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Enfants à besoins spéciaux (malvoyants, sourds muets…) 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Zones rurales 
Ethiopia           Ethiopia. Ministry of Education. 2005. Education Sector Development Program III                                                                                    Girls                           Children from pastoralist, semi‐agriculturalist and                    
                   (ESDP III) 2005/2006 ‐ 2010/2011 (1998 EFY ‐ 2002 EFY): program action plan                                                                                        Nomads                          in isolated rural areas; pastoral and chronic food deficit areas; 
                   (PAP): final draft. 93 p.                                                                                                                                          Rural                           rural and undeserved areas; chronically food insecure and 
                   http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Ethiopia/Ethiopia_Education_Plan_Augu                                                                                     Nomads                          vulnerable children; girls from poor families; children with 
                   st_2005.pdf                                                                                                                                                        Special‐needs                   special needs; orphans and vulnerable children; over aged 
                                                                                                                                                                                      Orphans                         children; disadvantaged children; out‐of‐school children; hard‐
                                                                                                                                                                                      Over‐aged                       to‐reach remote rural communities; sparse settlement areas; 
                                                                                                                                                                                      Poor‐vulnerable                 vulnerable and pastoral children; students and teachers 
                                                                                                                                                                                      HIV‐AIDS                        infected and affected by HIV/AIDS;  
                                                                                                                                                                                      Child labour 
Gambia             Gambia. Dept of State for Education, DoSE. 2006. Education sector strategic plan                                                                                   Special‐needs                   Special needs                                                         Boys 
                   2006‐2015 (ESSP). 106 p.                                                                                                                                           Poor‐vulnerable                 Disabilities 
                   http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Gambia/Gambia ESSP 2006‐2015.pdf                                                                                          Girls                           Disadvantaged children 
                                                                                                                                                                                      Rural                           Disadvantaged groups 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Poor households 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Gender 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Girls 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      “Under‐served regions, girls and other disadvantaged groups 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of the population.” “under‐served communities, including girls 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      or boys (where either party 
                                                                                                                                                            42
                                                                                                                                                                                   Categories of marginalized                                                                               Groups mentioned 
                                                            PLANS                                                                              Definition of marginalization                                                Terms used to refer to the marginalized 
                                                                                                          Plans for marginalized groups                                                     groups                                                                                            exceptionnally  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 is under‐represented), special needs students and rural 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 populations.” 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ‐“out‐of‐school children of school going‐age”.‐ disadvantaged 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 regions‐ vulnerable children‐ 
Guinea           Guinea. Ministère de l'éducation nationale et de la recherche scientifique. 2007.                                                                               Girls                           Peu de mentions:                                                      
                 Description du programme sectoriel de l'éducation (PSE) 2008‐2015. 72 p.                                                                                        Special‐needs                   Filles 
                 http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Guinea/Guinea_PSE 29 10                                                                                                                                1 mention: Poursuite des programmes genre et équité 
                 2007_Final.pdf                                                                                                                                                                                  2 mentions: enfants vulnérables 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2 mentions: Education spéciale 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1 mention: handicapés (mal ou non voyants / entendants) 
Kenya            Kenya. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, MOEST. 2005. Kenya                                                                                        Rural                           isolated rural areas, those living in low‐income areas within        Support for children with 
                 Education sector support programme 2005‐2010: delivering quality equitable                                                                                      Poor‐vulnerable                 large urban centres and in other pockets of poverty; poor and        special talents and abilities 
                 education and training to all Kenyans. 288 p.                                                                                                                   Urban                           marginalized areas; children in special circumstances, including     Re‐entry of girls who drop out 
                 http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Kenya/Kenya KESSP FINAL 2005.pdf                                                                                       Orphans                         orphans, children in urban slums, ASALs and pockets of               of school due to pregnancy and 
                                                                                                                                                                                 Girls                           poverty; disadvantaged areas; areas where the poor have              early/forced marriages; gender 
                                                                                                                                                                                 Special‐needs                   faced challenges in accessing education; access by children          violence and Child abuse 
                                                                                                                                                                                 Child‐labour                    with special needs, whom up to now have been largely                 Substance‐dependant children 
                                                                                                                                                                                 Nomads                          marginalized; poorest areas of the country; vulnerable groups; 
                                                                                                                                                                                 HIV‐AIDS                        Children from low‐income households; orphans and those with 
                                                                                                                                                                                 Over‐aged                       special needs; HIV/AIDS orphans; challenges, such as 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 overcrowded informal urban settlements, HIV/AIDS pandemic, 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 child labour, nomadic livelihoods and harmful cultural 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 practices; disadvantaged and vulnerable children; special and 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 difficult circumstances; hard to reach and unreached children 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 and youth especially girls; special schools and units only cater 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 for children with special needs in the areas of hearing, visual, 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 mental or physical challenges. This leaves out other areas of 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 special needs such as gifted and talented, psychosocially 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 different, autism, multiply handicapped, those with specific 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 learning difficulties and communication disorders; physically 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 challenged children; children infected with HIV/AIDS; 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Specifically for HIV and AIDS SPECIAL AND DISADVANTAGED 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 GROUPS INCLUDE : Orphans, Children infected with HIV. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Children giving care to those living with HIV, Children 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 displaced/traumatized by the impact of HIV and AIDS, 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Substance‐dependant children, Girls and young women, 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Children living in ASAL areas (incl. Pastoralists, mostly rural), 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Children living in slum areas (mostly urban), Seasonal and 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 intermittent child labourers, Street children, Those with 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Special Education Needs (hearing, sight, mental and physical 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 impairments; socio‐economically disadvantaged and 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 nutritionally vulnerable children, especially girls; marginalized 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 communities such as ASAL areas, pockets of poverty and urban 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 slums; mobile schools, Shepherd schools, Dugsi (traditional 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Quranic schools), madrassa, feeder schools, multi grade 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 schools and other localized innovations that facilitate reaching 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the unreached and hard‐to‐reach; needy deserving areas; the 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 needs of marginalized and/or those in difficult circumstances; 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 needy students;  
Mali             Mali. Ministère de l'éducation nationale, Secrétariat Général. 2006. Mali.                                                Un chap. sur "Stratégies vis‐à‐vis    Poor‐vulnerable                 Enfants sous scolarisés: issus de milieux pauvres vivant dans        Talibés : enfants exploités et 
                 Proposition de plan d'action pour la mise en œuvre accélérée du PISE 2 pour la                                            des enfants vulnérables"              Rural                           les zones rurales                                                    maltraités, contraints à 
                 scolarisation primaire universelle. 64 p.                                                                                 Enfants vulnérables : enfants         Nomads                          Parents soit nomades ou sédentaires, agriculteurs, éleveurs ou       mendier pour subvenir à leurs 
                 http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Mali/Mali_plan_PISE2_Oct06.pdf                                                   handicapés, enfants talibés,          Girls                           pêcheurs, en manque de ressources financières et de vivres           besoins et à ceux du marabout 
                                                                                                                                           enfants de la rue, enfants            Special‐needs                   Ruralité de leur mode de vie, basé sur des activités agro‐           auquel ils sont confiés  
                                                                                                                                           travailleurs,  filles domestiques,                                    pastorales.                                                          Une mention: Création de 
                                                                                                                                           aides ménagères, enfants en                                           Les principaux groupes cibles sous scolarisés au Mali sont donc      cadre de concertation avec les 
                                                                                                                                           milieu carcéral, enfants                                              les enfants en milieu rural et surtout les filles, les enfants en    acteurs du développement 
                                                                                                                                           abandonnés, enfants de familles                                       milieu  nomade et certaines catégories d’enfants                     (ONG, secteur privé, etc.) au 
                                                                                                                                           très pauvres…                                                         particulièrement vulnérables.                                        niveau national et dans les 
                                                                                                                                           Un chap. sur:                                                         Populations nomades/ milieux nomades sous scolarisés                 régions, pour développer une 
                                                                                                                                            "L’adaptation de l’offre dans les                                    Enfants à Besoins                                                    offre éducative adaptée aux 
                                                                                                                                           zones nomades"                                                        Educatifs Spéciaux (EBES ou EBS)                                     enfants vulnérables (enfants 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Choix de focaliser les stratégies clés sur le groupe cible le        des rues, aides ménagères, 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 moins scolarisé que constituent les filles en milieu rural           enfants en milieu carcéral, 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      etc.) 
Mauritius        Mauritius. Ministry of Education, Culture and Human Resources. 2008. Education                                                                                  Special‐needs                   Special education needs                                               
                 and human resources strategy plan 2008‐2020: draft. 163 p.                                                                                                      Girls                           Special education 
                 http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Mauritius/Mauritius_Draft_Education_H                                                                                  Poor‐vulnerable                 Disabilities 

                                                                                                                                                      43
                                                                                                                                                                                 Categories of marginalized                                                                              Groups mentioned 
                                                          PLANS                                                                               Definition of marginalization                                               Terms used to refer to the marginalized 
                                                                                                         Plans for marginalized groups                                                    groups                                                                                           exceptionnally  
                uman_Resources_Strategic_Plan_2008‐2020.pdf                                                                                                                                                    Girls/Gender 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Disadvantaged socio‐economic backgrounds/disadvantaged 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               groups 
Mozambique      Mozambique. Ministério da Educaçao e Cultura. 2006. Plano Estratégico de                                                                                       Girls                           crianças órfãs e vulneráveis                                         
                Educação e Cultura 2006‐2010‐2011, PEEC. 149 p.                                                                                                                Orphans                         raparigas; 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Mozambique/Mozambique_PEEC.pdf                                                                                        Rural                           disparidades geográficas e de género 
                                                                                                                                                                               Poor‐vulnerable                 grupos menos favorecidos 
                                                                                                                                                                               Special‐needs                   necessidades educativas  especiais 
Namibia         Namibia. Ministry of Education. 2007. Education and Training Sector Improvement                                                                                Special‐needs                   Mentiones as :"Orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs)"               
                Programme (ETSIP): planning for a learning nation: programme document: Phase I                                                                                 Poor‐vulnerable                 Many mentions to: "Disadvantaged groups" and 
                (2006‐2011). 155 p.                                                                                                                                            Orphans                         "Marginalized groups" 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Namibia/Namibia ETSIP 2007.pdf                                                                                        HIV‐AIDS                        Disadvantaged communities 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               3 mentions to :"Underserved groups" 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Disadvantaged areas/regions 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Special needs/Special education/inclusive education 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Children infected or/and affected by HIV and AIDS 
Niger           Programme décennal de développement de l'éducation au Niger (PDDE). 2ème                                                                                       Special‐needs                   Personnes handicapées                                                
                phase : 2008‐2010. Composante : Accès (Version provisoire). 61 p.                                                                                              Girls                           Actions de sensibilisation auprès des populations et des 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Niger/Niger_PDDE_2008_2010_Composa                                                                                    Rural                           organisations pour 
                nte_Acces_2eme_phase.pdf                                                                                                                                                                       personnes handicapées en faveur de l’éducation spécialisée en 
                Niger. Ministère de l'éducation nationale, MEN. 2007.                                                                                                                                          utilisant tous les canaux de  communication appropriés 
                Programme décennal de développement de l'éducation au Niger (PDDE). 2ème                                                                                                                       Enfants à handicap visuel et à handicap auditif 
                phase : 2008‐2010. Composante : Qualité. 135 p.                                                                                                                                                Plusieurs mentions de Formations d'enseignants et encadreurs 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Niger/Niger_PDDE_2008_2010_Composa                                                                                                                    pour aveugles et pour sourds 
                nte%20Qualit%E9%202%E8me%20phase.pdf                                                                                                                                                           Filles 
                Programme décennal de développement de l'éducation au Niger (PDDE). 2ème                                                                                                                       Approche genre/dimension genre 
                phase : 2008‐2010. Composante : développement institutionnel (Version                                                                                                                          Zones d’interventions prioritaires ZIP 
                provisoire). 37 p.                                                                                                                                                                             Milieu rural 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Niger/Niger_PDDE_2008_2010_Composa
                nte_Dev_inst_2eme_phase.pdf 
Nigeria         Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Education, FME. 2007. Federal Ministry of Education                                                                               Special‐needs                   Special education /special needs 
                10 Year Strategic Plan:                                                                                                                                        Nomads                          Nomadic and migrant  populations’ education 
                draft. 29 p.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Nigeria/Nigeria 
                10_Year_Federal_Education_Plan_Draft.pdf 
Rwanda          Rwanda. Ministère de l'éducation, MINEDUC. 2006. Education Sector Strategic                                               Disadvantaged groups (girls,         Girls                           Girls                                                               One mention: Developing 
                Plan 2006 ‐ 2010 (ESSP).                                                                                                  SEN, OVCs)                           Special‐needs                   Special education mentioned as SEN (Special education  needs)       approaches to deal effectively 
                80 p.                                                                                                                                                          Poor‐vulnerable                 Disadvantaged mentioned as: Hard to Reach children or OVCs          with the legacy of the 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Rwanda/Rwanda Education Sector Plan                                              Chapters  on:                        Orphans                         (Orphans & Vulnerable Children)                                     genocide, notably the 
                2006 2010.pdf                                                                                                             ‐Girls                                                                                                                                   education of orphans and 
                                                                                                                                          ‐Hard to reach children                                              Otherwise there are:                                                child‐heads‐of family and the 
                                                                                                                                          ‐Special education needs                                             ‐2 mentions: Disadvantaged backgounds                               provision of feeding and  
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ‐2 mentions: Disadvantaged children                                 boarding programmes for 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ‐3 mentions: Vulnerable children/groups                             such children 
Sierra Leone    Sierra Leone. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. 2007. Sierra Leone                                                                                Special‐needs                   Disadvantaged groups/children                                       One mention: 
                education sector plan: a road map to a better future 2007 ‐ 2015. 160 p.                                                                                       Poor‐vulnerable                 Vulnerable children                                                 In Sierra Leone, the 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Sierra Leone/Sierra_Leone_ESP.pdf                                                                                     Orphans                         Rural areas                                                         disadvantaged include the 
                                                                                                                                                                               Girls                           Remote areas                                                        poor, girls in certain regions, 
                                                                                                                                                                               Child‐labour                    2 mentions to "underserved rural areas"                             children with disabilities (the 
                                                                                                                                                                               Rural                           Out of school                                                       war left many without limbs), 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Special needs                                                       orphans, and child head of 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Disabled/disabilities                                               households. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sexual exploitation and abuse                                       The prolonged war took a 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Orphans                                                             heavy toll on people, but 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               3 mentions to child labour: "Abolish the idea of primary            especially so on children. Child 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               school‐going aged children becoming baby‐sitters,                   soldiers, many of whom are 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               childtraders during school hours" "Sensitisation of                 now entering into  young 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               communities on alternatives of child labour" "Enforce 'rights of    adulthood, need special 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               child' and child labour legislations"                               services 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Girls/Gender parity 
South Africa    South Africa. Dept of Education. 2007. Strategic plan 2007‐2011. 190 p.                                                                                        Poor‐vulnerable                 Poor/poorest communities                                             
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/South Africa/South Africa DoE strat plan                                                                              Special‐needs                   Vulnerable children 
                2007‐2011.pdf                                                                                                                                                  Girls                           Special educational needs 
                                                                                                                                                                               Rural                           Girls mentioned as "Girl‐learners" 
                                                                                                                                                                               Race                            Gender equity/gender policy 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Rural education 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Non‐racism and equality 
Uganda          Uganda. Ministry of Education and Sports, MoES. 2004. Education sector strategic                                                                               Poor‐vulnerable                 Disadvantaged children and youth: children in dispersed              

                                                                                                                                                     44
                                                                                                                                                                                     Categories of marginalized                                                                             Groups mentioned 
                                                              PLANS                                                                           Definition of marginalization                                                   Terms used to refer to the marginalized 
                                                                                                         Plans for marginalized groups                                                        groups                                                                                          exceptionnally  
                  plan 2004‐2015. 134 p.                                                                                                                                          Rural                            communities and in poor communities, orphans, children living 
                  http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Uganda/Uganda_ESSP_2004_2015.pdf                                                                                       Orphans                          in areas of conflict, and street children /poor, disbursed, 
                                                                                                                                                                                  Conflict                         and/or  remote communities 
                                                                                                                                                                                  Special‐needs                    Conflict areas 
                                                                                                                                                                                  Language                         Special needs/Special Needs Education (SNE) 
                                                                                                                                                                                  Girls                            Disabilities 
                                                                                                                                                                                  HIV‐AIDS                         Local languages 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Girls 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   One mention: Providing psychosocial support to HIV/AIDS 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   affected/infected 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   pupils/students and teachers 
ARAB STATES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Egypt             Egypt. Ministry of Education. 2007. National strategic plan for pre‐university                                          Chapters on:                            Girls                            Girls                                                               
                  education reform in Egypt 2007/08‐2011/12 [includes: Preliminary note and                                               ‐ "Community Based Education            Poor‐vulnerable                  Out‐of‐school children 
                  executive summary. Annexes]. 575 p.                                                                                     for  Girls and Out‐of‐School            Special‐needs                    Children with special needs / children with disabilities 
                  http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Egypt/EgyptStrategicPlanPre‐                                                   Children"                               Rural                            Children in difficult circumstances (street children) 
                  universityEducation.pdf                                                                                                 ‐  "Education for Special Groups:       Urban                            Underprivileged children 
                                                                                                                                          Children with Special Needs"                                             Underprivileged families 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Underprivileged rural and urban areas 
Morocco           Morocco. Ministère de l'éducation nationale, de l'enseignement supérieur, de la                                         Chap. sur                               Poor‐vulnerable                  Enfants défavorisés/Défavorisés                                    Enfants en milieu carcéral 
                  formation des cadres et de la recherche scientifique. 2008. Pour un nouveau                                             ‐ "Equité en faveur des enfants à       Rural                            Enfants exclus du système éducatif 
                  souffle de la réforme de l'Education ‐ Formation: présentation du Programme                                             besoins spécifiques"                    Urban                            Enfants en situation difficile 
                  NAJAH: rapport détaillé ‐ version projet. 324 p.                                                                        "mettre en place des mesures            Special‐needs                    Enfants en milieu carcéral ou enfants des rues 
                  [en attente de publication en 2009]                                                                                     visant à assurer une égalité des        Girls                            Milieux ruraux et défavorisés 
                  Morocco. Ministère de l'éducation nationale, de l'enseignement supérieur, de la                                         chances pour la scolarisation des                                        Milieu urbain défavorisé 
                  formation des cadres et de la recherche scientifique. 2008. Pour un nouveau                                             « exclus » (filles, enfants à                                            Enfants à besoins spécifiques 
                  souffle de la réforme: Présentation du Programme NAJAH 2009‐2012: rapport de                                            besoins spécifiques, enfants                                             Enfants handicapés 
                  synthèse: draft. 78 p.                                                                                                  démunis...)                                                              Filles 
                  [en attente de publication en 2009]                                                                                                                                                              Plusieurs mentions :"Filles, notamment en milieu rural"/"Filles 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   en milieu rural" 
Palestinian       Palestine. Ministry of Education and Higher Education, MoEHE. 2008. Education                                                                                   Special‐needs                    Students with special needs                                        For TVET/higher education 
Autonomous        development strategic plan 2008‐2012: towards quality education for                                                                                             Girls                            Disabled                                                           "Increasing attention to 
Territories       development. 181 p.                                                                                                                                             Poor‐vulnerable                  54 mentions "Female"                                               students with special needs 
                  http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Palestinian Autonomous                                                                                                                                  7 mentions "Girls"                                                 (poor, released, injured, 
                  Territories/Palestine_Education_development_plan_2008_2012.pdf                                                                                                                                   8 mentions "Gender"                                                disabled ...) 
                  http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Palestinian Autonomous                                                                                                                                  Poor families/students 
                  Territories/Palestine_Education_development_plan_2008_2012_Arabic.pdf                                                                                                                            For TVET/Higher education: "Increasing attention to students 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   with special needs (poor, released, injured, disabled ...)" 
CENTRAL AND                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
EASTERN EUROPE 
Croatia           Croatia. Ministry of Science, Education and Sports. 2005. Education Sector         Action Plan of the Decade for        Large definition of S: “Pupils          Poor‐vulnerable                  p 24 « A priority is also to help students finish primary          
                  Development Plan 2005‐2010.                                                        Integration of Roma 2005 ‐ 2015,     with special educational needs          Special‐needs                    education with the aim to continue education regardless of 
                  43 p.                                                                              Government of the Republic of        include students with health            Rural                            capabilities, gender, and religious, national or regional  
                  http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Croatia/Croatia_Education_Sector_Devel    Croatia, Zagreb, March 2005.         disabilities (physical disabilities,    Ethnicity                        affiliation or social status. » 
                  opment_Plan_2005‐2010.pdf                                                          http://www.vlada.hr/Download/20      visual and auditory impairments,        Conflict                         Less developed areas (villages, islands, hilly and mountain 
                                                                                                     04/04/16/NACIONALNI_PROGRAM          mental disabilities, autism,                                             areas, demographically endangered areas and those affected 
                                                                                                     _ZA_ROME_ENGLESKI_TEKST.pdf          speech defects, multiple                                                 by the war 
                                                                                                                                          disabilities and developmental                                           Children with special educational needs (both for gifted 
                                                                                                                                          disorders affecting learning or                                          students and those with learning difficulties) 
                                                                                                                                          behaviour), pupils with physical                                         Those who live in villages or remote area 
                                                                                                                                          disadvantages (physical                                                  Those who live in  areas of special state concern.; in islands  
                                                                                                                                          weakness, long‐term illness and                                          minorities (ie Roma) 
                                                                                                                                          mild health disorders leading to                                         « target groups such as minorities, young people, adults with 
                                                                                                                                          learning and behavioural                                                 low educational achievement, persons 
                                                                                                                                          problems) and socially‐                                                  with special educational needs and those who live in villages or 
                                                                                                                                          disadvantaged pupils (family                                             remote areas and in areas of special stat e concern. » 
                                                                                                                                          background with low socio‐                                               Poorer regions‐minority populations, such as the Roma 
                                                                                                                                          cultural standing, at risk of                                            population 
                                                                                                                                          socio‐pathological influences, in                                        The vulnerable groups of pupils, who make up about 15 to 20 
                                                                                                                                          court‐mandated institutional                                             percent of the Croatian education system‐ children and young 
                                                                                                                                          educational care or in a                                                 people with special educational needs 
                                                                                                                                          protective facility, refugees and                                        p.19 « especially for those who are insufficiently integrated 
                                                                                                                                          asylum seekers).”                                                        into society, such as the Roma population. »p 23 « all pre‐
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   schoolers, and especially to those with special needs and gifted 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   children. »p 23 « pre‐schoolers from socially and economically 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   disadvantaged families »‐ pupils with physical disabilities‐ 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   special needs pupils‐ children and pupils with physical 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   disabilities 

                                                                                                                                                     45
                                                                                                                                                                                     Categories of marginalized                                                                              Groups mentioned 
                                                         PLANS                                                                                 Definition of marginalization                                                  Terms used to refer to the marginalized 
                                                                                                      Plans for marginalized groups                                                           groups                                                                                           exceptionnally  
Czech R         Czech Republic. Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS). 2007. Czech       S: Rehabilitation Education                                                    Special‐needs                    Education of Pupils with Mild Mental Disabilities                    
                Republic Framework Education Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE). 130 p.        Programme for Assisted                                                         Poor‐vulnerable                  pupils with health disabilities and physical disadvantages‐ 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Czech%20Republic/Czech_Republic_Fra       Learning Schools                                                               Language                         socially disadvantaged pupils‐ pupils with mild mental 
                mework_Education_Programme_for_Basic_Education.pdf                                                                                                                Ethnicity                        disabilities‐) E/L/REF= » socially disadvantaged pupils : This 
                                                                                                                                                                                  Refugees                         group includes pupils from social or linguistic backgrounds 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   which are different from that in which the majority population 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   is growing up. These pupils either belong to a local minority or 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   are the children of immigrants (primarily refugees and asylum 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   seekers). In Czech schools, the number of such pupils is on the 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   rise. » ; « most minorities and ethnic groups for whom 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   instruction does not take place in their mother tongue. » ; » 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   pupils from culturally different and frequently also socially  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   disadvantaged backgrounds » 
Latvia          Latvia. Cabinet of Ministers. 2007. Latvia National Development Plan (NDP) 2007‐                                           groups at risk of social exclusion:    Special‐needs                    socially vulnerable groups (pensioners, children and people          
                2013. 56 p.                                                                                                                population groups that have            Poor‐vulnerable                  with disabilities) 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Latvia/Latvia_National_development_pla                                            either no opportunities or                                               
                n_2007‐2013.pdf                                                                                                            limited opportunities to earn 
                                                                                                                                           sufficient income, receive 
                                                                                                                                           various services and goods 
                                                                                                                                           which are essential for a 
                                                                                                                                           wholesome life in society. 
                                                                                                                                           ‐ « person with special needs – a 
                                                                                                                                           person who has acquired 
                                                                                                                                           functional disturbance and who 
                                                                                                                                           has become a person potential 
                                                                                                                                           for disablement or an already 
                                                                                                                                           disabled person.” A contrario, 
                                                                                                                                           “social inclusion – a process 
                                                                                                                                           whose aim is to provide 
                                                                                                                                           opportunities, services and 
                                                                                                                                           resources needed for efficient 
                                                                                                                                           participation in the economic, 
                                                                                                                                           social and cultural life of society 
                                                                                                                                           to persons who are at risk of 
                                                                                                                                           poverty and social exclusion, as 
                                                                                                                                           well as to give to them greater  
                                                                                                                                           opportunities for participating in 
                                                                                                                                           decision‐making and access to 
                                                                                                                                           their basic rights 
Moldova R       Moldova R. Government. 2005. Republic of Moldova Consolidated Action Plan for                                                                                     Rural                            Children with SEN                                                    
                the Education Sector. 2006‐2008. 35 p.                                                                                                                            Poor‐vulnerable                  (preschool groups, day centers for diagnosis and 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Moldova                                                                                                                  Orphans                          support 
                R/Moldova_Education_Plan2006‐2008.pdf                                                                                                                             Refugees                         Children in PDS=Children in Particularly Difficult Situations‐ 
                                                                                                                                                                                  Special‐needs                    SEN/PDS children (the distinction is finally drawn between  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Special Educational Needs and PDS‐inclusive education 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   institutions‐PDS rehabilitation services‐vulnerable families, 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   abandoned children, street children, etc.‐ children from low‐
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   income 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   families, orphans, street children, refugee children‐ poorer 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   secondary school students‐ disadvantaged children/adults‐ 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   disadvantaged 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   groups‐ socially 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   disadvantaged students 
CENTRAL ASIA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Georgia         Georgia. Ministry of Education and Science, MoES. 2007. Georgia: Consolidated      Action plan for improving quality of    p. 8, note 8, children with            Poor‐vulnerable                  Inclusive education  and children with special needs‐poor           Groups affected by other social 
                education strategy and                                                             education in non‐Georgian schools       special educational needs as           Rural                            families‐disabled children‐ providing to each citizen the           factors (families identified as 
                Action  plan (2007‐2011). 59 p.                                                    (2007)                                  defined by the MoES to include:        Ethnicity                        opportunity of full                                                 the most 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Georgia/Georgia%20Consolidated%20Ed       Civil Integration Program (for          children with disabilities and         Special‐needs                    realization of his/her potential regardless of age, ethnicity or    vulnerable and disadvantaged 
                ucation%20Strategy%20and%20Action%20Plan%202007‐2011.pdf                           minority population)                    handicaps; members of ethnic           Language                         social standing.p. 14 « Key concerns that have to be                and hence unable to provide a 
                                                                                                   Main Trends of Social                   minorities; street children;           Conflict                         addressed in terms of eliminating inequalities in access to         proper educational 
                                                                                                   Policy of Protection of Rights of       children with social problems;                                          education and achievement are those                                 environment for 
                                                                                                   Disabled Children (February 13,         children with emotional                                                 related to unequal distribution of income, geographical             children) 
                                                                                                   2004)                                   disorders, speech and                                                   distribution and ethnic minorities. »‐ disadvantaged 
                                                                                                                                           behavior problems; and girls                                            categories‐ special needs schools‐ children with special needs‐
                                                                                                                                           who have problems of access to                                          special schools‐ children with physical or 
                                                                                                                                           and retention in schools.                                               mental disabilities ‐  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   regions densely populated by minorities, national minorities 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   People living in high‐mountainous areas », « population of 

                                                                                                                                                      46
                                                                                                                                                                                        Categories of marginalized                                                                              Groups mentioned 
                                                                PLANS                                                                              Definition of marginalization                                                 Terms used to refer to the marginalized 
                                                                                                              Plans for marginalized groups                                                      groups                                                                                           exceptionnally  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      high‐mountainous regions and conflict zones 
Kyrgyzstan           Kyrgyzstan. Ministry of Education, Science and Youth Policy. 2006. Education                                                                                   Poor‐vulnerable                   Rural residents‐needy families‐ children with special needs‐         
                     Development Strategy of the Kyrgyz Republic (2007‐2010). 23 p.                                                                                                 Rural                             mentally and/or 
                     http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Kyrgyzstan/Kyrgyzstan Education                                                                                       Special‐needs                     physically handicapped children and teenagers‐ special 
                     Development Strategy 2007‐2010.Pdf                                                                                                                             Girls                             boarding‐schools for children with special needs 
                      
                      
Mongolia             Mongolia. Government. 2006. Master Plan to develop education of Mongolia in                                               pp vi, “Vulnerable group : Social    Poor‐vulnerable                   rural people‐                                                       Ambiguity in the plan itself on 
                     2006‐2015. 144 p.                                                                                                         groups with risk to lose their       Rural                             ‐children in rural areas‐(rural bags=rural districts)‐herders’      the term “non belong child”. 1. 
                     http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Mongolia/Mongolia Education Master                                               equality right to                    Special‐needs                     children‐‐social vulnerable groups‐poor,                            mentioned pp vi as a definition 
                     Plan 2006‐2015.pdf                                                                                                        study without their                  Girls                             herders’ and vulnerable families‐vulnerable groups‐                 in a glossary, ““Non belong” 
                                                                                                                                               acknowledgement, and                 Nomads                            special educational needs‐                                          child : Child not officially 
                                                                                                                                               additional                                                             ‐children from very poor families from ger (felt‐lined tents,       registered in population 
                                                                                                                                               regulation to ensure their right                                       yurt in Russian) districts in cities‐                               registry of 
                                                                                                                                               to study need to be done. », pp                                        children from very poor families enrolled in kindergartens in       a district, where he/she is 
                                                                                                                                               vi, “Disabled children : Children                                      rural areas and in peripheral areas in cities from State Social     supposed to be studying is 
                                                                                                                                               with difficulties to study and                                         Welfare Fund‐ children with development disabilities‐orphans        considered by schools as “non‐
                                                                                                                                               develop due to personal or                                             and disabled,‐                                                      belong” child », and then pp 8 , 
                                                                                                                                               social reasons »                                                                                                                           « so children who are defined 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          as “non‐belong” 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and “out of enrollment district” 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          cannot attend schools and 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          dropouts are being increased 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          for the above 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          reasons…. » [It is surely a way 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to exclude rural migrants’ 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          children from already 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          overcrowded schools.] 
Tajikistan           Tajikistan. Ministry of Education. 2005. National strategy for education                                                                                       Rural                             Poor population‐poor families‐ poor families and children with       
                     development of the Republic of                                                                                                                                 Poor‐vulnerable                   limited opportunities‐ orphan children and vulnerable group of 
                     Tajikistan (2006‐2015). 64 p.                                                                                                                                  Girls                             population‐ the most needy families ; wide definition of special 
                     http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Tajikistan/Tajikistan Education Plan                                                                                  Special‐needs                     needs : « children with special needs such as from rural areas, 
                     2006‐2015.pdf                                                                                                                                                  Orphans                           with disabilities, and especially talented children. » 
                      
EAST ASIA AND THE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
PACIFIC 
Cambodia             Cambodia. Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport, MoEYS. 2005. Education                                                                                       Poor‐vulnerable                   Crosscutting Issues: border areas ( vulnerability of out‐of‐        2 mentions to "additional 
                     Strategic Plan 2006‐2010 ESP. 48 p.                                                                                                                            Child‐labour                      school children, HIV/AIDS, drugs, infectious disease, child         measures to provide education 
                     http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Cambodia/Cambodia Education Strategic                                                                                 Girls                             labour, and trafficking), gender, disabled learners, ethnic         and training in the border 
                     Plan 2006‐2010.pdf                                                                                                                                             Special‐needs                     minorities                                                          areas, including measures to 
                     Cambodia. Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport, MoEYS. 2005. Education Sector                                                                                Ethnicity                         Poor families                                                       address the vulnerability of 
                     Support Program                                                                                                                                                Rural                             Many mentions to "remote areas"                                     out‐of‐school youth to cross‐
                     2006‐2010 (ESSP). 51 p.                                                                                                                                                                          Rural areas                                                         border social problems, 
                     http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Cambodia/Cambodia Education Sector                                                                                                                      Border areas                                                        including HIV/AIDS and child 
                     Support programme 2006‐2010.pdf                                                                                                                                                                  Disadvantaged areas                                                 labour and trafficking, and to 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ethnic  minorities" 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Crosscutting Issues: border 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          areas ( vulnerability of out‐of‐
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          school children, HIV/AIDS, 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          drugs, infectious disease, child 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          labour, and trafficking) 
Indonesia            Indonesia. Ministry of National Education. 2005. Strategic plan 2005‐2009. 132 p.                                                                              Special‐needs                     Special education                                                    
                     http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Indonesia/Indonesia EducationPlan2005‐                                                                                Rural                             Border, remote, isolated and left‐behind areas 
                     2009.pdf                                                                                                                                                                                         Sparsely populated areas and remote areas 
SOUTH AND WEST                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
ASIA 
Afghanistan          Afghanistan. Ministry of Education. 2007. National education strategic plan for                                           Special programs:                    Girls                             Special needs                                                        
                     Afghanistan 1385‐1389. 128 p.                                                                                             ‐Girls' education                    Special‐needs                     Special education 
                     http://www.moe.gov.af/National%20Education%20Strategic%20Plan.pdf                                                         ‐Disabled children                   Nomads                            Children with disabilities 
                                                                                                                                               ‐Gifted children                     Poor‐vulnerable                   Disabled 
                                                                                                                                               ‐Kuchi children (also written        Refugees                          Girls 
                                                                                                                                               "Kochi")                             Over‐aged                         Rural areas 
                                                                                                                                               ‐Out‐of‐School Children              Rural                             Nomadic children 
                                                                                                                                               ‐Afghan refugee students                                               Over‐aged children 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
Bhutan               Bhutan. Gross National Happiness Commission, GNHC. 2009. Tenth Five Year Plan                                                                                  Rural                             Rural and remote areas/schools                                       
                     2008‐2012. Volume 1: Main document [Chapter on education p. 106‐117]. Volume                                                                                   Special‐needs                     Special needs 
                     2: Programme profile [Chapter on education p. 84‐107]. 2 vol. (155 p., 347 p.)                                                                                                                   Special education 
                                                                                                                                                          47
                                                                                                                                                                                    Categories of marginalized                                                                            Groups mentioned 
                                                           PLANS                                                                                Definition of marginalization                                                 Terms used to refer to the marginalized 
                                                                                                          Plans for marginalized groups                                                      groups                                                                                         exceptionnally  
                 http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Bhutan/Bhutan_TenthPlan_Vol1_Web.p                                                                                                                      Children with disabilities 
                 df                                                                                                                                                                                               and special needs 
                 http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Bhutan/Bhutan_TenthPlan_Vol2_Web.p
                 df 
India            India. Planning Commission. 2008. Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007‐2012. Volume II:      India. Ministry of Human Resource     Definition of children with           Girls                           Girls                                                              
                 Social sector: Chapter on Education pp. 1‐39. 39 p.                                  Development, MHRD. Dept of            special needs/Young persons           Special‐needs                   Children with Special Needs 
                 http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/India/India11th_vol2Education.pdf           Elementary Education and Literacy.    with disabilities:                    Ethnicity                       (CWSN) 
                                                                                                      2007. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA):    http://www.education.nic.in/IN        Caste                           Education for disabled 
                                                                                                      tribal development plan               CLUSIVE.asp                           Poor‐vulnerable                 Literacy: educational, vocational, and  occupational 
                                                                                                      http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/u   Target Group                          Rural                           development of socioeconomically backward and 
                                                                                                      pload/India/India_Tribal_Develop      1) Infants and children with          Urban                           educationally for disadvantaged groups of urban/rural  
                                                                                                      ment_Plan.pdf                         special needs in the age group 0‐                                     population (neo‐literates, semi‐literates, SCs, STs, women and 
                                                                                                      India. Ministry of Human Resource     6 yrs.                                                                girls, slum dwellers, migrant workers) 
                                                                                                      Development, MHRD. Dept of            2)  Children with special needs in                                    Scheduled Tribes/Tribal children/tribal populations 
                                                                                                      Elementary Education and Literacy.    the age group 6‐14yrs  
                                                                                                      2007. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA):    3) Young persons with 
                                                                                                      inclusive education. 10 p.            disabilities in the age group 14 ‐ 
                                                                                                      http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/u   to 21 yrs. who are part of the 
                                                                                                      pload/India/India_Inclusive_Educat    educational stream 
                                                                                                      ion.pdf                               Di sability would refer to 
                                                                                                      India. Ministry of Human Resource     sensory, physical and 
                                                                                                      Development, MHRD. 2005. Action       intellectual impairments, 
                                                                                                      plan on the inclusion in education    communication, emotional and 
                                                                                                      of children and youth with            behavioral disorders, mental 
                                                                                                      disabilities                          health difficulties and multiple 
                                                                                                      http://www.education.nic.in/INCL      disabilities. It would cover the 
                                                                                                      USIVE.asp                             disabilities as defined under the 
                                                                                                                                            Persons with Disability Act 
                                                                                                                                            (1995) and the National Trust 
                                                                                                                                            Act (1999) : Blindness 
                                                                                                                                            Low vision 
                                                                                                                                            Leprosy cured 
                                                                                                                                            Hearing impairments  
                                                                                                                                            Locomotor disabilities  
                                                                                                                                            Mental retardation  
                                                                                                                                             Mental Illness 
                                                                                                                                             Autism 
                                                                                                                                             Cerebral Palsy 
                                                                                                                                             Multiple disabilities  
                                                                                                                                            I the 0‐6 yrs, this may also cover 
                                                                                                                                            all children indicating 
                                                                                                                                            developmental delay, low birth 
                                                                                                                                            weight, termed at risk and 
                                                                                                                                            medical problems that may lead 
                                                                                                                                            to disabling conditions. 
                                                                                                                                            The 6‐14 yrs group may also be 
                                                                                                                                            referred to as Children with 
                                                                                                                                            Special Needs (CWSN). as under 
                                                                                                                                            the The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 
                                                                                                                                            programme which  guidelines 
                                                                                                                                            may be taken as a reference 
                                                                                                                                            point. 
Nepal            Nepal. National Planning Commission, NPC. 2007. Three Year Interim Plan                                                                                          Girls                           Many mentions to:                                                  
                 2007/08 ‐ 2009/10: unofficial translation [Chapter on Education pp. 261‐278]. 480                                                                                Ethnicity                       Women, Dalits, backward groups and castes, Janajatis, 
                 p.                                                                                                                                                               Caste                           Madhesi community,  conflict affected and displaced groups 
                 http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Nepal/Nepal_TYIPEnglish.pdf                                                                                             Conflict                        and persons with disability 
                                                                                                                                                                                  Special‐needs                   Marginalized groups   
                                                                                                                                                                                  Poor‐vulnerable                 Disadvantaged groups 
LATIN AMERICA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
Brazil           Brasília, MEC, 2007. O Plano de desenvolvimento da educação PDE: razões,                                                                                         Poor‐vulnerable                 Fragile public schools, illiterate, under schooled population,    gays, lésbicas, transexuais e 
                 princípios e programas / The Plan for the development of education PDE: reasons,                                                                                 Ethnicity                       poverty areas                                                     transgêneros 
                 principles and programs. 43 p.                                                                                                                                   Special‐needs                   desigualdades sociais 
                 Brazil. Ministerio da Educaçao, MEC. 2007. The Plan for the development of                                                                                       Rural                           áreas mais carentes 
                 education PDE: reasons, principles and programs. 43 p.                                                                                                           Over‐aged                       necessidades educacionais especiais 
                 Brazil. Ministerio da Educaçao, MEC. 2007. O Plano de desenvolvimento da                                                                                         Girls                           desigualdades regionais 
                 educação PDE: razões, princípios e programas. 43 p.                                                                                                              Single‐mother                   área rural 
                 http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Brazil/Brazil_PDE_Eng.pdf                                                                                                                               estados com IDH inferior à mediana do País 
                 http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Brazil/Brazil_PDE_Por.pdf                                                                                                                               jovens e adultos que não puderam concluir os estudos na 

                                                                                                                                                       48
                                                                                                                                                                                       Categories of marginalized                                                                               Groups mentioned 
                                                                PLANS                                                                               Definition of marginalization                                               Terms used to refer to the marginalized 
                                                                                                               Plans for marginalized groups                                                    groups                                                                                            exceptionnally  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     idade própria 
                      Brasilia, MEC, 2007. Plano de metas compromisso todos pela educação: guia de                                                                                                                   áreas de remanescentes de quilombos 
                      programas. 68 p.                                                                                                                                                                               Indígenas 
                      http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Brazil/BrazilGuiadosProgramasdoMEC.pd                                                                                                                 gays, lésbicas, transexuais e transgêneros 
                      f 
                      Uma das grandes conquistas do PDE foi a adesão irrestrita dos 26 estados e do DF, 
                      além de todos o 5.563 municípios brasileiros ao plano de metas Todos pela 
                      Educação. Até o final de 2008, 25 estados e mais de quatro mil municípios haviam 
                      apresentado seus PAR, já analisados pelo Ministério da Educação, o que resultou 
                      em mais de R$ 1,6 bilhão em convênios celebrados apenas naquele ano  
Colombia              Colombia. Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 2008. Revolución educativa: Plan         Colombia. Ministerio de Educación                                         Ethnicity                       poblaciones marginales                                               Garantizar el respeto a la 
                      sectorial de educación 2006‐2010. 68 p.                                              Nacional.  Lineamientos de política                                       Conflict                        población vulnerable/en condición de vulnerabilidad                  diversidad de su etnia, género, 
                      http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Colombia/Colombia_plan_sectorial.pdf        para                                                                      Poor‐vulnerable                 niños, niñas y jóvenes afectados por la violencia                    opción sexual, discapacidad,  
                                                                                                           la atención educativa a poblaciones                                       Special‐needs                   poblaciones con necesidades educativas especiales                    excepcionalidad, edad, credo, 
                      Colombia. Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 2008. Plan nacional decenal de           vulnerables. 2005. 52 p.                                                  Rural                           población rural dispersa                                             desplazamiento, reclusion, 
                      educación 2006‐2016, PNDE. 60 p.                                                                                                                               Urban                           población urbana marginal                                            reinserción o desvinculación 
                      http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Colombia/Colombia_plan_decenal_educ                                                                                   Single‐mother                   madres cabeza de familia                                             social 
                      acion_2006‐2016.pdf                                                                                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Los niños y jóvenes en situación de desplazamiento 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     (desplazados), los desvinculados de grupos armados al margen 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     de la ley y los hijos de adultos desmovilizados constituyen una 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     de las poblaciones en mayor grado de vulnerabilidad. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     grupos y comunidades indígenas, afrocolombianos, raizales, 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     room, grupos étnicos minoritarios 
Dominican Republic    República Dominicana.  Secretaría de Estado de Educación, Plan decenal de                                                                                      Poor‐vulnerable                 Sectores sociales desfavorecidos o en situación de riesgo y de        
                      educación 2008‐2018: un instrumento de trabajo en procura de la excelencia                                                                                     Rural                           vulnerabilidad. 
                      educativa. 2008, 2a ed. Rev., 151 p.                                                                                                                                                           Jóvenes en mayor riesgo de vulnerabilidad social. 
                      http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Dominican%20Republic/Dominican%20r                                                                                                                    niños y niñas que viven en la pobreza 
                      epublic_Plan_Decenal_2008‐2018.pdf                                                                                                                                                             Estudiantes provenientes de los sectores sociales más 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     vulnerables. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Población rural 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Familias de menores ingresos 
Ecuador               Ecuador. Ministerio de Educación, Plan decenal de educación del Ecuador 2006 ‐       Ecuador. Ministerio de Educación                                          Poor‐vulnerable                 Zonas rurales, fronterizas y marginadas                               
                      2015: año 2 de su ejecución / Ten year education plan in Ecuador 2006 ‐ 2015:        Plan decenal del sistema de                                               Urban                           Sectores vulnerables de población rural y urbano marginal 
                      second year. 2007, 40 p.                                                             educación en el Ecuador 2006 –                                            Rural                           Atención a la diversidad, la inclusión educativa, el desarrollo y 
                      http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Ecuador/EcuadorTenYearEducationPlanE        2015. Componente infraestructura                                          Ethnicity                       difusión cultural, la identidad pluricultural y multiétnica 
                      ng.pdf                                                                               educativa (specifically targeting                                         Girls                           Urbana y rural, indígena y mujeres (Plan ed. de adultos) 
                      http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Ecuador/EcuadorPlanDEcennaldelEducati       marginal areas). 2006?, 17 p. 
                      onFre.pdf                                                                            Ecuador. Ministerio de Educación. 
                      http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Ecuador/EcuadorPlanDecenaldeEducacio        Hacia el Plan  Decenal de 
                      nSpa.pdf                                                                             Educación – Adultos. 2006, 21 p. 
                      http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Ecuador/EcuadorTenYearEducationPlanP        (Outline of the Plan) 
                      or.pdf 
Guatemala             Guatemala. Plan Visión de País: Educación, lineamientos estratégicos para 15                                                                                   Special‐needs                   grupos de población, especialmente de aquellos más                   Niños y niñas que carecen de 
                      años. 2006, 56 p.                                                                                                                                              Poor‐vulnerable                 vulnerables o en situación de desventaja                             actas de nacimiento 
                      http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Guatemala/Guatemala_Plan Vision Pais                                                                                  Rural                           poblaciones que han sido excluidas del sistema formal 
                      Educacion.pdf                                                                                                                                                  Urban                           niñez en situación de pobreza 
                      Guatemala. Ministerio de Educación. [Plan de educación 2008‐2012]. Políticas                                                                                   Ethnicity                       poblaciones con características de pobreza y pobreza extrema 
                      educativas 2008‐2012. 2008? 15p.                                                                                                                                                               poblaciones en extrema pobreza más vulnerables del país 
                      http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Guatemala/Guatemala_Matriz_Politicas_                                                                                                                 población escolar más pobre 
                      Educativas_2008_2012.pdf                                                                                                                                                                       áreas rurales de bajo índice de desarrollo social 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     áreas urbano‐marginales 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     población indígena 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     lugares remotos 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     población escolar migrante 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     jóvenes y 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     estudiantes con necesidades educativas especiales 
Guyana                Guyana. Ministry of Education. Guyana Strategic Plan 2008‐2013: meeting the                                                                                    Ethnicity                       remote hinterland areas; indigenous population, children with        very gifted 
                      quality imperative, 66 pp. (no online version)                                                                                                                 Special‐needs                   special needs and those in difficult socio‐economic                  unregistered children 
                                                                                                                                                                                     Poor‐vulnerable                 circumstances; disadvantaged groups of children 
                                                                                                                                                                                     Rural                           (Amerindian/indigenous), children with disabilities, 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     unregistered children; Other vulnerable children; poor 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     economic circumstances; children with disabilities;  
Honduras              Honduras. Sistema de Educación. Plan estratégico sectorial de educación. Periodo                                                                               Poor‐vulnerable                 niños y niñas, adultos y jóvenes en riesgo social, poblaciones        
                      2005‐2015. 2005. 53 p.                                                                                                                                         Special‐needs                   con capacidades especiales, grupos étnicos y afro 
                      http://www.sierp.hn/sierp.web/Biblioteca/psec‐003.pdf                                                                                                          Ethnicity                       descendientes 
                      Honduras. Secretaria de Educación. Plan de fortalecimiento institucional de la                                                                                                                 zonas más desfavorecidas del país 

                                                                                                                                                           49
                                                                                                                                                                                  Categories of marginalized                                                                          Groups mentioned 
                                                          PLANS                                                                                Definition of marginalization                                               Terms used to refer to the marginalized 
                                                                                                          Plans for marginalized groups                                                    groups                                                                                       exceptionnally  
                Secretaría de Educación de Honduras validado. 2005. 54 p.                                                                                                                                       estudiantes de hogares pobres 
                http://www.gsdehonduras.org/gnet/documents/a10.pdf                                                                                                                                              minorías, idiosincrasias 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Indígenas y Afrohondureños 
Paraguay        Paraguay. Ministerio de Educación y Cultura. Plan Estratégico de Educación                                                                                      Rural                           población en situación de vulnerabilidad (poblaciones de zonas     
                Paraguay 2020 – Actualizado Bases para un pacto social. 2008. 31 p.                                                                                             Poor‐vulnerable                 rurales, poblaciones en condiciones económicas desfavorables, 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Paraguay/Paraguay_plan_estrategico_Pa                                                                                  Special‐needs                   personas con capacidades diferenciadas, indígenas) 
                raguay2020.pdf                                                                                                                                                  Ethnicity 
Peru            Perú. Ministerio de Educación. Plan Estratégico Sectorial Multianual de Educación.                                                                              Rural‐areas                     zonas rurales y de frontera.                                       
                2007‐2011. PESEM Educación. 101 p.                                                                                                                              Conflict                        afectadas por el conflicto armado 
                http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Peru/Peru PESEM‐2007‐2011.pdf                                                                                          Special‐needs                   personas que no pudieron acceder a una educación básica 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                regular 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                estudiantes con necesidades educativas especiales 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     IIEP – GMR 2010 – ANALYSIS OF 44 NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANS




                                                                                                                                                      50
Annex 3: Overview of marginalized groups targeted by specific strategies for each country




                                                                              51
                         Goal 1                             Goal 2 / Incentives                                   Goal 2 / Structures                              Goal 2 / Content
                                                                                                                       Water and
                                                                           Stipends,
                                                                                                                      sanitation in     School              School
                                             Community          Abolish   incentives,     School        School                                                               Language of
                            ECCE                                                                                       schools /      building /          calendars/
                                            sensitisation        fees    scholarships     feeding    Transportation                                                           instruction
                                                                                                                         health     infrastructure        Timetables
                                                                        for households
                                                                                                                       programs
                                                    1       2                                                                                                                      1        2
       AFRICA
        Angola           S            S        S                                         X                            X RU U            S RU U
        Benin            RU P X       G S P RU                  G        G RU            RU                           G                 RU S          G
     Burkina Faso        X            G RU S H                           GP              GX                           GX                SX                             L
                         P            PGSOEX                    EGPO     XHP             RU                                             RU P          RU No
        CAR
      Ethiopia           X            GX                                 G S RU          RU P                                           RU G
      Gambia             XSP          X                         P        G               P                            G                 SX
       Guinea            U P RU X     X                                                                                                 S X G RU
       Kenya             SPXH         XH                        HOG      OH              P G RU U                     G                 PUR
        Mali             X            PGS                       P RU     RU G P          G P No                       G                 RU G No
      Mauritius          X P S RU L   XS                                                                                                                                               L
     Mozambique                                                          OPG                                                            G X RU        X
                         POLSXH                                          HO              HO                                             RU S P
       Namibia
        Niger            X S RU       G                                  G                                            GX                G RU                           L
       Nigeria           G            R                                                  P                            X                 X                                              L
       Rwanda            P            HGSX                      X        CPEG            PSC                          G H P RU          XC
                         SLP          P X G CL S                GS       GPS             PSO                          G                 P RU S
    Sierra Leone
    South Africa         P            G                                  RU              XP                           X                 X S RU
      Uganda             PHGS         X S R P RU                P        G               P RU G                       C P RU G          XCS                            L
   ARAB STATES
       Egypt             P RU         S                                                  P                                              RU U P S G
      Morocco            RU U P X     G                                  P               RU         RU G S            G                 RU G S P Gi
                         X RU S                                                                                       X                 XSGC
Palestinian Autonomous
       Territories
    CENTRAL AND
 EASTERN EUROPE
                         P S Gi RU C P C E RU                            P E RU                                                         S
       Croatia
       Czech R                        S                                                                                                 S             S                L E P Ref
        Latvia           X                                                                                                              S
                         RU P O S X   S P O X Ref                                        PX         RU                X                 PSX
      Moldova R




                                                                                                                                                                                                52
                       Goal 1                                         Goal 2 / Incentives                                           Goal 2 / Structures                                    Goal 2 / Content
                                                                                                                                         Water and
                                                                                    Stipends,
                                                                                                                                        sanitation in     School                    School
                                           Community                     Abolish   incentives,          School        School                                                                          Language of
                           ECCE                                                                                                          schools /      building /                calendars/
                                          sensitisation                   fees    scholarships          feeding    Transportation                                                                      instruction
                                                                                                                                           health     infrastructure              Timetables
                                                                                 for households
                                                                                                                                         programs
                                                   1                2                                                                                                                                     1          2
   CENTRAL ASIA
       Georgia         P RU                                                         P RU E X C O                  RU S                                    S                                    L E RU C
     Kyrgyzstan        R RU X                                           P RU X                      PX                                 SX                 SX
      Mongolia         P RU S No                                                    P               X                                  X                  RU No S
      Tajikistan       X RU                                                         X RU P Gi                     X RU                                    X RU
 EAST ASIA AND THE
      PACIFIC
     Cambodia          P            GHX                                 X           PGE             P                                  X                  RU S
     Indonesia         X            X                                               P                                                                     RU C S
  SOUTH AND WEST
        ASIA
                       X            RU G S X                                        G               C                                  GX                 RU E No G Gi R                       EL
         Afghanistan                                                                                                                                      S
           Bhutan      UX                                                                           RU                                                    RU U S
                       P RU E Ca G E Ca                                             E               P                                  P                  G E Ca P CL S E Ca                   E Ca L
            India
                       P E Ca G X   G Ca E S C                          E Ca P      P G E Ca RU     RU S P G E                         X                  C RU P E G Ca                        L Ca
        Nepal                                                                                       Ca                                                    S
   LATIN AMERICA
                       PMXE                                                         X               XE            RU S                 P                  E
           Brazil
                       P RU U       X                                   P           PS              P                                                     C RU
         Colombia
                       PS                                                           X               X             P RU                 P                  RU U                X
  Dominican Republic
                       L                                                X           E               X
          Ecuador
                       PX                                                           RU G P X        RU                                 RU                 P RU E X            U                L
         Guatemala
                       RU S                                                                         RU P X                             X                  S                   RU
          Guyana
                       X                                                            PX              X                                                     X
         Honduras
                       X RU P S E                                                   X RU P S E      X RU P S E    X RU P S E                              X RU P S E                           L
          Paraguay
                       E RU S                                                                                                                             CES                                  RU L
            Peru

Codes:                 CL=working  C = conflict‐       CA = caste       E =          G=gender       H = HIV/AIDS L= language           M=single           No=nomads
                       children    affected                             ethnicity/tr                                                   mother
                                   areas                                ibes
                       O=orphans Ov=over‐              P =              R = religion Ref=refugees   RU=rural      S = special education  U=urban          X = not specified
                                   aged                poor/vulnera                                               needs/disabled
                                                       ble




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         53
                            Goal 3                Goal 4                  Goal 5                           Goal 6/Teachers                              Goal 6/Teaching and learning methods
                                                                                               Working                                                                        Textbooks                   Secondary
                                                                                   Address                                    Teachers'            ICT /         Tutoring /
                                                                    Female                    conditions        Teacher                                                          and    Curriculum
                          TVET/skills         Adult literacy                       abuse in                                  sensitizatio        Distance        Remedial
                                                                   teachers                      and           education                                                      learnings  relevance
                                                                                   schools                                        n             education       instruction
                                                                                              incentives                                                                       methods
                 Provision Relevance      Relevance
    AFRICA
     Angola                               X                                                                S                                S                                              S             X
     Benin       Ov G P        P RU S X   G RU S X             G              G               RU                             G                                                                           G
  Burkina Faso   XG            X          LGPX                 G                                           S                                                                                             G
      CAR                      XG         X                                                   RU                                                                                                         X
    Ethiopia     XG            G RU       LGHX                 G              G               G            H                 SH                                                            H RU G Ov     H RU X G
    Gambia                     P G RU                                                         X                                                                                            XR            G P RU H X
    Guinea                     X                                                              X            X                                                                  P                          RU X
     Kenya                     SPG        XG                   G              G               PSH          SX                SHG                                              SXH          G             P G O RU U
      Mali                                X                    G                              RU           RU P              G                              G                 P            S P CL R
   Mauritius                   XG                                                             PX           SP                G                                                G S Gi       XSPG          X
  Mozambique     RU G H O                 GXL                  G RU           G               RU                             HG                                                                          P G RU S
    Namibia                    X          X RU P                                              RU P H       LX                               HG                                HX                         P
      Niger      X             X          XGL                  G RU                                                          G                              G                 S
    Nigeria                    X          X                                                   No X         L                                                                               XS            R
    Rwanda       X             X          G X S RU                            H               X            X                 PSOG                                             HCS          SOPG          GPSH
                               S G P RU   SG                   G              XGSO            RU G         PS                                                                              G             G P RU S CL
  Sierra Leone
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Gi
  South Africa                            X                                   G               X                              G                                                                           PGH
                               X                               G                              P RU U C X   LCS               GH                                               S            P H RU C G    RU U X G S P
    Uganda
 ARAB STATES
     Egypt                                G RU P X                                            X                              X                                                GP           PS            X
    Morocco                                                    G                                                             G                                                G                          RU U
   Palestinian   X RU                     X                                   X                                                                                               S
  Autonomous
   Territories
  CENTRAL AND
EASTERN EUROPE
    Croatia      E S RU        X C S RU   E S RU X C                                                       S Gi X                                                                          E S RU X       RU S X P
                                                                                                                             S L E Ref P                                                   S P Ref Gi E L
    Czech R
                                                                                                                             Gi
    Latvia       PX
   Moldova R                                                                                               P                 S                                                S            S             RU P Gi S
 CENTRAL ASIA
                                                                                              RU C E S                                                                        L E RU C P   LE            L E RU C
    Georgia
                                                                                                                                                                              S
   Kyrgyzstan                                                                                 RU           S                                                                  G
                 P RU X        PX         G                                                   RU           PSX                              RU              No                PS           S             RU No X P S
   Mongolia
   Tajikistan                  G                                                                           RU                G              G                                              SG            O P G RU E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        54
                                  Goal 3                   Goal 4                      Goal 5                             Goal 6/Teachers                              Goal 6/Teaching and learning methods
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Secondary
                                                                                                             Working                                                                        Textbooks
                                                                                                Address                                      Teachers'          ICT /          Tutoring /
                                                                            Female                          conditions         Teacher                                                         and    Curriculum
                              TVET/skills              Adult literacy                           abuse in                                    sensitizatio      Distance         Remedial
                                                                           teachers                            and            education                                                     learnings  relevance
                                                                                                schools                                          n           education        instruction
                                                                                                            incentives                                                                       methods

                Provision Relevance                Relevance
 EAST ASIA AND
  THE PACIFIC
   Cambodia    RU E L X                                                                                    RU E                                                           X                              XE           RU P G E
    Indonesia  P          X                        X                                      X                RU                                              RU             S                              PS           RU P
SOUTH AND WEST
      ASIA
                     G Ov           GSX            L E No S R G X       RU G              G                G RU Ref       RU Ref                           G RU E         S                 P            SER          G RU
    Afghanistan
         Bhutan      X                             X                                                       RU                                                                                            S            RU
                     X P E Ca G                    E Ca G RU U P                                           E RU           E Ca L            SP                            E                 E Ca L                    G E Ca P S
          India
                     CL                                                                                                                                                                                               RU
                                    P E G Ca C S   G E Ca S C                                              P G E Ca S C                                    RU                                            C G Ca       X G P E Ca S
          Nepal
                                    CL                                                                                                                                                                                C
 LATIN AMERICA
      Brazil         Ov X P                        X                                      GX                              E                 GS                                              E RU         S
    Colombia                        X              C M RU E                                                RU             P                 PEC                           S                 CSE          X
                     P Ov                          X                                                                                        P                             X                              S Ov         P
Dominican Republic
                     Ov X L RU E                   X L RU E G                                              RU X                                                                             XL                        XL
         Ecuador
                     G
     Guatemala       X                             X                                                       P RU E         LX                               RU             P RU E            PLHG         EXS
      Guyana         RU          X                                                                                        S                 S              RU S X                           RU P X       S            RU G E X
     Honduras        P                             XG                                                                                       G                                                            GE           P
                     X RU P S E                    X                                                                                                                      X RU P S E        X RU P S E   X RU P S E   P
     Paraguay
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Ov L
          Peru       X                             X                                                                      L                 RU                                              XSL          RU           X S RU



Codes:               CL=working  C = conflict‐  CA = caste              E =              G=gender          H = HIV/AIDS   L= language       M=single       No=nomads
                     children    affected areas                         ethnicity/tribes                                                    mother

                     O=orphans      Ov=over‐aged P =                    R = religion      Ref=refugees     RU=rural       S = special       U=urban        X = not 
                                                 poor/vulnerable                                                          education                        specified
                                                                                                                                /
                                                                                                                          needs/disabled




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