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PIERRE ENGLEBERT, STACY TARANGO AND MATTHEW CARTER. “DISMEMBERMENT AND SUFFOCATION: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEBATE ON AFRICAN BOUNDARIES.” COMPARATIVE POLITICAL STUDIES, DECEMBER 2002. Appendix: Data Measurements and Sources Area. This variable (AREA) measures the square-miles terrestrial surface of countries. Source: Africa South of the Sahara. Average democratic score. This variable (CIVLAVG) averages, for each boundary, the Gastil index score of the countries on both sides over the period 1960-1989. Source: Average of the decade figures in Easterly and Levine (1997). Average political culture and spread of political cultures. These variables (MEANF3 and SDF3) measure the central tendency and the spread of pre-colonial political cultures in contemporary African states. Pre-colonial political systems are assigned to one of three categories: stateless societies (scoring 1), chiefdoms (2), and kingdoms or larger centralized states (3). We then measure for each country the percentage of its population which belongs to an identity group in either one of these categories. From this we derive a weighted average political culture for each country, which takes on higher values the more state-like the country’s component groups are, and a frequency-based standard deviation which captures the “distance” between the different cultures comprised in the state. A country can score 2 on the weighted average because it only comprises chiefdom societies or because it is evenly split between groups scoring 1 and 3. In the first case, the standard deviation will be 0, whereas in the second it will be 1. Note that the ordinal nature of the original data is converted to continuous by the process of frequency- based weighing. The “distance” between the cultures remains arbitrary, however, and the findings can better be described as capturing trends rather than actually meaningful magnitudes. Source: Computed by the authors from multiple sources including Murdock (1967), Morrison et al. (1989), and Olson (1996). For methodology, see Wonacott and Wonacott (1985). Boundary length. In the boundary data set, this variable (LENGTH) measures the length of each bilateral boundary in kilometers. In the country data set, it measures the total length of each country's land boundaries. Source: CIA Factbook 1999. The Tanzania-DRC border is an estimate using a map and dental floss because no entry was reported in the CIA factbook. Capabilities differential. For each boundary, this variable (CAPDIF) is the absolute value of the difference between the average extractive capacity scores of the countries on both sides for all available years. Source: Kugler (199_). Civil Wars. A variable (CIVWAR) which measures the number of years between independence and 1999 during which a country experienced episode(s) of civil violence, including irredenta, secession and resistance, adjusted for the number of years during which the country was independent between 1960 and 1999. Source: calculated by the authors from appendix in Hoslti (1996), expanded to 1999. Mauritania, mentioned as having had 20 year of civil violence was downgraded to 7 years. The 20 years in Holsti (1996) cover mostly irredentist claims of Morocco over Mauritania and Mauritania over Western Sahara, which are not properly domestic in nature. We substituted 2 years for linguistic/ethnic violence in 1966 and 1967, 3 years of Saharaoui guerilla actions while Mauritania included southern Western Sahara (1976-1979), and two years of ethnic violence between Moors and Toucouleur/Pulaar populations in 1989-1990. See Morrison et al. (1989), and Africa South of the Sahara (1995). Colonization by Belgium. Dummy variable (BELGIUM) which takes on a value of 1 if a country was originally colonized by Belgium. Colonization by France. Dummy variable (FRANCE) which takes on a value of 1 if a country was originally colonized by France. Dismemberment or percentage population partitioned. In the boundary data set, this variable (ASTRPROP) is the unweighted average proportion of groups astride a border. It equals one half the sum of the percentages of national populations that these groups represent on both sides of border. This variable is unweighted so as to reflect the proportion of ethnic groups in small countries. For example, if one country of 10,000 people contains 5,000 split nationals (50%) and, next door, a country of 100,000 also contains 5,000 split nationals (5%), the weighted average would be less than 10%, whereas the unweighted average will be 22.5%. Hence, the simple average gives a better reflection of the average national burden of partition between these two countries. Interpretation of the variable is difficult. It is better thought of as an index of dismemberment than as an actual proportion. In the country data set, the variable (SPLIT) simply represents the percentage of the country’s population that belongs to an ethnic group that was partitioned by colonial borders. Source: Asiwaju (1985) and Englebert (2000). In both data sets, Burundi- Rwanda and Burundi-Tanzania have been changed from Asiwaju (1985), with Rundi populations no longer counted as partitioned, as per Griffiths (1986). Dispute. In its dummy version (as in Table 2), this variable (DISPDUM) takes on a value of 1 for the occurrence of any dispute over the border or territorial issue since independence, whether full armed conflict or skirmish or lesser dispute. In its ordinal version (as in Table 3), the variable (DISPUTE) takes on the following values: 0 = no dispute; 1 = boundary line is disputed but dispute is not pursued; 2 = nonviolent claim by at least one state; 3 = claim and some fighting; 4 = full war or ICJ case. Source: computed by the authors from multiple sources (see dispute table at the end of this appendix). East Africa location. Dummy variable (EAST) which takes on a value of 1 if a country is located in East Africa. Economic instability. This variable (STDGROW) measures the standard deviation of a country's annual growth rates over the years of available data. Source: World Bank Africa Database CD-ROM, 1999. French on one side. A dummy variable (FRENCH1) which takes on the value 1 if at least one side of a boundary was colonized by the French. Source: Authors. National design. A variable (HERBST) which measures the quality of a country's geographical and demographic features in terms of ease of broadcasting of power. This is an ordinal variable with values of 1,2,3 and 4 as the quality of the design increases. Source: Table 5.2 in Herbst (2000:161). Number of ethno-cultural cluster groups. This variable (NUMBER) measures the number of cluster or aggregated ethnic groups per country, collapsing similar ethnic/linguistic groups in a same cluster. Source: Morrison et al. (1989). Political culture of populations astride. This variable (ASTRMF3) measures the unweighted average political culture of populations astride a given boundary. Stateless groups score 1, "tribal" groups 2 and state-like groups 3. Source: Computed by the authors from multiple sources, including Asiwaju (1985), CIA (1999), Grimes (1999), Library of Congress misc. Country Studies, Murdock (1957), Morrison et al. (1989), and Olson (1996). The partitioned groups were identified from Asiwaju (1985). If the size of a group identified by Asiwaju was insignificant, the entry was deleted from the total of both countries. Political instability. All coups, coup attempts, alleged coup plots between 1960 and 1990 in proportion of years of independence betwen 1960 and 1990 (PROPCOUP). Source: Bates 2000. Population growth rate. Average rate of population growth (POPGROW) over the 1960-1992 period or available years. Source: World Bank Africa Database CD-ROM, 1999. Portuguese colonialism. Dummy variable (PORTUGAL) which takes on a value of 1 if a country was colonized by Portugal. Proportion of neighboring countries with same colonizer. A variable (NEIGSAME) which computes the percentage of a country's neighbors which were colonized by the same power. Quality of demarcation. Ordinal variable (MARC) capturing the quality of boundary demarcation as of 1979. The following scale is used: No demarcation due to severe problems in delimitation = 1; No or poor demarcation using unreliable natural features = 2; Partial demarcation using some beacons and reliable features = 3; Good demarcation, but requires some completion or repair = 4; Complete and clear demarcation = 5. Source: Coded by the authors from Browlie (1979). Religious polarization. This variable (HERETIC) multiplies the proportion of Muslims with the proportion of Christians, both expressed in decimals, for each country. Its maximum theoretical value is 0.25 for a country with 50% Christians and 50% Muslims. Source: Computed by the authors from data in Kurian (1998). Same colonizer. A dummy variable (SAMECOL) which takes on the value 1 if both sides of a boundary were colonized by the same country. Only original colonizers are considered since they determined the boundaries (eg, the Kenya-Tanzania border scores 0). Source: Authors. Secessions. This variable (SECEDE) measures the natural logarithm of 1 + all instances of secessionist movements from 1946 to 1998. Source: quantified by the authors from Baker (2000). Southern Africa location. Dummy variable (SOUTH) which takes on a value of 1 if a country is located in Southern Africa, as assessed by membership in SADC. Source: Africa South of the Sahara. Straight line. Dummy variable (LINEDUM) taking a value of 1 if at least part of a boundary is composed of straight lines. Source: Authors, from National Geographic map.
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