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Annex A

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									          Government of the Republic of Angola and United Nations Development Programme
                                SLM capacity building in Angola
Project Summary

  A. Angola is the fourth largest country in Africa, covering an area of approximately 1,246,700 km2. The
     country contains about 47 hydrological basins, including the Zaire, Zambezi and Okavango, all
     currently experiencing problems related to inappropriate land management practices. Although the
     country is rich in both renewable and non-renewable natural resources (petroleum, diamonds, iron-ore,
     phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium, zinc, lead, wolfram, manganese and tin), nearly
     three decades of civil war inflicted profound impact on all aspects of social and economic life of its
     people. Indeed, the country is undergoing a relative economic boom since the end of the war.
     However, according to the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) 68% of the population still live below
     the poverty level, 28% of them in extreme poverty. The effects of war, including displacement,
     disruption of market activities and macroeconomic instability eroded the poor and working classes‟
     ability to invest in their future, particularly investment in sustainable land management. Land
     degradation is a major threat to national economy and the global environment.

  B. There are three direct causes of land degradation; Unsustainable Agriculture,
     Deforestation/unsustainable use of Forests, and Overgrazing of Rangelands. This has contributed to
     overexploitation of the soil, leading to erosion, soil exhaustion and desertification. Key threats to SLM
     are declining fertility and productivity of agricultural lands, forest clearing for unsustainable
     agriculture, overgrazing and forest pasture destruction or degradation by fire, and climate change. The
     key barriers to addressing the root causes in order to remove the threats lie in the inadequate capacity
     of the government system to provide knowledge based, affordable techniques and incentives for SLM.
     Land managers therefore have limited knowledge on SLM techniques, have few incentives for
     adopting improved practices and have almost no extension services to support their efforts.
     Consequently, there is poor linkage between SLM and rural development initiatives, resulting in
     insufficient livelihood alternatives to subsistence cropping and to use of forests for timber and
     fuelwood and to meet energy requirements. The government authorities responsible for planning have
     limited capacity for cross-sectoral planning.

  C. This project proposes four outcomes linked to the LDC – SIDS Portfolio Sustainable Land
     Management Programme. The first outcome is the analysis and preparation of an acceptable set of
     intervention techniques, which are turned into field training modules, for new extension agents, with-
     in participatory demonstration training programmes. This is coupled with applied research and
     promotion of farmer innovation in SLM. The second outcome addresses the institutional need for
     Government to monitor Land Degradation and device best practices from the set of SLM initiatives in
     country. Third and fourth outcomes address broader picture of the National Action Plan (NAP) via co-
     finance; and starting the Country Framework for TerrAfrica. These will be built into a database to
     allow government to coordinate the SLM efforts and to integrate best practice into the developing
     CSIF and NAP process within the UNCCD and TerrAfrica frameworks.

  D. Overall project cost is 1,900,000US$, with 750,000US$ from GEF (including 25,000$ PDF A), and
     1,150,000$ from co-finance: 400,000$ from UNDP and 750, 000$ co-finance from the Government
     of Angola (350,000 in cash and 400,000 in kind). GEF: Co-finance ratio of 1:1.53. The cash co-
     finance ratio of 1:1 justifies application for a GEF contribution of US $ 750,000.

                                                     1
                               Expedited Medium Size Project proposal
                                              Under the
                      LDC-SIDS Portfolio Project for Sustainable Land Management
                                 REQUEST FOR GEF FUNDING


                                                             FINANCING PLAN (US$)
   AGENCY’S PROJECT ID: PIMS No. 3379                        GEF PROJECT/COMPONENT
   GEFSEC PROJECT ID:                                        Project                     725,000
   COUNTRY: Angola                                           PDF A                       25,000
   PROJECT TITLE: SLM Capacity Building for                  Sub-Total GEF               750,000
   Angola                                                    Co-financing
   GEF AGENCY: UNDP                                          GEF Agency               400,000
   OTHER EXECUTING AGENCY: MINISTRY OF                       Government               750,000
   AGRICULTURE AND URBAN ENVIRONMENT,                        Bilateral
                                                             NGOs
   ANGOLA
                                                             Others
   DURATION: 4 years                                         Sub-Total Co-financing:  1,150,000
   GEF FOCAL AREA: Land Degradation                          Total Project Financing: 1,900,000
   GEF OPERATIONAL PROGRAM: OP 15                            FINANCING FOR ASSOCIATED ACTIVITY IF
   GEF STRATEGIC PRIORITY: SP 1                              ANY:
   ESTIMATED STARTING DATE: October 2007

   Country Eligibility: Angola ratified the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification on 1997 and
   is eligible for funding under paragraph 9(b) of the GEF Instrument

CONTRIBUTION TO KEY INDICATORS OF THE BUSINESS PLAN: One Province (out of 18 in
Angola) with a set of demonstrations for Sustainable Land management mechanisms within the
three production systems (agriculture, livestock and sustainable forestry) to reduce land
degradation in Huambo Province > 100,000 ha of land brought under sustainable land
management within five years
     RECORD OF ENDORSEMENT ON BEHALF OF THE GOVERNMENT:
  (Enter Name, Position, Ministry)               Date: (Month, day, year)
 Operational Focal Point Endorsement
 CCD national Focal Point and date of approval




 This proposal has been prepared in accordance with GEF policies and procedures and meets the standards
 of the GEF Project Review Criteria for a Medium-sized Project under the LDC-SIDS
 Targeted Portfolio Project for Sustainable Land Management.

 Name & Signature                                    Project Contact Person
                                                     Veronica Muthui, UNDP-GEF Regional
                                                     Technical advisor

 Yannick Glemarec
 UNDP/GEF Executive Coordinator
 Date: 27 August 2007                                Tel. and email: +27 12 354 8124.
                                                     veronica.muthui@undp.org


                                                 2
                                                                 Table of Contents (Indexed)

SECTION I: ELABORATION OF THE NARRATIVE ............................................................................................... 6
    PART I: SITUATION ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................ 6
1       BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT ....................................................................................................................... 6
    1.1          ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT ............................................................................................................................. 6
    1.2          SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT ............................................................................................................................. 7
    1.3          POLICY, INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL CONTEXT ................................................................................................. 8
2       LAND DEGRADATION IN ANGOLA .............................................................................................................. 10
    2.1      UNSUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE ..................................................................................................................... 10
    2.2      DEFORESTATION/UNSUSTAINABLE HARVESTING OF FOREST PRODUCTS ......................................................... 11
    2.3      OVERGRAZING ............................................................................................................................................... 12
    2.4      THREATS, ROOT CAUSES AND KEY BARRIERS.................................................................................................. 13
    2.5      BARRIERS ....................................................................................................................................................... 15
       2.5.1   Technical knowledge and research ........................................................................................................... 15
       2.5.2   Implementation capacity/capacity to act – institutions and individuals lack capacity for improved land
       management. ........................................................................................................................................................... 16
       2.5.3   Policy, legislation and enforcement .......................................................................................................... 17
       2.5.4   Financial capacity and markets: ............................................................................................................... 17
3       PART II: PROJECT STRATEGY: PROJECT DESCRIPTION .................................................................... 17
    3.1          BASELINE COURSE OF ACTION ........................................................................................................................ 17
    3.2          CAPACITY AND MAINSTREAMING NEEDS FOR SLM ........................................................................................ 18
    3.3          PROJECT RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................. 20
    3.4          DETAILED PROJECT OUTCOMES, OUTPUTS AND MAJOR ACTIVITIES .............................................................. 23
    3.5          ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS .............................................................................................................................. 27
    3.6          GLOBAL AND LOCAL BENEFITS ....................................................................................................................... 28
    3.7          LINKAGES TO IA ACTIVITIES AND PROGRAMS ................................................................................................ 29
    3.8          STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT PLAN .............................................................................................................. 32
    3.9          SUSTAINABILITY (INCLUDING FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY)........................................................................... 33
    3.10         REPLICABILITY ............................................................................................................................................... 33
4       FINANCIAL PLAN .............................................................................................................................................. 38
    4.1          STREAMLINED INCREMENTAL COSTS ASSESSMENT........................................................................................ 38
    4.2          PROJECT BUDGET ........................................................................................................................................... 40
    4.3          PART III: MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENTS ........................................................................................ 43
       4.3.1       Project Implementation Governance ........................................................................................................ 43
       4.3.2       Audit Requirements ................................................................................................................................... 44
       4.3.3       Legal Context ............................................................................................................................................ 44
    4.4          PART IV: MONITORING AND EVALUATION ........................................................................................ 47
       4.4.1       Monitoring and Evaluation Plan .............................................................................................................. 47
       4.4.2       Monitoring and Evaluation ....................................................................................................................... 47
       4.4.3       Independent Evaluation ............................................................................................................................ 51
5       SECTION II: STRATEGIC RESULTS FRAMEWORK ................................................................................. 54
    5.1          LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX ..................................................................................................................... 54
    5.2          OUTPUT / ACTIVITY TABLE ............................................................................................................................ 59
    5.3          TOTAL BUDGET AND WORK PLAN (FOR GEF AND UNDP CONTRIBUTION) ................................................... 65
6       SECTION III: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION .............................................................................................. 69
    6.1      RESPONSES TO GEFSEC REVIEW.................................................................................................................... 69
    6.2      GEF OPERATIONAL FOCAL POINT ENDORSEMENT LETTER.............................................................................. 69
    6.3      CO-FINANCING LETTERS......................................................................................................................... 69
    6.4      ANNEX 1: THREATS, ROOT CAUSE AND BARRIER REMOVAL STRATEGIES ANALYSIS.............. 70
    6.5      ANNEX 2: DRAFT TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR TECHNICAL CONSULTANCIES .................................................. 76
       6.5.1   Draft Terms of Reference - Consultancy on CBNRM ............................................................................... 76
       6.5.2   Consultancy on Participatory Resources Assessment and Resources Use Planning Draft Terms of
       Reference ................................................................................................................................................................. 78
       6.5.3   Consultancy on viability studies for alternative income generating activities .......................................... 80


                                                                                         3
      6.5.4   Consultancy on market studies for natural products ................................................................................ 82
   6.6      DRAFT TORS OF KEY STAFF ........................................................................................................................... 83
      6.6.1   Project coordinator................................................................................................................................... 83
      6.6.2   Finance/Admin/Management support ....................................................................................................... 84
   6.7      ANNEX 3: NATIONAL MSP ANNUAL PROJECT REVIEW FORM ........................................................................ 86


Figure 1: Map of Angola ................................................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2: Land cover (FAO accessed 16 May 2007) ......................................................................................... 6
Figure 3: Farming Systems (FAO accessed 16 May 2007) ............................................................................... 7
Figure 4: Environmental Constraints (FAO accessed 16 May 2007) ................................................................ 7
Figure 5: Population (FAO accessed 16 May 2007) ......................................................................................... 8
Figure 6: Project Management Arrangement .................................................................................................. 43
Figure 7: Project Implementation Arrangement .............................................................................................. 43
Figure 8: National Level Project Arrangement ............................................................................................... 46

Table 1: Risk and Mitigation Measures ............................................................................................. 27
Table 2: On-going/ Planned GEF projects with relevance to Angola SLM ...................................... 30
Table 3: Stakeholder Participation Plan – National level .................................................................. 33
Table 4: Financing plan as per outcome (see Section II Strategic Results Framework, for detailed
budget break down) ............................................................................................................................ 40
Table 5: Detailed description of estimated co-financing sources ...................................................... 41
Table 6: Indicative Monitoring and Evaluation Work plan and corresponding Budget .................... 52
Table 7: Budget and Workplan for the GEF and UNDP Contribution .............................................. 65
Table 8: Management Cost ................................................................................................................ 66
Table 9: Consultants working for technical components .................................................................. 66




                                                                                 4
ACRONYMS

 APR        Annual Performance Review
 BD         Biodiversity
 CBNRM      Community-based Natural Resource Management
 CC         Climate change
 CCA        Common Country Assessment
 CITES      Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Fauna and Flora Species
 CMS        Convention on Migratory Species
 CO         Country Office (UNDP)
 CTMA       Multi-sector Technical Commission for Environment
 DPUA       Provincial Directorate of Urban Affairs and Environment
 EEZ        Exclusive Economic Zone
 EIA        Environmental Impact Assessment
 FAO        United Nations Food and Agricultural
            Organization
 GDP        Gross Domestic Product
 GEF        Global Environment Facility
 HIV/AIDS   Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
 IA         Implementing Agency
 INAPA      National Environment Promotion Institute
 INCN       National Nature Conservation Institute
 LD         Land degradation
 LDCs       Least Developed Countries
 M&E        Monitoring and Evaluation
 MDGs       Millennium Development Goals
 MINADER    Ministry of Agriculture
 MINUA      Ministry for Urban Issues and the Environment
 MPLA       People‟s Movement for the Liberation of Angola
 MSP        Medium-sized project
 MTIP       Medium Term Investment Plan
 NAP        National Action Programme (UNCCD)
 NBSAP      National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
 NCSA       National Capacity Self Assessment for Global Environmental Management
 NEMP       National Environmental Management Plan
 NEPAD      New Partnership for African Development
 NEX        National Execution
 NGO        Non Governmental Organisation
 PCU        Project Coordination Unit
 POP        Persistent and Organic Pollutants
 PRI        Project Implementation Review
 PRSP       Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
 RCU        Regional Coordination Unit
 SC         Steering Committee
 SIDS       Small Island Developing States
 SLM        Sustainable Land Management
 TC         Technical committee
 TOR        Terms of Reference
 TPR        Tripartite Review
 UN         United Nations
 UNCBD      United National Convention on Biodiversity
 UNCCD      United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
 UNDAF      United Nations Development Assistance Framework
 UNDP       United Nations Development Programme
 UNFCCC     United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
 UNFPA      United Nations Population Fund
 UNICEF     United Nations Children‟s Fund
 UNITA      National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
                                        5
   SECTION I: ELABORATION OF THE NARRATIVE

   PART I: SITUATION ANALYSIS


   1     BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT

   1.1    Environmental context

   1. Angola is the fourth largest country in Africa, covering an area of approximately 1,246,700 km2.
   Lying between latitudes 4°22‟ S and 18°03‟ S along the western coast of Africa, Angola is bordered by
   the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo to the north, Namibia to the South and
   Zambia to the East (Figure 1). The nation‟s coastline extends over 1,650 km, with an Exclusive Economic
   Zone (EEZ) extending to 200 nautical miles from the shoreline. The country is characterized by much
   topographical variation: a narrow plain straddling the coastline rises abruptly to a vast interior plateau.
   The highest point in the country is Mount Morro de Moco, in Huambo Province, with an elevation of
   2,620 m. The climate is tropical to sub-tropical, and is characterized by warm and humid summers and
   mild and dry winters. Climatic conditions are strongly influenced by altitude, longitude and oceanic
   impact. The dry season extends from mid-May to September and the rainy season from October to mid-
   May.
   2. Ecosystems range from the southern desert dune areas in the Northern margins of the Namib Desert,
   to the North-Western margins of the Zambezi Basin, and to the South-Western margins of the tropical
   rainforests of the Congo Basin in the north of the country. Forest and savannah are the dominant natural
   features. Nearly 50% of the territory is covered with natural forest and woodland (61 million hectares),
   mainly Miombo woodlands and “mutiati” (based on Cholophospermum mopane) woodlands. The rest of
   the woodlands constitute savannah and steppes (62 million hectares) and a variety of wetlands (including
   mangrove forests). Angola has a small arid zone. Plantation forests cover some 148,000 hectares,
   consisting mainly of eucalyptus along the Benguela railway line. The tropical rain-forest extends over an
   estimated 2,000 km2, which represents less than 2% of the national territory. This forest is located in
   North-East Cabinda Enclave. Provinces of Zaire and Uige in the North are covered by mixed moist
   forests. Figure 2 depicts the land cover zones of Angola.
   3. The country contains about 47 hydrological basins. The Zaire, Zambezi and Okavango basins are
   important international river systems and have high water volume. The Highlands of Huambo, Bié and
   Mexico constitute some of the major sources of water, some of which drain into the Atlantic ocean (Zaire,
   Kwanza and Kunene) and others pass through neighboring countries to reach the Indian ocean (Zambezi,
   Kuando and Kubango rivers). The most significant interior water formation is in the Moxico Province
   which contains the largest lake in the country. A number of smaller lakes cover a total surface area of
   2,000 km2.
   4. Angola is rich in both renewable and non-renewable natural resources. The latter include petroleum,
   diamonds, iron-ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium, zinc, lead, wolfram, manganese
   and tin. Forest resources are believed to cover an area of about 59 million ha (no recent assessment is
   available currently), covering about 47% of the country. However only some 19% constitute high value
   forest areas. The main forest types include Zambezi teak forests, Montane forests, Miombo and Mutiati
   woodlands as well as mangrove.

Figure 1: Map of Angola


Figure 2: Land cover (FAO accessed 16 May 2007)




                                                      6
Figure 3: Farming Systems (FAO accessed 16 May 2007)

Figure 4: Environmental Constraints (FAO accessed 16 May 2007)

    1.2   Socio-economic context
   5. Administratively Angola is composed of 18 provinces, 164 municipalities and 547 communes. The
   People‟s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) is the leading political Party and democratic
   elections are scheduled for 2008. The overall population is believed to range between 14-16.5 million
   people, with more than 60% of the population being below 20 years of age. The average life expectancy
   is a low 42 years. Although HIV/AIDS did not spread rigorously during the war, the rate of infection is
   now increasing rapidly. Child mortality is at an extremely high rate of 250 out of 1000 children under the
   age of 5.
   6. Angola was under civil war for almost three decades, inflicting a profound impact on all aspects of
   social and economic life in Angola. Many Angolans died from conflict-related causes and approximately
   four million people were displaced. The rapid and unplanned development of large slums in and around
   urban centers during the war put considerable pressure on housing and basic services. High urban
   unemployment, in particular women and the youth, is an ongoing concern. Severe logistical constraints
   such as damaged roads and bridges, non-functioning railways, landmines and unexploded ordnance
   remain an obstacle to socio-economic recovery and to the free movement of goods and civilians. The
   prolonged emergency throughout the war undermined the capacity of local government and limited the
   participation of civil society. Improvements to the justice system are ongoing; however at this time the
   networks remain too weak to match the demands of the population. The Angolan constitution however
   guarantees the creation of democratically elected structures at many levels.


   7.   Although the country is undergoing an economic boom since the end of the war, the Poverty
   Reduction Strategy (PRS) states that 68% of Angolans still live below the poverty level, 28% of them in
   extreme poverty. The effects of war, including displacement, disruption of market activities and
   macroeconomic instability eroded the poor and working classes‟ ability to invest in their future.
   Unemployment in urban areas is almost at 50%. Access to basic social services is often impossible due to
   the limited and unbalanced distribution of the services across the country. Compared to other Southern
   African Development Community countries Angola continues to spend a low percentage of its national
   expenditure on education and health but investments are increasing since 2002.


   8. The social indicators for Angola are consistently among the worst in the world. It ranks at position
   161 of the UNDP Human Development Index, one of the lowest in the world. A recent assessment on
   performance on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; 2005) indicates that the level of
   achievement of the MDG is low except for the universal primary education.

   9. The economy of Angola is presently dominated by the petroleum sector which is controlled by
   multinationals. Oil and gas constitute over 60% of GDP and 90% of exports. More than a million barrels
   per day were produced in 2004, and the figure is expected to double by 2007. Diamonds are also
   important (around 9% of GDP and 13% of exports), while the contribution of other sectors is negligible.
   It is notable that in 2004 it was estimated that agriculture, forestry and fisheries sector would contribute a
   mere 8% to the GDP, with the main crops being maize, rice, cassava, potatoes, beans, bananas, sugar cane
   and coffee. Development in these sectors presents great opportunities especially in the rural areas, and
   huge potential for providing support to resettlement and rehabilitation schemes.

   10. Although the forestry, agriculture and fisheries sector contributions to the national economy are low,
   there is indication that contributions through the informal and subsistence sectors are significant. The
   forestry sector plays a significant role, particularly proving biomass energy and material for construction.
   65% of the overall energy consumed comes from wood biomass, 33% from oil-based energy and a low
   2% from electricity. It is estimated that more than 100,000 people are likely to be involved in the
   production of biomass based energy, primarily through the production and commercialization of charcoal.

                                                       7
                                                                      Administration




                                                                      Population (People per Sq Km)
                                                                                      0-2

                                                                                      3 - 10

                                                                                      11 - 20

                                                                                      21 – 50

                                                                                      51 – 100

                                                                                      101 - 200

                                                                                      201 - 500

                                                                                      501 - 1000

                                                                                      >1000



Figure 5: Population (FAO accessed 16 May 2007)

   1.3    Policy, institutional and legal context
   11. The Angolan Constitution makes ample provision for environmental management. Article 12/2
   states that “The State promotes the protection and conservation of natural resources, overseeing its
   exploration and use in benefit of the entire community, whilst Article 24/2 elaborates that “The State
   adopts measures necessary for the protection of the environment and national flora and fauna species in
   all the national territory and the maintenance of ecological balance. A series of additional articles focus
   on the promotion of environmental sustainability, including paragraph a) of Article 112 which stipulates
   that the government shall, during the exercise of its administrative duties, “elaborate and promote the
   execution of the economic and social development plan of the country”, which includes environmental
   management programmes and plans.
   12. Angola ratified a number of international environmental agreements during the 1990‟ties, and a great
   deal of progress has been made since the end of the war in promoting the implementation of such
   instruments. It ratified the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in 1997, the UN
   Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1998, and the UN Framework Convention on Climate
   Change (UNFCCC) in 2000. On 1 March 2007, the National Assembly of Angola (Parliament)
   authorized the Government to adhere to the Kyoto Protocol of the UNFCCC. In early 2007, Angola
   became the 99th Party of the Convention of Migratory Species (CMS). In 2001, the National Assembly
   approved the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Fauna and Flora Species (CITES), and
   in 2002, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (a supplementary agreement to the CBD). However, Angola
   is yet to approve and ratify other important conventions such as the Convention on Wetlands of
   International Importance, Especially as Habitats of Aquatic Birds (Ramsar Convention).
   13. Over the recent past a great deal of work has been done on reforming the existing policy and legal
   frameworks relating to the environment. The Environmental Framework Law of 1998 has become a land
   mark instrument with regard to environmental management. The framework sets out the guiding
   principles for the prevention and mitigation of pollution and stipulates that the government should
   establish urban and non-urban environmental quality standards on noise, gas flaring, industrial,
   agricultural and economic pollution. A National Environmental Management Plan (NEMP) has been
   prepared, identifying key priority areas for the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.


                                                      8
Approval is currently being awaited. Sectoral strategies should be developed, and currently a Biodiversity
Conservation Strategy, a Wetlands Strategy, and a Strategy on Residual Waste and Pollution are in place.
14. A draft Law on Forests, Wildlife and Protected Areas has recently been tabled for public
consultation. Recently emerging legislation include a Law on Petroleum Activities, Law on Water
Resources, Law of Environmental Defense Associations, Land Planning Law, Law on Town Planning
and Urbanization, Law on Aquatic Biological Resources, Land Law, Decree on the Protection of the
Environment during Petroleum Activities, Decree on the Prohibition of the Importation of Transgenic
Genetically Modified Seeds, Baseline Law on Agricultural Development and Environmental Impact
Assessment Decree. The recent policy and legal developments are innovative and modern.
15. In fulfillment of the obligations under the Rio Conventions, Angola prepared a National Biodiversity
Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP), which is considered progressive and effective, although
implementation has only just commenced. A National Biodiversity Unit has been established in the
Ministry of Urban Affairs and Environment (MINUA) coordinating the implementation of the NSABP.
Recently other key activities under the conventions have been initiated and implementation of the
provisions of these instruments is advancing. A draft National Action Programme (NAP) under the
UNCCD has been developed through a Ministerial Commission and it is expected that the NAP will be
approved by the Minster and subsequently by the Ministerial Council in the near future.


16. MINUA is responsible for the coordination of land management, urbanization, housing and
environment policies. It has the responsibility for preparing and executing legislation, policy instruments
and strategies in the area of environment. In its environmental branch, MINUA houses two national
directorates, namely the National Directorate of Environment (responsible for the execution of the
national environmental management programme) and the National Directorate of Natural Resources
(responsible for the design and implementation of policies and strategies of nature conservation and
rational use of renewable natural resources). Discussions are on-going about the creation of two
independent environmental institutes: one, the National Environment Promotion Institute (INAPA) to be
tasked with the execution of national policy in the fields of research, training, and information
dissemination on the environmental management policy; and two, the National Nature Conservation
Institute (INCN) with a focus on nature conservation and protected areas management.


17. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MINADER) is responsible for agricultural,
rural development and the forestry sector. A series of institutes are associated with MINADER, such as
the Forest Development Institute. Other organs responsible for the management and use of natural
resources include the Ministries of Fisheries, Petroleum, Geology and Mines, Energy and Water
Resources, Education, Health, Hotel and Tourism, Science and Technology, Industry and Public Works.
A full stakeholder list is included in Section III with descriptions of the various responsibilities. It should
be noted that all these actors are part of a Multi-sector Technical Commission for Environment (CTMA)
created in 2001, tasked with responsibilities for issues of environment, sustainable development and
management of natural resources.
18. Angola developed a decentralization policy in 1999. A supporting strategy was introduced by
government in 2007 to speed up the operationalisation of the decentralized policy. According to the
Decentralization Policy, 18 provincial Governments have been established with provincial level
Directorates of the various line Ministries. In most provinces Agriculture and Fisheries include
departments of environment. In some cases, the environment is incorporated into the Provincial
Directorate of Urbanization and Environment.


19. The country is in the process of developing a transparent, functioning, efficient and effective land
administration system that integrates the reality of customary land management systems into formal
national legislative and administrative frameworks. A new land law was passed in 2002 and is currently
being debated widely. However, the issue of land and resource tenure remains problematic.




                                                     9
20. It is observed that mandates relating to environmental management are dispersed amongst a suite of
stakeholders i.e. within different Ministries. Coordination is a key challenge in this regard.


2     Land degradation in Angola
21. Land degradation is largely a result of enormous pressures from the human population which is
heavily concentrated in the coastal strip and in urban centers, due to insecurity resulting from four
decades of armed conflict. There are three direct causes of land degradation in Angola; Unsustainable
Agriculture, Deforestation/unsustainable use of Forests, and Overgrazing of Rangelands. This has
contributed to overexploitation of the soil, leading to erosion, soil exhaustion and desertification.

2.1    Unsustainable agriculture
22. Agricultural production/farming systems in Angola range from cultivation of a variety of products,
including cereals and roots, to livestock management, and are addressed here as “agricultural production
systems”. Roughly three broad agro-ecological zones can be distinguished: the East, classified as root
crop, i.e. cassava area; the centre, suitable for cereal, mainly maize, cultivation; and the South, with
potential for millet and sorghum (See figure 3). Soil fertility is low throughout the country, and only an
estimated 10% of the soils are considered to have potential for agriculture. Overall only 2.8% of the land
is actually indicated to be arable and suitable as permanent cropland, of which only 2.1% is under
irrigation. It is only in the Central Highlands that soil fertility is high, and even here there are places
where fertilisers are needed to compensate for the marked degradation of soils; elsewhere, larger areas of
(less fertile) land are needed in order to guarantee subsistence. Large areas are also remote from markets
and services.
23. Yet it is estimated that about 85 percent of Angola‟s rural populations live off subsistence
agriculture, in the absence of safety nets. Conditions remain particularly harsh, a number of factors
hampering recovery and development of the rural areas, despite progress in opening up areas for
resettlement and agriculture after the war. There are limited and fragmented social services and staffing
for extension, health and education sectors remain problematic.


24. Many of the farmers are returning internally displaced persons (IDPs). As there is little surplus land
upon which to settle any significant number of IDPs, resettlements have been imposed and in some cases
the newly displaced peasants are settled on lands that belong to pastoralist communities. Many of the
returning IDPs and refugees want to settle in areas that are easily accessible – these are the areas where
many of the large farms or plantations are to be found and which have their origin in land concessions
given to European farmers during the colonial era. In accordance with the concepts of communal rights to
the use of land, the members of these communities are able to reclaim their land use rights, within the
territorial limits of their respective communities. The importance of land as an asset for household
survival, competition between peasant and commercial farming, low soil fertility, the limited extent of
rural areas with adequate rainfall and the limited capacity to effectively regulate land access is driving
demand for land.


25. Unsustainable agriculture therefore remains the major problem resulting in a serious level of land
degradation throughout the country. Unsustainable agriculture in Angola has several direct causes: non-
application of appropriate land management/cultivation techniques, poor provision of extension services,
and low level of awareness of both the farmers and local leaders on the economic benefits of soil
protection investments. Continued decline in soil fertility is mainly a result of “soil mining”, i.e.
continued cultivation without replenishing soil fertility with plant nutrients through application of organic
manure or/and mineral fertilizers. The long-term consequences are a complete loss of ecosystem function
and productivity.




                                                   10
      26. Soil erosion in Angola causes a total soil loss of about 20 Million tones per year, equivalent to loss
      of the capacity to feed 50,000 people annually1. The amount of plant nutrients lost annually according to
      the same source are estimated at about 1,200,000 tones of Organic Matter, 60,000 tones of Nitrogen,
      4,500 tones of Potassium and 500 tonnes of Phosphorous. Soil erosion causes denudation of mountain
      and hill tops, decreases the soil depth, alters the soil structure and decreases the soil organic matter,
      thereby reducing the Water Holding Capacity with consequent leaching of nutrients and associated
      acidification of the soil. Rains frequently cause serious erosion and subsequent soil sedimentation in the
      streams and rivers that eventually find their way into the Indian and Atlantic Oceans.

       2.2    Deforestation/unsustainable harvesting of forest products
      27. Deforestation is a growing problem, due to domestic use of wood for fuel and building, and clearing
      for agriculture and other activities. The problem was particularly widespread during the years of conflict
      when huge amounts of forests were lost annually. The long civil war that affected Angola from 1975 to
      1991 and the continuous hostilities among rival groups that persisted till recently had severe
      consequences on forests.


      28. Between 1992 and 1994 about one million and a half people were displaced because of war. To
      satisfy their urgent needs for firewood for cooking and heating they cut down extensive areas of forests
      and tree plantations. Their forced nomadic state and lack of any means of survival and income earnings
      accelerated damage to the forests. The resettlement of IDPs after the war continues to put a high demand
      on forests with the rainforests, located in the north of the country, being the most threatened by
      subsistence agriculture which provides food for almost 90 percent of the population.


      29. The rate of deforestation has however been fluctuating since 1990, with a drastic increase since
      2000. Between 1990 and 2000, Angola lost an average of 124,800 hectares of forest per year. This rate
      increased by 2.1% between 2000 and 2005, and the country lost 1,872,000 hectares of forest amounting to
      3.1% of its total forest cover. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest
      area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, Angola
      lost 3.1% of its forest and woodland habitat.


      30. The impact of deforestation is manifold and has led to siltation of river systems, soil loss and overall
      biomass loss; biodiversity may be impacted significantly as well, although no specific studies have been
      conducted as yet since the war ended. Forests are important for the protection of essential ecosystem
      services in all provinces of Angola, although forest cover and composition vary strongly amongst
      provinces. Significant interlinkages between forest production systems and the agricultural and range
      resource complex exist, and root causes for unsustainable management and barriers are similar.


      31. Deforestation in Angola is driven by a number of factors (i) the need for charcoal for energy both in
      the rural and urban areas (ii) forest clearing for expanding agriculture and to compensate for the infertile
      soils, (iii) forest fires, partly for clearing land for cultivation, and partly for creating grazing lands to
      compensate for the overgrazing in pasturelands; and, (iv) logging for timber (selected areas). These facts
      are compounded by poverty, lack of alternative economic activities and high and rapidly growing
      populations.
      32. It is noted that the forest production system is intimately interlinked with the unsustainable use of
      biomass based energies in Angola and is thus included in this analysis. Energy provision is a key issue
      and challenge to post-war Angola. Yet even though Angola is Africa's second oil producer after Nigeria,
      most Angolan‟s do not have access to it. It is estimated that currently only 8 to 20 % of the population has
      access to electricity from various sources (primarily oil-based through generators). Rural electrification is
      practically non-existent. Even in urban areas a majority of people have no access to reliable energy supply
      and most people depend on charcoal for cooking. Gas has been introduced as an alternative energy

1
    Ministry of agriculture estimates 2006

                                                         11
source, albeit not widely adopted. There are hydropower installations mostly stemming from the pre-war
era, however majority are in disrepair and require major investments for rehabilitation. A number of
alternative energy sources and efficiency solutions have been pursued on test basis, for example, pilot
projects on using fuel efficient stoves and on a very small scale the introduction of solar energy. None of
these are however currently pursued on a larger scale.


33. Consequently, a large number of rural people (up to 50% according to several citations) directly
depend for their daily livelihoods on charcoal production and trading, and thus are a significant threat to
forests. The fact that so many people depend on charcoal for a small income, places a significant urgency
to finding solutions to the deforestation threat, which would allow for alternative energy sources,
adequate sustainable management options and, importantly, economic diversification strategies that
provide sustainable alternative income generating sources. Integrated agro-forestry and agro-silvo-
pastoral approaches are currently planned, especially in southern Angola, however they are not widely
tested and implemented as yet.


34. The poor soil fertility is one of the major causes of deforestation and associated soil degradation, as
it promotes shifting cultivation exacerbated by the utilization of fire for land clearing with increasingly
short fallows. The application of unsustainable land management and agricultural production practices on
such a subsistence level is seen as a key threat to environmental sustainability. Larger scale commercial
investments, which are now being encouraged in post-war Angola, also contribute to the land degradation
threat. Large scale land clearing of natural forest areas for agricultural production is a key problem both
in terms of large and small scale agricultural developments. Unsustainable management practices are
reported to lead to soil depletion, loss of fertility, soil erosion, nitrification from unregulated and poorly
managed application of fertilizers especially in commercial areas; unsustainable water management,
forest clearing, and increased numbers of wild fires.

2.3    Overgrazing
35. Angola‟s land cover is dominated by arid grasslands, primarily used for grazing. Ranching is mainly
practiced in the central part of the country, where most of the land is privately owned. Overgrazing is a
problem leading to both bush encroachment and desertification. Until recently there has been a general
sense that land was not a problem. This has however changed especially in the fertile Kwanza Sul
province near Luanda and in the relatively peaceful south-west where there has been a proliferation of
ranches and commercial farms. Many of the traditional cattle raisers and farmers, believing much of the
land in the colonial concessions to be rightfully part of the traditional lands, have reclaimed use of old
colonial farm concessions. In addition, conflicts are occurring and will continue as government grants
new and renewed concessions of the colonial parcels, or as landowners or concessions holders from the
past (especially post-1991) reappear and reassert their rights. Thousands of hectares of land, once solely
the territory of pastoral people and their cattle, have become fenced in, now the private property of
wealthy new landowners, including many influential people.


36. As the population increases, traditional cattle raisers require more land to sustain increased numbers
of cattle, but the carrying capacity has been reduced as the productivity of the land has declined
significantly over the years. As commercial cattle ranchers encroach upon lands of traditional cattle
raisers, cattle corridors are being closed. Pastoral leaders say the land has been taken illegally and their
traditions and customs, passed down over centuries, as well as their livelihoods, are under threat.
Commercial farmers have reclaimed the use of old colonial farm concessions; they now occupy this land
in addition to the traditional community lands. New fences, as evidenced by the number of newly cut
(„green‟) poles observed in late 2003, have been erected in the Gambos area of Huíla province with little
or no regard for consultation with communities.


37. Other degradation problems relate to the expansion of the hyper-arid systems and sand dune
stabilization. The coastal Province of Namibia in southern Angola is characterized by hyper-arid climates

                                                   12
and desert ecosystems. A major “classical” desertification issue has emerged: the movement and
perceived expansion of the desert to normally marginally suitable agricultural production areas. Province
specific guidance on land use and management options are currently absent, and pose a key barrier to
unlocking the development potential of the area. This is causing severe soil degradation in these areas
due to overgrazing resulting in development of less edible pasture.


38. Overgrazing in Angola is caused by intensive concentration of livestock rearing in areas of good
pasture and availability of water in the south. This is compounded by high population densities, poverty
and poor access to markets.


39. Other causes of land degradation in Angola are environmentally unsound mining and inappropriate
infrastructure development. Diamond mining mainly takes place in eastern provinces, especially in Lunda
Norte, Lunda Sul, Malange and Bié. Due to the absence of rigorous environmental legislation over the
past decades, huge environmental impacts are observed manifesting themselves in major soil erosion, the
creation of dust and depositing of eroded material. The lack of rehabilitation of large and extensive
mining sites also constitutes land degradation. Although EIA guidance is now in place there are key
barriers pertaining to the implementation of the policy instruments, including monitoring and enforcement
of environmental management regulations. Policies and laws need to be better communicated to
provinces to ensure effective enforcement, and the devolution and decentralization of decision making
powers need to be considered.

2.4    Threats, root causes and key barriers
40. A detailed matrix of land degradation threats and root causes applying to Angola is presented in
Annex 1. This MSP takes a broad view of the SLM challenge, which is significant in a country like
Angola, currently emerging from years of civil war and depending strongly on the land and natural
resources base for sustainable development. Key threats to SLM are declining fertility and productivity of
agricultural lands, forest clearing for unsustainable agriculture, overgrazing and forest pasture destruction
or degradation by fire, and climate change. There are direct relationships between the main threats of
declining fertility and productivity, overgrazing, and forest clearing. As ecosystem functions and services
degrade in each agro-ecological region, the productive potential decreases and farmers and herders seek
new natural habitat areas that can be transformed. In addition to these unsustainable practices, presently
unregulated access to common lands for pasture and agricultural transformation is further fuelling the
degradation of ecosystem functions relative to soil water retention, structure and stability in the overall
landscape. Furthermore, several other unregulated practices, such as the use of fire, are preventing other
essential ecosystem services in localized areas such as pollination and seed dispersal, thus limiting the
potential for nutrient restoration and natural regeneration on degraded lands.


41. The root causes leading to land degradation in Angola are manifold. Population distribution was
skewed during the war and migration from rural areas was enormous. It was generally unsafe to live in
remote areas and the high level of land mine infestation prohibited occupation of many areas. The skewed
population pressure is associated with a number of root causes for land degradation. These include:
increased conversion of less-productive and easily erosive marginal lands including land on very steep
slopes. This conversion is aggravated by the lack of proper land use planning at all levels and poor
provision of extension services. The people who remained on the land often had limited means to invest
in agricultural production e.g. infrastructure and implements. They often apply land use and land
management practices that may not be suitable in specific agri-ecological zones.


42. Since the end of the war major resettlement projects have been undertaken, attempting to re-inhabit
under populated areas and to reduce the human pressure on urban areas. However, the resettlement
schemes are not adequately supported by an extension package that provides guidance and skills on
appropriate land use and management practices to the new farmers. In addition, resettled farmers are not
being supported with inputs to counter the problem of infertile soils. It is fairly certain that under such

                                                   13
circumstances, the newly resettled farmers will adopt unsustainable land management practices, further
aggravating land degradation.


43. High densities results in the increased number of people without their own land, who live on
borrowed and rented land, and who do not make any investments in soil protection and in maintaining or
improving soil fertility. Building a sustainable livelihood is extremely challenging under such conditions.
A key component in (re-)building rural livelihoods that are dependent on natural resource use is access to
and tenure of land. In the rural areas of Angola, access to sufficient quantity and quality of land is
problematic. The country has been struggling with issues of access to land, equitable distribution of land
and tenure security since before independence. Indeed land tenure policy has undergone several radical
transformations starting from communal ownership in pre-colonial times; a mix of communal and private
ownership during the colonization era; nationalization under the socialist government and back to
privatization in the early nighties.


44. Poor people have limited access to assets such as land, capital, labour and skills, so if economic
growth is to benefit them it must raise the returns of the few assets they hold. Many researchers have
shown that land ownership inequality retards the rate of economic growth: it creates low and insecure
incomes for the rural poor, thereby retarding human capital accumulation and growth, and at the same
time acts to buttress high and potentially increasing levels of income inequality over time, creating a
vicious circle of growth and inequality. In Angola, it is also creating exclusionary patterns of growth that
deepen inequality over time, magnified via their impacts on the accumulation of human and physical
capital by the least well off members of society. The successful resettlement and reintegration of uprooted
populations is a critical component of sustainable land management in Angola.


45. As there are few alternative economic opportunities to subsistence farming, inequality in access to
land is an issue of crucial importance, which is only now starting to receive attention. Opportunities in the
urban areas may be marginally better, but the peri-urban community around the major cities is the largest
(some 60 percent) and fastest growing sector of the population, and many people in these areas are in an
ambiguous legal situation as regards their land tenure. More recently elite interests and political factors
feature prominently in areas where there are acute land conflicts between private and community
interests; and many „communities‟ are not historically linked to the land in question but have occupied it
after being dislocated from other parts of the country.


46. Soil mining and consequent depletion of essential plant nutrients, both Macro – and Micronutrients
(Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, Cobalt and Boron) without replenishing
the soil is a major root cause for loss of soil fertility. Continuous cropping of land and abandonment of
fallowing is a consequence of land scarcity due to increased demographic pressure. The decline in crop
yields also results in reduced production of biomass and less organic matter returned to soil. Lack of
replenishment of soil with organic matter results in the low content of the soil organo-chemical complex,
which in turn reduces the soil‟s Water Holding Capacity. It further reduces the Cation Exchange Capacity
(CEC) of the soils and results in loss of plant nutrients through intensive leaching and causes acidification
as well as Aluminum-toxicity and Phosphorus-fixation in some soils. About two thirds of all Angola soils
are acidic and need measures to control the acidity and improve the soil productivity.


47. The low level of application of soil additives such as manure and mineral fertilizers is a key cause of
increased loss of soil fertility. Insufficient manure is mainly caused by the reduction of per capita
livestock as well as increased distances from fields to homesteads resulting from land fragmentation.
According to a survey conducted in 2001, manure was applied to only 30% of all farmlands in the
country, while the level was 70% in 1972. Angola has one of the lowest levels of fertilizer application in
the world, with an average of 2 – 3 Kg/ha, as compared to 9 Kg/ha for Sub-Saharan Africa and 83Kg/ha
for all developing countries. Application of mineral fertilizers fell from 25% of all cultivated land in 1972
to only 2% in 2002. Further to low levels of fertilizer application, the effectiveness of applied fertilizers is

                                                    14
often very low due to non-compliance of application recommendations compounded by a weak extension
service.


48. Markets for agricultural produce are poorly developed and the infrastructure and road networks are
dysfunctional or non-existent. These sets of conditions pose the threat of a poverty trap, if not carefully
addressed.

2.5     Barriers
49. The threats, root causes and barriers of the total land degradation scenario in Angola have been
detailed in Annex 1. The key barriers to addressing the root causes in order to remove the threats lie in the
inadequate capacity of the government system to provide knowledge based, affordable techniques and
incentives for SLM. Land managers therefore have limited knowledge on SLM techniques, have few
incentives for adopting improved practices and have almost no extension services to support their efforts.
This means there is poor linkage between SLM and rural development initiatives, resulting in insufficient
livelihood alternatives to subsistence cropping and to use of forests for timber and fuelwood and to meet
energy requirements. The government authorities responsible for planning have limited capacity for
cross-sectoral planning. There are no effective mechanisms for identifying and sharing lessons and best
practices. One of the greatest weaknesses is the lack of mechanism to identify and promote traditional and
indigenous sustainable land use practices. Information sharing is haphazard and gaps in knowledge and
awareness are numerous.


2.5.1    Technical knowledge and research
50. Inadequate capacity building and low levels of human resources development, as identified
throughout the analysis, is a major barrier to SLM and sustainable development in Angola. During the
years of war little investment was made into training and education. Only recently Angola has started
investing strongly into primary education. For example, the agricultural campus of the national
University, which is situated in Huambo province, was closed during the war. No tertiary level training in
SLM relevant fields took place in more than 20 years and only very limited extension level training was
done. There is currently no training available in fields such as forestry or integrated rural development
(some rural development related curricular exist), and vocational training opportunities are very limited.
Since the end of the war, the Government has invested in basic infrastructure development and, for
example, the university campus at Huambo has been reopened. First courses and programmes are running
again since 2001, however the development of appropriate and relevant training opportunities for young
professionals qualifying in SLM and sustainable development are still largely absent.


51. As a result, there is a limited number of trained agriculturalists, foresters, economics, etc. working in
rural development issues. There is very limited ability for research and therefore minimal research on the
following SLM elements that are key to sustainable use of land to maximize its potential:
     Alternative and cost-effective technologies for generation of energy. The absence of research into
        and targeted interventions addressing the threat of deforestation and over utilization of biomass
        based energies is seen as a key barrier to SLM. Currently the energy sector is primarily looking at
        large scale electrification, however it is clear that rural development will take a long time and
        alternative avenues need to be pursued to guarantee access to energy, sustainable use of biomass
        and forest products thus halting the very real deforestation and land degradation threat in Angola.
     An SLM model that would address land degradation while boosting economic growth sustainably;
        there is no research on model that would include viable enterprises for local communities to
        improve land and promote economic growth. This is particularly important to tackle soil infertility
        while simultaneously reducing the high dependency on land and other natural resources.
     generation and growth behavior of the native species;
     Methodologies for land use planning and zoning;
     Community involvement in SLM and conservation forestry;
     Effect of land tenure on SLM, etc.
     Systems for effectively monitoring of SLM and provision of ecosystem benefits.

                                                   15
52. Efforts to improve sustainable agriculture are largely fragmented and uncoordinated. There are no
effective mechanisms for networking, identifying and sharing lessons learned and best practices among
different actors in the SLM area, including research, NGOs, CBOs, FBOs and the private sector economic
operators. There is little documentation, dissemination or upscaling of the isolated cases of successful
new and innovate SLM techniques. The little information available remains in the science domain with
little farmer friendly packaging. There are also no effective communications strategies for sharing best
practices and lessons learned from other parts of the region, with similar physical and socio-economic
situations, such as Namibia and South Africa.


53. Besides technical SLM practices, farmers are not provided with information on proven economic
profitability of investments in soil protection, improvement of soil fertility, alternative energy saving
techniques, or community forestry in their settings. In virtually all cases such livelihood household level
income and expenditure information does not exist and remains a main barrier to uptake of innovation.
Lack of user friendly SLM relevant extension packages and the dysfunctional agricultural extension
system in Angola further aggravates the problem of knowledge dissemination to the end users, the
farmers. The Government staff in charge of land use issues and those in charge of agriculture lack
technical knowledge at national and provincial and are not sufficiently conversant with participatory
extension approaches.


54. Monitoring and Evaluation System: There is no functioning M&E system for the agricultural sector
in general and for SLM in particular. A specific M&E system to assess the performance and experiences
of application of SLM techniques is necessary, also to facilitate the process of adaptive management of
sustainable land use.


2.5.2    Implementation capacity/capacity to act – institutions and individuals lack capacity for
         improved land management.
55. While the MPLA did little to promote peasant agriculture after 1975, it is the war that truly ravaged
the capacity of technical officers and farmers to implement programmes of improved land management
and appropriate agriculture. There was a critical loss of assets and capacity – key agricultural, health,
education and transportation infrastructure have collapsed or been destroyed. A recent survey by the
World Food Programme showed in that in several provinces, seeds and tools (including animal traction)
are scarce, and inputs are largely sourced from relief agencies. In the provinces surveyed, most villages
(85%) did not have access to agricultural extension services, and it is only in Huila (27%) and Moxico
(23%) where more than 10% of the sample villages had access any extension service. NGOs provided
most (65%) of the services and the rest by the Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural inputs such as
fertilizers are very rare: only 7% of the villages reported using fertilizers and 5% using herbicides or
insecticides. While these relate to the sampled provinces, the rest of the country has similar statistics.


56. Labour is also scarce in some areas as more than half of the households are headed by women. Many
women-headed households have high dependency ratios with elderly and young to care for. There are no
programs to train farmers and land managers on sustainable land management processes.


57. Lack of capacity of rural farmers in all senses, including lack of knowledge, lack of investment
capacity, poorly developed support and incentive systems, are therefore key barriers to SLM in this
context. This is compounded by the weak capacity of the national institutions such as extension services
which provide technical back up very erratically, often with out of date and inappropriate techniques.
Extension service is poorly resourced and difficult to provide due lack of trained personnel compounded
by problems of communication and land mines. The extension package has not been updated by in-
country research due to the low levels of research undertaken in the country, especially during the years



                                                  16
of war. In addition, there is very limited capacity of the forestry and environmental authorities to monitor
the forest harvesting activities as well as the design and implementation of EIAs.


58. The low levels of capacity of the technical staff and the institutions charged with the responsibility
for land management overflows into other key areas; for example there is poor information dissemination
and awareness raising: therefore poor dissemination of policy and legal instruments on land, land use
planning and EIA regulation. This compounds the lack of knowledge, innovation, financial resources and
coping strategies and further weakens SLM. Implementation of the PRSP, MDGs and other national long
term development strategies is hampered by issues related to priorities, financial and human capacity
constraints.


2.5.3    Policy, legislation and enforcement
59. Angola is putting a great deal of effort in increasing capacity and adopting sustainable resource uses
practices. However, in the absence of a suitable and enabling policy framework supporting the systematic
and environmentally sound development of the agricultural production system, including a rigorous
environmental management law and regulations and guidance on land use planning, such undertaking
may not confer with sustainable land management practices and standards. In Angola, currently land and
resources tenure, agricultural development and environmental sustainability policies are largely absent,
inadequate or suffer from a lack of implementation/enforcement.


60. Of special concern are the poorly developed and outdated land and natural resource tenure
arrangements. Resource rights are essential to the promotion of sustainable land and resource
management. Although instruments such as the Land Law of 2004 and the draft Law on Forests, Wildlife
and Protected Areas address key issues, major shortcomings are the slow implementation and lack of
enforcement. The current effort and interest to invest into community-based land and resource user rights
and management still need to be supported by a policy framework. After decades of war, with little room
for devolution of rights and responsibilities, local level capacities are severely constrained, and a culture
of community involvement is largely absent amongst government decision makers. Tangible on the
ground pilot experiences in community-based natural resources management (CBNRM) need to
demonstrate the impacts and value of such approaches.


2.5.4    Financial capacity and markets:
61. Most rural people do not have access to a sustainable income base outside of agriculture, and the
high unemployment levels exacerbate the demand for land. In addition, national investment is skewed to
the oil sector. This, coupled with the breakdown of a national market system for agricultural produce, has
weakened the rural economy exposing the population to high levels of poverty that drives them to adopt
unsustainable means of production and discourages investment in improved land management. The
unified agricultural market has largely been replaced by a coastal enclave economy. Most of the rural
areas have therefore receded into a very basic form of subsistence economy, more or less completely cut
off from markets. This has been driven by the extended state of insecurity over the past three decades, the
extreme shortage of skills, macro-economic instability and uncertainty, distortionary policies, and the
severe and prolonged deterioration in physical infrastructure and services. Road and rail infrastructure has
been severely damaged, and the cost of air transport from the hinterland to the coastal towns is exorbitant.
The net result is that since independence, the non-oil sectors of the economy have been in prolonged
recession.

3     PART II: PROJECT STRATEGY: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

3.1     Baseline course of action
62. Angola is signatory to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification. A system of national reporting
on the implementation of the UNCCD is in place and National Reports on the Implementation of the

                                                   17
UNCCD have been prepared for 2004 and 2005. Responsibility for the implementation of the UNCCD
was initially housed in the Ministry of Fisheries and Environment, which has been restructured. Now the
Convention is administered by the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Environment (MINUA). Although
Angola has had a difficult time implementing the provision of the Convention due to the prevailing war,
efforts were made to adhere to reporting requirements. The Minister personally established an inter-
sectoral, multi-stakeholder commission that was to draft the NAP. In the past year, under the guidance of
MINUA, a NAP was submitted to the Minister for approval before submission to the Ministerial Council.


63. Then UNCCD NAP is meant to be an instrument that provides a national strategic framework for
directing SLM investments and for promoting integrated and cross-sectoral interventions. The NAP
foresees the establishment of a designated NAP Unit, modeled on the experiences with the NBSAP. The
Unit is to be established under the auspices of MINUA after the NAP is endorsed on the highest political
level. The NAP foresees the establishment of a policy and institutional environment conducive to actions
on combating desertification on the national level. SLM, as a concept is still relatively weakly addressed
in Angola‟s NAP.


64. However, the Government is committed to addressing the land degradation threat and has engaged in
the development of projects that would tackle natural resources management, land degradation and SLM
issues on a national scale and in the Provinces. It is a priority of the Government to get into place the
relevant institutional arrangements on the national level that would facilitate the NAP implementation.
However there are currently no explicit local level pilot activities, other than in those proposed by this
proposal, formulated under the NAP. There are however few that have emerged from the agricultural
sector that are not yet integrated under the NAP framework. The national level coordination unit, once
established, will take on the responsibility to design further activities. The role of NAP as a framework
that brings together (integration and monitoring) all relevant actions on combating desertification will be
critical for the further harmonization of effort to introduce SLM. MINUA and the associated NAP
coordination unit will facilitate and coordinate implementation of relevant activities by a suite of
stakeholders.

3.2    Capacity and mainstreaming needs for SLM

65. Despite the modest effort described above, the needs for capacity development in SLM and for
mainstreaming the issue at a systemic level throughout the development framework are manifold. Due to
the recent war history in the country, capacity gaps are observed at all levels and strong investments are
needed to overcome the barriers.


66. Most of the capacity building programmes are recent and address only part of the cadres at the
central level. Angola‟s tertiary education, as all other educational levels, has only recently restructured
and re-oriented. Investments over the past years have strongly focused on the reconstruction of
infrastructure (e.g. the Agostinho Neto University campus in Huambo region has recently been rebuilt),
and strong conceptual and content support needs to be provided as follow-up. Although the curriculum at
the University includes courses on agriculture and agronomy the SLM component is missing. Research
and practical management capacities are needed to cater for the practical rural development challenges
faced by the country.


67. Generally lack of appropriate SLM package for knowledge dissemination on best practices in natural
resource management such as alternative energy sources and soil fertility improvement techniques
remains the most important barriers for efficient implementation of SLM. An effective Knowledge
Management process has to be developed to improve and strengthen the capacities of leaders, technicians
and farmer communities in SLM techniques. Knowledge and best practices generated locally and in the
region must be systematically gathered and packaged for effective dissemination to all concerned users.
Environment/natural resource economics need to be developed as tools for land use planning and policy

                                                  18
development. This should include cost / benefit analyses of present land use systems – the cost of doing
nothing – in comparison with similar analyses of SLM option.


68. Capacity Building for SLM mainstreaming in development planning is particularly important at the
decentralized levels. The limited experience in local level i.e. CBNRM approaches needs to be
strengthened. Although a number of NGOs active in Angola do engage directly with the local resource
users, there is no broad-scale government approach in place yet that would focus on systematic building
of capacity at the local level. Successful pilot approaches need to be tested to start and inform policy
development process in this regard.


69. The local leaders in charge of land use and agriculture at different levels need capacity building in
SLM knowledge and in effective participatory extension approaches. The capacity building measures are
further necessary to improve awareness and SLM techniques at farmer communities. The land use
extension system is still very weak and needs to be strengthened. Training modules and documents on
SLM best practices need to be prepared and be made accessible to all actors involved in training and
extension services in the SLM sector, including the civil society organisations as well as the private sector
operators.


70. This should be supported by capacity for undertaking research by the institutions of higher learning.
It is noted that NEPAD in conjunction with TerrAfrica are developing a program of support to “Centers
of excellence in SLM” in the region. This project is too small to engage in substantially with building
capacity and incentives for research in the country. However, it will provide a strong linkage to the
NEPAD/TerrAfrica initiative. In addition, it will support localized research on promoting farmer based
innovations in SLM, improved energy conversion processes and effects of land tenure on SLM.


71. Levels of awareness on SLM, and the NAP are still very low and most NAP related activities are
only at the national level. No communication strategy has been developed and both the NAP preparation
and envisaged implementation lack a targeted outreach component. Coordination of institutions involved
with SLM is critical. To date the interactions between the national level Ministry actions and the
decentralized provincial setting are limited. Similarly, interactions between MINUA and the provincial
equivalent institutions are very limited. Once the NAP is adopted it will be important to create political
will and awareness for the implementation of the instrument. Overall a better understanding of the
significance of SLM to development in Angola needs to be generated. It is critical that practical pilot
activities be implemented, demonstrating (i) what type of issues are relevant, and (ii) successful strategies
for addressing the land degradation threat. At the national level, support of the NAP Coordination
Committee and to the planned NAP Unit at MINUA is needed. The strengthening of the institutional
arrangements is critical to allow for successful addressing of SLM issues in Angola.


72. Further to the capacity building needs in knowledge management and extension services, there is
need for a functioning Monitoring and Evaluation System to assess the performance of SLM related
practices. An effective M&E system has to be participatory, involving all stakeholders, facilitate sharing
of information among stakeholders and become a tool for adaptive management of SLM measures. A
status report of land degradation and SLM practices should be regularly developed.


73. Access to land and natural resource is a key barrier to SLM in Angola. In the context of designing a
pilot enabling activity that should lay the strategic foundation for the successful rolling out of the NAP, it
is important to demonstrate the practical link between addressing land degradation on the ground and the
higher-tier policy processes. Although this project is too small to tackle the difficult and complicated
issue of land tenure, it can build capacity in policy analysis and support modest research on the effects of
land and resource tenure on effective SLM. It can also support the gathering and dissemination of lessons



                                                   19
on land and resource tenure and SLM from other parts of the region and the world and ensure they are
widely disseminated.


74. As set out in previous sections, Angola is challenged by organization of the energy sectors. Whilst
Angola is an oil producing country, a large part of the population depends on biomass based i.e. charcoal
energy sources especially for cooking purposes. The high demand of charcoal both in the urban/peri-
urban areas, but also in rural Angola is leading to a rapid loss of natural vegetation. Although some pilot
activities on improvement of charcoal production and reduction of charcoal use e.g. through the
introduction of fuel efficient stoves have been tested e.g. in Cabinda province, the issue has not been
addressed in a more holistic manner. As the link between energy and deforestation clearly addressed the
environment-livelihood nexus, the issue provides for a strategic entry point for NAP implementation.

3.3    Project rationale and objective
75. This project is part of the UNDP/GEF LDC and SIDS Targeted Portfolio Approach for Capacity
Development and Mainstreaming of Sustainable Land Management, within the SP-1 of OP-15 under the
GEF‟s Land Degradation area of focus. The project addresses the four outcomes under the Immediate
Objective of this umbrella project:

      Individual and institutional capacities for SLM will be enhanced and demonstrated within on-
       ground pilot sites. A large part of this project is directed towards capacity building and knowledge
       management, targeting SLM institutions and personnel as well as land managers in Huambo
       province;
      Systemic capacity building and mainstreaming of SLM principles: this project also addresses
       policy development and mainstreaming of SLM at central and at decentralised Government levels
       in the project area and builds oversight capacity.
      Support to the production of the National Action Plan (NAP). The NAP is likely to be approved
       before project start up. The project will support development and implementation of a NAP
       communications strategy to raise awareness and obtain political support for its implementation at
       all levels.
      Support to the production of the MTIP (Medium Term Investment Plan of NAP), which
       complements the CSIF or Country Strategic Investment Framework of TerrAfrica.

76. The project expects to benefit from support services of the Global Coordination Unit (GCU) of the
Umbrella Portfolio Project in the following areas:

      Sharing of SLM experiences, lessons learned, best practices and guidelines developed;
      Guidance on the development of natural resource/environmental economics for SLM;
      Guidance and support for the development of knowledge management systems for SLM;
      Guidance and support for the development of monitoring and evaluation systems for SLM;
      Guidance and support for the development of effective incentives for the integration of the private
       sector into SLM;

77. Based on the problem analysis, a multi-tier approach will be adopted. The project will build capacity
for SLM at local level (Huambo Province) and use it as a basis to support national action on
mainstreaming NAP implementation as well as communication and outreach.


78. Project Logic: The Problem: Increasing levels of land, forest and rangelands degradation have
resulted in ecosystem degradation, lowered agricultural yields, and severely compounded the effects of
decades of war on rural livelihoods and the national economy. Ecosystem integrity has been compromised
and siltation has caused nutrient loading in water bodies.


79. The root Causes behind this problem include (also see Annex 1 for detail):

                                                  20
      the need for charcoal for energy both in the rural and urban areas
      forest clearing for expanding agriculture and to compensate for the infertile soils
      forest fires, partly for clearing land for cultivation, and partly for creating grazing lands to
       compensate for the overgrazing in pasturelands and logging for timber (selected areas).
      non-application of appropriate land management/cultivation techniques due to poor provision of
       extension services and low level of awareness of both the farmers and local leaders on the
       economic benefits of investments in improved land management
      soil mining - i.e. continued cultivation without replenishing soil fertility with plant nutrients
       through application of organic manure or/and mineral fertilizers.
      intensive concentration of livestock rearing in areas of good pasture and availability of water in
       the south.
      Poorly developed markets for agricultural produce worsened by dysfunctional infrastructure and
       road networks
80. These facts are compounded by poverty, lack of alternative economic activities and high and rapidly
growing populations.

81. The Normative Solution to this set of threats – root-causes would be: “Capacity developed for
sustainable land management in government agencies and land managers; and sustainable land
management principles mainstreamed into national policies, plans and processes”. This will ensure that
Angola‟s agricultural and land management agencies have the capacity and skills to deliver an effective
and acceptable package of land management and bio-energy interventions to land managers; the land
managers see benefit in accepting and implementing these interventions, and, that government agencies
use demonstration pilot interventions that show clear land-use benefits (reduced forest and soil loss and
increased crop-yields) that allow the replication and scaling-up of interventions nation-wide. At national
level, it will also ensure that SLM principles are mainstreamed into development processes, building on
experiences from the project implementation and from similar mainstreaming in other countries in the
region.


82. The Basic Barrier that prevents this solution being implemented is that government and its technical
agencies have inadequate capacity to provide a knowledge based, affordable techniques and incentives for
SLM. Essentially the extension agencies have not delivered an acceptable model for SLM. Secondary
barriers include the lack of skills and awareness amongst land managers of the importance of, and
benefits arising from improved land management practices. This is compounded by the insecure land
tenure system and post war breakdown of supporting infrastructure and markets.


83. The project will demonstrate ways to build capacity for sustainable land management in Angola.
Due to the limited budget, the project cannot cover all Agro-Climatic Zones, nor all Provinces. The GEF
role is to innovate and disseminate best practice. In this case the project will liaise with the emerging
baseline to assist the government to demonstrate best practice in sustainable wood based energy, to
coordinate and monitor SLM activities and to develop Knowledge Management Networks. The project
will in particular harness lessons from technical innovation from trials in neighboring countries and the
region, particularly on effective wood biomass processes (management of forests for charcoal, efficient
wood to charcoal to energy conversion etc.). Best practice will be ensured by bringing in relevant
international technical expertise to work with Angola‟s institutions.


84. The immediate on-ground activities will be implemented in one Province (Huambo) covering about
25% of the country. The charcoal and sustainable energy focus is particularly suited for Huambo province
because a great number of people depend on charcoal production for their daily livelihoods; Huambo is
one of the poorest provinces in Angola and the magnitude of the issues are impacting severely on people
and environment. Deforestation is a major environmental threat; especially densely populated areas
surrounding Huambo city are depleted of biomass; indigenous vegetation is destroyed in most areas close
to the city and under threat elsewhere in the province; Little has been done in terms of improved
production, value addition in terms of pricing, proper market research, sustainable harvesting, replanting,

                                                  21
alternative energies and alternative livelihoods; Overall understanding of SLM is low; there is a need to
train extension services and upcoming professionals in the field; thus focus on developing SLM modules
for University, extension and teachers training levels. Lessons learnt from the project area will be scaled
up to cover the whole country after project completion.


85. The project will contribute towards achievement of the following long-term goal:
86. Project Goal: “Improved capacity in SLM contributes to ecosystem health and functionality while
at the same time enhancing the livelihoods of particularly the rural populations”. Project Objective:
Capacity developed for sustainable land management for key SLM stakeholders and sustainable land
management principles mainstreamed into national policies, plans and processes.


87. Project Outcomes: There are 4 technical Outcomes, and one outcome on project management. The
first outcome provides the capacity for improved SLM for key stakeholders including government
agencies, institutions of higher learning and land managers. The second is linked to mainstreaming SLM
processes within Government by providing longer term oversight of the SLM process. The third and
fourth outcomes are linked to the NAP, MTIP and TerrAfrica processes. Details are as follows:



88. Outcome 1: Individual and institutional capacity for SLM enhanced. Outcome 1 will be implemented
through 4 substantive outputs.
 Output 1.1: An SLM training/awareness raising program for national, district and commune technical
   officers and decision makers designed and training undertaken in Huambo Province.
 Output 1.2: An extension package on SLM best practices developed and pilot tested in Huambo
   district. The extension package will include sections on rangeland management, sustainable forest
   management, improved agricultural practices and sustainable charcoal production and use; and will
   incorporate lessons from the region.
 Output 1.3: Incentives for targeted research in technical and socio economic issues around SLM such
   as effect of tenure on SLM, energy conversion efficiencies etc. improved at national and Huambo
   provincial level (institutions of higher learning) and
 Output 1.4: Sustainable Land Management module available as elective at Huambo campus of
   Agostinho Neto University, at Teachers Training and at Extension Services Training Institutions


89. Outcome 2: Capacity developed is used to mainstream and manage the long-term SLM programme
within the country‟s key sectors to ensure coordination. Angola is currently reviewing many of its laws.
As outlined in the background section, a draft Law on Forests, Wildlife and Protected Areas has recently
been tabled for public consultation. Legislation is emerging on Petroleum Activities, Water Resources,
Environmental Defense Associations, and Land Use Planning. Several Decrees are also under discussion
including on Town Planning and Urbanization, Aquatic Biological Resources, Protection of the
Environment during Petroleum Activities, Importation of Transgenic Genetically Modified Seeds,
Agricultural Development and Environmental Impact Assessment. This is an opportune time to
mainstream SLM. The outcome will be implemented through three Outputs:

 Output 2.1: Platforms for planning coordination and knowledge exchange relating to SLM
  established and functional at provincial and national levels
 Output 2.2: Sustainable Land Management principles developed and guidance for systematic
  integration in relevant national policies, strategies and legal and regulatory framework available
 Output 2.3: Central government, together with donor partners and decentralised government, have
  found means to scale-up and disseminate SLM “best practice” from Huambo Province to the rest of
  the country.




                                                  22
90. Outcome 3: National Action Plan (NAP) completed and used as a coordination mechanism and
policy framework for SLM in Angola. This will be implemented through three outputs:

 Output 3.1: Finalization of NAP supported and used as a framework for SLM in Angola
 Output 3.2: A communication strategy developed and implemented to raise awareness of the NAP and
  built political support for it.
 Output 3.3: NAP implementation monitored and information used for adaptive management of SLM
  programmes


91. Outcome 4: the NAP is supported by a credible MTIP and a broader CSIF process linked to
TerrAfrica. Implemented through three outputs:
 Output 4.1: (And linked to SLM – TerrAfrica Process). The SLM committee of government / partners
   starts the CSIF (Country Strategic Investment Framework) planning process for TerrAfrica/SIP, which
   incorporates the MTIP to start implementation of the UNCCD National Action Plan.
 Output 4.2: Financing for Medium Term Investment Plan ensured
 Output 4.3: MTIP endorsed by Angolan Govt. and a monitoring system developed for its
   implementation
92. Outcome 5: Adaptive management and learning in place: Relevant management structures
operational and project interventions successfully implemented on national and provincial level: this will
be implemented through two outputs:
 Output 5.1: Effective project management in place both at national and provincial level
 Output 5.3: Lessons learned collected and disseminated

3.4    Detailed Project Outcomes, Outputs and Major Activities

93. The detailed project outcomes, outputs, activities and indicators are presented in the Logframe in
Part II. Activities to implement the five outcomes and fourteen outputs are outlined below.
94. Outcome 1: Individual and institutional capacity for SLM enhanced.
95. Output 1.1: An SLM training/awareness raising program for national, district and commune
technical officers and decision makers designed and training undertaken in Huambo Province.


Activity 1.1.1: Undertake a capacity needs assessment and identify training/awareness gasps for technical
officers categorized for sustainable forest management, rangelands and appropriate agriculture.
Activity 1.1.2: Design a training strategy for SLM clearly identifying target groups and information to be
disseminated to each target group
Activity 1.1.3: Implement the training strategy in Huambo province, adjust the training material if
necessary and make tested material available for national implementation (national implementation to be
done by GoA, using co-finance)
Activity 1.1.4: Monitor dissemination and the effect of the training programme on practice in Huambo
Province (the awareness-change in attitude-practice links).
96. Output 1.2: An extension package on SLM best practices developed and pilot tested in Huambo
district, providing lessons for the country. The extension package will include sections on rangeland
management, sustainable forest management, improved agricultural practices and sustainable charcoal
production and use. The package will draw on lessons from countries with similar conditions and will be
pilot tested in Huambo. The finalized package will be made available for national adoption and
implementation. The national government and other key stakeholders will be lobbied (under Outcome 2)
to adopt this package and replicate it in other provinces. The output will be implemented by four
activities.
Activity 1.2.1: Facilitate technical staff trained under output 1, in conjunction with univerities and land
managers to identify best practices on SLM categorized by production system. This will be done through
assessments, study tours and specialized studies. Applied research to support this activity will be

                                                  23
conducted on assessment of forest resources, valuation of forest resources, market analysis relating to
charcoal and other forest products, the current production and value chain, tax options, alternative
livelihood options, resource tenure contexts, etc. Cost effective methods for rehabilitation of degraded
forest areas in selected sites will also be developed and tested.
Activity 1.2.2: Undertake a needs assessment to identify needed input packages for successful extension
process, e.g. cycles, levels, measures, video brochures, fertilizer (e.g. “starter packages”)
Activity 1.2.3: Provide demonstration staff with field materials and maintenance costs to implement the
new extension methodology.
Activity 1.2.4: Monitor and review use of the extension packages and process, use information to refine
the extension and input packages (to farmer and extension agent).
97. Output 1.3. Incentives for targeted research in technical and socio economic issues around SLM
such as effect of tenure on SLM, energy conversion efficiencies etc. improved at national and Huambo
provincial level (institutions of higher learning). While the project is too small to substantially improve
the capacity for research at institutions of higher learning, it will use this output to motivate individual
researchers to engage in applied research that supports the SLM programme. This will motivate them to
initiate bigger research capacity programmes. The project will particularly foster a link with the
NEPAD/TerrAfrica “Centers of Excellence” initiative, which will seek to build capacity of selected
institutes to provide cutting-edge technical back up to national governments on SLM. Researchers will
particularly be encouraged to undertake research on implementation of national policy (e.g. NAP) at local
level, identifying feedback loops and gaps.
Activity 1.3.1: Identify criteria and apply it to select institute of higher learning to be engaged in the
applied research programme;
Activity 1.3.2: Design research questions in a participatory process involving land managers, extension
agents, technical officers and researchers. Sample research questions might include questions such as the
effect of land and resource tenure on SLM, effects of migration on SLM, efficient methods of conversion
of wood to charcoal to energy, identifying market value chains, processing and adding value to natural
products, etc.
Activity 1.3.3: Facilitate research and the use of research findings in the SLM process, especially in the
refinement of training materials and extension packages. The research will help to collate best practices
from different places to enrich the practice in Huambo and Angola, through the literature search
undertaken to enable formal publication of the findings. This is a cost effective way of identifying lessons
from other initiatives.
Activity 1.3.4: Promote indigenous technology - facilitate a process to identify farmer‟s best innovations,
assist documentation and dissemination of the innovations. Many land managers are engaging in very
innovative practices that tend to be overlooked because there is no formal mechanism to discover them,
document or disseminate them. Indigenous technical knowledge is therefore lost. The project will
facilitate the review of methodologies used elsewhere, especially that used by UNDP DDC in Ethiopia,
Uganda and Kenya to identify such technology and offer a channel to formalize it.
98. Output 1.4: Sustainable Land Management module available as elective at Huambo campus of
Agostinho Neto University, at Teachers Training and at Extension Services Training Institutions. The
module will include topics such as training on ecological and economic principles of cost effective
strategies for rehabilitation of deforested areas, research into alternative and more sustainable energies for
broad scale use in Angola, based on Huambo case study etc.
Activity 1.4.1: Develop an SLM curriculum for the institutions of higher learning (ensuring
appropriateness for each level);
Activity 1.4.2: Assess requirements for adoption of the curriculum in each institution and work together
with each institution to ensure that the needs are met to allow adoption of the curriculum
Activity 1.4.3: Facilitate collaboration between the targeted research and teaching of SLM to ensure
cross-fertilization.
99. Outcome 2: Capacity developed is used to mainstream and manage the long-term SLM
programme within the country’s key sectors to ensure coordination. Three Outputs:

                                                   24
100. Output 2.1: Platforms for planning coordination and knowledge exchange relating to SLM
established and functional at provincial and national levels: A national level dialogue on SLM will be
initiated with a national technical steering Committee to co-ordinate key stakeholders and to provide
monitoring and evaluation of SLM interventions. Two activities:
Activity 2.1.1: Facilitate the Government to set up the “Oversight of SLM Committee” with clear TOR
that spell out the responsibility, mandate, representative participation and funding for all parties involved.
Activity 2.1.2: Establish a network of all SLM stakeholders: Facilitate the steering committee formed
under 2.1.1 to identify key SLM stakeholders and to facilitate a national dialogue on the best way for the
country to adopt a programmatic approach to SLM. A full inventory of all actors in the SLM related field
in the country will be established. The network will facilitate collection and sharing of accurate and up-
dated information in different SLM areas among all stakeholders in the country. This activity will link the
project to the TerrAfrica Country Strategic Investment Plan (CSIF).
Activity 2.1.3: Facilitate a national level dialogue on the best approach for Angola to adopt a
programmatic level to SLM
101. Output 2.2: Sustainable Land Management principles developed and guidance for systematic
integration in relevant national policies, strategies and legal and regulatory framework available.
Government at all levels will be facilitated to use the results of the best practice assessment and analysis
on effect of land tenure on SLM as well as economic benefits analyses to mainstream SLM process into
commune, district, province and national Development Plans.
Activity 2.2.1: Develop SLM principles for integration into relevant instruments, e.g. new National
Forestry, Conservation and Protected Areas Policy and Law
Activity 2.2.2: Facilitate review of relevant development plans and instruments and make
recommendations on changes required to mainstream SLM principles
Activity 2.2.3: Promote SLM sensitive Land Use Planning (LUP) and screening of development projects
and investments based on SLM principles


102. Output 2.3: Central government, together with donor partners and decentralized government, have
found means to scale-up and disseminate SLM “best practice” from Huambo Province to the rest of the
country.
Activity 2.3.1: Facilitate the SLM Steering Committee to work with all SLM donors and Civil Society, to
develop coordination mechanisms, and databases of activity.
Activity 2.3.2: Together with government, use demonstration sites in Huambo to advocate for greater
investment from Development Partners
Activity 2.3.3: Integrate advocacy into NAP and TerrAfrica Knowledge systems and so into the Angola
CSIF


103. Outcome 3: National Action Plan (NAP) completed and used as a coordination mechanism and
policy framework for SLM in Angola. Implemented through two outputs:
104. Output 3.1: Finalization of NAP supported and used as a framework for SLM in Angola.
Activity 3.1.1: Advocate for the approval of draft NAP by GOA, and disseminate documentation. A
draft NAP is available but it is not yet approved. The project will advocate its approval and assist with
dissemination of the NAP document, if necessary
Activity 3.1.2: Facilitate the use of the approved NAP as a framework for SLM activity at Provincial and
District levels and mechanism for cross-sectoral coordination. This activity, together with output 2.2 and
2.3 will ensure that the NAP provides a framework for coordination of SLM activity in Angola.
105. Output 3.2: A communication strategy developed and implemented to raise awareness of the NAP
and built political support for it.

                                                   25
Activity 3.2.1: Design a communication strategy and disseminate it to raise awareness on the NAP
Activity 3.2.2: Monitor implementation of the NAP and use information for adaptive management of
SLM programmes – this activity will be implemented by the National level SLM steering committee in
conjunction with output 2.2 and 2.3.
106. Outcome 4: The NAP is supported by a credible MTIP and a broader CSIF process linked to
TerrAfrica. Implemented through 3 outputs:


107. Output 4.1: Medium Term Investment Plan for SLM developed (Linked to SLM – TerrAfrica
Process).
Activity 4.1.1: Set up Medium Term Investment Planning team for different sub-sectors as relevant,
especially coordinating efforts by the NBSAP and CC project units at MINUA, and linked to the
TerrAfrica Country Strategic Investment Framework (CSIF).
Activity 4.1.2: Develop draft MTIP in participatory and integrated and coordinated manner; make
provision for provincial versus national needs and strategies. The document on Medium-Term Investment
Plan and the Country Specific Investment Framework will be elaborated in close collaboration with
relevant Departments and organizations and in accordance with the LDC SIDS and TerrAfrica guidelines.
The MTIP / CSIF will be integrated into the general national development plan, which is prepared under
the overall coordination of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning.


108. Output 4.2: Financing for Medium Term Investment Plan ensured.
Activity 4.2.1: Formulate priority strategic actions and disseminate MTIP to all potential donors /
investors and seek and negotiate pledges from potential investors; “train” negotiators about strategy. A
detailed plan of strategic interventions in the identified priority areas will be formulated, the financing
mechanism elaborated and resource mobilization involving major potential partners and other
stakeholders organized.
Activity 4.2.2: Solicit highest political commitment for MTIP by government and stakeholders; raise
awareness about this country strategy and if needed conduct specific “awareness sessions” with policy
and decision makers; integrated in CAS. This project will collaborate closely with the formulation of the
MTIP/CSIF priorities to ensure that the initiatives started by the project which require continued support
are included in the priorities. In particular; supporting targeted research to support the development of a
model for SLM, identifying and supporting alternative income generating activities to reduce the pressure
on natural resources, climate proofing SLM activities, etc. will be promoted.


109. Output 4.3: MTIP endorsed by Angolan Govt. and a monitoring system developed for its
implementation.
Activity 4.3.1: Devise monitoring set-up for MTIP and conduct yearly performance review measured
against donor commitments and implementation performance


110. Outcome 5. Project managed efficiently and cost-effectively with adaptive M and E systems.
Implemented through two outputs.
111. Output 5.1: Project management unit established.
Activity 5.1.1: Set up office space, recruit staff, mobilize co-finance and buy project equipment.
Activity 5.1.2: Establish Project Steering Committee and facilitate its operations
Activity 5.1.3: Supervise implementation of project activities and report on findings
112. Project management will be based in a small PMU within MINUA offices. A substantive PMU will
be based in Huambo Province.



                                                  26
   113. Output 5.2: Project overall learning system developed and used to support adaptive management.
   Activity 5.2.1: Determine project learning strategy
   Activity 5.2.2: Undertake a gender and socio-economic analysis and use the findings to develop a project
   gender strategy that ensures better targeting of project activities and equitable participation and benefit
   sharing
   Activity 5.2.3: Activity: Establish a project monitoring and evaluation action plan (based on the M&E
   system outlined in the prodoc), collect and use information to adapt management (and project
   implementation. The M&E system will in particular monitor the effectiveness of SLM extension
   packages and approaches and facilitate their use in the project area with participation of decentralized
   field staff. The system will be developed in a participatory manner to involve all major stakeholders,
   including technical staff, researchers, civil society and land managers. Clear performance indicators will
   be developed and guidelines for the application of the M&E system will be prepared. Periodic reviews
   will be held at commune level and one annual review will be held at the national level.


   3.5     Assumptions and Risks

   Key assumptions underpinning the project design include the following:

          Continued Government political commitment for integrating SLM approach into the long-term
           national planning for sustainable development.
          Other Development Partners, NGOs and development/environmental organizations continue their
           support, willingness and commitment to integrate SLM into rural development.
          The various institutions and organisations sustain the current levels of willingness to collaborate
           under MINUA on integrated approaches to sustainable land management and on sharing access to
           land information systems;
          That government can retain technical staff at District and commune levels trained on SLM
           techniques in order to ensure long-term effectiveness of the SLM related capacity building
           measures to be conducted during the project period
          Government and the key institutions involved will commit the resources needed to maintain,
           beyond the life of the project, the SLM monitoring and evaluation system and the adaptive
           management approaches to be developed with the project assistance.

   114. Whilst these assumptions are rather straightforward, there are several risks that could invalidate the
   results of the project, if not carefully handled. Principal amongst them is the risk that insecurity of land
   and resource tenure acts as a negative incentive and discourages land managers from investing in
   improved practices. This would be compounded by the risk that rural economic growth fails to provide
   adequate returns on sustainable land management. If this happens, the population is unlikely to invest
   resources in improved SLM interventions, and indeed may continue to engage in inappropriate practices
   despite the knowledge of their negative effects in the long run. Table 1 lists potential risks to the project.

Table 1: Risk and Mitigation Measures

               Risk description                      Degree           Mitigation / Comment

       1       The existing stable political         Negligible       The level of government / donor
               situation breaks down due to                           investment into SLM suggests this is
               the lack of available                                  negligible
               resources for the local
               population
       2       Present political commitment          Negligible       The President/Cabinet stated that
               to sustainable land                                    overcoming land degradation must
               management in overall                                  be the first priority for all districts.
               national development                                   There is strong political support for
               diminishes                                             the NAP which will provide a

                                                      27
                                                                 coordinating framework for SLM
    4       Sustainable land                    Minimal          Government is increasing leadership
            management partners                                  of donor inputs. Donor themselves
            reluctant to comply by the                           are increasing aid coordination
            requirements of coordinated                          mechanisms. The project itself
            effort to attain meaningful                          invests in a national level SLM
            sharing of good practices                            coordination mechanism and a
                                                                 knowledge sharing mechanism and
                                                                 network.
    5       The local leaders at district       Minimal          The population is very receptive to
            level fail to mobilize and                           their official leaders in Angola
            involve the beneficiaries                            (tradition).
            through participative                                The project itself is investing in local
            methodologies                                        level capacity building which will
                                                                 include cultivating the support of
                                                                 local leaders
    6       That expertise is unable to         Minimal          The project is supporting targeted
            assemble training packages                           applied research to involve
            for SLM extension, that can                          intellectuals in supporting SLM
            be successful in the Angola                          initiative. It is also investing in
            context                                              collation of lessons learnt from other
                                                                 countries.
    7       That government and                 Moderate         This is a major change for extension,
            extension services are unable                        but has proven successful elsewhere.
            to integrate support packages                        Project investing considerable
            into their extension process.                        resources to ensure integration.
    8       That local level economic           Moderate         Angola is going through an
            growth fails to provide                              economic boom largely based on oil
            adequate return on                                   and minerals. The government is
            investment in improved                               highly aware of the inequities in the
            practices; thus land managers                        country and is committed to
            refuse to invest in improved                         addressing it by investing proceeds
            practices despite the training                       from oil into rural development. The
            and the extension package                            NAP and its action plane will
                                                                 provide a strong framework to
                                                                 ensure this happens. Involvement of
                                                                 targeted applied research and lessons
                                                                 from other countries will ensure
                                                                 selection of techniques that can be
                                                                 supported by returns from local
                                                                 economies, as far as possible.
    9       Insecurity of land and              Moderate         The government has formulated a
            resource tenure acts as a                            new land policy and is mobilizing
            negative incentive and                               huge resources to implement it.
            discourages land managers                            Involving targeted applied research
            from investing in improved                           on the issue as well as incorporating
            practices despite the training                       lessons from other countries will also
            and extension package                                help mitigate.


3.6     Global and local benefits

115. The capacities for SLM, policies and knowledge developed by the project will reduce the severity
and extent of land degradation in Angola; reduce soil erosion, increase soil fertility and increase
productivity of the land, supporting the livelihoods and the economy at higher yet more sustainable levels.
Mainstreaming SLM practices in national development will result in more sustainable development

                                                  28
programmes, eventually leading to healthier ecosystems that will supply ecosystem services and global
environmental benefits such as maintenance of biodiversity, mitigation of climate change and protection
of international waters.


116. The overall direct global benefit is the enhanced capacity for ecologically sustainable land
management in Angola. Indirect global benefits include:
    Maintenance of the structure and functions of ecological systems; and
    Enhanced environmental protection of international waters due to reduced soil erosion in the
       River Zambezi and River Congo basins and reduction of direct sedimentation in the Atlantic
       ocean;
    Improved Land use Management and resulting improved production of organic matter will largely
       contribute to the combat against desertification, climate change and significantly enhance bio-
       diversity.

117. The principal national benefits are enhanced capacities in the fields of planning; implementation; as
well as Monitoring and Evaluation to achieve economic and financial sustainability of the agricultural,
and other terrestrial use systems of the country‟s land resources.


118. Improved capacities will also lead to improved quality of different SLM related project proposals
and will enhance the participatory governance of the national natural resources in general. Indirect
national benefits include:
    Enhanced land productivity through improved practices leading to enhanced productivity (crop
        yields, livestock, energy);
    Improved national and regional cooperation in Research and Development in the SLM area;
    SLM contributes to the health of the country‟s forests, lakes and rivers that in turn will contribute
        to boosting the tourism industry;
    Greater empowerment of users and stakeholders in the use of land resources, to participate
        directly in the conception, M&E and adaptive management of lands and related resources;
    Reduced risks of natural disasters;
    Increased national economic growth and poverty reduction level.

3.7    Linkages to IA activities and programs
119. The previous Country Cooperation Framework (CCF) with UNDP was formulated in wartime, with
all the associated uncertainties. It therefore focused essentially on emergency and humanitarian
assistance. Following the signature of the peace agreement in April 2002, the main concern was to foster
the peace and reconciliation process to set the country on the path towards transition to medium and long-
term sustainable human development and achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
120. The Country Programme Document is formulated on the basis of the Government‟s post-conflict
rehabilitation and reconstruction programme, its baseline MDG/NEPAD Report 2003, and its 2004 to
2007 Estratégia de Combate à Pobreza/Proverty Reduction Strategy (ECP/PRS).


121. This proposed project is in line with the major development challenges identified in the developing
UNDP Common Country Assessment (CCA), which is being revised to fit with the new challenges as
described in the above paragraph. The CCA identifies sound environmental management as one of several
key development challenges to be confronted in spearheading sustainable development. The SLM Project
complements the main components of the past UNDAF (United Nations Development Framework),
within the environment – food security sections.


122. The project is also in line with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to which Angola has
indicated strong agreement. MDG-7 on “Environmental Sustainability” is of especial relevance. Goals on
reducing poverty through improved agricultural production are of great relevance too and are supported
by this project.

                                                  29
   123. The project will complement and build synergies with other on-going initiatives carried out by the
   UNDP Angola Country office in collaboration with the GOA, to implement the Government‟s strategies
   for poverty reduction in the sustainable livelihood area, and particularly in the sustainable natural
   resource and environmental management sector. The project will build synergies with other projects and
   programmes, particularly with different GEF funded initiatives that cross-cut with land degradation
   issues. It will in particular collaborate with the NEPAD CAADP programme, itself currently
   collaborating with TerrAfrica to ensure that SLM is mainstreamed in agricultural systems.


   124. The Poverty Environment Initiative – Phase I, aims at mainstreaming environmental issues into the
   country‟s next Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, in order to enable policy makers and the government to
   address issues of poverty by improving environmental management. In addition, it includes promotion of
   alternative energy sources to replace the use of biomass energy, protection of the remaining natural
   forests as well as institutional capacity building for sustainable management of environmental resources.


   125. The Capacity Building for Environmental Planning and Biodiversity Conservation in Angola: Final
   Evaluation aims at building capacity for sustainable management of environmental and natural resources,
   taking climate change into consideration. The programmatic thrusts include supporting capacity
   development at the ministries responsible for natural resources to implement environmental policies and
   enable it to support decision-making and planning for environmental management at all levels. It will also
   support mainstreaming of environment and natural resources issues into district development planning
   and budgeting.
   126. The proposal is supportive of the draft proposal for conducting the Angola National Capacity Self
   Assessment (NCSA) for Global Environmental Management, which is now complete and awaiting
   approval. It is also is also in line with a new UN joint programme on Environment and Climate Change,
   currently being prepared under the MDG Fund initiative.

Table 2: On-going/ Planned GEF projects with relevance to Angola SLM

     Project      FA     IA National                           Description and Linkages
      Name                 EA/Region
                               al
   The            IW   UND  UNOPs          The Objective of the next phase of the BCLME Programme will
   Benguela             P                  be to strengthen the institutional capacity and effectiveness of the
   Current                                 regional Benguela Current Commission and to negotiate and
   Large                                   secure an agreed and appropriate BCLME Treaty to support the
   Marine                                  Commission. It will also support national level implementation of
   Ecosystem                               the BCLME SAP (through appropriate Policy, Legislative and
   (BCLME)                                 Management Reforms) which is extended to the community level
   project II                              through the support of partners such as D-LIST. In this respect, it
                                           will secure sustainable capacity for long-term natural resources
                                           management for the maintenance of the LME Management
                                           Components. In addition, it will oversee the overall capture and
                                           transfer of knowledge products and best practices, and information
                                           networking through cooperation and coordination with GEF/IW:
                                           LEARN.

                                           UNDP is the IA for both projects and will ensure that synergies
                                           are identified and utilized in regard to institutional capacity
                                           building and knowledge management.
   Southern       BD   UNE                 The overall goal of the SABSP is to improve co-operation and to
   Africa              P/FA                build capacity both within and between participating nations and
   Biodiversity         O                  to integrate sustainable use into biodiversity conservation and
   Support                                 other sectoral programmes and has the following immediate
   Programme                               objectives. It will improve the availability and accessibility of
                                           biodiversity information and its application in conservation,

                                                     30
  Project     FA    IA      National                       Description and Linkages
   Name                    EA/Region
                               al
                                       planning and management; promote cross-sectoral national and
                                       regional co-operation in biodiversity conservation and sustainable
                                       use activities; develop national and regional institutional capacity
                                       for co-ordination and implementation of biodiversity conservation
                                       and sustainable use activities; integrate effective practices of
                                       sustainable natural resource use into national and regional
                                       conservation and other sectoral planning and programmes; and
                                       develop financing mechanisms to ensure the sustainability of the
                                       regional support framework. Both the Ministry of Agriculture and
                                       Rural Development (MINADAR) and the Ministry of Urban
                                       Affairs and Environment ministries of agriculture (MINUA) will
                                       be involved at the national level. The project steering committee
                                       will ensure that synergies in capacity building, policy processes
                                       and knowledge management are identified and utilized for the
                                       benefit of both projects and the country‟s environment.

Environmen    IW   UND                 The project objective is to alleviate imminent and long-term
tal                 P                  threats to the linked land and water systems of the Okavango
Protection                             River through the joint management of the ORB water resources
and                                    and the protection of the aquatic ecosystems, comprising all
Sustainable                            wetlands, fluvial and lacustrine systems, and their biological
Managemen                              diversity. The project will create an enabling environment by
t of the                               improving policy, institutional and human resource capacity and
Okavango                               information management systems to support co-ordination and
River Basin                            joint management of the basin. It will also undertake a
                                       transboundary analysis to underpin a programme of joint
                                       management. Finally it will facilitate the formulation of an
                                       implementable programme of joint management to address threats
                                       to the basin‟s linked land and water systems.

                                       This initiative will be driven by OKACOM in which the countries
                                       transboundary technical and policy analysis functions are invested
                                       and who will be responsible for co-coordinating formulation of a
                                       SAP (Strategic Action Plan) and its subsequent implementation.
                                       Both MINADAR and MINUA are represented in the national level
                                       OKACOM steering committee. As inappropriate land
                                       management is a great threat to the Okavango, the project will
                                       collaborate in the formulation of the SAP ensuring that synergies
                                       in capacity building, policy processes and knowledge sharing are
                                       identified and utilized.


Strategic     SL   Multi    Regional   SIP is designed to provide an operational framework for partners
Investment    M      -                 to collectively deliver on the objectives of the GEF-4 Land
Program            agenc               Degradation Focal Area Strategy.
(SIP)                y
                                       The project aims to prevent and reduce the impact of land
                                       degradation on ecosystem services in country-defined priority SSA
                                       ecosystems. The program will support sub-Saharan countries to
                                       design and manage programs of activities that advance SLM
                                       mainstreaming, improve governance for SLM, and strengthen
                                       coalition development. Specifically, it will address weaknesses in
                                       the enabling environment that are key for SLM (such as land
                                       tenure, multisector coordination and planning at all levels,
                                       decentralized decision-making, and public expenditure
                                       management); upscale best-bet SLM practices on the ground,
                                       building on successes, common diagnostics, and clear country
                                       priorities; and, address target key knowledge and capacity gaps.
                                       SIP is part of TerrAfrica, the Sub-Sahara level program that aims

                                                 31
  Project      FA    IA     National                        Description and Linkages
   Name                    EA/Region
                               al
                                        to promote investment, build partnerships and coalitions and
                                        facilitate SLM knowledge management on SLM in the region.

                                        Although Angola is not on SIP work programme for GEF 4, this
                                        project will collaborate closely with other SIP projects and
                                        TerrAfrica processes especially by aligning the Medium term
                                        Investment Plan to the TerrAfrica Country Strategic Investment
                                        Framework and to the NEPAD/TerrAfrica Centers of Excellence
                                        on SLM proposal. It will utilize the TerrAfrica/SIP knowledge
                                        management systems to promote upscaling of methods piloted and
                                        refined on project sites as well as to inform its methods from
                                        lessons collated through the system.
Inventory,     BD                        The objective of this program is to enhance capacity of southern
Evaluation                               Africa‟s government institutions and NGOs to address
and                                      environmental policy and management issues relevant to
Monitoring                               increasing natural resource productivity through coordinated
of Botanical                             regional initiatives and networks.
Diversity in
Southern                                It will therefore build institutional capacity for management,
Africa: A                               technical and networking in specific fields, including community
Regional                                based natural resource management; strengthen national and
Capacity                                regional capacity for environment policy and strategy development
and                                      and implementation; increase dialogue, linkages and collaboration
Institution                             between stakeholder groups within countries and throughout the
Building                                region; and, improve environmental information, communication
Network                                 and education products and processes which enhance the outreach
                                        of a broad range of target groups and raise public awareness.

                                        Both MINADAR and MINUA will be involved at the national
                                        level. The project steering committee will ensure that synergies in
                                        capacity building, policy processes and knowledge management
                                        are identified and utilized for the benefit of both projects and the
                                        country‟s environment.

3.8    Stakeholder Involvement Plan
127. The project implementation will involve different stakeholders, including Government institutions,
Development Partners, Academic Institutions, NGOs, the Private Sector, Civil Society and the Local
Communities. It will be implemented as a National Execution (NEX) project under MINUA and UNDP
will be the Implementing Agency. The Huambo Provincial office of MINUA will be the Institution
charged with direct oversight of the project implementation.


128. The ultimate stakeholder beneficiaries are the rural land managers and households, struggling to
make a living on degraded and unproductive land. This project seeks to change past traditions of land
management by introducing knowledge based participatory extension packages, with improved practices
demonstrated at local level generating lessons to inform a national level package of extension and
influencing policies. Project success will be assessed by the level of stakeholder adoption of best
practices and the extent to which that reduces land degradation and increases productivity of land.


129. At national level, the principle beneficiaries are the people of Angola who will benefit from a more
sustainable land management system resulting from mainstreaming SLM principles into national
development programmes and processes and services from national institutions with greater knowledge of
and capacity for SLM. A detailed stakeholder participation strategy is presented in table 3.



                                                  32
  130. The list of stakeholders is “open ended” and interested organizations and individuals are encouraged
  to indicate their interest to become involved in related activities. Membership of technical committees and
  associated projects are flexible. It is envisaged that throughout the implementation phase more partners
  and stakeholders including in other Provinces will associate with Sustainable Land Management (SLM)
  activities and the NAP implementation. Envisaged involvement is current foreseen at the national level
  through the National NAP Coordination Committee and at the provincial level through pilot activities, the
  Technical Committee (TC) and the Steering Committee (SC) (see PART III for design and institutional
  arrangements).

3.9     Sustainability (including financial sustainability)

  131. Sustainability has been a major consideration throughout the development of this project. The design
  of the project centers on “capacity building” and “mainstreaming”, hence institutionalizing sustainability.
  The project builds on the already existing “baseline”, and will not introduce new organizations, systems
  or programmes. By strengthening the extension services and capacity for applied research the project is
  building capacity at the local level ensuring that SLM is embedded at local level where land managers
  benefit from the project initiatives and therefore sustain them.

  132. The project will assist in developing a Medium Term Investment Plan (MTIP), based on the National
  Action Plan (NAP) and further priorities identified. The MTIP will leverage funds and will therefore
  ensure financial sustainability of SLM activities for the medium term.

  133. Linkages with other projects activities are also created to ensure further sustainability of project
  activities and to ensure synergies in sustainability e.g. with the TerrAfrica/SIP centers of excellence.
  MINUA and other local partners will ensure integration of long term sustainability aspects in all projects.

3.10 Replicability
  134. The project will pilot extension systems in one province with strong linkages to national level
  processes (NAP and MTIP). It will actively incorporate lessons on SLM from the country and from the
  region. The knowledge management outcome will collate lessons from this project and share them
  widely, in a bid to promote replication of the initiatives in other areas; nationally and in the region.
  Sustainable Land Management best practices in Huambo will provide substantial lessons for the region or
  in other areas facing similar challenges. Experience has shown that adoption of SLM in a post war
  country best with infrastructure and tenure problems is a challenge. The project will seek to learn specific
  lessons on how to overcome this widespread difficulty and share them widely.

      Table 3: Stakeholder Participation Plan – National level
       Name of             Profile                       Project involvement
       Institution
                                       GOVERNMENT/PUBLIC SECTOR
       Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
       Forest Development Implementation of the              National NAP CC member
       Institute            programmes relating to the       Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                            forests and wildlife             Key partner at pilot level in Huambo
                                                             Research and technical support and interaction
                                                              with project
       National Directorate Deals with forests               National NAP CC member
       of Forestry          management in entire             Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                            country                          Key partner at pilot level in Huambo
                                                             Research and technical support and interaction
                                                              with project
       Food Security       Assistance to local               National NAP CC member
       Office              communities on concrete           Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                           programmes on food security       Technical and knowledge support to pilot
                           Emergency planning e.g. in         projects

                                                         33
                     periods of drought
Planning and         Deals with all planning in         National NAP CC member
Research Office      terms of agriculture and rural     Integrated planning, budgeting
                     development                        MTIP
                                                        Technical and research coordination
Agrarian             Implementation of the rural        National NAP CC member
Development          development programmes             Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
Institute (IDA)                                         Technical and knowledge support to pilot
                                                         projects
National Directorate Planning and implementation        National NAP CC member
of Rural             of rural development               Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
Development          programmes                         Technical and knowledge support to pilot
                                                         projects
National Directorate Rural agriculture irrigation       National NAP CC member
of Hydraulic and     programmes                         Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
Rural Engineering    Water provision and                Technical and knowledge support to pilot
                     management                          projects
National Directorate Polices development and            National NAP CC member
of Agriculture,      planning with relation to          Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
Forests and          agriculture, forests and           Technical and knowledge support to pilot
Livestock            livestock                           projects
Ministry of Urban Affairs and Environment
National Directorate Environmental policy, EIAs         UNCCD Focal Point
of Environment                                          EA (MINUA)
                                                        National SC member
                                                        NAP CU; to host National Officer (with
                                                         Directorate of Natural Resources; NBSAP Unit)
                                                        Technical support from project
                                                        Co-financing
National Directorate Natural resources planning         NBSAP Unit: to host National Officer (with
of Natural           and management                      Directorate of Environment)
Resources                                               CBD and UNFCCC FP
                                                        Technical support from project
                                                        MTIP
                                                        National NAP CC member
National Directorate Land use planning/physical         National NAP CC member
on Territory         planning; urban planning           Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
Management and                                          Technical and knowledge support
Urban Affairs

Institute for        Mapping and cartography       National NAP CC member
Surveying and                                      Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
Cartography                                        Technical and knowledge support
Ministry of Social Reintegration
National Directorate Resettlement programmes       National NAP CC member
of Assistance and                                  Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
Social Resettlement                                Technical and knowledge support
Ministry of Local Government and Territory Administration
National Directorate Local administration of land  National NAP CC member
of Local                                           Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
Administration                                     Technical and knowledge support
National Directorate Autarque administration       National NAP CC member
of Autartique                                      Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
Administration                                     Technical and knowledge support
Ministry of Water and Energy
National Directorate Planning and implementation  GEF FP
of Water Affairs     of water related programmes  National NAP CC member
                     Policy setting                Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                     Water basin administration    Technical and knowledge support
                     and transboundary             MTIP
                     management
National Directorate Planning and implementation  National NAP CC member

                                                    34
of Energy            of energy programmes               Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                     including biomass-based            Technical and knowledge support
                     energies
Ministry of Public Works
National Directorate Responsible for                    National NAP CC member
of Public Infra-     infrastructure development         Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
structure            and maintenance                    Technical and knowledge support
Ministry on Planning
National Directorate National development               National NAP CC member
of Studies and       planning                           Integrated planning, budgeting
Projects             Development of national            Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                     budgets                            MTIP
                                                        Technical and research coordination
National Directorate Development of national            National NAP CC member
of Investments       budgets                            Integrated planning, budgeting
                     Invest planning                    Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                                                        MTIP
National Directorate Planning and administration        National NAP CC member
of Regional          of regional development            Integrated planning, budgeting
Development                                             Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                                                        MTIP
                                                        Technical and knowledge support
Ministry of Information and Social Communication
Directorate of       Community outreach and             National NAP CC member
Social               radio                              Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
Communication                                           Awareness outreach & up-scaling
                                                  NGOs
Ecological Youth of Education and research              National NAP CC member
Angola (JEA)        programs                            Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                    Environmental consulting            Technical and knowledge support
                    capacity                            Link to civil society constituency
Angolan National    Improving the capacity of           National NAP CC member
Farmers Union       local farmers                       Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
(UNACA)                                                 Technical and knowledge support
                                                        Link to civil society constituency
Angolan Action on    Capacity development of            National NAP CC member
Rural Development    communities; training in           Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
(ADRA)               rural areas                        Technical and knowledge support
                                                        Link to civil society constituency
AFRICARE             Agriculture and rural              National NAP CC member
                     development programmes             Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                                                        Technical and knowledge support
                                                        Link to civil society constituency
WORLD VISION         Agriculture and rural              National NAP CC member
                     development programmes             Huambo provincial level pilot implementation
                                                         partner
                                                        Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                                                        Technical and knowledge support
                                                        Link to civil society constituency
Development          Agriculture and rural              National NAP CC member
Workshop             development programmes;            Huambo provincial level pilot implementation
                     active in most provinces            partner
                                                        Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                                                        Technical and knowledge support
                                                        Link to civil society constituency
                  ACADEMIA/RESEARCH/INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
Agostinho Neto University
Faculty of Law     Tertiary training and research       National NAP CC member
                                                        Training and capacity building
                                                        Policy and law e.g. relating to land tenure

                                                   35
                                                         Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                                                         Technical and knowledge support
Faculty of           Tertiary training and research      National NAP CC member
Agronomy                                                 Training and capacity building
(Huambo)                                                 Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                                                         Technical and knowledge support
Faculty of Public    Tertiary training and research      National NAP CC member
Management                                               Training and capacity building
                                                         Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                                                         Technical and knowledge support
Faculty of Science   Tertiary training and research      National NAP CC member
                                                         Training and capacity building
                                                         Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                                                         Technical and knowledge support
Other
FAO                  Assisting on development of     National NAP CC member
                     the policies strategies and     Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                     mobilizing resources for        Technical and knowledge support
                     agriculture and forest         Link to civil society constituency
                     development
                                         PRIVATE SECTOR
Association of       Organizing timber               National NAP CC member
Timber               exploration Dealing with        Intersectoral integration and mainstreaming
                     wood projects                   Technical and knowledge support
                                                     Private sector representative
To be further expanded and confirmed during inception phase of project



Huambo Province
Name of              Profile                                Project involvement
Institution
                                 GOVERNMENT/PUBLIC SECTOR
Huambo Provincial Government
Provincial           Vision and Direction of                    Create an enabling environment for the
Government,          Development in Huambo                       project implementation
particularly the     Facilitation of implementation of          Provide the necessary political support
Provincial           sectoral and central government             and backup
Directors of         policies                                   Members of the project steering
Energy and Water,                                                committee
Agriculture,
Urbanization and
Environment and
other relevant
Provincial           Water supply and sanitation                Environmental Awareness
Directorates of      Energy supply                              Alternative sources of energy
Huambo – Health      Environmental Awareness
(sanitation),
Energy and Water,
Environmental
Advocacy groups
Ministry of Agriculture
Provincial           Forest Management, licensing of            Sensitization of communities on
Directorate of       harvesting activities                       sustainable practices of resources use and
Agriculture - DPA    Forest Plantations                          land management
(IDF, IDA, IIA)      Extension services                         Reforestation projects
                     Research on Agricultural and               Research
                     Natural Resources
Agriculture          Training on Agriculture, livestock         Provide technical support on field
Institute (IMA)      and forests at Diploma level                activities


                                                   36
Ministry of Urbanization and Environment
Provincial          Preparation of relevant                  Facilitation of environmental awareness
Directorate of      documentation for environmental           activities particularly through the
Urbanization and    licensing                                 Ecological House
Environment         Environmental Education                  Production of environmental education
(DPUA)              Environmental Awareness                   material
Departments of      Community Mobilization
Environmental       Identification of relevant partners
Education and       to support Environmental
Environmental       Awareness, particularly in
licensing           producing the content and
                    delivering training
Ministry of Education
Institute of Higher Teachers Training for University         Contribute to the production of Content
Education Sciences level                                      for environmental education
(ISCED)                                                      Organization of seminars, symposia for
                                                              introducing SLM issues into the teachers
                                                              training programme
                                                             Facilitate and supervise research by
                                                              students on subjects relevant to SLM
Institute of        Teachers Training for education at       Support environmental awareness
Education           primary and secondary school              activities
(Diploma) - IMNE    levels
                    Student Environmental
                    Association – environmental
                    awareness among students
Ministry of Information and Social Communication
Social              Radio and TV programme – 30              Environmental Education and Awareness
communication       minutes allocated and not fully           using local language
                    utilized as yet due to lack of
                    funding
                               PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INITIATIVES
Religious             Environmental Awareness                Environmental awareness
Institutions          Training of Orphans                    Replication of waste recycling initiative
                      Waste recycling (art work)              in the project areas if relevant
Catholic Institute    Teachers Training for primary and      Environmental Awareness
(ICRA)                secondary education
                      Awareness raising on impacts of
                      deforestation
                      Environmental Awareness
                             ACADEMIA/RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS
Faculty of            Training in Agriculture and            Short courses
Agriculture           Veterinary Medicine                    Possible integration of SLM through
Sciences (FCA)         Soon to introduce Forestry             seminars and final year research work
                      BSC (Honours)                          Research, Training and Environmental
                      Master on Environmental Related         Awareness
                      subjects
University Centre     Environmental Sensitization            Possible partners for the Steering
(PUNIV)               particularly in specific                Committee
                      commemorative dates
                      Supervision of all high level
                      education institutions in Huambo
                                                 NGOs
Women‟s               Gender issues                          Environmental and gender sensitization
Promotion                                                    Gender equity in access to resources and
                                                              enterprise development
SNV- Dutch            Consultancy services on                Service provider
                      environmental issues
ADRA                  Environmental awareness                Intervention in practical interventions

                                                   37
                      Rural Development                         related to enterprise development
  DW                  Water supply in rural areas              Community capacity building in
                      (boreholes)                               management of micro credit for
                      Environmental management                  development of enterprises
                      Facilitation of land allocation for
                      housing (survey of unoccupied
                      land)
                      Micro credit
  ADPP                Teachers Training for primary            Training teacher on relevant issues of
                      education                                 SLM
                      Orphanage                                Teachers can undertake extension work
                      Reforestation                             during their 11 month placement in the
                      Environmental Awareness                   rural areas
  Artists             Crafts                                   Environmental awareness
                      Paintings
                      Theatre
                      Music
                                           PRIVATE SECTOR
  Banks: BIC, Banco Credit                              Micro credit
  de Fomento
  Angolano (BFA)
  Banco de Poupanca
  e Credito (BPC)
  Shops and others    Paper bag recycling
  Forest harvesting   Harvesting and commercialization  Partnerships with communities in
  and processing      of timber products and charcoal    enterprise development and link to the
  (poles, sawmills,                                      markets
  transporters of
  charcoal, etc.)
                    TRADITIONAL AUTHORITIES AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES
  Sobas and other     Leadership                        Community mobilization for sustainable
  local leaders       Resources allocation               land management and local development
                      Depository and enforcers of       Actors in ensuring security of resources
                      traditional norms and practices    rights
  Chipita area        Strongly involved in charcoal     Pilot communities
  communities         production and trade




4     FINANCIAL PLAN

4.1     Streamlined Incremental Costs Assessment

135. The project will complement other on-going projects and programmes and seeks to close some of the
existing gaps in the SLM area. After the end of the project, it is expected that the increased knowledge
generation and dissemination, the capacity building, particularly at the decentralized levels as well as an
effective M&E and adaptive management system will ensure effectiveness and sustainability of all SLM
activities in the project area, and subsequently throughout the country.


136. Global Environmental Objectives: The Global Environmental Objectives of the project are to
strengthen the capacity for sustainable use of the country‟s land and resources. The project will secure
GEF incremental funding to complement other financial sources from the GOA, UNDP, UNEP, FAO, EU
and other Development Partners to undertake a program for building institutional and individual
capacities for SLM, mainstreaming SLM into national plans and strategies and for developing knowledge
management capacities for integrated SLM.



                                                      38
    137. Systems Boundary: The project will develop a comprehensive range of interventions designed to
    remove barriers to SLM; it will therefore build capacity for developing sustainable land management
    systems that address the root causes of land degradation and that overcome the threats to global
    environmental benefits. The project will mainly address identified problems of unsustainable harvesting
    of forests and inappropriate agriculture and to mitigate land degradation caused by soil erosion and loss of
    soil fertility. It will not deal with land degradation associated with urban developments. The project
    focuses in one pilot province but contains funding to synergise replication and scale-up.


    138. The presented baseline takes into consideration projects and programmes that are currently on-going
    and those planned to start in 2007 and 2008. They include those having project components with SLM
    related activities in the areas of Capacity Building, Mainstreaming and Knowledge Management as well
    as field based activities.
    139. The through this project provided financing will serve incremental investments both from GEF and
    additional sources of funding. They are primarily aimed at capacity support and improvements. The
    global environmental objectives of the project are to develop capacity for sustainable use of the country‟s
    land resources. The project will secure GEF incremental funding to complement other financing sources
    from the Government of Angola (GoA) and the UNDP country office committed to the implementation of
    the proposed project. It is noted that the project is designed to address a broader scope of SLM support
    activities and additional funding is currently being sought for by the Angolan Government.
    140. The costing for the baseline as it would be carried out during the period 2007 – 2010 has been
    estimated below2, which all directly relate to the Outcomes and Objective of the Project and may
    therefore count as co-financing. It ought to be noted that a significant amount of cash co-financing has
    been committed to this project. Related in kind or baseline funding is not fully reflected in the budget as
    reliable figures were not available. Incremental GEF funding will focus on selected capacity
    development and mainstreaming elements that ensure the off-setting of global environmental benefits.
    141. In the area of Capacity building, the Government will, in collaboration with various Development
    Partners, invest in different projects. MINUA plans to utilize a total of about 1 Million USD for the soil
    conservation programme in its Annual Plan of Action for 2007, from which 0.25 Million will be spent on
    awareness creation on SLM techniques. In its three year investment plan for 2006 – 2008, MINADAR
    has earmarked a total of around 0.5 million USD for the natural resources protection and water and soil
    conservation programme. For the year 2007, the Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and the
    Departments of Environmental Education and Environmental licensing of the Provincial Directorate of
    Urbanization and Environment (DPUA) budgeted a total of 2.2 and 1.5 Million USD respectively for
    capacity building and training in SLM related areas. The government of Angola has dedicated significant
    investments (approximately USD 2 million) for further development of infrastructure at both the Huambo
    University campus and the Agriculture institute in Huambo. Part of this development will be financed by
    a loan from Spain. The Agriculture faculty invests about USD 1 million each year on core curriculum
    teaching, research and administrative costs.
    142. Other Government projects with SLM capacity building components include: The Ecohouse in
    Huambo, the 3 year USD 143,660 project is jointly funded by GoA and a loan from the Spanish
    Government.


    143. On mainstreaming SLM into economic and sectoral development (including NAP and MTIP/CSIF):
    MINUA operates on an annual budget of 10 Mio US$ to the environment sector (estimate based on 2007
    budget allocation), of approximately U$ 650,000 are allocated to activities on combating desertification.
    At least U$ 21,120 is allocated as cash-co-financing by GoA to this outcome. A number of other
    relevant activities e.g. ongoing work of MINADER, the development of the Forests, Wildlife and
    Protected Areas Law supported by the Government of the Netherlands and FAO, and the implementation
    phase of the NBSAP project collectively spend approximately USD 2 million per year.



2
 The estimates are very rough and based on personal consultations with relevant Government and other stakeholders.
Budget documents and information are not easily accessible in Angola at this time.

                                                        39
   144. Environmental NGOs are allocated an approximate amount of U$ 500,000 p.a. (based on 2007
   allocation) for implementation of activities contributing to combating desertification and NAP
   implementation. Activities include the development of awareness materials, workshops and outreach
   activities at a NGO and community level. The NBSAP UNIT allocates approximately USD .2million on
   SLM related mainstreaming work.


   145. Additional co-financing for this component is currently under negotiation with the Global
   Mechanism of the UNCCD, which has promised to support the NAP. In addition to the outcome specific
   baseline activities and costs, MINUA has dedicated funding to the Project Management Unit including
   approximately U$ 61,344 over the proposed three year project implementation period, which will
   partially be invested even if in the absence of this specific project intervention.


    4.2    Project Budget
   146. The total project cost is 1,875,000 USD (excluding the 25,000 PDF A). The amount requested from
   GEF is 750,000 USD, including USD 25,000 already provided by the GEF for PDF-A implementation.
   Co-financing will be provided by the Government of Angola with 750,000 USD (350,000 in cash;
   400,000 in kind) and 400,000 from the UNDP-CO TRAC funds. Total cash co-finance is US$ 750,000
   while total co-finance is 1,150,000 USD, making a ratio to GEF funding of 1:1 and 1:1.53 respectively.
   147. GOA‟s in kind contribution will mainly cover the cost of staff participating in the project, cost of
   renting and maintenance of the project‟s facilities in the pilot province and at national level; cost of
   logistics for conducting several different workshops and training sessions as well as review meetings. The
   detailed co-financing is presented in Table 4 and 5 (cost by outcomes and outputs and co-finance by
   source respectively).

Table 4: Financing plan as per outcome (see Section II Strategic Results Framework, for detailed budget break
down)
 Outcome/output                                             GEF              Co-Finance            Total
                                                                          UNDP      GoA       GoA in
                                                                                    cash      kind

 1: Capacity Development for SLM                                512,500   255,000   200,000   180,000   1,147,500
 1.1: An SLM training/awareness raising program for             120,000   85,000    75,000    70,000    350,000
 national, district and commune technical officers and
 decision makers designed and training undertaken in
 Huambo Province.
 1.2: An extension package on SLM best practices                280,000   100,000   125,000   80,000    585,000
 developed and pilot tested in Huambo district (including
 sections on rangeland management, sustainable forest
 management, improved agricultural practices and
 sustainable charcoal production and use)
 1.3. Incentives for targeted research in technical and socio   80,000    40,000              20,000    140,000
 economic issues around SLM such as effect of tenure on
 SLM, energy conversion efficiencies etc. improved at
 national and Huambo provincial level (institutions of
 higher learning)
 1.4: Sustainable Land Management module available as           32,500    30,000              10,000    72,500
 elective at Huambo campus of Agostinho Neto University,
 at Teachers Training and at Extension Services Training
 Institutions
 2: Mainstreaming                                               90,000    50,000    65,000    45,000    250,000




                                                           40
 Outcome/output                                                GEF                   Co-Finance               Total
                                                                           UNDP       GoA         GoA in
                                                                                      cash        kind

 Output 2.1: Platforms for planning coordination and           25,000      15,000     15,000      10,000      65,000
 knowledge exchange relating to SLM established and
 functional at provincial and national levels

 Output 2.2: Sustainable Land Management principles            50,000      20,000     10,000      10,000      90,000
 developed and guidance for systematic integration in
 relevant national policies, strategies and legal and
 regulatory framework available
 Output 2.3: Central government, together with donor           15,000      15,000     40,000      25,000      95,000
 partners and decentralised government, have found means
 to scale-up and disseminate SLM “best practice” from
 Huambo Province to the rest of the country.
 3: Completion of NAP                                          0           45,000     30,000      55,000      130,000

 3.1. Finalization of NAP supported and used as a              0           5,000      10,000      20,000      35,000
 framework for SLM in Angola
 3.2: A communication strategy developed and                   0           30,000     10,000      10,000      50,000
 implemented to raise awareness of the NAP and built
 political support for it.

 3.3. NAP implementation monitored and information used        0           10,000     10,000      25,000      45,000
 for adaptive management of SLM programmes
 4: Medium Term Investment Plan and its Resource               47,500      10,000     20,000      40,000      117,500
 Mobilization

 Output 4.1: The SLM committee starts the CSIF planning        30,000      10,000                 10,000      50,000
 process for TerrAfrica/SIP, which incorporates the MTIP
 to start implementation of the UNCCD National Action
 Plan.
 Output 4.2: Financing for Medium Term Investment Plan         7,500                  10,000      10,000      27,500
 ensured
 Output 4.3: MTIP endorsed by Angolan Govt. and a              10,000                 10,000      20,000      40,000
 monitoring system developed for its implementation
 5: Adaptive management and learning                           75,000      40,000     35,000      80,000      230,000
 5.1. Effective project management in place both at national   15,000      10,000     15,000      10,000      50,000
 and provincial level
 5.3. Lessons learned collected and disseminated               15,000      10,000     20,000      20,000      65,000
 Project Management Unit                                       45,000      20,000                 50,000      115,000
 TOTAL MSP                                                     725,000     400,000    350,000     400,000     1,875,000

Table 5: Detailed description of estimated co-financing sources

Co-financing Sources
Name of Co-financier       Classification*             Type*            Amount (US$)
      (source)                                                                                      Status*
UNDP                     Multilateral          Cash                     400,000              Confirmed

GoA                      Government            Cash                     350,000              Confirmed
GoA                      Government            In kind                  400,000              Confirmed
Total Co-finance                                                        1,150,000




                                                          41
4.2.1   Explanation for deviations from criteria and norms (if applicable)


148. The total grant requested from the GEF is USD 750,000. The higher budget is justified by the fact
that Angola is a huge country in terms of geographic space and population; one that is emerging from
many decades of war. The years of war had very negative impacts on capacity development for all
technical areas of environment management and the country is experiencing very serious levels of
degradation, with little capacity to address it urgently. SLM capacity development needs are therefore
huge in post war Angola. The country is however in a recovery mode and this presents a great opportunity
to mainstream SLM especially in the new policy instruments. There is very high political commitment for
SLM, particularly capacity development at all levels and mainstreaming in the emerging policies,
legislation and regulations. This is demonstrated by the high co-finance provided by the government,
particularly a cash co-finance of US $ 350,000. Together with the UNDP TRAC co-finance, the total cash
co-finance ratio is 1:1; justifying the application for the USD 750,000 from the GEF grant.




                                                 42
    PART III: MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENTS


   4.2.2    Project Implementation Governance
   Institutional framework and project implementation arrangements
   149. The project will be implemented over a period of four years beginning September 2007. It is
   recommended that the first three months be devoted solely for the establishment (inception) of the
   project, procurement, planning and initial problem analysis, while the last three should be essentially for
   reporting, defining strategy for follow-up and to carter for any transition period, packaging and
   dissemination of lessons. The project will be executed by MINUA, in cooperation with DPUA, Huambo,
   in close collaboration with MINDAR (at national and provincial levels) as well as in consultation with
   relevant stakeholders. The project is designed as a multi-tier intervention (Figure 1). Pilot capacity
   building interventions (outcome 1) will concentrate in Huambo Province, where the Project Management
   Unit (PMU) will be based, whilst mainstreaming and financing strategic activities as well as up-scaling
   efforts will be managed by an additional staff member based at MINUA in Luanda (Figure 2). The
   Project Board will be based in Huambo Province, whilst the overall intervention will be guided by the
   National NAP Coordination Committee (to be established as soon as NAP is approved).

Figure 6: Project Management Arrangement

                                Multi-tier design proposal

             UNCCD
            GEF/UNDP

                       NAP/PANCOD                                                 Other
                       National Level                                           Provinces


        Outcome 1            Outcome 2           Outcome 3        Outcome 4         Outcome 5




                                      Huambo Province Pilot

Figure 7: Project Implementation Arrangement

   150. The Implementation Agency for the project will be the UNDP Angola Country Office, with support
   from the RCU and the GSU of the LDS/SIDS projects in Pretoria, South Africa. The project will be
   executed under UNDP National Execution (NEX) procedures. The lead executing agency for the project
   will be the Environment Directorate of MINUA, in conjunction with DPUA and MINADER in Huambo.
   151. At the provincial level a policy oriented Project Board (PB), co-chaired by DPUA and UNDP with
   one representatives of MINUA and partners, will guide the project implementation with the approval of
   annual and quarterly work plan and budget. A complementary technical committee (TC) with
   representation from a wide range of stakeholders pertaining to Sustainable Land Management and the
   project interventions will be established to serve as knowledge exchange platform. The TC will also
   support the consolidation of the plan and stakeholders commitment to deliver on the agreed actions. The
   TC may provide technical guidance and advice to the SC. Representation from NGOs, academia, research
   institutions and the private sector is particularly encouraged. The primary task of the PB is to set the
   policies and provide guidance (institutional, political and operational) and direction for the Project to

                                                     43
ensure that it remains within the agreed framework, and achieves its outcomes and objectives. The Project
SC will report periodically to and receive strategic guidance from the National NAP Coordination
Committee.
152. The day to day implementation and monitoring of the project will fall to a Project Management Unit
(PMU) (Figure 2), based in Huambo Province, with a Project Manager, Finance/Admin/Assistant,
secretarial support and a driver. The Project Manager will also take on roles at the national level, as
National Officer, however will have his/her main base in Huambo. The Project Manager will facilitate the
implementation of national level activities, based at the PMU. Due to the logistic and infrastructural
situation in Angola it essential that the PMU has a strong administrative, financial and logistic support
structure. In Luanda the project will be hosted by the MINUA NBSAP Unit, pending the establishment of
the NAP Implementation Unit foreseen in the NAP.
153. The Project Manager will have the overall responsibility for project implementation, management,
administrative, technical and financial reporting. S/he will be assisted by relevant support staff. The PMU
will manage the selection process for all contracts and recruitment of local consultants; this will include
preparation of TOR‟s, call for bids and organization of the selection process, following international
UNDP standards. The PMU will manage and coordinate the execution of all contracts. Criteria and
procedures will be developed for performance-based contracts with service providers. Under
performance-based contracts, the service provider will be paid only for work completed. Work partially
completed will be paid on a pro rata basis. Draft Terms of reference for key personnel are included in the
detailed information section.
154. GEF funds will be administered by UNDP. The PMU will manage all contracts with local service
providers. UNDP will advance funds for a three-month period based on quarterly work plan. At the end of
the three-month period, the PMU will submit the financial report/justification for expenses and the funds
spent will be renewed by UNDP.
155. The responsibility for project delivery/impacts ultimately rests with UNDP, acting as the GEF
implementing agency. UNDP will monitor all activities and outputs. UNDP will ensure that the activities
are being conducted in close co-ordination with MINUA and other stakeholders. It will also provide
technical backstopping services and monitor adherence to the work plan. The project will comply with
relevant monitoring, evaluation and reporting requirements.
156. In order to accord proper acknowledgement to GEF for providing funding, a GEF logo will appear
alongside the UNDP logo on all relevant GEF project publications, including among others, project
hardware and vehicles purchased with GEF funds. Any citation on publications regarding projects funded
by GEF will also accord proper acknowledgment to GEF.


4.2.3    Audit Requirements
157. The project will be audited on a yearly basis for financial year January to December as per NEX
procedures and Global Environment Facility requirements. The audit will be conducted by the National
Auditor or any other local auditor recognised by both GOA and UNDP-CO.

4.2.4

4.2.5    Legal Context
158. This project document shall be the instrument referred to as such in Article 1 of the Standard Basic
Assistance Agreement (SBAA) between the Government of Angola and the United Nations Development
Program. The host country-implementing agency shall, for the purpose of the SBAA, refer to the
government cooperating agency described in that Agreement.

159. UNDP acts in this project as Implementing Agency of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), and
all rights and privileges pertaining to the UNDP as per the terms of the SBAA shall be executed „mutatis
mutandis‟ to GEF.




                                                  44
 160. The UNDP Resident Representative in Angola is authorized to effect in writing the following types
 of revisions to this project document, provided s/he has verified the agreement thereto by the UNDP-GEF
 unit and is assured that the other signatories of the project document have no objections to the proposed
 changes:

        Revisions of, or addition to, any of the annexes to the Project Document;
        Revisions which do not involve significant changes in the immediate objectives, outputs or
         activities of the project, but are caused by the rearrangement of inputs already agreed to or by the
         cost increases due to inflation;
        Mandatory annual revisions which re-phase the delivery of agreed project inputs, or reflect
               increased costs due to inflation, or take into account agency expenditure flexibility,
        Inclusion of additional annexes and attachments relevant to the Project Document

 161. Intellectual property rights on data, study results, reports, etc. All data, study results, information,
 reports, etc, generated with UNDP/GEF project funds are the property of GOA/UNDP.



National level                                              NAP Committee
Outcomes 1 to 5                              MINUA
                                                            Technical multi-
                                         -    NBSAP/        stakeholder
                                             NAP CU         working group
                                                 National
                                                  Officer
                                 UNDP
                                                                                Provinces



Huambo Province
Mainly outcome 1
                                                  Project Board - Policy
                                                  level
         DPUA
   -    Environme
                                                   Technical stakeholder
         nt Unit
                                                   committee
          Project
        Managemnet
           Unit
                                                         Pilot projects
       MINADER
                                                         FCA                Teachers
                                  Chipipa                SLM                Training
                                  CBNRM                  module             SLM

                                      Casa
                                      Ecologica                     OTHER



                                                    45
                                                                     Figure      2:     The     Project
                               Staffing arrangements                 Management Unit will be based
                                                                     in Huambo Province to directly
                HUAMBO                             NATIONAL          oversee and manage the planned
              Province PCU        Reports to PCU     Level           pilot interventions. The Project
                 -
                 Project
                                                    -National        Manager will also take on the role
               Coordinator                            Officer        of National Officer to facilitate
              -Finance/Admin                       Office support:
                                                       MINUA         project activities at that level,
                -Secretary                          NBSAP Unit
                                                                     mainly pertaining to outcomes 2
                  -Driver                                            to 5.


Figure 8: National Level Project Arrangement




                                                             46
4.3     PART IV: MONITORING AND EVALUATION


4.3.1    Monitoring and Evaluation Plan
162. M&E activities are an increasingly important part of GEF project implementation, with formal
guidelines, protocols and toolkits coming from GEF, UNDP, Government and the Global Support Unit of
the LDC-SIDS Portfolio Project. The M& E process will be used to support adaptive management
strategy. Project monitoring and evaluation will be conducted in accordance with established UNDP and
GEF procedures for MSPs under the SLM Portfolio Project as outlined in the M&E Tool Kit. The Tool
Kit is designed to simplify design and implementation of M&E for projects within the LDC SIDS
portfolio. It presents carefully selected compulsory and optional indicators for measuring impact and
performance. The indicators are contained in the Annual Project Review Form (annex 3), which should be
filled annually - once during project formulation or inception and updated every year. The Resource Kit
does not cover monitoring of detailed project administration such as quarterly reports, input monitoring or
the preparation and monitoring of quarterly work plans, which are covered by existing UNDP guidelines.
163. M&E will be undertaken by the Project Management Unit (PMU) and the UNDP Country Office
(UNDP-CO) with support from UNDP/GEF and the GSU – LDC-SIDS Portfolio Project. The Logical
Framework Matrix in section II provides performance and impact indicators for project implementation
along with their corresponding means of verification. The indicators have been derived from the M&E
Tool Kit. Additional indicators have been added to measure impact at the local level. The baseline
situation presented in this document also utilizes these indicators. Additional baseline information on all
the compulsory and some selected optional indicators will be documented by the project and submitted to
the UNDP Country Office and Project Steering Committee using the National MSP Annual Project
Review Form (annex 3). All the „compulsory‟ and „optional‟ questions and indicators will be completed
during project inception period and updated each year. The Form provides a basis for the annual review
of project progress, achievements and weaknesses. This information is intended to draw out lessons to be
used in subsequent planning, in support of adaptive management processes. It also supports UNDP
Angola‟s Country Office-wide reporting and planning. Once completed, the Review form will be
forwarded to the UNDP CO which will then forward to the GSU in the first quarter of project
implementation.


164. The PMU will monitor activities to ensure that they are carried out appropriately and in a timely
manner as per the workplan and budget. The Annual Workplan, with a detailed M&E Strategy, will be
presented at the Inception Workshop at project start-up, and the inception report prepared after the
workshop but not later then 3 months after project start-up. In addition, The PMU will facilitate
completion of annual surveys to update the LDC SIDS project reporting form especially for the
compulsory indicators at the Objective and outcome levels. Special effort will be made to track the
following compulsory indicators: levels of public awareness on the importance of sustainable land
management and the satisfaction of farmers with project technical support; degree of awareness in
decision making, levels of adoption of SLM practices, reduction in land degradation using measures such
as changes in soil erosion, recovery in forest regeneration rates, and increase in agricultural productivity.
Other indicators will include rate of improvement in efficiency index for charcoal production and use.


4.3.2    Monitoring and Evaluation

Project Inception Phase
165. A Project Inception Workshop will be conducted with the full project team, relevant government
counterparts, co-financing partners, the UNDP-CO and representation from the UNDP-GEF Regional
Coordinating Unit as appropriate. A fundamental objective of this Inception Workshop will be to assist
the project team to understand and take ownership of the project‟s goals and objectives, as well as finalize
preparation of the project's first annual work plan on the basis of the project's logframe matrix. This will
include reviewing the logframe (indicators, means of verification, assumptions), imparting additional
detail as needed, and on the basis of this exercise finalize the Annual Work Plan with precise and


                                                   47
   measurable performance indicators, and in a manner consistent with the expected outcomes for the
   project.
   166. Additionally, the purpose and objective of the Inception Workshop will be to: (i) introduce project
   staff with the UNDP-GEF expanded team which will support the project during its implementation,
   namely the CO and responsible Regional Coordinating Unit staff; (ii) detail the roles, support services
   and complementary responsibilities of UNDP-CO and RCU staff vis à vis the project team; (iii) provide a
   detailed overview of UNDP-GEF reporting and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) requirements, with
   particular emphasis on the Annual Project Implementation Reviews (PIRs) and related documentation, the
   Annual Project Report (APR), Tripartite Review Meetings, as well as mid-term and final evaluations.
   Equally, the Inception Workshop will provide an opportunity to inform the project team on UNDP project
   related budgetary planning, budget reviews, and mandatory budget rephasings. There are separate M&E
   requirements for this Global; Portfolio SLM projects, which need to be submitted annually, see the
   detailed information section.
   167. The Inception Workshop will also provide an opportunity for all parties to understand their roles,
   functions, and responsibilities within the project's decision-making structures, including reporting and
   communication lines, and conflict resolution mechanisms. The Terms of Reference for project staff and
   decision-making structures will be reviewed in order to clarify for all, each party‟s responsibilities during
   the project's implementation phase.

Monitoring responsibilities and events
   168. A detailed schedule of project review meetings will be developed by the project management, in
   consultation with project implementation partners and stakeholder representatives and incorporated in the
   Project Inception Report. Such a schedule will include: (i) tentative time frames for Tripartite Reviews,
   Steering Committee Meetings, (or relevant advisory and/or coordination mechanisms) and (ii) project
   related Monitoring and Evaluation activities.
   169. Day to day monitoring of implementation progress will be the responsibility of the Project Manager
   based on the project's Annual Work Plan and its indicators. The Project Manager will inform the PCU and
   if necessary the UNDP CO of any delays or difficulties faced during implementation so that the
   appropriate support or corrective measures can be adopted in a timely and remedial fashion.
   170. The UNDP Programme Manager will fine-tune the progress and performance/impact indicators of
   the project in consultation with the full project team at the Inception Workshop with support from UNDP-
   CO and assisted by the UNDP-GEF Regional Coordinating Unit. Specific targets for the first year
   implementation progress indicators, together with their means of verification will be developed at this
   Workshop. These will be used to assess whether implementation is proceeding at the intended pace and in
   the right direction and will form part of the Annual Work Plan. The local implementing agencies will also
   take part in the Inception Workshop in which a common vision of overall project goals will be
   established. Targets and indicators for subsequent years will be defined annually as part of the internal
   evaluation and planning processes undertaken by the project team.
   171. Measurement of impact indicators related to global benefits will occur according to the schedules
   defined in the Inception Workshop and tentatively outlined in the indicative Impact Measurement
   Template. The measurement, of these will be undertaken through subcontracts or retainers with relevant
   institutions (e.g. populations of key species through inventories) or through specific studies that are to
   form part of the projects activities (e.g. measurement of carbon benefits from improved efficiency of
   ovens or through surveys for capacity building efforts) or periodic sampling such as with sedimentation.
   172. Periodic monitoring of implementation progress will be undertaken by the UNDP-CO through
   quarterly meetings with MINUA or more frequently as deemed necessary. This will allow all parties to
   take stock and to troubleshoot any problems pertaining to the project in a timely fashion to ensure smooth
   implementation of project activities.
   173. UNDP Country Offices and UNDP-GEF RCU, as appropriate, will conduct yearly field visits, or
   more often based on an agreed schedule to be detailed in the project's Inception Report / Annual Work
   Plan. The purpose of the visits will be to assess first hand project progress. Any other member of the
   Steering Committee can also accompany the mission, as decided by the Committee. A Field Visit Report


                                                      48
  will be prepared by the CO and circulated no less than one month after the visit to the project team, all SC
  members, and UNDP-GEF.
  174. Annual Monitoring will occur through the Tripartite Review (TPR). This is the highest policy-level
  meeting of the parties directly involved in the implementation of a project. The project will be subject to
  Tripartite Review at least once every year. The first such meeting will be held within the first twelve
  months of the start of full implementation. The Programme Manager will prepare an Annual Project
  Report (APR) and submit it to UNDP-CO and the UNDP-GEF regional office at least two weeks prior to
  the TPR for review and comments.
  175. The APR will be used as one of the basic documents for discussions in the TPR meeting. The project
  proponent will present the APR to the TPR, highlighting policy issues and recommendations for the
  decision of the TPR participants. The project proponent also informs the participants of any agreement
  reached by stakeholders during the APR preparation on how to resolve operational issues. Separate
  reviews of each project component may also be conducted if necessary.


  Terminal Tripartite Review (TTR)
  176. The Terminal Tripartite Review is held in the last month of project operations. MINUA is
  responsible for preparing the Terminal Report and submitting it to UNDP-CO and GEF's Regional
  Coordinating Unit. It shall be prepared in draft at least two months in advance of the TR in order to allow
  review, and will serve as the basis for discussions in the TTR. The Terminal Tripartite Review considers
  the implementation of the project as a whole, paying particular attention to whether the project has
  achieved its stated objectives and contributed to the broader environmental objective. It decides the
  strategy for pursuing actions, particularly in relation to sustainability of project results, and acts as a
  vehicle through which lessons learnt can be captured to feed into other projects under implementation of
  formulation.
  177. The TPR has the authority to suspend disbursement if project performance benchmarks are not met.
  Benchmarks are provided and will be further developed and agreed to at the Inception Workshop, based
  on delivery rates, and qualitative assessments of achievements of outputs.

   4.3.3
Project Monitoring Reporting
  178. The Project Manager in conjunction with the UNDP-GEF extended team will be responsible for the
  preparation and submission of the following reports that form part of the monitoring process. Items (a)
  through (f) are mandatory and strictly related to monitoring, while (g) through (h) have a broader function
  and the frequency and nature is project specific to be defined throughout implementation.


  Inception Report
  179. A Project Inception Report will be prepared immediately following the Inception Workshop, to be
  submitted within 3 months of the project start-up date. It will include a detailed First Year/ Annual Work
  Plan divided in quarterly time-frames detailing the activities and progress indicators that will guide
  implementation during the first year of the project. This Work Plan would include the dates of specific
  field visits, support missions from the UNDP-CO or the Regional Coordinating Unit (RCU) or
  consultants, as well as time-frames for meetings of the project's decision making structures. The Report
  will also include the detailed project budget for the first full year of implementation, prepared on the basis
  of the Annual Work Plan, and including any monitoring and evaluation requirements to effectively
  measure project performance during the targeted 12 months time-frame.
  180. The Inception Report will include a more detailed narrative on the institutional roles, responsibilities,
  coordinating actions and feedback mechanisms of project related partners. In addition, a section will be
  included on progress to date on project establishment and start-up activities and an update of any changed
  external conditions that may effect project implementation.




                                                     49
 181. When finalized the report will be circulated to project counterparts who will be given a period of one
 calendar month in which to respond with comments or queries. Prior to this circulation, the UNDP
 Country Office and UNDP-GEF‟s Regional Coordinating Unit will review the document.

 Annual Project Report (APR)
 182. The APR is a UNDP requirement and part of UNDP‟s Country Office central oversight, monitoring
 and project management. It is a self-assessment report by project management to the CO and provides
 input to the country office reporting process, as well as forming a key input to the Tripartite Project
 Review. An APR will be prepared on an annual basis prior to the Tripartite Project Review, to reflect
 progress achieved in meeting the project's Annual Work Plan and assess performance of the project in
 contributing to intended outcomes through outputs and partnership work.
 183. The format of the APR is flexible but should include the following:

       An analysis of project performance over the reporting period, including outputs produced and,
        where possible, information on the status of the outcome
       The constraints experienced in the progress towards results and the reasons for these
       The three (at most) major constraints to achievement of results
       Annual Work Plan (AWP), CAE and other expenditure reports (ERP generated)
       Lessons learned
       Clear recommendations for future orientation in addressing key problems in lack of progress

Project Implementation Review (PIR)
 184. The Project Implementation Review (PIR) is an annual monitoring process mandated by the GEF. It
 has become an essential management and monitoring tool for project managers and offers the main
 vehicle for extracting lessons from ongoing projects. Once the project has been under implementation for
 a year, a Project Implementation Report must be completed by the CO together with the project team. The
 PIR can be prepared any time during the year (July-June) and ideally prior to the TPR. The PIR should
 then be discussed in the TPR so that the result would be a PIR that has been agreed upon by the project
 team, the executing agency, UNDP CO and the concerned RC.
 185. The individual PIRs are collected, reviewed and analysed by the RCs prior to sending them to the
 focal area clusters at the UNDP/GEF headquarters. The focal area clusters supported by the UNDP/GEF
 M&E Unit analyse the PIRs by focal area, theme and region for common issues/results and lessons. The
 TAs and PTAs play a key role in this consolidating analysis.
 186. The focal area PIRs are then discussed in the GEF Interagency Focal Area Task Forces in or around
 November each year and consolidated reports by focal area are collated by the GEF Independent M&E
 Unit based on the Task Force findings. The GEF M&E Unit provides the scope and content of the PIR. In
 light of the similarities of both APR and PIR, UNDP/GEF has prepared a harmonized format for
 reference.


 Quarterly Progress Reports
 187. Short reports outlining main updates in project progress and key issues/constraints encountered will
 be provided quarterly to the local UNDP Country Office and the UNDP-GEF regional office by the
 project team. See format attached.


 Periodic Thematic Reports
 188. As and when called for by UNDP, UNDP-GEF or the Implementing Partner, the project team will
 prepare Specific Thematic Reports, focusing on specific issues or areas of activity. The request for a
 Thematic Report will be provided to the project team in written form by UNDP and will clearly state the
 issue or activities that need to be reported on. These reports can be used as a form of lessons learnt
 exercise, specific oversight in key areas, or as troubleshooting exercises to evaluate and overcome

                                                   50
obstacles and difficulties encountered. UNDP is requested to minimize its requests for Thematic Reports,
and when such are necessary will allow reasonable timeframes for their preparation by the project team.


Project Terminal Report
189. During the last three months of the project the project team will prepare the Project Terminal Report.
This comprehensive report will summarize all activities, achievements and outputs of the Project, lessons
learnt, objectives met, or not achieved structures and systems implemented, etc. and will be the definitive
statement of the Project‟s activities during its lifetime. It will also lay out recommendations for any
further steps that may need to be taken to ensure sustainability and replicability of the Project‟s activities.


Technical Reports (project specific- optional)
190. Technical Reports are detailed documents covering specific areas of analysis or scientific
specializations within the overall project. As part of the Inception Report, the project team will prepare a
draft Reports List, detailing the technical reports that are expected to be prepared on key areas of activity
during the course of the Project, and tentative due dates. Where necessary this Reports List will be
revised and updated, and included in subsequent APRs. Technical Reports may also be prepared by
external consultants and should be comprehensive, specialized analyses of clearly defined areas of
research within the framework of the project and its sites. These technical reports will represent, as
appropriate, the project's substantive contribution to specific areas, and will be used in efforts to
disseminate relevant information and best practices at local, national and international levels.


Project Publications (project specific--optional)
191. Project Publications will form a key method of crystallizing and disseminating the results and
achievements of the Project. These publications may be scientific or informational texts on the activities
and achievements of the Project, in the form of journal articles, multimedia publications, etc. These
publications can be based on Technical Reports, depending upon the relevance, scientific worth, etc. of
these Reports, or may be summaries or compilations of a series of Technical Reports, Policy Briefs and
other research. The project team will determine if any of the Technical Reports merit formal publication,
and will also (in consultation with UNDP, the government and other relevant stakeholder groups) plan
and produce these Publications in a consistent and recognizable format. Project resources will need to be
defined and allocated for these activities as appropriate and in a manner commensurate with the project's
budget.


4.3.4    Independent Evaluation
192. The project will be subjected to at least two independent external evaluations as follows:
(i) Mid-term Evaluation
193. An independent Mid-Term Evaluation will be undertaken at the mid-point of implementation. The
Mid-Term Evaluation will determine progress being made towards the achievement of outcomes and will
identify course correction if needed. It will focus on the effectiveness, efficiency and timeliness of project
implementation; will highlight issues requiring decisions and actions; and will present initial lessons
learned about project design, implementation and management. Findings of this review will be
incorporated as recommendations for enhanced implementation during the final half of the project‟s term.
The organization, terms of reference and timing of the mid-term evaluation will be decided after
consultation between the parties to the project document. The Terms of Reference for this Mid-term
evaluation will be prepared by the UNDP CO based on guidance from the Regional Coordinating Unit
and UNDP-GEF.

(ii) Final Evaluation
194. An independent Final Evaluation will take place three months prior to the terminal tripartite review
meeting, and will focus on the same issues as the mid-term evaluation. The final evaluation will also look

                                                    51
   at impact and sustainability of results, including the contribution to capacity development and the
   achievement of global environmental goals. The Final Evaluation should also provide recommendations
   for follow-up activities. The Terms of Reference for this evaluation will be prepared by the UNDP CO
   based on guidance from the Regional Coordinating Unit and UNDP-GEF.

AUDIT CLAUSE
   195. The Government will provide the UNDP Country Director with certified periodic financial
   statements, and with an annual audit of the financial statements relating to the status of UNDP (including
   GEF) funds according to the established procedures set out in the Programming and Finance manuals.
   The Audit will be conducted by the legally recognized auditor of the Government, or by a commercial
   auditor engaged by the Government. In the absence of the those mecanism the project will be audited
   within the framework of the National Execution Mechanism of the UNDP Angola CO.

Table 6: Indicative Monitoring and Evaluation Work plan and corresponding Budget

    Type of M&E                Responsible Parties              Budget US$                      Time frame
      activity                                                  Excluding project team
                                                                Staff time
                                                                $ 5000 (national and         Within first two
                             Project Coordinator
                                                                provincial level             months of project
Inception Workshop           UNDP CO
                                                                participants) [TB included   start up
                             UNDP GEF
                                                                in budget]
                             Project Team                                                   Immediately
Inception Report                                                None
                             UNDP CO                                                        following IW
Measurement of Means         Project Coordinator will          To be finalized in           Start, mid and end of
of Verification for           oversee the hiring of specific    Inception Phase and          project
Project Purpose               studies and institutions, and     Workshop. Indicative cost
Indicators                    delegate responsibilities to      $ 5000
                              relevant team members
Measurement of Means         Oversight by Project GEF          To be determined as part     Annual; prior to
of Verification for           Technical Advisor and Project     of the Annual Work           APR/PIR and to the
Project Progress and          Coordinator                       Plan's preparation.          definition of annual
Performance (measured        Measurements by regional                                       work plans
on an annual basis)           field officers and local IAs
APR and PIR                  Project Team                      None                         Annual
                             UNDP-CO
                             UNDP-GEF
TPR and TPR report           Government Counterparts           None                         Every year, upon
                             UNDP CO                                                        receipt of APR
                             Project team
                             UNDP-GEF Regional
                              Coordinating Unit
Steering Committee           Project Coordinator               None                         Following Project
Meetings                     UNDP CO                                                        IW and subsequently
                                                                                             at least once a year
Periodic status reports      Project team                      None                         To be determined by
                                                                                             Project team and
                                                                                             UNDP CO
Technical reports            Project team                      $6,000                       To be determined by
                             Hired consultants as needed                                    Project Team and
                                                                                             UNDP-CO
Mid-term External            Project team                      $20,000                      At the mid-point of
Evaluation                   UNDP- CO                                                       project
                             UNDP-GEF Regional                                              implementation.
                              Coordinating Unit
                             External Consultants (i.e.
                              evaluation team)
Final External               Project team,                     $30,000                      At the end of project
Evaluation                   UNDP-CO                                                        implementation
                             UNDP-GEF Regional


                                                           52
                                Coordinating Unit
                               External Consultants (i.e.
                                evaluation team)
Terminal Report                Project team                                             At least one month
                               UNDP-CO                        None                      before the end of the
                               External Consultant                                      project
Lessons learned                Project team                                             Yearly
                               UNDP-GEF Regional
                                                               See outcome 5 & CAS
                                Coordinating Unit (suggested
                                                               activities
                                formats for documenting best
                                practices, etc)
Audit                          UNDP-CO                                                  Yearly
                                                               $6,000
                               Project team
Visits to field sites          UNDP Country Office                                      Yearly
(UNDP staff travel costs       UNDP-GEF Regional
to be charged to IA fees)       Coordinating Unit (as          None
                                appropriate)
                               Government representatives

TOTAL INDICATIVE COST                                          $56,000
Excluding project team staff time and UNDP staff and travel    (included under Outcome
expenses                                                       5 of Project Budget)




                                                         53
    5     SECTION II: STRATEGIC RESULTS FRAMEWORK
    5.1     Logical Framework matrix

    The indicators in the LFA below have been selected from the GSU M&E Tool Kit. A few additional indicators have been added to measure
    impact at local level.
Project Strategy      Objectively verifiable indicators                                      Sources of verification   Risks and Assumptions


          Goal: Sustainable Land Management improved by increased extension delivery contributing to improved ecosystem health and improved livelihoods.


                      Indicator                      Baseline              Target




                                                                                                                                                       54
                     Decision makers at national      SLM not reflected       By mid-term        Revised national       That there will be continued
                     and local levels and the         in any of the polices   NAP approved       plans                  political commitment for
                     public, especially rural                                 and being used                            integrating SLM approach into
                     farmers have high levels of      Capacities for          as a framework     Rapid assessment       the long-term national planning
                     awareness of the importance      sustainable             for coordinating   of levels of           for sustainable development.
                     of SLM and are adopting          resources               SLM                awareness on SLM
                     SLM principles in decision       management                                 amongst                That the economy will support
                     making and land management       depleted during the     By mid-term        stakeholders           increased returns on investment
                     respectively                     war, little exists      training manuals   establishing the       in sustainable land management
                                                      today and it is not     developed and      linkage between        practices providing an incentive
                     SLM reflected in National        coordinated well        training started   awareness-change       for farmers to accept the
                     Policies, Laws, Development      adequately              at the Province    in attitude-change     extension packages for SLM,
Objective:
                     & Investment Plans (e.g.                                                    in behavior chain of   which is dependent on
Capacity
                     sustainable charcoal reflected   Some decision           By end of          events.                extension agents being able to
developed for
                     in energy policy, a CBNRM        makers starting to      project the SLM                           offer packages that make
sustainable land
                     policy adopted, etc.)            recognize               training manuals   MINUA and              economic sense to farmers
management for
                                                      importance of SLM,      are refined and    university annual
key SLM
                     Decrease in soil erosion at      but too few and         available for      reports                That land and resource tenure
stakeholders and
                     pilot sites accompanied by an    they have not yet       training           Annual District and    issues will not provide negative
sustainable land
                     increase in agricultural         found means to          technical          Provincial             motivation discouraging
management
                     productivity                     integrate it into       officers,          Development            adoption of improved practices
principles
                                                      development             extension          Reports
mainstreamed into
                     Recovery of forests at pilot     policies                workers and        Documented M and
national policies,
                     sites start to become evident                            land managers      E Framework
plans and
                     as reflected in improved rates                           throughout         SLM Committee
processes.
                     of regeneration for key          NAP under               Angola.            Outputs including
                     species, slower rates of         preparation but not                        CSIF
                     deforestation, improvement in    yet approved and        By mid-term,       documentation
                     tree population index, better    does not have a         key policies       following
                     species composition and          financing plan yet      reviewed for       TerrAfrica
                     community indices.                                       SLM and by end     guidelines that are
                                                                              of project they    compatible with
                     The national SLM Committee                               have been          NAP processes
                     / Task Force embraces NAP                                revised to
                     Investment plan process and                              mainstream
                     integrates it with developing                            SLM
                     CSIF planning framework for
                     SLM.




                                                                                                                                                     55
                   One strong institution           There‟s no              By mid-term          TPR with annual report     Other Development Partners, NGOs
                   (MINUA) acting as the            institution currently   training takes       based on site visits       and other development /
                   national agency for SLM and      charged with the        place in the         Project Final Report       environmental organizations are
                   has established an               responsibility of       province and         Periodic newsletters and   willing and committed to integrate
                   interministerial mechanism       SLM or                  skills are applied   workshop reports           SLM into their field programs in the
                   for SLM coordination in the      coordinating            such that            Mid-Term and Final         rural development sector
                   country                          mainstreaming of        successful pilot     project evaluation
                                                    SLM into polices        activities take      Reports                    Sufficient interested, receptive
                   75% of extension service staff   and developments        place on             District and Provincial    individuals available for training
                   have skills, expertise and       plans                   community level      Reports
                   resources to provide SLM                                 in Chipita area,     University reports         Continued availability of training
                   technical support to rural       There are very few      focusing on                                     opportunities through bilateral and
                   communities; SLM extension       technical officers or   more sustainable                                multilateral cooperation
                   packages formulated based on     land managers with      land
                   demonstrated cost-benefits       SLM specific skills,    management                                      Institutions receptive to change
                   and best practices, and are      and the few skills      practices such as
                   being piloted in one Province,   that exist are not up   charcoal                                        Institutions are able to retain the
                   reaching at least 85% of land    to date or based on     production and                                  trained manpower
                   managers/farmers in the          the reality in          alternative
                   province.                        Angola                  energies,
                                                                            alternative
Outcome 1:
                   Guidelines, Manuals,             No guidelines or        incomes,
Individual and
                   Protocols outlining Best         manuals on SLM or       improved
institutional
                   Practices and toolkits in SLM    SLM extension           agricultural
capacity for SLM
                   developed and used               currently available     practices etc.
developed
                   Revamped agricultural            Extension service is    By mid-term
                   extension service,               weak and has no         SLM relevant
                   recommending sustainable         specific tools to       curricular in
                   land management practices        deal with SLM           place (A. Neto
                   following participatory                                  University
                   extension approaches             Currently a lot of      campus,
                                                    farmers innovating      Huambo)
                   Farmer and land manager‟s        on their own (out of
                   own innovation recognized,       circumstance) but       By mid-term, a
                   documented and disseminated      this is hardly          process to
                   An SLM teaching curriculum       recognized or           identify and
                   available for colleges and       documented; and         reward farmer
                   universities                     there‟s little farmer   innovation his
                                                    to farmer sharing.      being
                                                    In addition, there‟s    implemented
                                                    almost no applied       and farmers
                                                    research being          participate in
                                                    carried out on SLM      applied research                                                                      56
                                                                            in partnership
                                                                            with the
                                                                            university.
                 Relevant policies contain        No SLM policy in      By mid-term, a guideline on review      Policy documents      Political support for
                 specific sections on and         place, relevant       and mainstreaming of SLM into                                 mainstreaming SLM
                 follow principles of SLM.        policies do not       policies available and by end of        Notifications of      continues amongst
                                                  reflect SLM           project, SLM principles integrated in   Acts / Regulations    the decision makers
                 Acts & regulations pertaining    adequately and no     policy framework                        in Official Gazette
                 to SLM updated and               guidelines for                                                                      Other Stakeholders
                 harmonized.                      mainstreaming         By end of project, updated and          National Annual       in the Rural
                                                  SLM                   harmonized Acts and regulations         Sector Reports        Development
                 Investment projects (e.g. in                           promulgated                                                   Agriculture and
                 agriculture) are routinely       NAP not yet passed                                            Evaluation Reports    Natural Resources
                 scanned for adherence to         in Parliament         By mid-term, 25% of politicians are                           Management sector
                 SLM principles                                         aware of SLM, LD and NAP and            Surveys               are ready and
                                                  Provinces are not     over 75% be end of project                                    willing to participate
Outcome 2: SLM
                 An effective collaborative       engaged in NAP                                                                      in an adaptive
mainstreamed
                 framework among all              process currently     By mid-term 50% of land users in                              management
into economic
                 stakeholders in the SLM                                Huambo province have a level of                               program for sharing
and sectoral
                 incorporate 100% of relevant                           awareness on SLM options and more                             SLM experiences
development
                 sectors and players              1 outdated National   than 75% be end of project
                                                  Forest Management                                                                   Stakeholders willing
                 A functional M and E system      Plan;                                                                               to share information
                 and an approved CSIF/            No soil
                 Investment Plan; Key             conservation
                 ministries (finance and          guidelines /
                 planning) are part of the        manuals;
                 collaborative framework and
                 are aware of economic costs
                 and benefits of SLM; political
                 support for SLM at national
                 level exists and pushes the
                 SLM agenda forward




                                                                                                                                                         57
                  NAP approved and adopted as    Draft NAP exists,     By mid-term an approved NAP is in      NAP document;        NAP receives
                  an SLM coordination            not approved or       place, sent to UNCCD, and is used as   Distribution List;   political
                  mechanism and disseminated.    widely recognized     a mechanism for inter-sector           NAP Coordination     endorsement
Outcome 3:                                       as a coordinating     coordination for SLM                   Committee            Capacity to
National Action                                  mechanism                                                                         implement NAP
Programme         NAP Monitoring mechanism                             NAP yearly reviewed                                         available
completed         in place                       The few                                                      NAP Monitoring
                                                 stakeholders doing                                           and review
                                                 anything on SLM                                              documents
                                                 are not coordinated

                  Completed and adopted          No MTIP therefore     By mid-term MTIP that adapts all the   Investment Plan      Donors and other
                  MTIP, based on SLM             no MTIP financing     principles of the TerrAfrica‟s         (document);          potential investors
Outcome 4:        principles                     or monitoring         Country Strategic Investment                                interested in
Medium Term                                                            Framework (CSIF) is adopted by the     Minutes of           investing in SLM
Investment Plan   80% Financing for MTIP                               TerrAfrica process with widespread     Meetings /
being financed    committed                                            support in government and amongst      Workshops/
and                                                                    donors. Some projects identified       Conferences
implemented(and   MTIP monitoring and review                           through the MTIP process receive
linked to         system in place                                      funding and are being implemented      MTIP review
TerrAfrica)                                                            By end of project Angola has           documents
                  Angola on the TerrAfrica                             become active on TerrAfrica work
                  work programme                                       programme

                  Project Outputs and targets    No project            Project Outputs and targets achieved   Project documents    Adaptive
                  achieved                                                                                    and reports          management culture
Outcome 5:
                                                                       All required project monitoring                             and capacity
Adaptive
                  Project Monitoring reports                           reports prepared                       Monitoring reports   available
management and
                  prepared
learning in
                                                                       Yearly financial audits                Audit documents
place(Project
                  Project audits
effectively
                                                                       Important and relevant lessons         Technical
managed)
                  Lessons learned disseminated                         learned collected and disseminated     documents

                                                                                                              Website




                                                                                                                                                     58
    5.2     Output / Activity Table

          Output         Activity                                                  Year 1               Year 2              Year 3
                                                                              Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4   Q5   Q6   Q7   Q8   Q9   Q1   Q1   Q1
                                                                                                                            0    1    2
Outcome 1: Individual and institutional capacity for SLM enhanced

                         1.1.1. Undertake a capacity needs assessment and
1.1. An SLM
                                identify training/awareness gasps for
training/awareness
                                technical officers categorized for
raising program for
                                sustainable forest management, rangelands
national, district and
                                and appropriate agriculture
commune technical
                         1.1.2. Design a training strategy for SLM clearly
officers and
                                identifying target groups and information
decision makers
                                to be disseminated to each target group
designed and
                         1.1.3. Implement the training strategy in Huambo
training undertaken
                                province, adjust the training material if
in Huambo
Province.                       necessary and make tested material
                                available for national implementation
                                (national implementation to be done by
                                GoA, using co-finance)
                         1.1.4. Monitor dissemination and the effect of the
                                training programme on practice in Huambo
                                Province (the awareness-change in
                                attitude-practice links
                         1.2.1 Facilitate technical staff trained under
                                output 1, in conjunction with universities
                                and land managers to identify best
                                practices on SLM categorized by
                                production system
                         1.2.2 Undertake a needs assessment to identify
                                needed input packages for successful
                                extension process, e.g. cycles, levels,
                                measures, video brochures, fertilizer, etc.
                         1.2.3 Provide demonstration staff with field
                                materials and maintenance costs to
                                implement the new extension methodology




                                                                                                                                          59
        Output        Activity                                                  Year 1               Year 2              Year 3
                                                                           Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4   Q5   Q6   Q7   Q8   Q9   Q1   Q1   Q1
                                                                                                                         0    1    2
                      1.2.4Monitor and review use of the extension
                           packages and process, use information to
                           refine the extension and input packages (to
                           farmer and extension agent)
1.3: Incentives for  1.3.1 Identify criteria and apply it to select
targeted research in       institute of higher learning to be engaged in
technical and socio        the applied research programme
economic issues      1.3.2 Design research questions in a
around SLM such as         participatory process involving land
effect of tenure on        managers, extension agents, technical
SLM, energy                officers and researchers
conversion           1.3.3 Facilitate research and the use of research
efficiencies etc.          findings in the SLM process, especially in
improved at national       the refinement of training materials and
and Huambo                 extension packages
provincial level     1.3.2 Promote indigenous technology -
(institutions of             facilitate a process to identify farmer‟s
higher learning).            best innovations, assist documentation
                             and dissemination of the innovations
1.4: Sustainable     1.4.1 Develop an SLM curriculum for the
Land Management            institutions of higher learning (ensuring
module available as        appropriateness for each level);
elective at Huambo   1.4.2 Assess requirements for adoption of the
campus of                  curriculum in each institution and work
Agostinho Neto             together with each institution to ensure that
University, at             the needs are met to allow adoption of the
Teachers Training          curriculum
and at Extension     1.4.3 Facilitate collaboration between the
Services Training          targeted research and teaching of SLM to
Institutions               ensure cross-fertilization
Outcome 2: Capacity developed is used to mainstream and manage
the long term SLM programme within the country’s key sectors to
ensure coordination




                                                                                                                                       60
         Output         Activity                                                      Year 1               Year 2              Year 3
                                                                                 Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4   Q5   Q6   Q7   Q8   Q9   Q1   Q1   Q1
                                                                                                                               0    1    2
2.1: Sustainable        2.1.1.     Develop SLM principles for integration
Land Management                    into relevant instruments, e.g. new
principles developed               National Forestry, Conservation and
and guidance for                   Protected Areas Policy and Law and
systematic                         develop guidelines for mainstreaming
integration in          2.1.2.     Facilitate review of relevant development
relevant national                  plans and instruments, make
policies, strategies               recommendations on changes required to
and legal and                      mainstream SLM principle and advocate
regulatory                         for adoption of recommendations
framework available     2.1.3      Promote SLM sensitive Land Use
                                   Planning (LUP) and screening of
                                   development projects and investments
                                   based on SLM principles
2.2. Platforms for      2.2.1.   Facilitate the Government to set up the
planning                         “Oversight of SLM Committee” with clear
coordination and                 TOR that spell out the responsibility,
knowledge                        mandate, representative participation and
exchange relating to             funding for all parties involved
SLM established         2.2.2.   Establish a network of all SLM
and functional at                stakeholders
provincial and          2.2.3      Facilitate a national level dialogue on the
national level                     best approach for Angola to adopt a
                                   programmatic level to SLM
2.3.          Central   2.3.1.   Facilitate the SLM Steering Committee to
government,                      work with all SLM donors and Civil
together with donor              Society, to develop coordination
partners         and             mechanisms, and databases of activity
decentralised           2.3.2.   Together with government, use
government, have                 demonstration sites in Huambo to advocate
found means to                   for greater investment from Development
scale-up         and             Partners




                                                                                                                                             61
        Output         Activity                                                 Year 1               Year 2              Year 3
                                                                           Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4   Q5   Q6   Q7   Q8   Q9   Q1   Q1   Q1
                                                                                                                         0    1    2
disseminate     SLM 2.3.3. Integrate advocacy into NAP and
“best practice” from         TerrAfrica Knowledge systems and so into
Huambo Province to           the Angola CSIF
the rest of the
country
Outcome 3: National Action Plan (NAP) completed and implemented:
Awareness raising and up-scaling throughout country; NAP promotion

3.1. Finalization of  3.1.1. Advocate for the approval of draft NAP by
NAP supported and            GOA, and disseminate documentation.
used as a framework   3.1.2. Facilitate the use of the approved NAP as a
for SLM in Angola            framework for SLM activity at Provincial
                             and District levels and mechanism for
                             cross-sectoral coordination
                      3.1.3    Support MINUA and NAP Unit in
                               establishing clearing house mechanism,
                               including NAP website
3.2. A                3.2.1. Design a communication strategy and
communication                disseminate it to raise awareness on the
strategy developed           NAP
and implemented to    3.2.2. Monitor implementation of the NAP and
raise awareness of           use information for adaptive management
the NAP and built            of SLM programmes – this activity will be
political support for        implemented by the National level SLM
it                           steering committee in conjunction with
                             output 2.2 and 2.3
Outcome 4: Medium Term Investment Plan (MTIP) being financed
and implemented: Integrated (LD, BD, CC, other) MTIP developed and
implemented on national and provincial level
4.1. Medium Term      4.1.1. Set up Medium Term Investment Planning
Investment Plan for          team for different sub-sectors as relevant,
SLM developed                especially coordinating efforts by the
                             NBSAP and CC project units at MINUA,
                             but also other relevant stakeholders




                                                                                                                                       62
         Output        Activity                                                    Year 1               Year 2              Year 3
                                                                              Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4   Q5   Q6   Q7   Q8   Q9   Q1   Q1   Q1
                                                                                                                            0    1    2
                       4.1.2. Develop draft MTIP in participatory and
                              integrated and coordinated manner; make
                              provision for provincial versus national
                              needs and strategies
4.2. Financing for     4.2.1 Formulate priority strategic actions and
Medium Term                   disseminate MTIP to all potential donors /
Investment Plan               investors and seek and negotiate pledges
ensured                       from potential investors; “train”
                              negotiators about strategy.
                       4.2.2 Solicit highest political commitment for
                              MTIP by government and stakeholders;
                              raise awareness about this country strategy
                              and if needed conduct specific “awareness
                              sessions” with policy and decision makers;
                              integrated in CAS
4.3. MTIP endorsed     4.3.1. Devise monitoring set-up for MTIP and
by Angolan Govt.              conduct yearly performance review
and a monitoring              measured against donor commitments and
system developed              implementation performance
for its
implementation
Outcome 5: Adaptive Management and learning in place: Relevant
management structures operational and project interventions successfully
implemented on national and provincial level

5.1. Project          5.1.1.   Set up office space, recruit staff, mobilise
management unit                co-finance and buy project equipment
established           5.1.2.   Establish Project Steering Committee and
                               facilitate its operations
                      5.1.3    Supervise implementation of project
                               activities and report on finding
5.2 Project overall   5.2.1.   Determine project learning strategy




                                                                                                                                          63
        Output     Activity                                                     Year 1               Year 2              Year 3
                                                                           Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4   Q5   Q6   Q7   Q8   Q9   Q1   Q1   Q1
                                                                                                                         0    1    2
learning system   5.2.2.   Undertake a gender and socio-economic
developed and              analysis and use the findings to develop a
used to support            project gender strategy that ensures better
adaptive                   targeting of project activities and equitable
management                 participation and benefit sharing
                  5.2.3.   Establish a project monitoring and
                           evaluation action plan (based on the M&E
                           system outlined in the prodoc), collect and
                           use information to adapt management (and
                           project implementation
                  5.2.4.   Facilitate project mid-term and final
                           evaluations




                                                                                                                                       64
              5.3      Total Budget and Work Plan (for GEF and UNDP Contribution)
        Table 7: Budget and Workplan for the GEF and UNDP Contribution
Award ID:                                 00044526
Award Title:                              PIMS 3379 Angola; SLM Capacity Building
Project ID:                               00052416
Project Title:                            PIMS 3379 Angola; SLM Capacity Building
Implementing Partner (Executing
Agency)                                   MINUA
   GEF         Agent  Fund Donor          Atlas Budget      ATLAS         Amount    Amount    Amount     Total      See
 Outcome/              ID                     Code           Budget       Year 1    Year 2    Year 3    (USD)     Budge
   Atlas                                                   Description     (USD)     (USD)     (USD)              t Note
  Activity
Outcome 1                                                 Local                                                     1
                                                 71300    Consultants     50,000    30,000    50,000    130,000
                                                          Contract                                                  2
                                                 72100    Services a)     100,000   70,000    52,500    222,500
                                                          Contract                                                  3
                                                 72100    Services b)     40,000    40,000    35,000    115,000
                                                 74500    Workshop         5,000     5,000     5,000    15,000      4
                                                 74200    Publications    15,000    10,000     5,000    30,000      5
                                          Sub-Total                       210,000   155,000   147,500   512,500
Outcome                                                   Contract                                                  6
2:                                               72100    services        25,000    15,000    10,000    50,000
Mainstream                                       71600    Travel           5,000     5,000     5,000    15,000      7
ing
                                                          International                                             1
               UNDP                              71200    Consultant      10,000    10,000     5,000    25,000
               - NEX    62000    GEF      sub-total                       40,000    30,000    20,000    90,000
 Outcome
3 NAP
developed
& used as
coordinatio    UNDP
n tool         -NEX     62000     GEF                                       0         0         0         0
Outcome                                                                                                             8
4: NAP
supported
by credible
MTIP &
linked to
CSIF                                                         Local
TerrAfrica.              62000   GEF             71300     Consultants    20,000    15,000    12,500    47,500
Project                                                   Local                                                     9
effectively                                      71300    Consultants     20000     20000     20,000    60,000
managed                                          71600    Travel           5,000     5,000     5,000    15,000     10
                                          sub-total GEF                   25,000    25,000    25,000    75,000
               UNDP
                                 Project Total
               - NEX                                                      295,000   225,000   205,000   725,000




                                                                                                                    65
Table 8: Management Cost

               Component                   Estimated                 GEF                 Other Sources                    Project Total
                                           consultant
                                           Weeks
               Locally recruited                             100            60,0003                           20,000                         80,000
               consultants
               Internationally                                30                                              50,000                         50,000
               recruited
               consultants
               Office facilities,                                                                             37,500                         37,500
               equipment and
               communication
               Travel                                                       15,0004                             5,000                        20,000
               Miscellaneous                                                                                                                     0
               Total                                                         75,000                          112,500                    187,500


Table 9: Summary of Funds by Outcomes

Source of                 GEF                 GoA Cash     GoA In Kind                           UNDP                   Total p/
Funds p/                                      Contribution Contribution                                                 Outcome
Outcomes
Outcome 1                 $512,500            $200,000                $180,000                   $255,000               $1,147,500
Outcome 2                 $ 90,000            $ 65,000                $ 45,000                   $ 50,000               $ 250,000
Outcome 3                 $0                  $ 30,000                $ 55,000                   $ 45,000               $ 130,000
Outcome 4                 $ 47,500            $ 20,000                $ 40,000                   $ 10,000               $ 117,000
Outcome 5                 $ 75,000            $ 35,000                $ 80,000                   $ 40,000               $ 230,000
Total p/                  $725,000            $350,000                $400,000                   $400,000
Source of
Fund




3
  This will support the cost of a National project manager, project administrator and a communications officer and two consultants for the
medium and final project evaluations. It includes cost of recruitment, salaries and benefits over 4 years.
4
  This budget will support travel for the project staff as well as travel for the mid-term and terminal evaluation missions.



                                                                                                                                               66
Table 10: Consultants working for technical components

                                           Estimated                 GEF                Other sources                     Total
                                           weeks
               Local consultants                             170          177,5005                           150,000                      327,500
               International                                  54          130,0006                            50,000                      180,000
               consultants
               Total                                         195           307,500                           200,000                      507,500



   Budget Note                                                         Explanation
1: Consultants –           Angola has few skilled people in SLM. Regional and/or international consultants will be hired
local, regional and        to undertake the many technical studies and assessments required to support the development
international              of cutting edge skills development programme, deliver training and put together a knowledge
                           based extension system. In all instances, local consultants will be hired to work closely with
                           the regional and international consultants in order to build capacity for local consultants.
                           The two budget items will also be used to provide motivation for applied research by the
                           university. Research topics will be identified in a participatory manner and research designed
                           and undertaken. This will also support identification of a process to be used to encourage
                           innovation by land managers and reward it.
2: Contractual             Contractual Services will be awarded to:
services –                 (i) Two institutions, one international and one national with technical expertise and track
companies                  record on SLM will be hired to conduct training and awareness needs assessment and develop
                           both awareness and training materials on SLM for appropriate agriculture and rangelands. The
                           companies will also conduct training and modify the material for use at national level. They
                           will then work with the provincial and national government to design the extension package
3: Contractual             Consultants will be identified and contracted to conduct current training and awareness needs
services –                 assessment on sustainable forestry, particularly on use of wood based energy. The company
individuals                provide innovative leadership in the field of charcoal production, marketing and use, including
                           leading the development of the analysis of successful extension models, curriculum design and
                           preparation of training models. This is the incremental global value. The companies and
                           individual consultants will work closely with national consultants and staff to build capacity
                           through “training by doing” at all levels nationally.
4: Workshop                National and local costs of hosting technical discussions, training of trainers on SLM related
                           topics, disseminating research findings, analysis, mainstreaming awareness processes. – covers
                           rental and per diems within target districts and fact finding trip to remote field sites where
                           actual SLM activities take place.
5: Publications            Partners will produce interactive training manuals and an analysis of SLM on several subjects
                           (soil conservation, sustainable rangelands management, sustainable charcoal production and
                           use, etc.)
6                          Consultants will be hired to develop a method for assessing development frameworks for SLM
                           and on mainstreaming SLM into the development policies and frameworks. The consultants
                           will train stakeholders to use the guidelines and to mainstream SLM. The consultants will also
                           assist the Government identify the most appropriate means to scale-up and disseminate
                           extension “best practice”. The consultants will therefore the government to use demonstration
                           sites in different regions to advocate for greater investment from other development partners
                           and the private sector and to integrate advocacy into NAP and TerrAfrica Knowledge systems
                           and so into the Angola CSIF.

5
  As explained in the background, capacity for SLM in Angola is very weak, and the few available consultants expensive. This budget item will
support the many technical studies required for most outcomes. It will support 148 weeks per year for 4 years at an average cost of US$ 300 per
day (recruitment, fees and DSA‟s).
6
  As explained above, capacity in post war Angola is very weak. International consultant will be hired to support local consultants in the many
technical studies required for all outcomes. This will support about 54 weeks at an average cost of 600 per day ((recruitment, fees and DSA‟s).)



                                                                                                                                              67
7    A local company will be hired to facilitate the Government to set up the “Oversight of SLM
     Committee” (based on Steering Committee), with clear TOR that spell out the responsibility,
     mandate, representative participation and funding for all parties involved. The consultants will
     also facilitate the Committee to work with all SLM donors and Civil Society, to develop
     coordination mechanisms, and databases of activity. In addition, the consultants will undertake
     best practice and lessons learned analysis across ALL SLM interventions, and maintain this in
     a live “knowledge management” system.
8    Local consultants will be hired to work with the contracted company (budget note 12) to assist
     the government to develop a Medium-Term Investment Plan linked to the TerrAfrica Country
     Strategic Investment Framework. While the individual consultants will assist with the
     elaboration of the MTIP, the local company will assist the government to formulate priority
     strategic actions from the MTIP and mobilize financial resources for its implementation.

9    Local consultants will be hired to (from the province) to coordinate activities at the pilot sites.
     An Administrative Assistant will also be hired to support project implementation. This budget
     item will also be used to hire local consultants to participate in the mid-term and final
     evaluations.
10   To support travel related to project administration and evaluation




                                                                                                    68
6     Section III: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

6.1    Responses to GEFSec Review
      GEFSEC Comment        Response      Location where document was revised




6.2    GEF Operational focal point endorsement letter

6.3    CO-FINANCING LETTERS




                                                                                69
     6.4     Annex 1: THREATS, ROOT CAUSE AND BARRIER REMOVAL STRATEGIES
             ANALYSIS
     Note: The threat, root cause, barrier, barrier removal strategy and baseline activity matrix is divided into a
     number of key thematic areas, which, in the narrative have been summarized under fewer headings. The more
     detailed break up of themes in the matrix allows for a more in-depth analysis of the key issues.

Threat/Impact            Root Causes            Management      Solutions:         Baseline Activity
                                                issues/key      Interventions
                                                barriers        from
                                                                project/Barrier
                                                                removal activity
Unsustainable Agriculture practices and the range resource complex: extensive smallholder
agriculture (rainfed, use of fire for land clearing; livestock management), unguided increasing
investment in the agricultural sector (large scale commercial farming); need for food security vs
absence of environmental sustainability policies, incl. EIA studies and monitoring of environmental
impacts of intensive agriculture
Deforestation            Concentration of       Policy, legislation      Approval of the         MOSAP
                         population in land-    and enforcement          policy and law of
Loss of soil fertility   mine safe areas                                 Forests, wildlife and   FAO and Dutch
                                                Forest policy and        conservation areas      support to the
Soil depletion and       Short fallow periods   legislation under                                formulation of
erosion                                         formulation              Dissemination of the    policy and
                         Population                                      above policy and        legislation on
Low productivity of      resettlement           Absence of policy        legal instruments       Forests, wildlife and
the smallholder                                 guidance for                                     Conservation areas
agriculture              Poor irrigation        balancing                Awareness on
                         infrastructure         smallholder and          alternative             Rural Development
Soil and water           throughout the         commercial farming       production              and other NGO
pollution                country                                         technologies and        interventions
                                                Limited capacity of      techniques (Forestry
                                                the forestry and         and Agricultural        Irrigation plans
                                                environmental            extension)              (Ministry of
                                                authorities to                                   Agriculture, Public
                                                monitor the forest       Land use planning       Works and Water
                                                harvesting activities    and strategic           and Energy)
                                                as well as the design    environmental
                                                and implementation       assessment at
                                                of EIAs                  provincial level

                                                Technical and            Improve access to
                                                financial capacity       agricultural credit

                                                Absence of               Integrated water and
                                                extension services       land management to
                                                on improved              promote increased
                                                agricultural practices   productivity of
                                                                         subsistence and cash
                                                Poor access to credit    crops
                                                for farms investment
                                                in improved              Improve access to
                                                agriculture              agricultural markets
                                                                         and road
                                                Implementation           infrastructure
                                                capacity/capacity to
                                                act                      Improved


                                                                                                                   70
                                                                        community based
                                                Local level resource    natural resources
                                                managers and            management and
                                                farmers lack            farmers level
                                                capacities for SLM;     capacity support
                                                lack of knowledge,
                                                innovation, financial
                                                resources, coping
                                                strategies
Unsustainable Forestry exploitation: most of the rural population depends on the natural resources
for generation of energy, employment and income; outdated legislation, poor law enforcement
Deforestation, forest   Concentration of        Policy, legislation     Forest restoration:       Nursery and
and land degradation    population in land-     and enforcement         reforestation with        reforestation around
                        mine safe areas                                 native and exotic         Huambo city
Loss of biodiversity                            Forest policy and       species                   (Sacala) supported
and ecosystem           Short fallow periods    legislation under                                 by FAO
services                                        formulation,            Land use planning
                        Population              particularly the        and strategic             FAO and Dutch
Degradation of          resettlement            absence of              environmental             support to the
environment                                     management              assessment at             formulation of
                        Forest harvesting to    planning                provincial level          policy and
Increased demand        meet energy             instruments, support                              legislation on
for renewable           demands                 to community            Improve access to         Forests, wildlife and
energy                                          participation in        agricultural credit       Conservation areas
                        Limited livelihood      natural resources       through
Contribution of the     strategies              management, etc.        improvement of rural      Rural Development
forestry sector in      (employment and                                 microfinance              and other NGO
general poorly          income generation)      Information             services                  interventions
represented in the                              dissemination and
national economy,       Timber harvesting       awareness raising       Identification and
particularly for        for construction and                            implementation of
considered law value    industrial              Poor dissemination      CBNRM initiatives
products such as                                of policy and legal
biomass for energy      Limited number of       instruments on land,    Liaison with
                        exotic species used     land use planning       environmental NGos
                        in reforestation        and EIA regulation      for dissemination of
                        initiatives in Africa                           policy and legal
                                                Research                instruments
                        Poor accounting of      Poor understanding      including national
                        non timber forest       of the generation and   development policies
                        products as it is       growth behavior of
                        generally in the        the native species      Conduct research on
                        informal sector                                 species and
                                                Implementation          provenances to be
                                                capacity/capacity to    introduced in the
                                                act                     reforestation

                                                Local level resource    Trials of native
                                                managers and            species regeneration,
                                                farmers lack            growth and yield to
                                                capacities for SFM;     establish the viability
                                                lack of knowledge,      of reforestation with
                                                innovation, financial   these species
                                                resources, coping
                                                strategies
Unsustainable consumption of renewable energy/biomass based energy:


                                                                                                                    71
Low purchasing         High level of           Development                                       Ministry of Energy
power of alternative   poverty in peri-        policies                 Promote                  initiatives
energy sources (gas,   urban and rural areas                            development of
electricity and even   Electricity supplied    Implementation of        small enterprises by     Ministry of
solar power)           to less than 20% of     PRSP, MDGs, long         the rural population     Agriculture – trends
                       the population          term development                                  on biomass energy
                                               strategies is            Improve access to        consumption
                       Unreliable power        hampered by issues       financial services for
                       supply even to major    related to priorities,   SME in the rural         Research undertaken
                       cities such as          financial and human      areas                    by the Agricultural
                       Luanda exacerbates      capacity constraints     (Improve access to       sector
                       dependency on                                    agricultural credit
                       wood biomass for        Research                 through
                       energy                  Limited research on      improvement of rural
                                               alternative and cost-    microfinance
                       Limited employment      effective                services)
                       opportunities and       technologies for
                       access to other         generation of energy     Promote research on
                       social services,                                 alternative energy
                       particularly            Implementation           generation
                       education               capacity/capacity to     technologies
                                               act                      (including analysis
                       Limited knowledge                                economic viability as
                       on cheap and            Local level resource     well as social
                       efficient energy        managers and             acceptability)
                       generation              farmers lack
                       alternatives            capacities for           The forestry and
                                               implementing             environmental
                                               improved energy          authorities should
                                               management; lack of      establish agreement
                                               knowledge,               with Academic and
                                               innovation, financial    research institutions
                                               resources, coping        to undertake applied
                                               strategies               research in the
                                                                        country

                                                                        Promote training of
                                                                        foresters abroad
                                                                        while creating
                                                                        conditions for
                                                                        establishing the
                                                                        training capacity in
                                                                        Angola

                                                                        Improved
                                                                        community based
                                                                        natural resources
                                                                        management and
                                                                        farmers level
                                                                        capacity support
Limited livelihood strategies: unemployment and hence the limited capacity to meet in both urban
and rural areas in Angola is still a significant problems, land mines still constrain the access to
productive resources (forests, wildlife and water)
High dependency on     High incidence of       Policy
natural resources      poverty in and rural    PRSP not fully           Implementation of
                       areas                   implemented as yet       the PRSP and


                                                                                                                   72
                                                                        monitoring the
                       Limited investment       Investments             achievement of the
                       in the rural areas for   concentrate on very     MDGs
                       employment               high value
                       creation                 commodities,            Research on
                                                particularly the        agriculture
                       High level of            mineral industries      technologies and
                       illiteracy               and least               renewable natural
                                                                        resources potential
                       Land mines still         Technical capacity
                       hamper access to         Limited number of       Research on viable
                       productive land,         trained                 enterprises from
                       water, forest and        agriculturalists,       natural resources
                       wildlife resources       foresters, economics,
                                                etc. working in rural   Training of
                       Limited access to        development issues      communities and
                       alternative income                               facilitation of
                       generating activities                            CBNRM activities
                                                Research
                       Limited capacity and     Absence of
                       experience for           evidence based and
                       undertaking rural        well research viable
                       development              enterprises that can
                       activities including     be implemented by
                       participatory natural    local communities
                       resources
                       management               Implementation
                                                capacity/capacity to
                                                act
                                                Local level resource
                                                managers and
                                                farmers lack
                                                capacities for
                                                implementing
                                                improved energy
                                                management; lack of
                                                knowledge,
                                                innovation, financial
                                                resources, coping
                                                strategies
Tenure arrangements, user rights, allocation and land use planning: despite the fact that the Land
Law recognizes customary law and the de facto rights over the resources, provisions for ensuring
the security of those rights do not seem as clear given the potentially conflicting uses and users over
resources, the prevalence of rights over mineral resources in comparison to surface resources, etc.
Insecurity of tenure   Absence of a land        Policy, law and         Prioritize             Government seems
                       regulation that          regulation              formulation of the     to have prioritized
Land use do not        clearly defines the      instruments             Law on Rural Land      the development of
maximize the land      types and procedure      Formulation of clear    Concession             provincial plans
potential              for securing land        regulations on
                       and other resources      formalization of        Land use planning
                       rights by the rural      collective rights       and strategic
                       population               based on the current    environmental
                                                provision for           assessment at
                       Absence of zoning        community land          provincial and local
                       and land use             delimitation            level



                                                                                                                73
                      planning
                                          Technical and             Coordinated
                                          financial capacity        intervention of
                                          Methodologies for         relevant sectors and
                                          zoning and planning       stakeholders in the
                                          vary from simple          planning process
                                          participatory
                                          mapping exercise to       Define reasonable
                                          a more complex use        level of detail of the
                                          of digitalization of      land use planning is
                                          information,              essential
                                          monitoring of land
                                          allocation against
                                          the potential etc. –
                                          technical skills on
                                          GIS, survey and
                                          remote sensing are
                                          essential

                                          Participatory
                                          planning methods

                                          Implementation
                                          capacity/capacity to
                                          act
                                          Local level resource
                                          managers and
                                          farmers lack
                                          capacities for land
                                          use and resource
                                          management
                                          planning; lack of
                                          knowledge,
                                          innovation, financial
                                          resources, coping
                                          strategies
Resettlement and reintegration programmes: ex-combatants, internal and external refugees seek to
return to their homes; land mine clearing is being done in order to resettle the population and
promote economic activities.
Land degradation in   Absence of zoning   Politicization of         Land use planning        Review resettlement
resettlement areas    and land use        resettlement              and strategic            programmes
                      planning            programmes                environmental
                                                                    assessment at
                                          Urgency for               provincial level
                                          resettling the
                                          population may
                                          overlook the
                                          provision of
                                          „sustainable‟ land
                                          for settlement (there
                                          is risk of facilitating
                                          development of
                                          slums and other
                                          informal
                                          resettlement areas)



                                                                                                             74
75
    6.5     Annex 2: Draft Terms of Reference for Technical Consultancies

    6.5.1    Draft Terms of Reference - Consultancy on CBNRM

  Energy and livelihoods solutions Angola (Elisa) – SLM capacity building and combating deforestation
                                                Project

Background:
The project, LDC and SIDS Targeted Portfolio Approach for Capacity Development and Mainstreaming
of Sustainable Land Management, assists 47 Least Developed Countries (LDC) and Small Island
Developing States (SIDS) countries (in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and the Caribbean) that have not yet
completed their National Action Plans (NAPs) under the UN Convention to Combat Desertification
(UNCCD), to develop individual, institutional and systemic capacity for sustainable land management.
Angola has prepared a Medium-Sized Project (MSP) under the Portfolio Approach from the Global
Environment Facility (GEF) (under Operational Programme (OP) 15, Strategic Priority (SP) 1). The
project has five key outcomes relating to SLM capacity development and mainstreaming, NAP
elaboration and implementation, and the development of a Medium-Term National Investment Plan for
SLM. The project has designed pilot capacity development activities in Huambo Province, where the
Project Coordination Unit (PCU) will be based. Additionally support functions at the national level are
planned.


Scope of Work
The consultant on CBNRM is expected to undertake the following tasks:
    Collect and compile information on the genesis of CBNRM in at least five countries in Southern
       Africa, three of which with forest-based initiatives.
    Analyse the policy and legal instruments as well as customary law that provide incentive or
       otherwise for community participation in natural resources management.
    Analyse the different institutional arrangements and support systems put in place and analyse the
       role of the government, donor agencies and traditional authorities or other forms of local
       authority in facilitating the implementation of CBNRM.
    Analyse the CBNRM principles and processes including steps or pathways followed by different
       countries and the respective outcomes, giving particular prominence to impact on livelihoods of
       the communities and on the resources.
    Analyse the structures set up for development of income generating activities, the support
       systems including, but not restricted to, resources assessment and/or valuation, capacity building
       for establishment of businesses, financial support systems etc.
    Discuss the models of partnerships in CBNRM implementation and pros and cons, challenges and
       outcomes.
    Analyse the models of costs and benefit sharing mechanisms/approaches and impacts at
       individual and community level.
    Draw a parallel and discuss the issues and challenges of CBNRM implementation in the context
       of Angola in general and, Huambo in particular.
    Compile a report that highlights recommendations on the possible way forward (without being
       prescriptive!!) for Angola.
    Package the recommendations for the different stakeholders: government at national and
       provincial level, project implementation unit, local NGOs and Communities.




                                                                                                      76
       Present the results in a provincial forum to bring all stakeholders to analyse the regional
        experience and draw their pathway (steps) for implementation of CBNRM in Chipipa, as the pilot
        area.

Approach:
The work should be based on detailed review of literature of regional experiences, documentation of case
studies that illustrate the positive and negative experiences. This should be complimented with analysis of
the experiences in Angola (e.g. FAO/MINADER initiatives) and the role that the policy, legislation and
technical know-how had played in providing the required enabling environment for successful
implementation of CBNRM in the country.

The consultant should conduct the initial research from her/his country but work in close collaboration
with the National officer and Project Coordinator in developing the contextualized content for Angola.
The major objective is to engage the major players in the implementation of the project in building a good
understanding of CBNRM and what it entails so as to share experience and avoid repetition of errors
while capitalizing on positive experiences.

The results should be discussed in a stakeholders‟ workshop at Huambo including the participation of the
potential beneficiaries of Chipipa.

Qualifications:
   - International consultant, preferably with master‟s or doctorate degree in natural resources
        management and environment-related studies and with proven experience on implementation of
        CBNRM in Southern Africa;
   - Demonstrated experience in both understanding of the policy issues and practical implementation
        of CBNRM (particularly in forest endowed areas);
   - Capacity to contextualize the regional knowledge within Angola‟s natural resources management,
        environment/development issues as well as a good understanding of the UN Convention to
        Combat Desertification (UNCCD);
   - At least ten years experience;
   - Excellent communication (written and oral) skills;
   - Demonstrated experience in working with communities, project partners from all sectors and
        particularly government, donors and the United Nations system;
   - Excellent inter-personal skills, ability to work in foreign environment and ensure close working
        relation and capacity building of local staff;
   - Fluency or ability to communicate in the Portuguese will be an advantage.

Duration and Remuneration:
The expected effort level is of 30 working days within a period of two to maximum of three months. The
Consultant should be remunerated according to the fees established by the UN System in Angola.




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    6.5.2   Consultancy on Participatory Resources Assessment and Resources Use Planning
            Draft Terms of Reference

  Energy and livelihoods solutions Angola (Elisa) – SLM capacity building and combating deforestation
                                                Project

Background:
The project, LDC and SIDS Targeted Portfolio Approach for Capacity Development and Mainstreaming
of Sustainable Land Management, assists 47 Least Developed Countries (LDC) and Small Island
Developing States (SIDS) countries (in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and the Caribbean) that have not yet
completed their National Action Plans (NAPs) under the UN Convention to Combat Desertification
(UNCCD), to develop individual, institutional and systemic capacity for sustainable land management.
Angola has prepared a Medium-Sized Project (MSP) under the Portfolio Approach from the Global
Environment Facility (GEF) (under Operational Programme (OP)15, Strategic Priority (SP) 1). The
project has five key outcomes relating to SLM capacity development and mainstreaming, NAP
elaboration and implementation, and the development of a Medium-Term National Investment Plan for
SLM. The project has designed pilot capacity development activities in Huambo Province, where the
Project Coordination Unit (PCU) will be based. Additionally support functions at the national level are
planned.


Scope of Work
The consultants shall undertake the following tasks:
    Review of resources assessment methods (conventional and participatory).
    Facilitate a participatory resources inventory focusing not only scientific methods of
       quantification of resources but also incorporating local knowledge on use of the resources.
    Compile a report including a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the resources.
    Identify the potential resources that can be developed or further enhanced in order to provide
       different livelihoods options for the communities.
    Conduct a participatory planning exercise of the potential enterprises with focus on the available
       resources, growth and scale of production.
    Analyse the reasons for land and forest degradation and discuss remedial solutions (including the
       issue of which species – native and/or exotic should be used where).
    Establish a set of criteria for identification of potential areas for reforestation, and other technical
       solutions such as agroforestry and development of other activities in the project implementation
       area (macro-level zoning as a contribution towards future Land Use Planning).
    Compile a report with a set of recommendations on the resources potentials and livelihood
       options.

Approach:
University students can be mobilized to participate in this exercise, particularly those that have forestry
related subjects. Therefore, the consultants would provide on the job training on basic inventory skills to
this group as well as community members.

Key informants ought to be included in the team of inventory, for example the Soba (if fit enough),
women, young people, the traditional doctors, charcoal producers, etc as all have different interests and
can share information on the uses of the different resources.




                                                                                                          78
The consultants should work in close collaboration with the National officer and Project Coordinator in
developing the contextualized content for Angola. The major objective is to engage the major players in
the implementation of the project in building a good understanding of viable enterprises.

The work should be very interactive particularly with the participation of the target groups so as to build
their understating of the potentialities and avoid raising expectation that the project is not likely to achieve
in a short period of time. The results of the study should be presented at a stakeholders‟ workshop at
Huambo including the participation of the potential beneficiaries of CBNRM, reforestation and other
income generating activities.

Qualifications:
   - Consultants (international and national) preferably with master‟s or doctorate degree in forestry;
   - Proven experience in conducting forest inventories and other resources assessment, some
        knowledge of silviculture of exotic and native species, land degradation and management;
   - Understanding of participatory resources assessment particularly in the CBNRM context and of
        the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) is desirable;
   - At least ten years experience;
   - Excellent communication (written and oral) skills;
   - Demonstrated experience in working with communities, project partners from all sectors and
        particularly government, donors, private sector, banking in general or micro-credit and the United
        Nations system;
   - Excellent inter-personal skills, ability to work in a team and ensure close working relation and
        capacity building of local staff;
   - Fluency or ability to communicate in the Portuguese will be an advantage.

Duration and Remuneration:
The expected effort level is of 60 working days for each of the consultants within a period of three to four
months. The Consultants should be remunerated according to the fees established by the UN System in
Angola.




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   6.5.3    Consultancy on viability studies for alternative income generating activities

  Energy and livelihoods solutions Angola (Elisa) – SLM capacity building and combating deforestation
                                                Project

Background:
The project, LDC and SIDS Targeted Portfolio Approach for Capacity Development and Mainstreaming
of Sustainable Land Management, assists 47 Least Developed Countries (LDC) and Small Island
Developing States (SIDS) countries (in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and the Caribbean) that have not yet
completed their National Action Plans (NAPs) under the UN Convention to Combat Desertification
(UNCCD), to develop individual, institutional and systemic capacity for sustainable land management.
Angola has prepared a Medium-Sized Project (MSP) under the Portfolio Approach from the Global
Environment Facility (GEF) (under Operational Programme (OP)15, Strategic Priority (SP) 1). The
project has five key outcomes relating to SLM capacity development and mainstreaming, NAP
elaboration and implementation, and the development of a Medium-Term National Investment Plan for
SLM. The project has designed pilot capacity development activities in Huambo Province, where the
Project Coordination Unit (PCU) will be based. Additionally support functions at the national level are
planned.


Scope of Work
The consultants on economic opportunities are expected to undertake the following tasks:
    Review literature on natural products development (timber and non timber forest products)
       associated with CBNRM, particularly in Southern Africa.
    Facilitate discussions with potential target groups on the potential enterprises previously
       identified through a participatory assessment of the resources and socio-economic studies.
    Analyse the value addition potential and technologies for the different natural resources
       associated with the identified enterprises.
    Analyse the existing knowledge (conventional and indigenous/local) and experience in
       developing the different enterprises.
    Analyse the economic and fiscal incentives for enterprise development.
    Analyse the opportunities and barriers for development of such enterprises (for example,
       qualifications of labour, availability of training, access to credit, security of rights, etc.)
    Review potential partnerships with private sector to enhance high quality processing and
       packaging of community products.
    Conduct a concise viability study (technical, financial, economic) for each enterprise and advice
       on the course of action.
    Analyse distributive issues such as cost and benefit sharing amongst active participants in the
       project and the community at large.
    Analyse the type of structures that should be established for the target groups involved in the
       different enterprises to operate in a quasi-formal manner.
    Compile a report with recommendations regarding the activities that should be promoted,
       institutional arrangements as well as options for diversification of sources of income.
    Where losses of income will result from change in management and use rules, this should be
       highlighted to provide communities with realistic information for decision making.
    Analyse potential sources of funding for consolidation of the activities.

Approach:


                                                                                                    80
Based on participatory resources assessment and socio-economic studies – type of forests, volume per ha,
species, utilization, regeneration, population structure, ethnic groups, religion, roles of men and women in
decision making; economic activities undertaken by different groups of people, land tenure issues,
existing rural development initiatives, etc. - previously undertaken by the project Implementation Unit,
analyse the potential income generating activities.

The consultants should work in close collaboration with the National officer and Project Coordinator in
developing the contextualized content for Angola. The major objective is to engage the major players in
the implementation of the project in building a good understanding of viable enterprises.

The work should be very interactive particularly with the participation of the target groups so as to build
their understating of the potentialities and avoid raising expectation that the project is not likely to achieve
in a short period of time. The results of the study should be presented at a stakeholders‟ workshop at
Huambo including the participation of the potential beneficiaries of CBNRM, reforestation and other
income generating activities.

Qualifications:
   - Consultants (international and national) preferably with master‟s or doctorate degree in
        economics, natural resources economics, agricultural economics and natural resources
        management and environment-related studies;
   - Experience in conducting viability studies (technical, financial and socio-economic);
   - Understanding of CBNRM and of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) is
        desirable;
   - At least ten years experience;
   - Excellent communication (written and oral) skills;
   - Demonstrated experience in working with communities, project partners from all sectors and
        particularly government, donors, private sector, banking in general or micro-credit and the United
        Nations system;
   - Excellent inter-personal skills, ability to work in foreign environment and ensure close working
        relation and capacity building of local staff;
   - Fluency or ability to communicate in the Portuguese will be an advantage.

Duration and Remuneration:
The expected effort level is of 40 working days for each of the consultants within a period of three
months. The Consultants should be remunerated according to the fees established by the UN System in
Angola.




                                                                                                             81
    6.5.4   Consultancy on market studies for natural products

  Energy and livelihoods solutions Angola (Elisa) – SLM capacity building and combating deforestation
                                                Project

Background:
The project, LDC and SIDS Targeted Portfolio Approach for Capacity Development and Mainstreaming
of Sustainable Land Management, assists 47 Least Developed Countries (LDC) and Small Island
Developing States (SIDS) countries (in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and the Caribbean) that have not yet
completed their National Action Plans (NAPs) under the UN Convention to Combat Desertification
(UNCCD), to develop individual, institutional and systemic capacity for sustainable land management.
Angola has prepared a Medium-Sized Project (MSP) under the Portfolio Approach from the Global
Environment Facility (GEF) (under Operational Programme (OP)15, Strategic Priority (SP) 1). The
project has five key outcomes relating to SLM capacity development and mainstreaming, NAP
elaboration and implementation, and the development of a Medium-Term National Investment Plan for
SLM. The project has designed pilot capacity development activities in Huambo Province, where the
Project Coordination Unit (PCU) will be based. Additionally support functions at the national level are
planned.


Scope of Work
The consultant on market analysis shall:
    Analyse the demand and supply of the products identified in the analysis of viability.
    Analyse the economies of scale of the different enterprises.
    Analyse the demand and supply, competitiveness for the current and potential products.
    Analyse the value and market chains for the different products.
    Explore the potential to tap to niche markets such as for certified products (certified management)
       and explore carbon credit markets and other markets for environmental services to bring higher
       benefits from the CBNRM including reforestation initiatives.
    Analyse the marketing strategies and level of success of CBNRM initiatives in South Africa,
       Namibia, Botswana and other countries.
    Provide recommendations on potential market for the different products.

Approach:
As far as possible this study should overlap with the economic analysis in order for the two studies to
produce a coherent set of recommendations of the enterprises to be developed and the potential markets.

The consultants should work in close collaboration with the National officer and Project Coordinator in
developing the contextualized content for Angola. The major objective is to engage the major players in
the implementation of the project in building a good understanding of viable enterprises.

The work should be very interactive particularly with the participation of the target groups, including
NGOs working in rural development, private sector, etc. so as to build their understating of the
potentialities and avoid raising expectation that the project is not likely to achieve in a short period of
time. The results of the study should be presented at a stakeholders‟ workshop at Huambo including the
participation of the potential beneficiaries of CBNRM, reforestation and other income generating
activities..




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Qualifications:
   - Consultants (international and/or national) preferably with master‟s or doctorate degree in
        economics, natural resources economics, agricultural economics and natural resources
        management and environment-related studies;
   - Experience in conducting market studies;
   - Understanding of CBNRM and of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) is
        desirable;
   - At least ten years experience;
   - Excellent communication (written and oral) skills;
   - Demonstrated experience in working with communities, project partners from all sectors and
        particularly government, donors, private sector, banking in general or micro-credit and the United
        Nations system;
   - Excellent inter-personal skills, ability to build a close working relation with and capacity building
        of the project implementation staff;
   - Fluency or ability to communicate in the Portuguese will be an advantage.

Duration and Remuneration:
The expected effort level is of 30 working days for each of the consultants within a period of three
months. The Consultants should be remunerated according to the fees established by the UN System in
Angola.



    6.6     Draft TORs of key staff

    6.6.1    Project coordinator

Background:
The project, LDC and SIDS Targeted Portfolio Approach for Capacity Development and Mainstreaming
of Sustainable Land Management, assists 47 Least Developed Countries (LDC) and Small Island
Developing States (SIDS) countries (in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and the Caribbean) that have not yet
completed their National Action Plans (NAPs) under the UN Convention to Combat Desertification
(UNCCD), to develop individual, institutional and systemic capacity for sustainable land management.
Angola has prepared a Medium-Sized Project (MSP) under the Portfolio Approach from the Global
Environment Facility (GEF) (under Operational Programme (OP)15, Strategic Priority (SP) 1). The
project has five key outcomes relating to SLM capacity development and mainstreaming, NAP
elaboration and implementation, and the development of a Medium-Term National Investment Plan for
SLM. The project is designed pilot capacity development activities in Huambo Province, where the
Project Coordination Unit will be based. Additionally support functions at the national level are planned.

The Project Coordinator will be based in Huambo, Huambo Province, Angola. The assignment as Project
Coordinator is for a time period of three years from the inception of the project.

Scope of work:
The key responsibilities of the Project Coordinator (PC) include the following:

   Ensure the timely implementation of planned activities under the MSP project as stipulated in the
    project document/work plan. The PC should provide the lead role in implementing such activities;
   Set up office in Huambo Province and hire all staff for the Project Implementation Unit (PCU),
    including the National Officer, in line with international UNDP standards for recruitment of
    personnel;


                                                                                                       83
   Oversee the development of scopes of work and terms of reference and other procurement
    documentation required to solicit the procurement of technical assistance and other services, if such
    should be required;
   Supervise and coordinate the work of all project PCU staff, consultants and sub-contractors;
   Co-ordinate, facilitate implementation including through community-based pilot activities, meetings,
    workshops and awareness raising activities as stipulated in the work plan;
   Take on the role of National Officer to facilitate the implementation of outcomes 2 to 5;
   Interact closely with relevant stakeholders and support the involvement of all stakeholders in the
    activities of the project;
   Prepare project working plans and financial plans, as required by Government and UNDP, in
    collaboration with project staff;
   Ensure proper management of funds consistent with UNDP/GEF requirements, and budget planning
    and control;
   Responsible and accountable for reporting and M&E activities, including the coordination of mid-
    term and final project evaluations.

Remuneration:
The Project Coordinator will be hired on the level of Programme Officer as applies to the UN System in
Angola.

Qualifications:
   - Preferably master‟s degree in environment-related studies and other related disciplines;
   - Good understanding of the Angola‟s environment/development issues as well as an understanding
        of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD);
   - At least three to five years experience relevant to the project;
   - Demonstrated experience in project management and staff supervision;
   - Excellent communication (written and oral) skills;
   - Demonstrated experience in working with communities, project partners from all sectors and
        particularly government, donors and the United Nations system;
   - Excellent inter-personal skills as well as working well within a team environment;
   - Fluency in Portuguese; working knowledge of local languages and English will be considered
        additional assets.

    6.6.2   Finance/Admin/Management support

Background:
The project, LDC and SIDS Targeted Portfolio Approach for Capacity Development and Mainstreaming
of Sustainable Land Management, assists 47 Least Developed Countries (LDC) and Small Island
Developing States (SIDS) countries (in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and the Caribbean) that have not yet
completed their National Action Plans (NAPs) under the UN Convention to Combat Desertification
(UNCCD), to develop individual, institutional and systemic capacity for sustainable land management.
Angola has prepared a Medium-Sized Project (MSP) under the Portfolio Approach from the Global
Environment Facility (GEF) (under Operational Programme (OP)15, Strategic Priority (SP) 1). The
project has five key outcomes relating to SLM capacity development and mainstreaming, NAP
elaboration and implementation, and the development of a Medium-Term National Investment Plan for
SLM. The project is designed pilot capacity development activities in Huambo Province, where the
Project Coordination Unit will be based. Additionally support functions at the national level are planned.




                                                                                                       84
The Finance/Admin/Management (FAM) support staff will be based in Huambo, Huambo Province,
Angola. The FAM reports to the Project Coordinator. The assignment as FAM is for a time period of
three years from the inception of the project.

Scope of work:
The key responsibilities of the Finance/Admin/Management (FAM) support staff include the following:

   Assist the Project Coordinator in the implementation of planned activities under the MSP project as
    stipulated in the project document/work plan;
   Assist the PC with the setting up of office in Huambo Province; administer the hiring of the staff for
    the Project Implementation Unit (PCU);
   Based on inputs from the PC, responsible for the development of scopes of work and terms of
    reference and other procurement documentation required to solicit the procurement of technical
    assistance and other services, if such should be required;
   Supervise and coordinate the work of secretarial and logistic support staff; assist with the facilitation
    of contracts and work visits/affairs of PCU staff, consultants and sub-contractors;
   Facilitate consultative meetings, workshops and other interactions with key stakeholders;
   Under guidance of the PC, provide inputs into the preparation of project working plans and financial
    plans, as required by Government and UNDP, in collaboration with project staff;
   Ensure proper management of funds consistent with UNDP/GEF requirements, and budget planning
    and control;
   Responsible and accountable for financial reporting.

Remuneration:
The Project Coordinator will be hired on the level of Administrative Officer as applies to the UN System
in Angola.

Qualifications:
   - Minimum requirement BCom, BA or relevant accounting qualification; MBA or equivalent
        degree preferred.
   - At least three to five years experience in financial and project management;
   - Good communication (written and oral) skills;
   - Demonstrated experience in networking with project partners from all sectors and particularly
        government, donors and the United Nations system;
   - Excellent inter-personal skills as well as working well within a team environment;
   - Fluency in Portuguese; working knowledge of local languages and English will be considered
        additional assets.




                                                                                                          85
    6.7 Annex 3: National MSP Annual Project Review Form
This Form is to be completed annually by each MSP Project Team by 1st November (starting 2007 for this
project; completed in August 2007), and submitted through the UNDP CO to the Global Support Unit in
Pretoria. The form should be filled in during the project inception phase by the UNCCD Focal Point with
assistance in collaboration with key project partners.
SECTION I – PROJECT IDENTIFIERS




Basic Project Identifiers



Country                                     Angola
Project Title
GEF Number
UNDP Number
Date of Prodoc signature
Project duration
Estimated closing date
Principal Sector (s)                        Agriculture, forestry, physical development


Project Stakeholders



List of representatives of key stakeholders groups involved in the project (e.g. could be members of the
National Coordinating Body)

Stakeholder Group                     Representative (title)




UNDP Identifiers



SRF Goal
SRF Sub-Goal
Strategic Area of Support

SECTION II – MONITORING IMPACT AND PERFORMANCE



The following sub-sections include both scorecard questions and quantifiable indicators.




                                                                                                           86
For scorecard questions, five possible answers are given in a table, and the responder should choose the
most appropriate to his/her in-country situation. These are rated 1(poor) to 5 (high).

For quantifiable indicators, the project team should determine the baseline situation before the project
starts, and measure the status of the indicator each year.

1. Measuring Impact.

These questions relate to measuring how successful the project is in achieving the project objective.

The Project Objective of each MSP is ‘capacity developed for sustainable land management in
concerned government agencies, non-governmental and civil service organisations, user groups, etc.
and sustainable land management principles mainstreamed into national policies, plans and
processes’.

Compulsory Indicators

An SLM related national policy or law:
1 Is not yet officially planned
2 Is officially planned
3 Has been drafted
4 Has been approved
5 Has been developed and approved in a fully participatory manner

National development plans (e.g. five year plans, PRSP, budget):
 1 Contain only plans that will have a negative impact on sustainable land management
2 Pay no attention to sustainable land management
3 Pay some, but inadequate, attention to sustainable land management
4 Pay adequate attention to sustainable land management
5 Place sustainable land management at the heart of the development process

NGOs and CSOs are:
1 Not active in promoting sustainable land management
2 Active at some levels (local or national) in promoting sustainable land management
3 Active at all levels but not very effective in promoting sustainable land management
4 Active and effective in some levels in promoting sustainable land management
5 Active and effective at all levels.

The public has:
1 Low awareness and no understanding of sustainable land management
2 Low/medium awareness/understanding
3 Medium/medium awareness/understanding
4 Medium/high awareness/understanding
5 High awareness and high understanding

The knowledge of senior decision-makers in all sectors of importance to land degradation:
1 Less than 20% are aware of the importance of Land degradation
2 20 – 40% are aware of the importance of Land degradation
3 40 – 60% are aware of the importance of Land degradation



                                                                                                           87
4 60 – 80% are aware of the importance of Land degradation
5 All are aware of the importance of Land degradation

The role of the UNDP/GEF MSP in strengthening sustainable land management capacity and mechanisms
has been:
1 Negligible
2 Weak
3 Supportive of national and other efforts
4 Leading
5 Critical


Does the national budget make a specific allocation to sustainable land management?

        For those countries answering yes, what is the percentage increase over Year 2004?

Attribution
What have been the major factors contributing to improvements in the above impact indicators over the
past 5 years?

Place the following factors in declining order of level of contribution: Economic growth; increasing
political stability; changes in overall governance framework; climatic conditions; international assistance;
GEF/UNDP projects and programmes; Other

Optional Indicators

        Each national MSP will be very specific in nature, and hence the monitoring
        framework and indicators will vary enormously from country to country. The optional
        indicators presented cannot cover all possibilities nor all eventualities. This section
        gives examples, suggestions and possibilities. Each national project team must select
        and/or modify from amongst the indicators and monitoring tools listed. Further,
        UNDP and UNDP/GEF have developed substantial material to assist the
        development of monitoring frameworks and choosing indicators. This material should
        also be consulted.

The no. of voluntary actions taken by private sector to incorporate SLM into production (e.g. banana
plantation owners adopt low tillage operations, adopt low chemical inputs, adopt IPM; E.g. road
construction company adopts minimal disruption or rehabilitation practices).

The percentage of sales of (agricultural, forestry or livestock) products that are certified sustainable.


2. Measuring Performance.



Outcome 1 Individual and institutional capacity for SLM developed;


Compulsory Indicators



                                                                                                            88
An inter-ministerial or inter-sectoral institution or mechanism for SLM:
   Does not exist
1
2 Exists on paper but meets irregularly
3 Meets regularly but is largely ineffective
4 Meets regularly, and is overall sustainable, but does not have full financial independence or full
   budget security
5 Meets regularly to discuss SLM related issues, has a clear workplan and financial independence, has a
   well-staffed secretariat and a secure budget and legislative status, follows-up on all decisions, and is
   able to enter into dialogue with all agencies represented


    OR (GAC TO DECIDE)

The National Agency responsible for sustainable land management:
1 Has not been established
2 Has been established, but has no clear mandate, staff, equipment and authority.
3 Has reasonable mandate, staff, equipment and authority
4 Has strong mandate, staff, equipment and authority
5 Has strong mandate, staff, equipment and authority, and is actively promoting and mainstreaming
   SLM principles


Innovative tools for SLM, such as land functionality analysis, economic valuation techniques, integrated
assessment, multi-criteria decision-making:
1 Are non-existent in the country
2 Exist, but have been borrowed from international experience, and have not been adapted to local and
    national needs
3 i
4 Exist, have been adapted, but are not fully functional
5 Exist and are fully functional

Indicator The percentage of land-users satisfied with available technical support (from either extension
services or government technical agency or other service suppliers)ii.

Optional Indicators

        Each national MSP will be very specific in nature, and hence the monitoring
        framework and indicators will vary enormously from country to country. The optional
        indicators presented cannot cover all possibilities nor all eventualities. This section
        gives examples, suggestions and possibilities. Each national project team must select
        and/or modify from amongst the indicators and monitoring tools listed. Further,
        UNDP and UNDP/GEF have developed substantial material to assist the
        development of monitoring frameworks and choosing indicators. This material should
        also be consulted.

(The following starts with indicators of individual capacity, and then deals with institutional and
organisational capacity.)

The organisations responsible for capacity building for sustainable land management:


                                                                                                           89
    Have little idea of the capacity needs
1
2   Have some idea of capacity needs at either individual, institutional and systemic level
3   Have a good idea of capacity needs at most levels
4   Have a full understanding of capacity needs
5   Have a full idea of the individual, institutional and systemic capacity needs, and of the measures that
    should be taken to develop capacity

Research into indigenous knowledge related to sustainable land management is:
1 Not undertaken
2 Undertaken, but by a very small number of experts
3 Undertaken by many experts, in a random and arbitrary manner
4 Undertaken systematically
5 Undertaken by a formal, sustainably financed network of capable researchers

Training programmes and awareness raising programmes for local communities:
1 Are non-existent
2 Exist, but are of poor quality and are not affordable by most local communities
3 Exist but are of irregular quality
4 Are being implemented in a financially sustainable manner
5 Are being implemented in a financially sustainable manner and cover all technical requirements and
   alternative practices (e.g. reseeding, water point networks; IPM, drip irrigation, sustainable logging)

Training programmes and awareness raising programmes for marginalized communities:
1 Are non-existent
2 Exist, but are of poor quality and are not affordable by most local communities
3 Exist but are of irregular quality
4 Are being implemented in a financially sustainable manner
5 Are being implemented in a financially sustainable manner and cover all technical requirements and
   alternative practices (e.g. reseeding, water point networks; IPM, drip irrigation, sustainable logging)

The school curriculum:
 1 Does not address land degradation or sustainable land management
2
3 Addresses land degradation and sustainable land management for some age groups
4
5 Addresses land degradation and sustainable land management appropriately for all age groups

Understanding of links between economy and land degradation:
1 The extent and economic costs of land degradation are poorly understood and unknown
2 The extent of land degradation is partly understood and known by a small number of scientists and a
   limited number of activists
3 The extent of land degradation is understood and known by a limited number of people in the
   environment and land sectors
4 The extent and economic costs of land degradation are understood and known by a limited number of
   people in the environment and land sectors
5 The extent and economic costs of land degradation are understood and known by decision-makers and
   the general public




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The principal national agencies responsible for environment and land:
1 Do not have staff with required skills
2 Have some staff with required skills, but face regular shortages
3
4 Do have staff with skills, but they are stretched and not always available
5 Have available staff with adequate skills
(Staff may be replaced with „equipment‟ or „resources‟)

NOTE: AS MANY PROJECTS WILL TARGETS NGOS, CBOS OR LAND-USER GROUPS, IN
EACH CASE “PRINCIPAL NATIONAL AGENCY” CAN BE REPLACED BY “TARGETED NGO”
OR “TARGETED CBO” OR “TARGETED LAND-USER GROUP”.

The principal national agencies, local agencies and extension services:
1 Are unaware of integrated land-use planning approaches
2 Are aware of integrated land-use planning but lack technical knowledge
3 Are committed to integrated land-use planning but lack tools
4 Are using integrated land-use planning to a limited extent
5 Are fully using integrated land-use planning

The principal national agencies, local agencies and extension services:
1 Have not heard of the landscape approach to sustainable land management
2 Are committed to the landscape approach but are not technically competent
3
4 Are starting to use the landscape approach
5 Are successfully using the landscape approach

Human resources of the principal national agencies, local agencies and extension services:
1 Are poorly qualified and unmotivated
2 Are of mixed quality, with some qualified staff but generally lacking motivation
3
4 Are in general well qualified, but many lack motivation and some lack qualifications
5 Are generally well qualified and well motivated

Individuals:
1 Do not have the skills matching their job description
2 Have some, poor skills related to their job description
3
4 Are reasonably skilled but skills could be better matched to job requirements
5 Are appropriately skilled, in line with job description

Staff development: 2
1 There are no mechanisms in place for training, mentoring, and learning.
2 Some mechanisms exist, but they are insufficient to develop enough people and unable to provide the
    full range of skills needed
3
4 Mechanisms generally exist to develop professional skills, but there is either a shortage, or they do not
    cover the full range of required skills
5 There are adequate mechanisms in place for training, mentoring, and learning in order to maintain a
    continuous flow of new staff



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Knowledge and capacity to develop payment schemes and markets for ecosystem functions and services
related to sustainable land management is:

1   Non-existent
2   available, but only through regional or international bodies
3   Exists with a small number of people in the country
4   Exists and is starting to be applied
5   Exists and is applied regularly.

The Staff of a named department/organisation have/have not the ability to ….state a specific task of the
organisation, e.g. obtain and use satellite data; organise fully participatory consultations; etc..)

((Note that some countries will have very specific individual capacity requirements: e.g. developing
individual capacity related to trade, debt,))

Percentage of targeted land-users having access to appropriate credit schemes.

Percentage of targeted land-users having access to insurance schemes.

(Following indicators focus on „institutional‟ level capacity)

Membership of the national coordinating body or inter-sectoral committee:
1 Is limited to environment and land agencies
2 Involves all concerned national government agencies
3
4 Involves governmental (national and local) agencies and non-governmental agencies
5 Involves governmental (national and local) agencies and non-governmental agencies, in an
  appropriately equitable manner, with each representative having a clear role and responsibilities

The principal national agencies responsible for environment and land:
1 Have no plans or strategies
2 Have plans/strategies, but they are out of date or were prepared in a top-down fashion
3 Have a mechanism to prepare plans and strategies, but it is irregular or top down
4 Regularly prepare plans and strategies
5 Regularly prepare plans and strategies in a fully participatory manner

Indigenous knowledge:
1 Is largely ignored in national policy, programmes and policy
2
3 Occasionally feeds into national policy, programmes and policy
4
5 Is mainstreamed into national policy, programmes and policy via a sustainable, effective formal
    mechanism

SLM policy:
1 There is no policy or it is old and not reviewed regularly
2 Exists, but is only reviewed at irregular intervals
3
4 Is reviewed regularly, but not annually


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5 Is reviewed annually, and updated

The principal national agencies, local agencies and extension services:
 1 Resist changes
2 Do accept change, but only very slowly
3
4 Tend to adapt in response to change, but not always very effectively or with some delays
5 Are highly adaptive, responding effectively and immediately to change

The principal national agencies, local agencies and extension services have:
1 No mechanisms for monitoring, evaluating or reporting on their own performance
2 Some mechanisms for monitoring, evaluating, reporting, but they are limited and weak
3
4 Have reasonable mechanisms for monitoring, evaluating and reporting, but they are not as strong or
   comprehensive as they could be
5 Have effective internal mechanisms for monitoring, evaluating and reporting

The principal national agencies, local agencies and extension services are well managed:
 1 Have totally inadequate internal management
 2 Have a management system that is largely ineffective and does not deploy resources effectively
 3
 4 Are reasonably well managed, but resources are not always deployed effectively
 5 Are well managed with effective, efficient deployment of resources

The principal national agencies, local agencies and extension services:
1 Operate in isolation
2 Have established some partnerships, but they are irregular and with many gaps
3
4 Have many partnerships with a wide range of partners, but there are still some gaps and the
   partnerships are not always operational
5 Have effective and operational partnerships with all government, non-government and local
   stakeholders

The principal national agencies, local agencies and extension services have:
1 Virtually no information for monitoring land quality
2 Limited information for monitoring land quality and for monitoring strategies and action plans
3
4 Easy access to most required information and it is mostly of good quality, but there remain some gaps
   in quality, coverage and availability
5 Access to all the information they need to develop and monitor strategies and action plans

Local governments have:
1 None of the following: expertise, information, budgetary control and financial resources
2 One of the following: expertise, information, budgetary control and financial resources
3 Two the following: expertise, information, budgetary control and financial resources
4 Three of the following: expertise, information, budgetary control and financial resources
5 Adequate expertise, information, budgetary control and financial resources

Society‟s role in monitoring the state of land:



                                                                                                       93
1   There is no dialogue on the state of the land at all
2   There is some dialogue ongoing, but is restricted to specialized circles and not with the wider public
3
4   There is a reasonably open public dialogue ongoing, but certain issues remain taboo
5   There is an open and transparent public dialogue about the state of the land

Self-organisations amongst farmers/herders/forest gatherers:
1 Are not allowed
2 Are allowed, but discouraged and do not exist
3 Exist, with low capacity and few resources
4
5 Are active and involved in the national debates on sustainable land management

The no. of independent NGOs accredited to the National Coordinating Body.

The percentage of violations of land-use regulations that are processed.

The percentage of a surveyed (or targeted) population that adopt at least one SLM practice by the project
end.

The number of functioning land management networks or platforms developed at the village or
community level

Outcome 2 SLM mainstreamed into economic and sectoral development;


Compulsory Indicators

The Ministry of Economic Development and/or Finance and/or Planning:
1 Is unaware of land degradation issues
2
3 Has a stated aim of halting and where possible reversing land degradation.
4
5 Uses environmental economic analyses of land-use options as a tool in development planning and in
   preparing economic/development policies and/or budgets.

Political commitment to SLM is present:
1 There is no political will at all, or the existing political will is against sustainable land management
2 Some political will exists, but it is not strong enough to make a difference
3
4 Reasonable political will exists, but it is not always strong enough
5 There are very high levels of political will


                              Sector Agriculture Forestry Rangelands Economic                Energy Other
Statement (answer „Yes‟ or „No‟)                                     dev.
Impacts of sector policy/national    Y           Y        N          Y                       ?
plans on SLM are important but are
not being assessed
Impacts of sector policy/national    Y           N        N          N                       N


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plans on SLM are being assessed in
a participatory manner
Impacts of sector policy/national     Y             N          N              N            N
plans on SLM have been assessed
Impacts of sector policy/national     Y             N          N              N            N
plans on SLM have been
adequately assessed and mitigation
measures proposed
Impacts of sector policy/national     N             N          N              N            N
plans on SLM have been
adequately assessed and mitigation
measures implemented

Attribution
What have been the major factors contributing to improvements in the above indicators over the past 5
years?

Place the following factors in declining order of level of contribution: changes in overall government
programme; international assistance; UNDP/GEF projects and programmes; Other.


Optional Indicators

    Mainstreaming in General or integration into all Sectors

The SLM agenda:
1 There is no recognisable national SLM agenda
2 The agenda exists, some persons or institutions or actively pursuing the agenda but they have little
   influence
3
4 A number of champions are promoting the agenda, but more is needed
5 There is an adequate number of leaders and champions effectively promoting the agenda

Public support for SLM:
1 The public has little knowledge or interest in SLM
2 There is limited support for promoting SLM amongst the public
3
4 There is general public support and some lobby groups (e.g. NGOs) pushing strongly for SLM
5 There is tremendous public awareness and support


                             Sector   Agriculture Forestry Rangelands Economic             Energy Other
Statement (answer „Yes‟ or „No‟)                                      dev.
SLM considerations are adequately     Y           N        N          N                    N
mentioned in sector policy/national
plans
SLM considerations are adequately     Y             N          N             N             N
mentioned in sector policy through
specific legislation
Regulations are in place to           Y             N          N             N             N


                                                                                                         95
implement the legislation
The regulations are being              N              N          N             N              N
adequately enforced
Enforcement of regulations is          N              N          N             N              N
monitored

A named law (e.g. Forestry Law, Agricultural Code, Law on Water...) is developed/approved and fully
addresses SLM concerns, with specific sections on land degradation and/or sustainable land management.

National land-use planning guidelines and legislation provide clear instructions related to SLM.

X projects affecting land in named (e.g. forestry, agriculture, rangelands, watershed management,
transport or energy) sector have integrated SLM aspects.

The number of functioning tools/incentives established with SLM objectives (e.g. trust funds for land
rehabilitation, payments for environmental services, certificates or labels for „land friendly products‟ -
includes organic labels).


Economic Development

The UNCCD Focal Point and the inter-sectoral committee:
1 Are not consulted on the preparation of NEAP and PRSP
2 Are consulted, but inadequately, on the preparation of NEAP and PRSP
3
4 Are consulted and play a small role in the preparation/supervision of development plans, PRSP,
   NEAP, and other sector plans and strategies
5 Play a full role in the preparation/supervision of development plans, PRSP, NEAP, and other sector
   plans and strategies

National Sectoral and Provincial Governments have a department mandated to ensure land is sustainably
managed.

The Ministry of Economic Development/Finance/Planning use environmental economic analyses of land-
use options as a tool in development planning and in preparing economic/development policies.

The Five Year Plans have a chapter on sustainable land management and/or implementation of the
National Action Plan.



    Agriculture
A label for organic and sustainable products:
1 Is not envisaged
2 Is being developed
3
4 Exists but is not fully functioning
5 Exists and is functioning nationally and internationally

The degraded agricultural areas:


                                                                                                             96
 1   Are of unknown extent
2    Are generally known
3
4    Have been clearly identified and mapped
5    Have been identified and response plans have been prepared

Expertise and inputs related to (Integrated Pest Management/conservation farming/environmentally
sustainable irrigation/crop diversification according to land functionality analysis):
1 Is unknown
2 Is not readily available
3
4 Is available, but availability and/or quality is irregular
5 Is readily available and of adequate quality

The incentives for inappropriate practices (such as crop intensification, overuse of chemicals, over-
extraction of water):

1    Have not been identified
2    Have been identified
3    Have been identified and response measures proposed
4
5    Have been identified and removed

Named agricultural enterprises have revised regulations/practices incorporating SLM

The percentage of land-users using or intending to use Integrated Pest Management/conservation
farming/environmentally sustainable irrigation/crop diversification according to land functionality
analysis

   Forestry
The degraded forestry areas:
1 Are of unknown extent
2 Are generally known
3
4 Have been identified and mapped
5 Have been identified and response plans have been prepared

The incentives for inappropriate practices (e.g. land clearing, mono-plantations, burning):
1 Have not been identified
2 Have been identified
3 Have been identified and response measures proposed
4
5 Have been identified and removed

Across the country, Y hectares of forestry land are managed with sustainable land management as the
priority objective (and/or certified)

Named Forest enterprises have revised their regulations/practices incorporating SLM




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    Rangelands

The degraded rangeland areas:
1 Are of unknown extent
2 Are generally known
3
4 Have been identified and mapped
5 Have been identified and response plans have been prepared

The incentives for inappropriate practices (e.g. over-stocking of animals, conversion of rangelands to
crops, blocking of transhumance corridors, mismanagement of fire, inappropriate supplemental feeds,
unsustainable sylvo-pastoral systems): __
1 Have not been identified
2 Have been identified
3 Have been identified and response measures proposed
4
5 Have been identified and removed

The root causes of over-grazing: __
1 Are not known
2 Are known for a small number of pilot areas
3
4 Are generally known in many areas and largely understood
5 Are known and understood for all areas

Existence of new legislation targeting sustainable impact of rangeland management

Existence of new Guidelines to be implemented


    Energy
Targets for the penetration of renewable energy in rural areas vulnerable to land
degradation/desertification (do they exist? Are they being met?)

Rural energy agencies have full awareness of and commitment to SLM


    Transport
Existence of new Guidelines

   Local development
Local community decision-making processes and planning processes:
1 Do not acknowledge the issue of land degradation
2 Acknowledge land degradation
3
4 Acknowledge land degradation and set out measures for mitigation
5 Take full account of the need for sustainable land management

The need to promote traditional/indigenous practices: 1


                                                                                                         98
 1   Has not been acknowledged at the local level
2    Has been acknowledged at the local level
3
4    Has been acknowledged and measures tentatively identified
5    Has been acknowledged and is fully incorporated into local plans

Land tenure:
1 Does not account for land degradation
2
3
4
5 Is designed to fully account for and protect the value of land

Resource pricing (e.g. water):
1 Does not account for land degradation
2
3
4
5 Is designed to fully account for and protect the value of land

There is a national process underway to develop land management plans for each community, driven by
the communities.


Outcome 3 National Action Programme completed

Compulsory Indicators

NAP monitoring and review:
1 There is no mechanism for monitoring NAP implementation or for NAP reviews
2 There is a stated aim of regular monitoring of NAP implementation, and reviews, but there is no
  formal mechanism for doing this
3
4 There is a stated formal monitoring mechanisms, but it has no fixed funding source
5 There is an annual review process, covering state (of land, locally and nationally), pressure (level of
  threats), response resources allocated (nationally and site specific); capacity (individual, institutional
  and systemic), with adaptive management.


The National Budget or Medium-Term Development Plan or PRSP allocate funding to the NAP.

Optional Indicators
This will depend very much on the contents of the NAP - which should have its own indicators. For
example, is the NAP an orientation framework or a programming framework? Contents, approval process
and monitoring will vary for these two extremes.

The National Action Programme:
1 Is under preparation
2 Has been drafted



                                                                                                           99
3 Has been finalised and approved by the lead agency
4 Has been approved and funds committed by all concerned agencies
5 Has been approved, funds have been committed by all concerned agencies, institutional measures
  have been taken, projects have commenced and are being monitored

The National Action Programme:
1 Does not identify roles and responsibilities and does not include measures
   to strengthen the institutional framework and local institutions
2
3 Identifies measures to strengthen the institutional framework and local
   institutions, yet does not clearly set out roles and responsibilities.
4
5 Clearly sets out roles and responsibilities, and identifies measures to
   strengthen the institutional framework and local institutions.

Information regarding land and land management:
1 Is difficult to access
2 Is available to the institutions responsible for collecting the information
3 Is partly available to some stakeholders
4 Is readily accessible to all stakeholders
5 Is readily accessible in systemised format to all stakeholders and the
    general public


Grade the following stakeholder groups in terms of their involvement in the National Action Programme
on a scale of 1 (low involvement) to 5 (very high involvement):
                        Stage    Role in NAP Preparation          Envisaged role in NAP
Group                                                                 Implementation
                                                                         Mechanism
National Government
Local Governments
NGOs
Communities
Scientific Community
International development
partners
Small scale private sector
Large scale private sector
Holders of indigenous
knowledge
Other

The number/volume of internationally funded projects in direct support of the National Action
Programme.

Outcome 4 Medium Term investment Plan being financed and implemented:

Compulsory Indicators

International partners:


                                                                                                   100
1 Show no interest in the Investment Plan
2 Some partners finance some projects through the Investment Plan, most
  prefer to finance projects separately
3
4 Most partners finance most related projects through the Investment Plan
5 Partners finance all related programmes and projects through the
  Investment Plan

Financing for the Investment Plan has been secured (e.g. trust fund fully capitalized;
fixed commitment from Ministry of Finance from annual budget; innovative one-off (e.g. debt swap,
donor) and sustainable (e.g. service payments) financial mechanisms secured): __
1 No financing secured
2 Initial financing secured
3
4 Considerable financing secured
5 Fully financed


Optional Indicators

The medium term investment plan: __
1 Is under preparation with limited involvement of stakeholders
2 Is under preparation with full involvement of stakeholders
3 Has been prepared and submitted for approval
4 Has been prepared and approved by government agencies, and secured
   some government funding
5 Has been prepared in a fully participatory manner, has been approved, and
   initial funding from government and development partners has been
   committed

Implementation mechanism: __
1 None of the following have been established: body responsible for Plan
   implementation with authority and budget; independent monitoring
   mechanism; chef de file from amongst development partners; permanent
   consultative mechanism involving most donors and national stakeholders
2 One of the above is established and functioning
3 Two of the above are established and functioning
4 Three of the above are established and functioning
5 All of the above are established and functioning

To what extent are donors coordinated and harmonised in their approach to financing SLM initiatives: __
1 No coordination or harmonization
2 Limited, but increasing, coordination and harmonisation
3
4 Donors are coordinated and harmonised.
5 All donors are fully coordinated within the framework of the Medium
   Term Investment Plan




                                                                                                    101
Percentage of surveyed/targeted land-users, NGOs, private sector with information on and access to the
financial mechanisms associated with the Plan.


3. Monitoring the GEF requirements



Participatory nature of the project.

Compulsory Indicator

How successful has the project been in forging the involvement of representatives of all concerned
stakeholder groups?: __
                          NGOs            Land-users      Women           Marginalised Indigenous
                                                                          communities people
1 Not at all
2 Success with some
    stakeholders
3 Success with many
    stakeholders, some
    of the time
4 Success with most
    stakeholders
5 Full

For those respondents indicating „4‟ or „5‟, examples should be provided.

Optional Indicators

Does the project have specific mechanisms for involving the stakeholders in project decision-making or
monitoring?:
1 No mechanisms
2 Mechanisms were envisaged in the project design documents, but were
   never established
3
4 Mechanisms envisaged in project design documents were established, but
   do not function fully
5 Mechanisms established and functioning

The number and level of participation by sectoral agencies, provincial governments, local communities in
the project has been: __
1 Almost inexistent
2
3 Acceptable
4
5 Very satisfactory

What is the project budget for activities that directly target participation (e.g. by developing co-
management mechanisms, or by addressing decentralisation)?



                                                                                                       102
Has the project directly led to the finalisation of one (or more) MoU between stakeholders?

Contribution to achieving the MDGs?

Compulsory Indicator

The project:
1 Makes no linkages with either MDG goals or bodies responsible for MDG
   in the country
2
3 Is clearly linked to MDG, but no operational linkages have been
   established
4
5 Clearly articulates the linkages with MDG and operationalises these
   linkages


Optional Indicators

The project management has established mechanisms for monitoring and reporting on the MDGs. State
the specific MDG and national target.

The project promotes a land management policy that will have a direct impact on poverty alleviation or
other MDGs

Integration with other in-country UNCCD implementation mechanisms.


Compulsory Indicator

The UNCCD National Focal Point and Inter-Sectoral Committee:
1 Played no role in project design or implementation
2 Played an active role in project design, but are not involved in
   implementation;
3
4 Play a role in project design and implementation
5 Play a strong and active role in both project design and implementation


Optional Indicator

The Project has operational linkages to projects supported by the Global Mechanism and/or other GEF
projects in the Sustainable Land Management portfolio.

Linkages with key SLM related capacity development processes in country (including GEF and
internationally funded projects)

Optional Indicator



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Co-management arrangements (for example, joint project office or joint project steering committee) have
been established with UNDP GEF projects in other focal areas, or with other UNDP natural resource
management projects.

Does the project create or promote linkages with the implementation of UNFCCC and UNCBD?

Compulsory Indicator

Has the project implemented joint activities with projects implemented within the framework of
UNFCCC and/or UNCBD?

Optional Indicator

Does the project have activities and/or budget to specifically promote coordination amongst Focal Points
and/or national teams/committees of the global environmental conventions?

Contribution to the in-country gender situation, as it relates to SLM.

Compulsory Indicator

Do the project outputs (e.g. NAP, Investment Plan, Guides, Training programmes) make specific
allowance for the gender dimension?
1 Almost inexistent
2
3 Sometimes
4
5 Always

Optional Indicators

Is the gender dimension a specific component of any project activity?

Is the gender dimension of the project budgeted separately?

Promote the use and value of indigenous knowledge related to SLM.

Compulsory Indicator

Are custodians of indigenous knowledge related to sustainable land management formally included in the
project implementation or technical support mechanisms?

Optional Indicators

The project outputs (e.g. NAP, Investment Plan) target the use and valorisation of indigenous knowledge
__
1 Almost never
2
3 Sometimes


                                                                                                     104
4
5 Always

Do any project activities focus on indigenous knowledge related to sustainable land management (e.g.
creating a database, capacity building)?

Sustainability

This is covered under Section III, Question 3

Replicability

Compulsory Indicators

Does the project specify activities to replicate project successes and allocate budget to these activities?

Optional Indicators

What is the budget for replication?

Is there a clear replication strategy for promoting incentive measures and instruments (e.g. certificates,
payments) within and beyond the project boundaries?




                                                                                                          105
        SIGNATURE PAGE




        COUNTRY: ANGOLA
        Expected Outcome(s)/:1.Individual and institutional capacity for SLM enhanced; 2. SLM mainstreamed into
        economic and sectoral development; 3. National Action Plan completed; 4.Medium Term Investment plan being
        financed and implemented
        Expected Output(s)/: Capacities for forest fire prevention, detection and suppression are strengthened; Cost-
        effective techniques for the rehabilitation of burned/deforested land are tested and developed; Cost-effective
        techniques/capacities for controlling deforestation by IAS creepers are developed. Sustainable production forest
        management systems are developed. Improved capacities for soil conservation in agriculture are developed;
        Capacity for minimizing risks of landslides is developed; Sustainable Land Management principles integrated in
        relevant national policies and strategies. Legal and regulatory framework concerning Sustainable Land Management
        reviewed, updated and harmonized. Stakeholders are aware of and apply SLM practices. Preparation of NAP. NAP
        disseminated. Medium Term Investment Plan for SLM developed .Financing for Medium Term Investment Plan
        ensured Implementation of Medium Term Investment Plan started

        Implementing partner: Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry for Urban Issues and the Environment,
        Provincial Directorate of Urban Affairs and Environment and UNDP

Programme Period: 20007-2011                                                Total Budget:
                                                                            Regular (GEF): 750,000
Programme Component: Energy and Environment for                                 PDFA: 25,000.-
Sustainable Development                                                         MSP: 725,000.-

Project Title: SLM Capacity Building for Angola                             Allocated resources:
Project ID: Award No. 00044526, Project No. 00052416,                       Government 350,000 in cash / 400,000 in
PIMS No. 3379                                                               kind
Project Duration: 4 years                                                   Parallel funding:
Management Arrangement: National Execution supported by                          UNDP: 400,000
Programme Coordination Unit



        Agreed by:
On Behalf of:               Signature                     Date                           Name/Title


Coordinating Agency

Implementing partner:

UNDP




                                                                                                                   106
i
     In some cases it is not possible to provide five alternative responses. Three or four are provided in such cases.
ii
     A survey will be developed by GSU, implementation to be financed through MSP budget.




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