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					                                HISTORY OF MASSA

                                  Chev Charles A. Bray

The MASSA name is rich with history and stories in which you will enjoy reading and learning
at the same time. The surname MASSA you’ll find its existence in many countries history and
stories such as: Italy, Africa, India, Iran, Israel, Malta, Canada, South America, the United
States, etc. The word MASSA its been used in many different meaning as will you see for
yourself when you start reading.

      Have you ever had the experience where your name was misspelled… perhaps on one of
       your cards or in a letter? What are the typical misspellings or pronunciation errors
       associated with the MASSA name? It strikes one very personally because the MASSA
       name is your possession and identification as you have on your cards, and it tells the
       world who you are. One word of caution, do not be distressed if the MASSA name
       originally meant something you consider uncomplimentary. Remember that the
       definition may have applied to a MASSA who lived centuries ago.


How the old and distinguished MASSA family got its name and what the MASSA name means.
The surname MASSA appears to be locational in origin. According to some research indicates
that it can be associated with the Italians, meaning, ―Dweller at, or near the Upland or
Lowland.‖ You may find other meanings for the MASSA family name in which you probably
never knew as you can read below.

Massa: The language of the Scythians the meaning of MASSA meant ―GRAND‖ or ―BIG‖.
Massa: the word Massa had a meaning divided in two parts ―MASSA SUPERIORE‖ and
Massa: In the Arabian Desert toward Babylonia they use the word of Massa as a ―LIFTING
Massa: The American Indians who occupied Rhode Island the word Massa as a GREAT ONE
Massa: The Slaves [Negro] they used the word Massa as MASTER.
Massa: you also find in Africa Massa as ethnic groups dominated the Military.
Massa: Coins of Massa in the year of 1208.

Massa: In the ancient days Massa meant a ―PLACE‖ where you kept your livestock.
Massa: Also Massa means ―STATE-OWNED LAND‖ such as ―MASSA LUBRENSE‖ belong to
the State of Sorrento. Italy.
Massa: You also find MASSA as a STATE on the Holy Land south of Palestine.
Massa: You’ll find MASSA as STATE was occupied by a Jewish colony.
Massa: You’ll find Samuel king of MASSA.

Knowing that different spellings of the same original surname are a common occurrence, it is
not surprising that dictionaries of surnames indicate probable spelling variations of the MASSA
surname to be MASSO, MASSIM, MASSAM and MASSAS. Although bearers of the old and
distinguished MASSA name comprise a small percentage of individuals living in MALTA and in
the world today, there may be a large number of your direct relatives who are using one of the
MASSA name variations.

We have mentioned the most common sources from which surnames are derived and
investigated the meaning of the MASSA family name. We must now examine some of the
idiosyncrasies for name given for the country of origin. Different cultures had different ways of
choosing names for their offspring. Below are various nationalities and ethnic groups and some
of the ways in which their names are derived.
MASSA: The Scythians inhabiting Central Asia at the time of Herodotus (5th century B.C.)
consisted of 4 main branches known as the MassaGatae, Sacae, Alani, and Sarmatians, sharing a
common language, ethnicity and culture. Ancient Greek (e.g. Herodotus, Pliny, Plotemy, Arian)
and Persian sources (Darius's historians) from the 5th century place the MassaGatea as the most
southerly group in the Central Asian steppe. The earliest Scythians who entered the northern
regions of South Asia were from this group. Historians derive "Jat" fom "Gatae", "Ahir" from
"Avar", "Saka" from "Scythii", "Gujjar" from "Khazar", "Thakur" from "Tukharian",
"Saurashtra" from "Saura Matii" or "Sarmatians", "Sessodia" (a Rajput clan) from
"Sassanian", "Madra" from "Medes", "Trigartta" from "Tyri Getae" and "Sulika" from
"Seleucids". "Massa" means "grand" or "big" in Old Iranian - the language of the Scythians.

MASSA: The tribe inhabiting the Arabian Desert toward Babylonia they used the word Massa a
meaning: Lifting up, gift, one of the sons of Ishmael, the founder of an Arabian tribe. The name
"Massa" probably derives from an ancient Lombard word meaning a place where the gentry
kept their provisions and livestock. Originally divided into two parts (Massa Superior and
Massa Inferior), Massa d'Albe was almost completely destroyed in the disastrous 1915
earthquake, and again in two air bombings on 1944, which caused about 240 deaths among the
civil population and the German Army. The present-day village has been completely
reconstructed according to anti-seismic regulations.

MASSA: The name MASSA first appears following the brief domination of the
Longobards (VI century), but it did not completely affirm itself until later. Most
historians believe that Massa derives from mansa, a Longobard word indicating a place
dedicated to cultivation. The adjective publican (938) was added to the name Massa to
mean state-owned land, public domain, in this case evidently belonging to the state of
Sorrento. Around 1306 publica was replaced by lubrensis (delubrum = temple, in
reference to the cathedral to be found on the beach of Fontanella). The municipality
added both this adjective and an image of the Virgin of the Lobra to its coat of arms.
The name Massa without adjectives usually refers to the cathedral house, nowadays
indicated as the centre of the town.

                                              MASSA Lubrense formed part of the
                                              Dukedom of Sorrento and its fortunes
                                              alternated until the arrival of the Normans.
                                                Its emancipation began under the
                                              Svevians, when it declared itself a civitas.
                                              In 1273 its citizens, who were mainly
                                              Ghibellines, suffered the reprisals of Carlo
                                              d'Angiò, who took the territory back under
                                              Sorrento's jurisdiction. A period of great
                                              confusion followed until 1465, when after a
                                              two-year siege Ferrante d'Aragona
                                              destroyed the village of Annunziata, seat of
                                              the Bishop and the civil authorities and the
only village with fortified walls and a defense tower.

Giovanna II of Durazzo stayed in the hamlet of Quarazzano in a magnificent mansion.
In 1600 the Jesuit Vincenzo Maggio built on its remains the imposing Collegio (il
Quartiere) with its high defense tower (il Torrione), an important architectural
example of fortifications and one of the town's main monuments. During the Spanish
viceroyalty, Massa Lubrense underwent a period of political unrest in an era of civil and
moral decadence made worse by the frequent invasions of Turkish pirates who in 1558
after horrendous massacres and pillaging took away about one thousand five hundred
people as slaves, some of wham were then ransomed.
The continual threat from the sea forced the people of Massa to build a series of
watchtowers along the coast, almost all of which are reasonably preserved and can still
be seen today. [AS YOU CAN SEE ABOVE]
In 1656 the plague, which had broken out in Naples some years earlier, spread to this
area causing many victims. Eventually, during the domination of the Bourbons, even
Massa began to feel the progress of the times, and new commercial and artisan
activities began to emerge alongside the ancient peasant civilization. Due to the poor
communications by land, a substantial fleet of large ships sailed to the capital and to
other Mediterranean ports exporting agricultural produce, livestock and artisan
products and importing raw materials and consumer articles. Commerce with Naples
was so intense that an entire district down at the quayside was named porta di Massa.

MASSA: The earliest reference to this fortress of Massa dates back to 1164, in the investiture of
Obizzo Malaspina by Federico I. However, it is likely that a fortified structure controlled by the
Obertenghi family had already straddled the same hilltop during the previous century
MASSA: lord of Massa from 1553, brought to completion the process of fusion between the old
fortress and the renaissance residence; the palace facade was embellished with unique painted
polycrome and marble-inlay decorations. Over the course of the late 16th and early 17th
centuries, the fortifications themselves were modernised and expanded through the addition of a
new and imposing rampart, built to satisfy the requirements of "modern" battle fronts, with
numerous embrasures and Artillery positions.


MASSA: The mighty Castle dominates the center of the city of Massa. It can be reached
following the Motorway A12 Genoa-Leghorn until the exit 'Massa'.

                                      The castle of Massa crowns the top of a rocky hill and
                                      from its position dominates the wide underlying plain and
                                      great part of the Tyrrhenian coastline. Probably in the
                                      early Middle Age, due to the characteristic of the location,
                                      a fortified settlement raised up on the hill and documents
                                      mention a site called Massa since the year 882. Surely it
                                      was situated where today we can still admire the mighty

Massa Marittima, sitting stately atop its 1,188-foot (356m) mount with a sweeping view over the
farmland far below and Metalliferous Hills beyond, is an Etruscan grandchild. It's a medieval
mining town that's heir to ancient Pupolonia, now little more than fragmentary remains 40 miles
away on the coast. When St. Cerbone moved his bishop's seat here in the 9th century, he kicked
off Massa’s Middle Ages prosperity, based on mining the metal-rich hills around it. It
established a republic in 1225 and grew fat on mine proceeds--unfortunately attracting the
attentions of the nearby Sienese.

MASSA: The Second Italian Campaign began with the resounding victory of Marengo (14 June
1800) and ended with the Peace of Luneville (9 February 1801) whereby France regained control
 over Italy. The republican ideals having been replaced by Napoleon's dynastic aspirations, the
 Repubblica Italiana, direct heir of the Cisalpina with the addition of the Venetian domain, was
 established on 28 December 1805 and then transformed into the Kingdom of Italy on 31 March
  1805. The pope's authority over part of his territories was re-established; the Grand Duchy of
 Tuscany was transformed into the Kingdom of Etruria; the territories of Piombino, Lucca and
 Carrara were assigned as a duchy to Napoleon's sister Eloise; the Kingdom of Naples was given
 (30 March 1806) his brother Joseph; and only Sardinia and Sicily remained for the Savoys and
The Emperor Napoleon III Plan a War at Massa: The Emperor came to my aid and together we
ran through the states of Italy, to seek there the cause of this war so difficult to find. After
having traveled the whole peninsula without success, we arrived almost without suspecting it at
Massa and Carrarra*, and there discovered what we had been seeking so eagerly. After we had
given the Emperor a precise description, we agreed that an address of the inhabitants to your
Majesty would be provoked to ask your protection and even to demand the annexation of these
duchies to Sardinia. Your Majesty would not accept this offer, but, taking the part of these
oppressed peoples, would address to the Duke of Modena a haughty and threatening note. The
Duke, confident of the support of Austria, would reply to it impertinently. Thereupon your
majesty would occupy Massa and war would begin.

  Massa: Massa Toscana stands 65 m. above sea level at the mouth of the Frigido valley, at the
foot of the Apuan Alps (Mount Pisanino, 1,945 m.), a few kilometres from the Tyrrhenian coast.

Massa Marittima: the contado towns of Massa Marittima, Montalcino and
Montepulciano. Casting new light on such topics as the original site for the
reliquary tomb of Saint Cerbone, patron saint of Massa Marittima.

MASSA: In 1335, Siena attacked and subdued Massa, taking the upper half of town and
fortifying it as their Città Nuova (New Town). In its heyday, the city produced both religious
heritage (St. Bernardine of Siena was born and died here) and civic legacy. (The first mining
code in European history was drawn up here in the 14th century, one of the most important
legislative documents from the Middle Ages.)

Massa: Bernardino degli Albizzeschi was born in Massa Marittima, in Tuscany, in 1380. His
family was well known and wealthy in the town of Siena. When still very young Bernardine lost
his parents, and had to move to Siena, to be taken care of by relatives. He studied law between
1396-1399. During the same period he also studied Scripture and theology.

Today, Massa is an overlooked gem of the western Tuscan hill towns. The Germans are the only
ones who come in droves in the summer, but aside from them, the fewer than 10,000 inhabitants,
and the occasional bike tour whizzing through, Massa and its gorgeous cathedral lie empty for

MASSA: The men of the 370th had also penetrated the Gothic Line in their sector and
now controlled Highway 12, which served as a crucial east-west communications artery
for the Germans. In early October, they were ordered to take the city of Massa, near
the coast, which was the first step in capturing the naval base at La Spezia. Although
the Germans had been in continuous retreat in Italy, they resisted fiercely at Massa.
They were determined to protect the western edge of the Gothic Line, especially
because La Spezia's naval base was nearby. Beset by cold autumn rains, the Buffalo
Soldiers found themselves fighting a new enemy--mud--in addition to dug-in enemy
troops. They did not take Massa at that point, and all across the Gothic Line,
 Kesselring's forces held on. Meanwhile, though the II Corps made some impressive
headway, it failed to reach Bologna before the snows set in. After Six-day battle for
control of Massa, the Buffalo Soldiers pulled back and regrouped. At Salemo on
September 9, 1943 the rest of the 92nd Infantry Division began to land in Italy. The
Buffalo Soldiers of the 370th kept up the offensive on a smaller scale with power
patrols consisting of between 35 and 75 men and at times machine-gun and mortar
crews. The Fifth Army spent most of November conducting defensive actions in
preparation for a renewed offensive in December.

MASSA: Antonio Massa, a first lieutenant in the Italian army of his majesty the King. Not in
Mussolini's army. These men were a pan of those troops that were captured and disarmed and
made to fight with the Germans against the Russians. They were also pressed into the German
work force and were the ones that were forced to dig the grave-like foxholes we saw in the road.
The retreating Germans left them behind as the American troops approached the town. Antonio
Massa was also left behind when the American troops advanced towards the town as you could
see in the picture the First Lieutenant in the Italian army of his majesty the King.

MASSA: The General Chapter of Forlì, in 1421, elected Angelo Salvetti as Minister General. His
successor was Antonio da Massa Marittima (1424-1430). These years mark an interesting period
in the history of the Order, especially regarding the spreading and organization of the Regular

MASSA: The Villa Massa estate is located in Sorrento and is owned and operated by the Massa

ISREAL: MASSA: Does the name Marib occur in the Scriptures of the Hebrews? [The Arab
geographers identified Marib with Saba. It was supposed to be the name of a castle occupied by
the rulers of Saba]. In the stony valley of Rephidim near Horeb, the Israelites met the
Amalekites, more exactly at a point called Massa and Meriba (Exodus 17:7-8): ―And he called
the name of the place Massa and Meriba. Then came Amalek and fought with Israel in
Rephidim.‖ This was shortly after the Israelites had passed to the eastern shore of the Sea of
Passage escaping from their persecutors

Massa: Beyond the limits of the Holy Land, close by Dumah, lay the land or district of Massa,
one of the original seats of the Ishmaelite. Must have been situate beyond Seir--that is, to the
southeast of Palestine, in Northern Arabia. Whether the Ishmaelite of Massa had come to the
knowledge of Jehovah, the true God; whether Massa was occupied by a Jewish colony, which
there established the service of the Lord * or whether, through the influence of Hebrew
immigrants, such a religious change had been brought about, certain it is, that the two last
chapters of the book of Proverbs introduce the royal family of Massa as deeply imbued with
the spiritual religion of the Old Testament, and the Queen - mother as training the heir to the
throne in the knowledge and fear of the lord. It is a remarkable fact that, according to
mediaeval Jewish and Arab writers, Jews largely inhabited the district of Massa and
Dumah. There can be no Question that the word rendered in the Authorized Version
and by "prophecy" is simply the name of a district, "Massa." Indeed, so much is this
the case, that the instruction of the queen of Massa, and the words of her two royal
sons, are inserted in the book of Proverbs as part of the inspired records of the Old
Testament. According to the best criticism, proverbs should be thus rendered: "The
words of Agur, the son of her whom Massa obeys.

MASSA: ―Samuel, king of Massa, with which his mother taught him." If the very names of these
two Princess --Agur, "exile," and Lemuel, "for God," or "dedicated to God are significant of her
convictions, the teaching of that royal mother, as recorded in proverbs 31:2-9, is worthy of a
"mother in Israel."
MASSA: Isaac Massa 1606 recounts how the advance company of Cossacks "soon approached
Moscow at a distance of one mile and stood at the river Danilovka and occupied the village of
Zagorye (Zaborye), and immediately dug entrenchments.

MASSA: Documents, including bulletins, on the policy of the USSR regarding Egypt and peace
in the Middle East, on the Israeli communist party, and on other subjects (possibly meant as
contributions to Al Massa). To Desmond Buckle and others with some correspondence to Nabil
S. Mausa with copies of letters.

                                       MASSA: The hospital of Massa, seated next to the S.
                                       Martino's Church, was founded in 1090 a. C. During the
                                       years it became inadequate and in 1781 a project of
                                       restructure of the "Convento degli Agostiniani" was
                                       approved. However, the works did not started at once,
                                       probably because the environment was not healthy, and
                                       even dangerous for patients, due to the presence of the
                                       lake of Porta.

Elisabetta Baciocchi* during her government ordered a lake reclamation through the
construction of cataracts at Cinquale (a place near Massa), so that the works went on and in
1819 the new building was opened. It was organized as a real hospital, following those
therapeutic and no more welfare rules, which were spreading in the hospitals during the XVIII

MASSA: Carlo Massa, Filmmaker, and Milan, Italy

Massa: Massa Bernucci as Ambassador in Malta.

UNITED STATES: Massa Harbison 1790-1794: Massa and her husband John came to Western
Pennsylvania as part of a mass migration of Revolutionary War Veterans. Massa and John
settled somewhere along Chartier's Run in Westmoreland county. John Harbison found to be a
"spy," he knew the Indian Lands across the Allegheny and he scouted them for the army. He
was scouting for the army in the spring of 1792 when a party of Indians at Reed’s Station
captured Massa. Here the story continues in Massa’s own words... The first thing I knew from
falling asleep, was the Indians pulling me out of the bed by my feet. I then looked up, and saw
the house full of Indians, every one having his gun in his left hand, and tomahawk in his right.
The Indians, when they had flogged me away with them, took my oldest boy, a lad about five
years of age, along with them. They took him by his feet, and dashed his brains out against the
threshold of the door. They then scalped and stabbed him, and left him for dead. I beheld
another hard scene, for as soon as we landed, my little boy who was still mourning and
lamenting about his little brother, and who complained that he was injured by the fall, in
descending the bank, was murdered. One of the Indians ordered me along, probably, that I
should not see the horrid deed about to be perpetrated. The other, then, took his tomahawk from
his side, and with this instrument of death killed and scalped him. They kept me as their
prisoner for few days. Then I concluded it was time for me to escape. I did escape kept running
for six days until I saw three men on the opposite bank of the river. I called to them, but they
seemed unwilling to risk the danger of coming after me and asked that I be. I replied, that I was
one who had been taken prisoner by the Indians on the Allegheny River. They requested me to
walk up the bank of the river awhile that they might see if the Indians were making a decoy of
me, but I replied to them that my feet were so sore that I could not walk. When I landed on the
inhabited side of the river, the people from the fort came running out to the boat to see me: they
took the child from me, and now I felt safe from danger, I found myself unable to move, or to
assist myself in any degree. The people took me, and carried me out of the boat to the house of
Mr. Cortus. Massa Harbison was first buried near Buffalo Creek and was later moved to
Freeport Cemetery.

MASSA: Massachusetts, The Jesuit missionary Father Rasles thought that it came from the
word Messatossec, "Great-Hills-Mouth": "mess" (mass) meaning "great"; "atsco" (as chu or
wad chu) meaning "hill"; and sec (sac or saco) meaning "mouth". The Reverend John Cotton
used another variation: "mos" and "wetuset", meaning "Indian arrowhead", descriptive of the
Native Americans hill home. Another explanation is that the word comes from "massa" meaning
"great" and "wachusett", "mountain-place."

MASSA: Quina was combined with the names of the tribal chiefs of New England to denote
nobility and leadership. Massasoit (massa=great + soit=chief) was the king or sachem of the
Wampanoag Indians who occupied eastern Rhode Island and Massachusetts, including Cape

MASSA: [The word Massa was used as a master] The jail was but seldom used, for crime was
rare in that community and the moral sentiment so high that locks and bolts were scarcely
thought of. There is, however, in connection with this jail and courthouse an interesting
tradition that shows that once at least, in Norfolk, the sterner penalties of the law were dealt out.
It is said that while Sheriff Major Bostwick was in charge of the government building there, a
Negro was in confinement awaiting execution for theft, in those days a capital crime. The Negro
was sentenced to be hanged on a certain Thursday, but the sheriff had friends coming from
York in the latter part of the week to visit him and enjoy the shooting; so the sheriff, not wishing
to be troubled with an execution after his friends arrived, asked the "colored gentleman" if he
would have any objections to be hanged on the preceding Tuesday, to which the Negro replied,
"No, no, Massa, you've been very good to me, and if you feed me well until Tuesday I'll be
hanged then to oblige you." So the necessary ceremonies took place, per agreement, on the
Tuesday, and the sheriff was at liberty to entertain his friends.

MASSA: [AN EARTHQUAKE] While discussing the matter, father set out on the table some
brandy and water, and asked his frightened neighbors to drink. An old colored woman came up
to father and asked, "Massa, did you try to shake my house down last night?" Another said, "I
thought the horses were rubbing my cabin down." One said it was something in the ground; for
she felt the ground shake in her yard. Father said every bolt shook in its lock. Then it shook the
water and brandy on the table.

INDIA: The Mughal Governor of Lahore drove the Sikhs out of the temple in the middle of the
18th Century. Troops were posted to keep them away from Amritsar and Hari Mandir. A Sikh
could have a dip in the sacred water of the tank and drink it only at the risk of his life. A police
post and a civil court were established in the temple in 1740. The Mughal Commandant Massa
Ranghar used the holy Sanctorum as a dancing hall. The temple precincts were used as stables.
Two valiant Sikhs Mehtab Singh and Sukha Singh came all the way from Bikaner to punish the
Ranghar. Disguised as cultivators, they got into the temple precincts on the plea of paying the
land revenue. While Mehtab Singh entered the temple, Sukha Singh stood guard outside. The
former killed Massa Ranghar and escaped with his companion before the official guard had
recovered from the shock. The murder of Massa Ranghar was followed by a severe persecution
of the Sikhs and they were compelled to go into hiding. The temple was locked. Sentries were
posted at the entrance with strict orders not to let any stranger in. The Sikhs however took
advantage of the confusion and anarchy, which followed Nadir Shah's invasion of India (1739).
Jassa Singh Kalal, one of the important Sikh leaders of the time, openly declared that the Dal
Khalsa i.e. the Sikh Commonwealth would be the new rulers of the land. But Ahmad Shah
Abdali's invasion of India (1747) ushered the new era of persecution for the Sikhs. Abdali was
determined to wipe out the Sikhs out of the existence and to pull down the Golden Temple. The
temple was occupied and desecrated in 1757 in the famous year of the Battle of Plassey, which
made the English the de-factor Masters of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa. The Sikhs, however, united
under two of their leaders both named Jassa Singh occupied Lahore and Amritsar in 1758.
MASSA: Through out Sikh history, many tyrants have unsuccessfully tried to wipe them out, but Sikhs
always fought back and won, since they always fought for truth, injustice, weak and others. Beware
Abdali, Massa Rangad or Indra. Sikhs will always haunt you.

MASSA: Indians are perhaps, world's greatest masochists. It requires thickest possible skin, ingrained &
genetically ensured slavish minds to even consider the East India Co, & their successors as anything less
than barbaric. Folks suffer with this slavish syndrome so much that were a Brit to say couple of
disparaging words about his country's KNOWN negative role in affairs of India, sheer thrill is
experienced; gratitude is felt: O'MY White Master, at last you owned up you are a wee bit, just a wee bit
guilty. Thank You Bwana, thank you Massa. Churchill predicted men of straw would rule this land once
the Brits leave. He was an ace idiot, master of his language though he was. Today a Straw, and a lap dog
of Bush rule that third rate power. Did he foresee that? List out the sins of the Brits.They will make you
fall in love with Managers of Roman amphitheaters.

AFRICA: MASSA: Name-shifting is defined as "the ease with which a Negro may assume one name
after another, especially in dealing with whites" (ibid. 26). Some freed slaves, like Sojourner Truth, chose
completely new names for themselves – shifting their name from slave name to a chosen or acquired
name upon the significant event of release from slavery. Dillard suggests that, while Sojourner Truth’s
name does not on the surface read etymologically African, the structure of the name is reminiscent of the
name-shifting that takes place in West Africa when a man leaves his home or "traditional setting and
family" or works away from home. "The vehicle of this name-shifting is Pidgin English, the most useful
language for a West African worker when he moves into a polyglot environment where his tribal
language will no longer suffice" (Dillard 25). Other acquired names of Pidgin English origin include: I
Go Try (I’ll Try), Banana Ret (Ripe Bananas), Bad Belly, Botter Bia (Bottle of Beer), Chop Massa
(Master of Eating – Gourmet), Day di Go (Day is Passing), Fine Boy, Free Boy, Gita Massa (Master of the
Guitar – Guitarist) (ibid.).

MASSA: Under President Hissein Habre, members of Gourane, Zaghawa, Kanembou, Hadjerai,
and Massa ethnic groups dominated the military. Idriss Deby, a member of the minority
Zaghawa-related Bidyate clan and a top military commander, revolted and fled to the Sudan,
taking with him many Zaghawa and Hadjerai soldiers in 1989. The forces that Deby led into
N'Djamena on December 1, 1990 to oust President Habre were mainly Zaghawa (including a
large number of Sudanese), many of who were recruited while Deby was in the bush. Deby's
coalition also included a small number of Hadjerais and southerners.

MASSA: Bumba Massa's career goes back to 1963 and a band called Cubana Jazz, which
included guitarist Bavon Marie-Marie, Franco's kid brother and a future star of Negro Success.
Massa (or Massamour) went on to sing with Johnny Bokelo in Conga 68 and Vicky Longomba in
Lovy du Zaire. It was in Lovy du Zaire that he first worked with Syran Mbenza - and that
association has brought him, thirty years later, to Kékélé.

Massa: During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Kanembus from neighboring Bornu
attacked the Saos; they sought an alliance with the Massa people who had come from the East in
the fifteenth century. This gave birth to a new ethnic group – the Kotukus. Today, some traces of
Sao can be spotted here and there at Maroua, Mora, Bibemi and Pitoa.

MASSA: Nigga, niggah, Ny -Ga, nig - however you want to say it, still means ignorant. Oh yea,
I hear you; "We took Massa's word and gave it a new meaning". No fool, you took Massa's
word and accepted it and it's definition as truth. Nigger. As Africans, dirty and ignorant words,
that is the very antithesis of our heritage. Shed it from your vocabulary NOW! Minority s
another word that must be spewed from our lips as the taste from sucking on an orange's
acidic skin. By whose standards are we minorities? It was by the sweat of our forefathers'
brows that this nation was built. It was by scattering our bodies across the globe that this
world gained culture. We are minorities by whose standards? Surely we are not minorities in
thought because we continue to invent and have our ideas stole. Surely we are not minorities
in body, for it was our bodies that were used as the prototype for the all terrain, all climate,
and epitome of productivity being. Surely we are not minority in beauty for it as an image of an
 African queen's full breasts, think lips and wide hips that danced on the inside of massa's
 eyelids during his periods of slumber.

 MASSA: Every Arminian believes that; and every man in the world believes it
 that holds that doctrine, since he conceives that Christ died for every man.
 Consequently that is not faith. But faith is this: to cast yourself on Christ. As
 the Negro said, most curiously, when asked what he did to be saved; "Massa,"
 said he, "I fling myself down on Jesus, and dere I lay; I fling myself flat on de
 promise, and dere I lay." And to every penitent sinner Jesus says, "I am able to
 save to the uttermost;" throw thyself flat on the promise, and say, "Then, Lord,
 thou art able to save me."

 MASSA: Sal Massa was called to serve as the pastor in December of 1998. He clearly
experienced an anointing from God for ministry, and left a secular job to shepherd the flock at
LCBC. Sal has been and continues to be supported in ministry by his wife, Elena, who also
serves in the church ministry center.

 MASSA: Hingham, Massachusetts — Don Massa characterizes his Massa Products
 Corporation as a "midget among the giants" of transducer houses. The 70,000-square-foot plant,
 unobtrusive even in this small New England coastal town, might pale in the shadows of the
 major sonar transducer-manufacturing giants. But Don Massa holds a few not-so-secret
 weapons that take the company well out of the "loft operation" category and undeniably
 entrenching it in a lead position.

MASSA: Boxing the WBC Medical Committee is headed by doctors Adrian Whiteson (England),
Francisco Massa (Spain), Hernando Escobar (Venezuela), and Argentine Hugo Rodriguez Pappini
who, among others, came up with an intensive research program related to dehydration and

 Massa Kendrick 1798 – 1844. Massa was born in St. Kitts in 1798 and came to England in about
 1811. As a boxer he was described as quarrelsome and courageous. He provoked Bill Richmond
 a boxer, who was a Georgian born Afro-American, into a fistfight in the street and tried to do
 the same with another Virginian born Afro-American, Tom Molineaux but failed. His most
 famous fight was against a fighter called George Cooper, which took place in Westminster,
 London. The fight was arranged on the spur of the moment and lasted for 69 rounds before
 Kendrick admitted defeat. Cooper refused a return fight on the grounds that beating Kendrick
 again would not add to his reputation. Kendrick fought against Dick Acton and beat him in
 1822. His defeats were attributed to his failure to train properly and he retired from the ring in
 1826. He died at the age of 46 in 1844.

Massa Coins: The fairly common copper Massa coin of royal Prince DharmasokaDeva who on
coming to the throne was aged three months and reigned for one year 1208-1209 under the general
Ayasmanta. The copper Massa coins from the late Polonnaruwa and Dambadeniya era. The one-
Eighth Massa copper coin of the reign is extremely rare.

  MASSA: Sauber's Brazilian Felipe Massa has made Formula One history twice in one day at
 the Italian Grand Prix.

 Massa: Birth date: April 25, 1981 Birth Place: Sao Paola, Brazil
 Car Number: 17 Team: Sauber Manufacturer: Ferrari Sauber's Brazilian Felipe Massa has
 made Formula One history twice in one day at the Italian Grand Prix.

 Felipe Massa makes his Formula One debut in 2002, replacing Kimi Raikkonen at Sauber.
 Raikkonen, a rookie himself in 2001, left for McLaren after one great year with Sauber.
 Massa won the 2001 European Formula 3000 championship in his first season on the circuit.
Massa, who has been dogged with many comparisons to famed Brazilian hero Aryton Senna,
won five European Formula 3000 races and five poles in 2001. Before that, he also won the
Italian Formula Renault title in 2000 and Brazilian Formula Chevrolet in 1999.

MASSA: RUSSIA, Moscow. We are participating in a number of cases in this sphere and see
that investigation and judiciary bodies are instructed to smooth over the scene of the crime, and
our defense lawyers are heavily pressurized. Small example, just one in broad daylight,
practically on the doorstep of the UNHCR office a group of skinheads armed with sticks beat to
death Paul Massa Mayoni, an Angolese who was there to request asylum. For several months no
action was taken to arrest the teen-agers who have committed the crime.

MASSA: Living in United States approximately 4.000 families

MASSA: Living in Canada approximately 600 families

MASSA: Living in Australia approximately 200 families

MASSA: Living in England approximately 240 families

MASSA: Living in Germany approximately 450 families

MASSA: Living in Switzerland approximately 150 families

Of course there’s other countries with MASSA families such as Italy, Malta and others.

                                 Chev Charles A. Bray

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