Arkansas Property Taxpayers Bill of Rights by ifl18215

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									An Analysis of Issues and Needs
    In Workforce Education
           A White Paper




             March 2006
           (Revised July 3, 2006)
                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1
Adult Education ........................................................................................................... 2
Arkansas Rehabilitation Services ................................................................................ 4
Career & Technical Education ..................................................................................... 7
Secondary Area Technical Centers ............................................................................. 9
Technical Careers Student Loan Forgiveness ............................................................ 11
Appendix A: Adult Education ...................................................................................... 13
Appendix B: Arkansas Rehabilitation Services ........................................................... 18
Appendix C: Career & Technical Education ............................................................... 29
Appendix D: Secondary Area Technical Centers ....................................................... 42
Appendix E: Technical Careers Student Loan Forgiveness ....................................... 50
DWE White Paper


                                    Introduction

The Department of Workforce Education (DWE) has been charged with providing the
leadership and contributing resources to serve the diverse and changing workforce
training needs of the youths and adults of Arkansas. As part of this mission, it oversees
career and technical education programs in the secondary schools; secondary area
technical centers; adult and youth apprenticeship programs; three postsecondary
technical institutes; Arkansas Rehabilitation Services; and adult education programs.
DWE partners with other state agencies on programs such as the Governor’s
Dislocated Workers Task Force and the Career Pathway Initiative. It also works with the
Veterans Administration to approve state educational programs for veterans’ benefits
and oversees the Federal Surplus Property program.




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DWE White Paper


                                   Adult Education

BACKGROUND

Funded by both state and federal government, the Adult Education Section provides
adults with the opportunity to improve reading, writing, math, and English language
skills and to earn the Arkansas High School Diploma by passing the General
Educational Development (GED) tests. Since its beginning in 1967, Arkansas’ Adult
Education Section has been a national leader in many areas.

      Arkansas was the first state to initiate a teacher-training workshop in adult
       education and was a leader in developing teacher certification and graduate
       degrees in adult education.
      In the 1980s and 1990s, Arkansas had the highest ratio of full-time to part-time
       teachers in adult education in the country.
      Arkansas was one of the first states to develop training for teaching adults with
       learning disabilities and to provide adult education in the workplace.

DWE’s Adult Education Section offers a variety of programs to meet diverse educational
needs, ranging from basic academic skills to workplace education. Every adult
education instructor has a state teaching license. All classes are offered free of charge
and on a flexible basis that allows students to start and end when they want and to work
around their job schedule. The following programs are offered year-round:

Adult Basic Education
Available to adults who are below the eighth-grade level, this program is tailored to the
individual student to address reading, writing, math, or life-coping skills.

General Adult Education/GED
This program helps adults prepare for the GED exam or improve their educational skills
at the high school level. Tailored to the individual student’s needs and skill level,
instruction is provided in writing skills, social studies, science, reading, and
mathematics.

Workforce Alliance for Growth in the EconomyTM (WAGE)
A community-based program, WAGE works with local employers to combine desired
academic skills, computer technology, and workplace curriculum to improve the job
skills of the unemployed and underemployed. Students in this program can earn
certification in industrial, employability, or clerical skills.

Workplace Education
Offered in partnership with the employer, these classes may be designed to meet
education needs in a specific workplace or offer training in regular skills – such as math,
reading, or English as a Second Language (ESL) – taught in the context of the
workplace.


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English as a Second Language
Beginning, intermediate, and advanced ESL classes are available to adults whose
native language is not English. ESL students also learn how to cope in American
society. Some classes prepare students for the citizenship exam.

Computer Literacy
These introductory classes are designed to help adult education students use
technology as a learning tool.

Family Literacy
These intergenerational programs are used to improve the educational opportunities of
children and adults by integrating their needs into a unified program consisting of child
development activities, basic skills instruction for adults, parenting and life skills
development, and parent/child interaction time.

Correctional Education
A grant to the Arkansas Department of Correction School District provides adult
education services at local, regional, state, and federal correctional facilities in
Arkansas.


STATUS

The Arkansas Adult Education Section funds 53 adult education programs (serving all
75 counties) and 30 literacy councils. These programs have an impressive outreach as
the following statistics demonstrate:

      About 60,000 adults are served each year, with more than 37,000 enrolled in at
       least 12 hours of instruction.
      Half of the enrolled students improve their reading or math skills by two or more
       grade levels each year.
      About 6,500 Arkansans receive their Arkansas High School Diploma by passing
       the GED tests each year. Arkansas has one of the highest GED pass rates (86
       percent) in the country and is the only state to provide the GED tests free to its
       residents.
      About 17 percent of the students enrolled are Hispanic. Over the past 10 years,
       Hispanic enrollment in adult education has tripled.


CHALLENGES

   A. Although the Adult Education Section strives to overcome the barriers that keep
      adults from furthering their education, many adult Arkansans have yet to take
      advantage of this opportunity for one reason or another. And the need for adult
      education continues to grow. According to the 2000 U.S. Census,



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DWE White Paper


             More than 490,000 adult Arkansans do not have a high school diploma;
             More than 160,000 of those have less than an eighth-grade education;
              and
             The number of people who speak English less than “very well” increased
              from 14,000 in 1990 to more than 43,000 in 2000. (That number has
              continued to grow over the past few years.)

   B. While the Adult Education Section does get some funding from the federal
      government, most of its funding comes from the state. Adult Education was
      given $17.6 million in state funding for fiscal year 2005. State funding for the
      Adult Education Section has not increased since 1992 – despite inflation and
      increased need for its services. As a result, cuts in service have been
      mandatory. The Adult Education Section has had to cut the number of teachers,
      staff, night classes, locations, instructional materials, and equipment.

   C. Many adult education teachers work in the public school districts but are funded
      through the Adult Education Section. Whenever the General Assembly
      mandates a teacher pay hike, these teachers must be given the raise even
      though the legislature has not funded their raise. (The General Assembly
      provides the money for raises to all the other teachers in the school districts.)
      This further cuts into adult education funding.

   D. According to state law, 16- and 17-year-old students may enroll in adult
      education classes under specific circumstances. In the 2004-05 program year,
      2,355 16- and 17-year-old students enrolled in adult education classes. The
      public schools received all or partial payment for these students, while the Adult
      Education Section received no state funding to provide classes for these
      younger students.



                       Arkansas Rehabilitation Services

BACKGROUND

To achieve its mission of preparing Arkansans with disabilities to work and lead
productive, independent lives, Arkansas Rehabilitation Services (ARS) provides the
foundation for a variety of programs and services offered through 19 field offices, the
Hot Springs Rehabilitation Center, and special programs and support services. ARS is
funded through a federal/state partnership in which federal funding accounts for nearly
80 percent of the budget.




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DWE White Paper


Field Services
The field offices, scattered throughout the state, serve people with severe disabilities
(except vision disabilities1) in all 75 counties.

Hot Springs Rehabilitation Center
The rehabilitation center, which consists of a hospital and the Arkansas Career Training
Institute, offers both residential and nonresidential medical and vocational services to
about 1,000 Arkansans with disabilities a year. The licensed and accredited, 26-bed
hospital provides full-time nursing care, physical therapy, occupational therapy,
speech/language pathology services, social services, psychological services, and a
pharmacy. The hospital also provides specialty clinics to ARS clients. These clinics
include orthopedic, amputee, spinal cord injury, urology, dental, and psychiatry.

The training institute prepares ARS clients for employment. It offers vocational training
in 12 different programs. Other services include counseling, case management,
vocational evaluation, employment readiness, recreation, student living, behavioral
enhancement, and job placement.

Special Programs and Support Services
These programs and services consist of

          A comprehensive vocational/psychological evaluation network;
          The Successful Employment through Assistive Technology program;
          The Learning and Evaluation Center, which provides mental health and learning
           disability services;
          The Office for the Deaf and Hearing Impaired;
          The Arkansas Kidney Disease Commission; and
          Special projects or separately funded programs, such as the Telecom-
           munications Access Program, CADET transportation program, supported
           housing project, and an alternative financing program for assistive technology.


STATUS

Although ARS dates back to the 1920s with the beginning of the federal Vocational
Rehabilitation program, the following statistics show its services are needed as much
today as they were then:

          About 400,000 people with disabilities make Arkansas their home.
          Arkansas has one of the highest percentages of working-age adults with
           disabilities in the nation.
          The unemployment rate among Arkansans with disabilities is approaching 60
           percent (consistent with the national average).
          Each year, ARS serves about 22,000 individuals with disabilities.

1
    The Department of Health and Human Services serves Arkansans who have a vision disability.


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      In FY 2004, Arkansans with disabilities who came to ARS for training had
       earnings averaging $67.36 a week. Following training and job placement through
       ARS, they averaged earnings of $358.26 a week. They had total combined
       earnings of $41.5 million in their first year of employment after using ARS
       services and programs.


CHALLENGES

   A. When funds are not available to serve everyone who may be eligible for services,
      federal regulations require ARS to serve those individuals with severe disabilities
      first. Over the past several years, ARS has received only basic cost-of-living
      increases in state and federal funds, but the cost of services it provides has
      increased at a much more rapid pace. As a result, the demand for services
      significantly exceeds the resources available. Because of limited funding, ARS
      has had to restrict its services to those classified as severely disabled. This
      group of clients requires more comprehensive services over a longer period of
      time and at a greater cost, further limiting the amount of funding available to
      address the needs of Arkansans with less severe disabilities. The primary
      funding source for ARS is the federal Workforce Investment Act of 1998.
      Reauthorization of this act is pending in Congress. While the act is likely to be
      reauthorized, funding levels may not be increased. Thus, the state may have to
      contribute more funds to this program to assure that all Arkansans with
      disabilities get the help they need to become productive residents.

   B. Many of the facilities at the Hot Springs Rehabilitation Center are in need of
      major renovation. Some of the buildings cannot be used, because they are in
      such bad condition. Problems include water damage, mold issues, lead paint,
      asbestos, and dated electrical and heating systems. It would take about $4.6
      million to address these needs. This cost will go up the longer the buildings are
      allowed to deteriorate.

   C. A base operational budget of $450,000 is needed to continue the Creative
      Alternatives for Delta Area Transportation (CADET) program. The original
      funding sources for this program, which provides work-related transportation
      services to people with disabilities in 24 Delta counties, ended in 2005. The
      program is operating this year through ARS case service funds and is limited to
      current ARS clients.

   D. To accomplish its mission, ARS hires staff with expertise in a variety of medical
       and psychological disciplines. Recruitment and retention of highly qualified
       personnel in these areas is difficult because of competition from the private
       sector. To address this issue, ARS needs the flexibility to upgrade or reclassify
       positions for psychological examiners, psychologists, occupational and physical
       therapists, and other medical specialists.




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DWE White Paper


                       Career and Technical Education

BACKGROUND

DWE’s Career and Technical Education (CTE) Section provides leadership and
contributes resources needed to prepare secondary students for work or college by
offering specialized training and real-world work experience while reinforcing academic
skills. It provides the curriculum frameworks, equipment standards, inservice training,
and requirements for programs of study in 16 nationally recognized career clusters,
ranging from Agriculture, Food, & Natural Resources to Transportation, Distribution, &
Logistics. Arkansas Standards of Accreditation requires each high school to offer at
least three programs of study in three different career clusters. The schools choose
which programs to offer based on the needs and interest in their communities as well as
available resources. CTE also has oversight of the youth and adult apprenticeship
programs in the state and federal Perkins and Tech Prep funds (about $10 million
annually).


STATUS

Nationally, CTE programs are leading high school reform efforts as these courses
integrate both academic and real-world skills. In Arkansas, Act 675 of 2003 required all
high school students to have six career focus units in order to graduate. In the 2004-05
school year,

      22,977 secondary students enrolled in agriculture science & technology courses;
      88,280 enrolled in business/marketing technology;
      46,332 enrolled in family & consumer sciences;
      26,480 enrolled in technical & professional (these courses include automotive,
       aviation, trades, medical professions, etc.);
      30,706 enrolled in career orientation;
      2,832 enrolled in principles of technology; and
      2,804 enrolled in workplace readiness.

The apprenticeship program is available to both youths and adults. While some
apprenticeships are voluntary, state law requires workers in specific trades, such as
plumbers and electricians, to complete an approved apprenticeship. In the 2004-05
school year,

      103 secondary and postsecondary schools participated in apprenticeship
       programs;
      1,771 employers participated in apprenticeship programs;
      543 high school students enrolled in the youth apprenticeship program; and
      6,768 adults worked as apprentices.



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DWE White Paper



CHALLENGE

   A. Every year, 35-45 percent of the high school students who have completed a
      CTE program of study go directly into the workforce upon graduation. To better
      equip these students for the workplace, the state of Arkansas should require that
      every CTE program of study be linked to national certification in that field. While
      some CTE programs, like automotive, provide certification, many do not. Such a
      requirement would provide a consistent offering of quality programs throughout
      the state and would go a long way in enhancing the skills and professionalism of
      Arkansas’ workforce. It also would help better prepare the 55-65 percent of
      students who go on for postsecondary training.

   B. To offer a new program of study, schools apply to DWE for approval and funding
      for the instructional equipment, nonconsumable supplies, and program software
      required for that program. In each of the past three years, DWE has received
      more than 200 new program applications. Because of an appropriation capped
      at $2.37 million for new program start-ups, DWE has been able to fund fewer
      than 40 percent of the applications each year, which could create an equity
      issue.

      If the new program start-up line item in the public school fund were increased on
      a one-time basis to $6 million, DWE would be able to fund most of the backlog of
      districts with approvable programs. Such a one-time increase would enable the
      department to return to a year-to-year approval/funding cycle. In subsequent
      years, the new program start-up appropriation should be increased to $4 million
      to allow for the continued growth of quality CTE programs.

   C. The new program start-up appropriation cannot be used to replace broken or
      obsolete equipment used in an existing program. Prior to the 2000-01 school
      year, the state provided funds, on a limited basis, to help schools replace such
      broken or out-of-date equipment. Because of state budget concerns, this line
      item was cut in 2000 and has never been reinstated. Thus, schools are required
      to upgrade equipment with local sources of funds (an equity issue) or, in many
      instances, teachers are required to raise those funds themselves. As a result,
      the state has an investment of more than $113 million in instructional equipment,
      including more than 25,000 computers, that is in critical need of repair or
      upgrade. Much of this equipment is decades old and is not adequate to prepare
      students for the workplace of the 21st century.

      As with school facilities, instructional equipment falls into a state of critical
      disrepair if there is no funding for repairs or upgrades. Based on a seven-year
      equipment lifecycle, the average annual cost of an annual equipment upgrade
      exceeds $16 million statewide. While a continuing equipment replacement/
      upgrade line item of $16 million in the public school fund would not remedy the




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DWE White Paper


           need immediately, it would – over a seven-year cycle – reduce most of the
           backlog of unreliable and sometimes dangerous equipment.

       D. Traditional adult apprenticeship training has seen record growth in the past
          several years and has reached a point where DWE can no longer adequately
          fund the program as authorized by ACT 684 of 1989. The program has grown
          from 950 apprentices in 1993 to more than 6,400 apprentices this year, but the
          funding for all apprenticeships (both youth and adult) has remained at
          $1,975,000.2 The program is feeling the crunch. During FY 04, 89.9 percent of
          program requests were funded; the next year, only 60.4 percent of program
          requests were funded. If, as expected, the demand for apprenticeship training
          continues to exceed the funding, the cost of the program would have to be
          passed on to employers or the apprentices themselves.

           To address this issue, the adult apprenticeship committees and several industry
           and labor groups have proposed an additional $1 million be invested in the
           apprenticeship program, bringing the annual appropriation to just under $3
           million.



                                Secondary Area Technical Centers


BACKGROUND

Sponsored by high schools, education service cooperatives, or two-year colleges,
secondary area technical centers offer CTE programs to high school students within a
25-mile radius. Each center draws students from several high schools, enabling the
schools to provide high-cost programs that they otherwise could not afford. By
participating in an area center, a local high school can offer six or more additional CTE
programs of study at a greatly reduced cost. The state Board of Education increased
the demand for the area centers by requiring all high school students to have six career
focus units in order to graduate.


STATUS

The following statistics are for the 2005-06 school year:

          24 area centers are in operation.
          187 high schools are sending students to area centers.
          A total of 36 different programs are available through the area centers (not all
           programs are available at each center).
2
    Of this amount, $975,000 is used for adult apprenticeships.


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DWE White Paper


CHALLENGES

    A. With the existing 24 centers, students in 67 high schools do not have access to
       an area center. Since these students do not have the same opportunities for CTE
       as other Arkansas students, the state does not meet the equity standard for
       public education established in the 2001 ruling in the Lake View case. Seven
       more centers are needed to address this issue.

    B. DWE has worked with other state agencies and colleges/universities to develop a
       system to provide a seamless transition for students from high school into
       postsecondary education. Of the 24 secondary area centers, 15 have established
       partnerships with postsecondary schools. This partnership allows students at
       these centers to earn both college and high school credit for some of the courses
       they take. (According to a newly released U.S. Department of Education report
       on student success in college, earning some college credit while in high school is
       a positive factor for college graduation.3) In the 2004-05 school year, more than
       2,000 high school students in Arkansas earned more than 15,000 hours of
       college credit through an area center. Since this opportunity is not available to
       students at nine of the centers and to the students not served by a center, this is
       another equity issue.

    C. Funding for secondary area technical centers comes from two sources – training
       fees from the high schools that send students to the centers and Vocational
       Center Aid, which is distributed by DWE. The funding for the training fees paid by
       the high schools is part of the public school funding formula. Vocational Center
       Aid, the primary source of funding for the centers, is distributed through a DWE
       formula based on each center’s pro rata share of the total full-time enrollment.
       Although the number of centers and students in those centers has grown, the
       total level of Vocational Center Aid, nearly $10.3 million, has not changed since
       July 2000. If maintained at current levels, this funding will not adequately support
       the area centers in the future or allow for the establishment of centers in
       unserved areas. (See Appendix D for future funding requirements.)

    D. The State Board of Workforce Education and Career Opportunities requires each
       secondary area center to offer at least six programs of study from five different
       career clusters. Six of the centers do not meet this requirement because of
       inadequate funding. This, again, is an equity issue.




3
 Eric Hoover, “Study Finds School-College „Disconnect‟ in Curricula,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, Feb.
24, 2006.


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DWE White Paper


   Arkansas Technical Careers Student Loan Forgiveness Program

BACKGROUND

To meet the increasing demand in Arkansas for a workforce qualified in various technical
occupations, the General Assembly passed Act 652 of 1997, establishing the Arkansas
Technical Careers Student Loan Forgiveness Program. Available to both full- and part-time
students, the program offers forgiveness of up to $10,000 in student loans – a maximum of
$2,500 for each academic year of student loans for a maximum eligibility of four years. (See
http://dwe.arkansas.gov/LoanForgiveness/atcslfp.htm for program requirements.) Following
graduation, participants must be employed full-time in Arkansas in a career field related to
their program of study to be eligible for loan forgiveness; one year of qualifying employment
is required for each year of loans to be forgiven.

Nearly 300 technical programs in the fields of computer/information technology, biomedical/
biotechnology, and advanced manufacturing have been designated for loan forgiveness.
These designated programs cover all undergraduate degree levels, including technical
certificates, associate degrees, advanced certificates, and bachelor’s degrees.


STATUS

As the following statistics show, the program has been successful in encouraging
students to go into these high-demand fields and to seek jobs in these fields in
Arkansas after graduation:

      11 four-year public universities, 27 two-year colleges, two technical institutes,
       and nine independent universities/colleges offer designated programs.
      280 designated programs/majors are available in Arkansas in the three high-
       demand career fields of computer/information technology, advanced
       manufacturing, and biomedical/biotechnology.
      1,182 students are “in process,” which means they have submitted an Intent to
       Apply Form and are enrolled in a designated program.
      1,457 individuals have received loan forgiveness payments as of February 2,
       2006.
      Slightly more than $3.4 million in loan repayments have been made since August
       10, 2000 (the date of first repayment).
      Students receiving loan payments generate an annual payroll in Arkansas of
       about $25 million.


CHALLENGE

The program is funded through the General Improvement Fund and is budgeted for $1.4
million for each year of the current biennium. However, it is projected that $1.7 million


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will be needed for each year of the biennium to meet obligations for current active
participants. That figure allows for no growth of the program, although continued growth
is anticipated. The program has never had a solid funding source, so loan repayments
have had to be suspended temporarily several times because of a lack of funding. With
no increase in funding, it is likely that suspension of repayments will continue to occur
as funding is depleted.




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APPENDIX A: Adult Education


                                    APPENDIX A
                                   Adult Education


PURPOSE AND MISSION OF ADULT EDUCATION

Adult Education is the primary mechanism for addressing Arkansas’s adult literacy
needs. The state and federal governments made a commitment to ensure that all
working-age adults will be functionally literate. The mission of adult education is to
provide adult learners with the opportunities to improve and refine their reading, writing,
math, and English language skills and to attain the Arkansas High School Diploma by
passing the General Educational Development (GED) tests.


HISTORY

Arkansas adult education was started with funding provided by the Economic
Opportunity Act of 1964. The first local adult basic education program started in October
1965 as a part-time program. The need for adult education instruction was recognized
in 1966 when Congress created the Adult Education Act. In 1967, Amendment 53 was
added to the Arkansas Constitution, authorizing the state and/or local districts to spend
tax funds for adult education.

Adult education is now authorized under Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of
1998, the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act.

Arkansas has been the leader in many areas of adult education:

          The first full-time center was established in 1967.
          Arkansas was the first state to initiate a teacher-training workshop.
          Arkansas was a leader in the development of teacher certification and
           graduate degrees for adult education.
          Most local adult education programs have full-time directors, and during the
           1980s and 1990s Arkansas had the highest ratio of full-time to part-time
           teachers in adult education in the country.
          Arkansas was one of the first states to develop training for teaching adults
           with learning disabilities.
          Arkansas adult education was an early leader in providing programs in the
           workplace.
          Arkansas adult education has consistently met the federal benchmarks of
           performance negotiated annually with the U.S. Department of Education.
          Both full-time and part-time adult education teachers in Arkansas must have
           an Arkansas Department of Education teaching license, and full-time teachers
           have to obtain an adult education add-on license within four years.




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APPENDIX A: Adult Education


INSTRUCTION PROVIDED

As outlined in Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (Section 203):
(1) Adult education – The term “adult education” means services below the
postsecondary level for individuals –
       (A) who have attained 16 years of age;
       (B) who are not enrolled or required to be enrolled in secondary school under
       state law; and
       (C) who –
           (i) lack sufficient mastery of basic educational skills to enable the individuals
           to function effectively in society;
           (ii) do not have a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent or have
           not achieved an equivalent level of education; or
           (iii) are unable to speak, read, or write the English language.

Note: Individuals 16 and 17 years of age must obtain official waivers from the local public
school to attend adult education.

Programs funded by the Department of Workforce Education, Adult Education Section,
are designed to improve an individual’s ability to read, write, and speak in English;
compute; solve problems; and function effectively in the workplace, family, and society.
Programs may include one or more of the following components: adult education and
literacy services; family literacy; English as a Second Language (ESL); computer
literacy; and the Workforce Alliance for Growth in the Economy™ (WAGE) program,
offering workplace and employability skills.

Adult education is very flexible in how educational services are provided. Generally, the
following aspects are permissible within the federal regulations:

          Local agencies sponsoring adult education programs include public schools,
           technical institutes, two- and four-year colleges, education service
           cooperatives, and community-based organizations.
          Classes may be held in public schools, businesses, community buildings, fire
           stations, jails, mental health facilities, community punishment centers,
           churches, worksites, drug rehab facilities, housing authorities, housing
           developments, battered women’s shelters, or anywhere a class can be
           accommodated.
          Some instruction may be provided through distance education.
          Classes are held from July 1 through June 30 and operate on an open-entry,
           open-exit basis. Students may start or end classes at any time.
          Classes may be held in the evenings or on the weekends.
          Adult education services are provided to the participants free of charge.
          Instruction is provided by licensed teachers in adult education programs and
           by trained tutors in literacy councils.




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APPENDIX A: Adult Education


CURRICULUM

Adult Basic Education
Adult Basic Education is designed for the adult learner who wishes to strengthen
reading, writing, math, or life-coping skills. The program offers basic instruction for
adults functioning below eighth-grade level. Individuals are pre-tested with the Test of
Adult Basic Education to determine their reading, math, and vocabulary entry levels and
post-tested to determine growth in basic educational skills. The program is open-entry,
open-exit, with an individual mastery-based objective format.

General Adult Education/GED
General Adult Education, or adult secondary education, classes offer instruction to
adults who are preparing to pass the GED exam or who desire to enhance educational
skills. Five areas of instruction are provided – writing skills, social studies, science,
reading, and mathematics. Individual instruction is based on the student’s entry level
and needs. Class enrollment/attendance is open-entry, open-exit. Program completion
is attained by passing the GED tests and receiving an Arkansas High School Diploma or
by reaching an individual’s goal.

Workforce Alliance for Growth in the Economy (WAGE)
The program combines academic skills, computer technology, and workplace
curriculum to meet the needs of local employers. WAGE is a community-based program
that addresses the need to improve basic skills of the unemployed and underemployed.
WAGE places the employer at the center of an effort to redefine basic skills required by
today’s workplaces. Three types of certificate programs are provided: industrial,
employability, and clerical. Successful completion of the program results in a state-
issued certificate, enhanced employability skills, and improved opportunity for selected
jobs.

Workplace Education
Workplace education classes may consist of academic skills classes provided at the
worksite, classes designed for the workplace after conducting a Literacy Task Analysis,
or regular skills classes such as math, reading, or ESL taught in the context of that
workplace.

English as a Second Language (ESL)
ESL classes are provided for adults whose native language is not English. Adults
receive instruction in English and in learning how to cope in American society.
Beginning, intermediate, and advanced ESL classes are available. Some classes
include instruction suggested by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services to
prepare the student for the citizenship examination. The class format is open-entry,
open-exit.

Computer Literacy
Introduction to computer classes provide instruction in the operation of the computer,
basic computer terminology, uses and applications, and a brief introduction to word


                                           15
APPENDIX A: Adult Education


processing, spreadsheets, and database management. Computer literacy is provided
for students enrolled in adult education programs or workplace environments. Computer
literacy is designed to assist enrolled students in becoming literate in the use of
technology as a learning tool and not to provide comprehensive training to achieve
proficiency in specific software programs.

Family Literacy
These intergenerational programs are designed to improve the educational
opportunities of children and adults by integrating their needs into a unified program. In
many cases, adult education works closely with Head Start and Even Start in providing
the teacher, resources, and the expertise for the adult component of the program.
These programs include four components – child development activities, basic skills
instruction for the adults, parenting and life skills development, and parent/child
interaction time.

Correctional Education
Adult education services are provided at local, regional, state, and federal correctional
facilities. These services are provided by local adult education programs and through a
grant to the Arkansas Department of Correction School District.


CURRENT STATUS

Arkansas Adult Education Section now funds 53 adult education programs (serving all
75 counties) and 30 literacy councils. The state staff consists of 11 people, including the
GED staff. Approximately 60,000 participants are served across the state each year,
and more than 37,000 remain enrolled for 12 or more hours of instruction. Out of these
enrolled students, 50 percent of them are improving their reading or math skills by two
or more grade levels during the program year.

Approximately 6,500 Arkansans receive an Arkansas High School Diploma by passing
the GED tests each year. Arkansas has one of the highest pass rates in the country (86
percent) and is the only state that provides the GED tests free to its residents.

About 17 percent of enrolled adult education students are Hispanic. Hispanic enrollment
has tripled in adult education over the past 10 years, following a similar population trend
among the Hispanic residents in the state.

Despite these successes in adult education, the 2000 U.S. Census reported that there
are more than 490,000 adult Arkansans who have less than a high school diploma,
more than 160,000 of whom have even less than an eighth-grade education. In addition,
the U.S. Census shows that the number of people who speak English less than “very
well” has increased from 14,000 in 1990 to more than 43,000 in 2000.




                                            16
APPENDIX A: Adult Education


FUNDING

Federal funding for adult education is now authorized under Title II of the Workforce
Investment Act of 1998, the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This funding has
been threatened during the past two fiscal years of 2005 and 2006. In 2005, the U.S.
Department of Education Office of Vocational and Adult Education granted Arkansas
$5.5 million.

Most of the funding for Arkansas adult education comes from the state of Arkansas. The
amount for fiscal year 2005 was $17.6 million. State funding for adult education has not
increased since 1992 despite inflation, cost-of-living pay increases, and mandated
teacher raises for public school teachers.


OUTLOOK

The Adult Education Section will have two very important issues for the 2007 legislative
session: (1) increasing adult education funding at a level that reflects inflation since
1992, and (2) funding for 16- and 17-year-old students.

Because the Adult Education Section has not received an increase in its funding since
1992, one can readily understand that services have had to be cut in local adult
education programs all across the state. The pervasive impact of inflation since 1992
has affected all areas of all programs. This has resulted in cutbacks in full-time
teachers, part-time teachers, night classes, satellite locations, paraprofessional staff,
instructional materials, equipment, hours of operation, and travel. In addition, items such
as increased teacher salaries for adult education teachers employed by public schools
mandated by the legislature but not covered by increased funding have diminished the
purchasing power of adult education far beyond inflation.

It is hoped that the 2007 legislative session will return adult education to the same level
of funding as the 1991 legislative session in terms of purchasing power.

The second concern is funding the 16- and 17-year-old students who attend adult
education classes. According to state law, adult education can only enroll 16- and 17-
year-old students if they have a waiver from the public school that they were attending,
have withdrawn from a public school to be home schooled, have been expelled from a
public school, or have been ordered by the court to attend adult education.

In the program year 2004-2005, adult education enrolled 2,355 16- and 17-year-old
students. At some point, the public schools received all or partial payment for these
students, while adult education was left out of any type of funding.




                                            17
APPENDIX B: Arkansas Rehabilitation Services


                                 APPENDIX B
                        Arkansas Rehabilitation Services


MISSION

The mission of Arkansas Rehabilitation Services is to provide opportunities for
Arkansans with disabilities to work and to lead productive and independent lives.

This simple mission statement provides the foundation for the varied programs and
comprehensive services provided by Arkansas Rehabilitation Services (ARS) to
individuals with disabilities that enables them to prepare for and enter the world of work,
thus becoming employed, tax-paying citizens participating in communities throughout
the state of Arkansas. Today there are approximately 400,000 people with disabilities
residing in Arkansas. We have one of the highest percentages of working-age adults
with disabilities in the nation. The unemployment rate among Arkansans with disabilities
is approaching 60 percent, which is consistent with the national average. The role of
ARS is clearly defined: to increase the number of persons with disabilities returning to
the workplace where they become productive and independent taxpayers instead of tax-
users.


HISTORY

Vocational Rehabilitation was initiated in the United States with the passage of the
Smith-Fess Act in 1920. This permitted the states to participate by providing federal aid.
This Act provided funding for medical and surgical treatment and vocational training.
Arkansas accepted its first funds for this purpose as the result of state legislation in
1923 with the State Board of Education administering the program. ARS has a record of
more than 75 years of exemplary performance as the primary state agency providing
education, training, and employment to Arkansans with disabilities. The size of the
agency and scope of services have continued to grow and improve over the years;
however, it has continued to operate as a strong state/federal partnership enjoying
bipartisan support because of its record as a strong, cost-effective, service delivery
program that produces documented results. Arkansas legislation in 1971 transferred
administration to the Department of Social and Rehabilitative Services, which is now the
Department of Human Services, and was referred to as the Division of Rehabilitation
Services. Act 574 of 1993 transferred the division back to the Department of Education
and placed it under the responsibility of the State Board of Vocational Education in
association with the Vocational and Technical Education Division. Act 574 of 1993
formally changed the agency’s name to Arkansas Rehabilitation Services. The
Vocational and Technical Education Division subsequently became the Department of
Workforce Education. ARS was actively involved in the development of legislation
resulting in Act 803 of 1997, which created the State Board of Workforce Education and
Career Opportunities and the Department of Workforce Education. ARS is now



                                            18
APPENDIX B: Arkansas Rehabilitation Services


associated with the Department of Workforce Education under the direction of the State
Board of Workforce Education and Career Opportunities.

Since its inception, the public vocational rehabilitation program has continually
expanded both in terms of additional federal resources and in the numbers and types of
disabilities served. In 1943, the agency’s scope of services was expanded to include
those with mental retardation and mental illness as well as those with physical
disabilities. In 1954, the program was again augmented by inclusion of private, non-
profit community-based rehabilitation programs as well as disability-related research
and training centers. In 1961, ARS established the Hot Springs Rehabilitation Center
that continues to operate today as one of four model state-operated comprehensive
medical rehabilitation and vocational training centers in the nation.

More recent changes in federal legislation have increased emphasis on serving Special
Education students as they transition to the world of work. ARS is actively involved in
Welfare-to-Work and School-to-Work initiatives in order to assure that Arkansans with
disabilities participating in these programs are provided opportunities to prepare for and
enter the workforce. We have initiated a disability management program that focuses on
assisting employers to develop return-to-work programs for employees experiencing
injuries or illnesses, thus reducing workers’ compensation costs. ARS also has been
required to develop rehabilitation engineering and advanced technology capabilities in
order to enhance training and employment opportunities for individuals who are
severely disabled. Federal legislation now requires that those people with severe
disabilities are served first when adequate funds are not available to serve everyone
who may be eligible for our program. ARS has been required to implement an order of
selection. This means our services are limited to those classified as severely disabled
due to a high demand for services and limited funds available. Although this group of
clients requires more comprehensive services over a longer period of time and at a
greater cost, we continue to place more people with disabilities in employment each
year.

In 1990, the United States Congress passed the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA),
the world’s first civil rights legislation for people with disabilities. ARS continues to play a
leadership role in assisting state agencies and private sector business and industry to
comply with the ADA.

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 includes the re-enactment of the Rehabilitation
Act of 1973 and requires that the states, as well as ARS, enter a new service delivery
system. This new system includes a "one-stop shop" approach involving all agencies
that serve people who are unemployed, including those with disabilities. As part of the
one-stop system, or as it’s called in Arkansas, the Career Development Network (CDN),
ARS must participate throughout the state in the CDN centers in each of ten local
regions with office space, resources, and personnel. ARS’ involvement in the new one-
stop CDN system will afford Arkansans with disabilities increased opportunities to
become employed and live independently.




                                              19
APPENDIX B: Arkansas Rehabilitation Services


Over the years, ARS has continued to modify its program to comply with all new
federal/state initiatives and has received strong support from the executive and
legislative branches and also the customers we serve. Over the past several years,
ARS has received basic cost-of-living increases in state and federal funds; however, the
cost of employment-related services has increased at a much more rapid pace.
Demand for services significantly exceeds resources available. ARS serves
approximately 22,000 people with disabilities each year, with several thousand being
placed in competitive employment. Our program is an investment in our economy. In
fact, in FY 2004, the Arkansans with disabilities, whom we assisted to obtain
employment, had earnings of only an average of $67.36 per week prior to our
involvement; however, after job placement they had earnings of $358.26. That is
combined annual earnings of about $41,506,000 in only their first year of employment.
The federal Office of Management and Budget estimates that for every $1 spent on
vocational rehabilitation services, $7 are returned to the economy. This is in the form of
economic benefit to the individual, taxes paid, and the elimination or reduction of Social
Security, welfare, and other public subsidy payments. What cannot be measured are
the creation and/or return of personal participation in our society and the personal
dignity and independence gained by those who have been served.


STRUCTURE

Arkansas Rehabilitation Services is designed to assure a comprehensive, statewide
system of service delivery that addresses the diverse needs of Arkansans with
disabilities. The major service delivery components are: (1) the Field Services Program,
which operates offices in 19 locations of the state, serving people with severe
disabilities in all 75 counties, except those who are blind; (2) the Hot Springs
Rehabilitation Center, which is a comprehensive vocational rehabilitation center
providing education, medical, and vocational training for clients throughout the state and
region; (3) Special Programs and Support Services, consisting of a comprehensive
vocational/psychological evaluation network, the Successful Employment through
Assistive Technology (SEAT) program, the Learning and Evaluation Center providing
mental health, and also special services for persons with learning disabilities; (4) the
Office for the Deaf and Hearing Impaired, which serves individuals who are deaf or
hearing impaired, as well as those who are deaf-blind, with vocational rehabilitation and
independent living services; and (5) the Arkansas Kidney Disease Commission, which
provides services to patients with end-stage renal disease. There are also several
special projects or separately funded programs, such as the Telecommunications
Access Program (TAP), CADET transportation program, Supported Housing project,
and an Alternative Financing program to assist with low-interest loans for purchasing
assistive technology. Supporting these service delivery operations are Program
Operations; Financial Management; Human Resources Management; Information
Systems and Services; and Program Planning, Development and Evaluation sections.




                                           20
APPENDIX B: Arkansas Rehabilitation Services


FUNDING

                 ARKANSAS REHABILITATION SERVICES
                 SCHEDULE OF FUNDING BY CATEGORY
                     OPERATIONAL BUDGET 2006

                                            TREASURY
                       CASH FUND              FUNDS               TOTAL
Federal Revenues                           40,119,419.00       40,119,419.00
State Revenues                             12,361,615.00       12,361,615.00
Other Revenues          1,247,000.00          878,600.00        2,125,600.00
Special Revenues                                         -                     -
Revolving Loan
Fund                                   -                   -                   -
                                       -                   -                   -



                                                           -                   -
Total Revenues          1,247,000.00       53,359,634.00       54,606,634.00


Arkansas Rehabilitation Services is primarily funded through the Department of
Education Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA). For the Vocational
Rehabilitation Program, RSA federal funding is 78.7 percent with a state match of 21.3
percent. There are other state revenues provided in the biennial budget process to
support the Arkansas Kidney Disease Commission and the Community Rehabilitation
Program.


HOT SPRINGS REHABILITATION CENTER

The Hot Springs Rehabilitation Center is a comprehensive rehabilitation program. Every
year it offers both residential and nonresident medical and vocational services to
approximately 1,000 Arkansas citizens with disabilities, serving a population average of
300 at any one time. The service delivery program is divided into two major
components: the Hot Springs Rehabilitation Center Hospital and the Arkansas Career
Training Institute. It also has an Administrative Services department that provides the
necessary support services to maintain a 24-hour a day facility. The administrator of the
Hot Springs Rehabilitation Center has responsibility for the management of the facility
and reports to the Arkansas Rehabilitation Services' chief of staff. The center employs
270 people.

Hot Springs Rehabilitation Center Hospital
The hospital administrator manages the hospital operations and reports to the


                                            21
APPENDIX B: Arkansas Rehabilitation Services


administrator of the Hot Springs Rehabilitation Center. The medical director, a
physician, has the dual responsibility of ensuring that medical services are of the
highest quality and providing direct physician services. The hospital provides full-time
nursing services, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech/language pathology
services, social services, psychological services, and a pharmacy. A professional in the
respective field supervises each service delivery area. These supervisors report to the
hospital administrator. The hospital is licensed by the Department of Health and Human
Services and is currently accredited by the Commission on Accreditation Hospitals. The
hospital has a capacity of 26 inpatients.

In addition, the hospital provides specialty clinics to clients of ARS, including orthopedic,
amputee, spinal cord injury, urology, dental, and psychiatry. The hospital also provides
a clinic to treat and manage medical conditions of students enrolled in vocational
training programs.

Arkansas Career Training Institute
The Arkansas Career Training Institute (ACTI) provides a variety of services to prepare
clients of ARS to become employed. Services include counseling, case management,
vocational evaluation, vocational training, employment readiness, recreation, student
living, behavioral enhancement, and job placement.

ACTI is managed by a team of professionals under the supervision of the administrator
of the center. Each of the major service components has a supervisor who reports to
the center administrator.

Every case accepted by ACTI is managed by a rehabilitation counselor and is referred
by a counselor in the Field Program. The center employs eight rehabilitation counselors,
each of whom must meet the highest standards for that profession. The counselor plans
and oversees all aspects of the client's program and works closely with the referring
field counselor in arranging for the services that will make the client ready for
employment.

Vocational evaluation uses three evaluators and one instructor to provide orientation for
each new student. A battery of individualized testing and work trials helps the client and
counselor determine the rehabilitation needs and services that will address those
needs. Informed client choice is emphasized throughout the evaluation process.

Vocational training is provided in 12 different programs with many programs offering
multiple courses of study that can be tailored to meet the learning style and
rehabilitation needs of the client/student. The supervisor of the vocational training
program is certified in postsecondary vocational education and reports to the center
administrator.

After hours recreation services are provided to help the student adjust to the center’s
living environment and provide wholesome activities to pass the time when the student
is not actively engaged in other rehabilitation activities. The recreation program utilizes


                                             22
APPENDIX B: Arkansas Rehabilitation Services


six staff to plan and supervise the recreational activities, which can range from
sedentary activities such as bingo through vigorous exercise programs. A weight-
management program is also supervised in coordination with dietary services in this
section. The director of recreation reports to the center administrator.

Student Living provides the dormitory living that students utilize while engaged in
vocational programs. Houseparent coverage is provided for each dormitory area.
Houseparents provide supervision of the dormitory and are available to assist students
with problems they may encounter in living in a group setting. The supervisor of
recreation also manages the student discipline problem when inappropriate behaviors,
which impact others, occur after hours. The supervisor of recreation reports to the
center administrator.

The center manages a "Behavior Enhancement Program," which is designed to
reinforce appropriate or desired student behavior and to intervene when inappropriate
behaviors occur. The program uses aspects of a token economy along with monitoring
of behaviors to encourage development of behavior that is required on the job.

Job placement services are provided contractually with the Association of
Rehabilitation, Industry, and Business (ARIB). The placement specialist is funded by
ARIB and managed on a daily basis by the supervisor of counseling.

Administrative Services
Administrative Services is supervised by the assistant administrator who reports to the
center administrator. The department provides the myriad services necessary to
maintain the 21 acres and 29 buildings that house the various center operations. In
many ways, the center is "self-sufficient" in that it employs the plumbers, electricians,
carpenters, heat/air/refrigeration, painters and boiler operators to keep the facility
functioning. This area manages security, inventory, transportation services, finance and
purchasing operations, files, and switchboard. It also maintains the center's fleet of
vehicles. Center admissions are coordinated through this department.

A major function of Administrative Services is to develop and monitor the center's
operational budget.


AGENCY OUTLOOK

The enabling legislation and primary funding source for ARS is the Workforce Education
Act of 1998. Reauthorization of this act is pending in Congress at this time and,
although the prospects of reauthorization are positive, the levels of funding may or may
not be increased. Currently the agency is operating on funding based on a continuation
appropriation from the Rehabilitation Services Administration.




                                           23
APPENDIX B: Arkansas Rehabilitation Services


FUTURE NEEDS

Vocational Rehabilitation Program
1. Upgrade data collection system (ARIMIS) .................................................. $300,000

    The agency uses a comprehensive database to compile data and statistical
    information that is required for federal reporting purposes. This system needs to be
    upgraded to increase data collection capabilities, enhance case management
    recording, and adapt to accommodation needs of employees with disabilities.

2. Designated Transition Counselors (6 FTE) ................................................. $200,000
   Case Service funds ..................................................................................... $800,000

    State rehabilitation agencies are required under the Rehabilitation Act to provide a
    coordinated set of activities for a student, designed within an outcome-oriented
    process that promotes movement from school to post-school activities, including
    postsecondary education, vocational training, integrated employment, continuing
    and adult education, adult services, and independent living. The current force of
    rehabilitation counselors is already overloaded with caseload sizes of 150-200
    clients with disabilities. Although the agency did serve 3,390 individuals considered
    as transition students, this is only a fraction of the number projected to need
    rehabilitation and transition support services.

List of Major Project Needs at Hot Springs Rehabilitation Center
1. Demolition of Buildings 29 & 29A ................................................................ $450,000

    The buildings are unusable due to deteriorated condition and water damage. Lead
    paint and asbestos removal must be accomplished; the site will be landscaped to
    blend with the national park and will be used for parking for employees/visitors and
    possible construction (pending funding) of a new Student Education Building. (This
    may require review and consent of the National Park Service before demolition can
    begin.)

2. Construction of Student Education Building …………………………………$1,500,000

    This would be contingent on the demolition of Buildings 29 and 29A. Due to limited
    space, we have no room to expand in our high demand program areas. With
    additional space, we will be able to better serve our population.

3. Renovating of Building 58 ........................................................................... $50,000

    This building is currently unoccupied due to overall condition. The building is
    structurally sound but needs major repairs to plumbing, heating, and electrical
    systems. It also will need to be made ADA compliant. If renovated, it will be used to
    expand the Building and Trades Program.




                                                        24
APPENDIX B: Arkansas Rehabilitation Services


4. Roof repair: Buildings 1, 54, & 55 .............................................................. $350,000

    The three buildings are flat-roof design and subject to chronic problems from water
    leaks. To correct the problems, gable roofs and gutters need to be installed to run
    water away from the buildings. Currently, this is a major problem in Building 1,
    causing extensive damage to the ceilings in the main complex.

5. Window replacement sixth floor, Building 1 ................................................ $15,000

    The windows that are currently in place are of a design that allows the elements to
    enter the building, causing damage to the structure.

6. Cosmetic repairs to the main building (paint, re-glaze windows, clean exterior of
   building, install thermal efficient windows in conference rooms) ................. $200,000

    The windows in the main building are rusty and need to be repaired or repainted.
    The exterior of the building needs to be cleaned from top to bottom to remove mold,
    mildew, and decades of accumulated dirt and debris.

7. Air conditioning system: main building & Buildings 54 & 53 ……………… $1,703,375

    The air ventilation system in the main building is 50-70 years old. Two other
    buildings need ventilation repair. There are significant problems with mold and
    mildew. The buildings have temperature variations of as much as 15 degrees
    because of the inefficient air handling system. The inefficiency of the system wastes
    tremendous amounts of energy.

8. Replace secondary electrical system .......................................................... $146,500

    The secondary electrical system is also 70 years old and needs to be replaced with
    modern breakers and switches.

9. Infrastructure repairs ................................................................................... $150,000

    The facility is heated by steam from a central boiler room. Many of the steam lines
    are 70-plus years old and have begun leaking. Many lines need to be replaced
    entirely.

10. Installation of siding on apartments .............................................................     $40,000

    The outer appearance of the apartments is in much needed cosmetic repair. The
    replacement of the painted exterior with siding would eliminate the need to paint in
    the future.




                                                         25
APPENDIX B: Arkansas Rehabilitation Services


11. Expansion of third floor medical wing ..........................................................        $12,000

    The fire alarm system needs to be updated and video cameras installed. The wing
    will be used to house college students and direct enrollments for the proposed
    College Prep program.

12. Driver’s Education Vehicle ..........................................................................   $20,000

    The current vehicle is 12 years old and in need of replacement.

13. Additional building space for expansion of Employment Readiness Program

    The ERTC program is in need of expansion due to the high number of clients
    referred to HSRC in need of these services.

14. Expansion of technology video conferencing for staff & student training ....                            $30,000


CONTINUANCE OF THE DELTA CADET PROGRAM FOR RURAL
TRANSPORTATION (CREATIVE ALTERNATIVES FOR DELTA AREA
TRANSPORTATION)

Introduction:
The CADET program presently provides work-related transportation to individuals with
disabilities. Several of CADET’s funding sources were discontinued due to the
completion of their funding cycle and restriction of Rehabilitation Services
Administration funds to serve only individuals with disabilities.

Three current funding sources for CADET ended on September 30, 2005: (1)
Rehabilitation Services Administration funds; (2) Workforce Investment Grant funds;
and (3) Delta Regional Authority funds. Job Access Reverse Commute (JARC) funds
from the Arkansas Highway and Transportation Department (AHTD) provide a 50/50
match on all transportation funds. CADET is currently approved for JARC funds in the
amount of $843,000 through AHTD, which will require a 50/50 match for one year;
however, there is possible future funding through JARC and AHTD since Congress
passed a Highway Bill that provides funding through year 2009.

CADET Program of Services:
The CADET program will serve vocational rehabilitation customers in rural areas initially
and plans to eventually serve individuals with disabilities throughout the state. CADET is
seeking funds from other sources, which will provide the means to serve individuals with
low income.

Service Area:
During FY 2006, the CADET program will continue serving riders within the 24 original
counties served by the CADET project. The counties include Arkansas, Ashley, Bradley,



                                                          26
APPENDIX B: Arkansas Rehabilitation Services


Chicot, Cleveland, Crittenden, Cross, Desha, Drew, Faulkner, Grant, Jefferson, Lee,
Lincoln, Lonoke, Mississippi, Monroe, Phillips, Poinsett, Prairie, Pulaski (rural only), St.
Frances, Saline, and Woodruff.

Services to be Provided:
The CADET program will provide work-related transportation services designed to
facilitate preparation for work, job search, and/or going to and from work. These
services will be available 12 hours per day from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m., Monday through
Friday. Additional hours of service may be available when arrangements can be
established with more providers.

Projected Program Costs:
A base operational budget of $450,000 is needed to continue the ongoing CADET
program. A breakdown of the anticipated budget is provided below. Approximately
$173,500 (wages and fringes) is required for all current personnel to remain full-time.
All existing staff is critical to the ongoing success of the program. We have targeted
approximately $8,000 required for staff travel in-state. This leaves approximately
$268,500 to subsidize transportation services provided through CADET. This limited
amount of transportation funds within the baseline budget for continued operations is
not sufficient to provide transportation services to all VR customers. As a result, it is
critical to maintain the present level of funding specified for transportation services
through the field offices in addition to these base funds to operate the CADET program,
as explained below.

Between October 2003 and September 2004, the CADET program served
approximately 1,087 customers. Of that number, 253 were actually current VR clients.
A conservative estimate of funds expended to provide transportation services to VR
clients for this time period is $561,660, for an average of $185 per person per month.
This amount does not include an additional $54,471 in ARS funds spent to provide
transportation services to just 169 VR customers residing in the 24 counties served
through the CADET program. (Approximately $410,000 was spent for transportation
services to VR customers throughout the state.)

PROPOSED ARS CADET PROGRAM BUDGET

ARS CADET YEAR 1                                 Full Budget
Personnel
  Program Director                                $46,000
  Program Coordinator                            $46,000
  HUB Coordinator                                 $21,000
  Transp. Coordinator/Dispatch                    $24,000
TOTAL Personnel                                  $137,000
  Fringes                                         $36,500


                                            27
APPENDIX B: Arkansas Rehabilitation Services


  Monitoring Travel                               $8,000
  Transportation                                $268,500
TOTAL PROGRAM BUDGET                            $450,000


Additional Funds:
The federal transportation legislation was passed in the last congressional session.
This is the bill that has the potential for funding additional JARC funds. The fund for
rural transportation has been earmarked for Arkansas through AHTD.

We also anticipate putting in a pre-application for additional Delta Regional Authority
funding in the future. CADET staff continuously watches for options for additional
funding that could be secured for the CADET program or to expand transportation by
partnering with other agencies.


ADDITIONAL LEGISLATIVE ITEMS

The agency mission requires several areas of expertise that are within the medical and
psychological disciplines of professional services. Recruitment and retention of highly
qualified personnel in these areas is difficult because of competition from the private
sector. The agency needs flexibility in working with the Office of Personnel Management
and the Legislative Council for upgrades or reclassifications of psychological examiners,
psychologists, occupational and physical therapists, and other medical specialists.

The agency provides administrative oversight and staff for the performance of the
Telecommunication Access Program (TAP). This program is funded through a
surcharge on local access lines. The agency will be pursuing amendments to Act 501 to
obtain flexibility for increasing costs for travel and marketing and utilize the funds for
personnel costs.

The technology sections of Special Programs, SEAT, TAP, and Increasing Capabilities
Access Network (ICAN) are requesting additional funds to design and implement a
management information system. The projected cost is $450,000.




                                           28
APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education


                            APPENDIX C
                  CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION

CHALLENGE

New program start-up applications are received each year from public school districts,
charter schools, alternative schools, and two-year colleges operating secondary
technical center programs. The new program start-up funding (a line item in the public
school fund) allows local education agencies to purchase instructional equipment and
materials required to deliver minimum instruction as identified in Arkansas Career and
Technical Education Frameworks.

In each of the past three years, DWE has received more than 200 new program
applications; however, due to limited agency resources and an appropriation capped at
$2,370,000, less than 40 percent of the applications have been funded.


BACKGROUND INFORMATION

New program start-up grant funds may be used for instructional equipment, non-
consumable supplies, teacher inservice, student assessment, and program software to
support approved career focus programs of study, foundation courses, and other
career- and technical-related courses.

The factors used for determining program approval and the amount of the grant awards
include the following:

      • Career planning and economic data relevant to the need for the career focus
        program of study
      • Projected enrollment for the career focus program of study or course
      • Cost of instructional equipment that meets program standards and criteria
      • Quality of proposal
      • Potential for success of the program
      • Amount of funds available
      • Number of applications submitted
      • Whether the requested program is a specialized or high-cost career and
        technical program that is offered at a technical center or postsecondary
        vocational technical institution within a 25-mile radius or within 30 minutes
        travel time (one way) of the district
      • Agency priority

School districts and secondary technical centers must submit applications for new
programs by October 1 prior to implementation in the following school year. The amount
of the grant award will not exceed the cost of the start-up as established by DWE
program standards. Items purchased with these funds must be used only for the


                                         29
APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education


approved program/course and must not be used in any other fashion without prior
written approval. Prior written approval is required for any item or expenditure not on the
DWE minimum start-up list.

The department retains a vested interest in the equipment, program-specific supplies,
and software purchased with new program start-up grants for the life cycle of the
equipment (five years for computer equipment/software and seven years for all other
equipment). Local school districts and secondary technical centers must maintain and
repair the equipment purchased with the grant during its life cycle. After the life cycle,
items become the property of the local school district or secondary technical center.
The department periodically updates the equipment standards for each program and
foundation course.

Special programs such as new High Schools That Work sites are funded at an amount
determined by the department.


POSSIBLE OPTION

If the new program equipment start-up line item in the public school fund were
increased on a one-time basis to $6 million in both funding and appropriation, most of
the backlog of districts with approvable programs that have been on the waiting list
could be funded. This-one time increase would allow the department to return to a year-
to-year approval/funding cycle.

After this one-time increase, the existing fund of $2.37 million should be permanently
increased to $4 million to allow quality career and technical education programs to
continue to grow and allow students to have access to additional opportunities.

Attachment: list of centers and districts requesting funding for the 2006-2007 year




                                            30
     APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education




           School/Center Name                    Program of Study                          Course
Alpena High School                    Horticulture
AR NE College/Secondary Center        Drafting & Design Architectural CAD
AR NE College/Secondary Center        Criminal Justice
AR NE College/Secondary Center        Welding
AR NE College/Secondary Center        Medical Professions Education
Area Technical Center                 Food Production, Mgt., & Serv
Area Technical Center                 Medical Professions Education
Area Vocational Technical Center      Culinary Arts
Arkansas High School                                                           Computer Business Appl.
Arkansas High School                                                           Computer Business Appl.
Arkansas High School                                                           Computer Business Appl.
Arkansas High School                                                           EAST/Workforce Tech.
Arkansas School for the Deaf                                                   JAG
Ashdown High School                                                            EAST/Workforce Tech.
Beebe High School                     Education & Training
Bradley High School                   Interactive Media (Desktop Publishing)
Brookland High School                                                          EAST/Workforce Tech.
Brookland High School                                                          Family & Work Connections
Brookland High School                 Child Care Guidance, Mgt., & Serv
Bryant High School                    Education & Training
Bryant High School – South            Oracle
Cabot High School                                                              Computer Applications
Cabot High School                     Radio/TV Broadcasting
Cabot High School                     Child Care Guidance, Mgt., & Serv
Cabot High School                     Medical Professions Education
Cabot Junior High School – North                                               Computer Applications
Cabot Junior High School – South                                               Computer Applications
Camden Fairview High School                                                    EAST/Workforce Tech.
Cave City High School                 Radio/TV Broadcasting
Cave City High School                                                          EAST/Workforce Tech.
Clarksville High School                                                        Workforce Technology
Cloverdale Middle School                                                       Gateway to Technology
Coleman Junior High School            Foundation: Keyboarding
Conner Jr. High School                                                         EAST/Workforce Tech.
Conway Area Career Center             Marketing Technology
Conway Area Career Center             Cosmetology
Conway Area Career Center             Army JROTC
Cross County High School                                                       EAST/Workforce Tech.
Crossett High School                  Marketing Technology
Cutter Morning Star High School       Career Communications
Dardanelle High School                                                         EAST/Workforce Tech.
DeQueen Mena Cooperative Tech Cntr    Welding
Dermott Treatment Unit                Power Equipment Technology
DeWitt High School                                                             EAST/Workforce Tech.
Dover High School                     Information Mgt./Multimedia


                                              31
     APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education


           School/Center Name                       Program of Study                    Course
Drew Central High School              Hospitality
Dumas High School                                                           EAST/Workforce Tech.
Dumas High School                                                           STRIVE
Earle High School                     Construction Technology
Earle High School                     Drafting & Design Architectural CAD
Eastark Secondary Career Center       Hospitality
Eastark Secondary Career Center       Lodging Mgt.
Eastark Secondary Career Center       Medical Professions Education
El Dorado High School                 Finance
Emmet High School                     Information Mgt./Multimedia
Eureka Springs High School                                                  EAST/Workforce Tech.
Evening Shade Campus                  Information Mgt./Multimedia
Fayetteville High School              Career Communications
Fayetteville High School              Career Communications
Fayetteville High School              Career Communications
Flippin High School                   Information Mgt./Multimedia
Flippin High School                                                         Foundation: Keyboarding
Forrest City High School              Lodging Mgt.
Forrest City High School              Food Production, Mgt., & Serv
Fouke High School                     Agricultural Science/Animal
Fouke High School                     Child Care Guidance, Mgt., & Serv
Fouke Middle School                                                         Info. Tech. Fundamentals
Genoa-Central High School             Hospitality
Genoa-Central High School             Information Mgt./Multimedia
Glen Rose High School                 Agri Mechanics
Gravette High School                  Marketing Technology
Greenbrier High School                                                      EAST/Workforce Tech.
Greenland High School                 Construction Technology
Greenwood High School                 Construction Technology
Gurdon High School                                                          CT: Intro
Gurdon High School                    Food Production, Mgt., & Serv
Hall High School                                                            EAST/Workforce Tech.
Hall High School                      Child Care Guidance, Mgt., & Serv
Hall High School                                                            STRIVE
Hall High School                      Computer Engineering
Hamburg High School                                                         EAST/Workforce Tech.
Har-Ber High School                   Agri Science
Har-Ber High School                   Information Mgt./Multimedia
Har-Ber High School                   Information Mgt./Desktop
Har-Ber High School                   Advertising Design
Har-Ber High School                   Radio/TV Broadcasting
Har-Ber High School                   Family & Consumer Sciences
Har-Ber High School                   Drafting & Design Architectural CAD
Har-Ber High School                   Medical Professions Education
Harrisburg High School                Oracle
Harrisburg High School                                                      EAST/Workforce Tech.
Hector High School                    Information Mgt./Desktop



                                               32
     APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education


           School/Center Name                    Program of Study                  Course
Hector High School                    Furniture Manufacturing
Helen Tyson Middle School                                             Foundation: Keyboarding
Hellstern Middle School                                               Foundation: Keyboarding
Hope High School                      Education & Training
Hope High School                      Medical Professions Education
Huntsville High School                                                EAST/Workforce Tech.
J.A. Fair Magnet High School                                          EAST/Workforce Tech.
Jack Robey Jr. High School                                            Gateway to Technology
Jacksonville High School              Marketing Technology
Jacksonville High School              Commercial Photography
Jacksonville High School                                              Keystone
Jessieville High School                                               EAST/Workforce Tech.
J.O. Kelley Middle School                                             Foundation: Keyboarding
Lafayette County High School          Information Mgt./Multimedia
Lake Hamilton High School             Oracle
Lake Hamilton High School             Career Communications
Lake Hamilton High School             Education & Training
Lake Hamilton Jr. High School                                         Found.: Computer Bus Apps
Lakeside High School                  Career Communications
Lakeside High School                                                  EAST/Workforce Tech.
Lakeside High School                                                  EAST/Workforce Tech.
Lamar High School                                                     EAST/Workforce Tech.
Magnet Cove High School               Education & Training
Magnet Cove Jr/Sr School                                              EAST/Workforce Tech.
Mansfield High School                 Oracle
Marion High School                                                    Computer Applications
Marked Tree High School               Advertising Design
Marmaduke High School                                                 Family & Work Connections
Marshall                                                              EAST/Workforce Tech.
Martin Middle School                                                  Foundation: Keyboarding
Maumelle Middle School                                                CT: Intro
Maumelle Middle School                                                Career Orientation
Maumelle Middle School                                                Family & Work Connections
Maumelle Middle School                                                Gateway to Technology
Mills High School                                                     Keystone
Mineral Springs High School                                           EAST/Workforce Tech.
Mount Pleasant                        Information Mgt./Multimedia
Mountain Home High School             Education & Training
Mountain Pine High School             Information Mgt./Desktop
Mountain Pine High School             Career Communications
NACC Regional Technical Center                                        Electrical Apprenticeship
Nashville High School                                                 EAST/Workforce Tech.
Nashville High School                 Education & Training
Nettleton High School                                                 EAST/Workforce Tech.
Nettleton Jr. High School             Foundation: Keyboarding
Nevada High School                    Information Mgt./Multimedia
Newport High School                   Agri Mechanics



                                               33
     APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education


           School/Center Name                      Program of Study                       Course
Norfork High School                     Banking
Norphlet High School                                                          EAST/Workforce Tech.
North Pulaski High School                                                     Keystone
Northside High School                   Construction Technology
Oak Grove High School                                                         Keystone
Oak Grove High School                                                         JAG
Osceola High School                                                           EAST/Workforce Tech.
Ouachita Career Center                  Criminal Justice
Ozark-Altus High School                                                       EAST/Workforce Tech.
Paragould High School                                                         EAST/Workforce Tech.
Paris High School                                                             EAST/Workforce Tech.
Parkers Chapel High School              Education & Training
Parkview Arts Magnet                    Commercial Photography
Parkview Arts Magnet                    Career Communications
PCC Career & Technical Center, Dewitt   Agri Mechanics
PCC Career & Technical Center, Dewitt   Horticulture
PCC Career & Technical Center, Dewitt   AgriBusiness Systems
PCC Career & Technical Center, Dewitt   Medical Professions Education
PCC Career & Technical Center, Dewitt   Welding
PCC Career & Technical Center, Dewitt   Computer Engineering
PCC Career & Technical Center, Helena   Medical Professions Education
PCC Career & Technical Center, Helena   Industrial Equipment Maintenance
PCC Career & Technical Center, Helena   Computer Engineering
Perryville High School                                                        EAST/Workforce Tech.
Piggott High School                     Information Mgt./Desktop
Piggott High School                     Medical Professions Education
Pine Bluff High School                  Cosmetology
Pine Bluff High School                  Child Care Guidance, Mgt., & Serv
Pine Bluff High School                  Computer Engineering
Pottsville High School                  Agri Mechanics
Pottsville High School                                                        EAST/Workforce Tech.
Prairie Grove High School                                                     Internship
Prescott High School                    Agricultural Science/Animal
Quitman High School                                                           JAG
Rison High School                       Education & Training
Rivercrest High School                                                        Computer Applications
Rivercrest High School                                                        STRIVE
Rivercrest High School                  Drafting & Design Architectural CAD
Rivercrest High School                  Computer Engineering
Riverside High School                   Career Communications
Robinson High School                                                          Keystone
Saline County Career Center             Cosmetology
Saline County Career Center             Automotive Service Technology
Sloan-Hendrix High School               Medical Professions Education
Smackover High School                   Horticulture
South Side High School                  Information Mgt./Multimedia
Star City High School                                                         STRIVE



                                                  34
     APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education


          School/Center Name                      Program of Study               Course
SUCCESS Achievement Academy                                           Computer Applications
SUCCESS Achievement Academy           Advertising Design
SUCCESS Achievement Academy                                           Career Orientation
SUCCESS Achievement Academy           Family & Consumer Sciences
Swifton High School                   Criminal Justice
Sylvan Hills High School                                              Keystone
Sylvan Hills High School                                              Gateway to Technology
Valley View High School                                               Foundation: Keyboarding
Valley View High School                                               Computer Applications
Valley View High School               Medical Professions Education
Van Buren High School                 Construction Technology
Warren High School                    Power Equipment Technology
West Fork High School                 Information Mgt./Multimedia
West Fork High School                 Marketing Technology
West Memphis High School                                              EAST/Workforce Tech.
Western Arkansas Technical Center     Education & Training
Western Arkansas Technical Center     Medical Professions Education
Western Arkansas Technical Center     Criminal Justice
White Hall High School                Criminal Justice
White Hall High School                Welding
White Hall Junior High School                                         Foundation: Keyboarding
White Hall Junior High School                                         Gateway to Technology
Wilburn High School                   Information Mgt./Multimedia




                                              35
APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education


                                 ADULT APPRENTICESHIP FUNDING


CHALLENGE

Traditional adult apprenticeship training has seen record growth in the past several
years and has reached a point where the Department of Workforce Education is unable
to adequately fund the programs that depend on the agency for program improvement
funds as authorized by Act 684 of 1989.

Traditional adult apprenticeship in Arkansas has grown from 950 apprentices in 1993 to
over 6,400 apprentices at present. During this time, the allocation of funding dollars has
remained constant and has resulted in a situation that may well jeopardize the ability of
training programs to operate unless the operational cost of the program is passed on to
employers or, worse yet, to the apprentices themselves. During FY 04, only 89.9
percent of program requests were funded, and during FY 05, only 60.4 percent of
requested programs were funded.


BACKGROUND INFORMATION

FY 99
Amount allocated for traditional apprenticeship4 ................................... $975,000
Amount used by programs .................................................................... $846,581
Total funded apprenticeship programs ........................................................... 126
Total funded apprentices ............................................................................. 2,586

FY 00
Amount allocated for traditional apprenticeship ..................................... $975,000
Amount used by programs .................................................................... $969,787
Total funded apprenticeship programs ........................................................... 126
Total funded apprentices ............................................................................. 3,480

FY 01
Amount allocated for traditional apprenticeship                                                 $975,000
Amount used by programs. ................................................................ $1,069,704
 (Extra from Youth Apprenticeship allocation)
Total funded apprenticeship programs ........................................................... 219
Total funded apprentices ............................................................................. 3,389

FY 02
Amount allocated for traditional apprenticeship ..................................... $975,000
Amount used by programs ................................................................. $1,120,248
  (Extra from Youth Apprenticeship allocation)

4
 “Traditional” apprenticeship refers only to adult apprenticeships. The General Assembly has appropriated
$1,975,000 for apprenticeships, but $1 million of that funds youth apprenticeships.


                                                          36
APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education


Total funded apprenticeship programs ........................................................... 153
Total funded apprentices ............................................................................. 3,322

FY 03
Amount allocated for traditional apprenticeship ..................................... $975,000
Amount used by programs .................................................................... $984,877
Total funded programs ................................................................................... 104
Total funded apprentices ............................................................................. 5,014

FY 04
Amount allocated for traditional apprenticeship ..................................... $975,000
Amount used by programs .................................................................... $974,741
Total funded programs ................................................................................... 102
Total funded apprentices ............................................................................. 3,941

FY 05
Amount allocated for traditional apprenticeship ..................................... $975,000
Amount used by programs ................................................................................ $
Total funded programs .........................................................................................
Total funded apprentices ............................................................................. 6,788

Based on an average wage of $9 per hour (the estimate is this wage has increased to
around $12 per hour at present) and a normal work year consisting of 2,000 hours,
apprentices have paid an average of $437 in state taxes each. For the last reported
year, 2004, this would amount to $1,722,217 in state tax revenue. This estimate uses
the state “short form” tax return as its basis for computation. The average cost in state
funds per apprentice amounts to $247.34 for this same timeframe, thus yielding a net
profit to the state of Arkansas of $189.66.


POSSIBLE OPTION

The adult apprenticeship committees (the Arkansas Apprenticeship Coordination
Steering Committee, the State Plumbing Apprenticeship Committee, and the State
Electrical Apprenticeship Committee) as well as the Arkansas Building Trades Council,
the Associated General Contractors, the Arkansas Construction Education Foundation,
and the Arkansas AFL-CIO propose that an additional $1 million be appropriated to the
Department of Workforce Education, bringing the total apprenticeship training fund to
$2,975,000. This would provide $1,975,000 for traditional – or adult – apprenticeships
with $1 million continuing to fund youth apprenticeships.




                                                           37
APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education


            GRANTS FOR EQUIPMENT UPGRADE AND REPLACEMENT


CHALLENGE

Career and technical education programs in Arkansas high schools, junior/middle
schools, and secondary area technical centers represent a state investment of more
than $113 million. Most local district and center programs were funded with state start-
up funds provided by the Department of Workforce Education. Many of those programs
are decades old and have not received any state funds to replace and upgrade
equipment since the 1999-2000 school year. Local districts are required to upgrade
outdated equipment with local sources of funds or, in many instances, teachers are
required to raise those funds themselves. Federal funds may not be used for equipment
replacement purposes. The average cost of this annual equipment upgrade based on a
seven-year equipment life cycle exceeds $16 million.


BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Prior to the 2000-2001 funding year, state funds were available to assist schools in
replacing broken or out-of-date equipment. Due to funding cuts, the line item funding for
that effort was lost and never replaced in the budget. This action has left an investment
of more than $113 million, which includes more than 25,000 computers in critical need
of repair and upgrade. Much like the facilities that house them, without funding for
replacement parts the instructional equipment falls into a state of critical disrepair. The
previous line item funding was authorized for equipment upgrade/replacement by the
biennial appropriation and was distributed to school districts and secondary area
technical centers. These funds were to be used to upgrade and/or to replace obsolete
equipment that was associated with career and technical programs. The distribution of
these funds was based on the number of full-time equivalent teachers at each eligible
institution during the preceding school year. Moreover, while the funds were limited and
provided less than the cost of one computer per teacher, these were the only funds that
some of the career and technical programs received for equipment replacement.
Documentation of expenditures was submitted to the department by March 15 of each
year, and local districts and secondary area technical centers were given the option of
expending the equipment upgrade/replacement funds in a single career focus program
of study or course or in multiple career and technical programs.


POSSIBLE OPTION

The equipment replacement/upgrade line item in the public school fund should be
increased $16 million in both funding and appropriation. This amount certainly would not
remedy the equipment need immediately due to years of limited or no funding.
However, on a seven-year cycle, most of the backlog of unreliable and sometimes
dangerous equipment would be slowly replaced. This funding should be continuous and



                                            38
APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education


sustained to provide the instructional equipment adequate to train the quality workforce
that Arkansas employers require and deserve.

Attachment: list of programs of study and approximate cost of instructional equipment




                                          39
APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education




Agribusiness Systems                                  20    $46,350      $927,000
Animal Systems                                       132    $28,000    $3,696,000
Audio-Video Tech & Film – Career Communications        2     $5,000       $10,000
Business & Marketing (number of high school
teachers)                                            618    $38,500   $23,793,000
Construction – Construction Technology                35    $34,110    $1,193,850
Construction – HVACR                                   1    $26,800       $26,800
Design/Pre-const. – Drafting/Design Architect CADD    22    $75,400    $1,658,800
Design/Pre-const. – Geospatial Technology              4   $116,796      $467,184
Early Childhood Dev & Svcs – Child Care               57    $34,000    $1,938,000
Engineering & Tech – Computer Engineering             45    $57,540    $2,589,300
Engineering & Tech – Drafting/Design Engin. CADD      15    $75,400    $1,131,000
Engineering & Tech – Electronics                       2    $49,350       $98,700
Engineering & Tech – Pre-engineering                  15   $100,099    $1,501,485
Facility & Mobile Eq Maint – Auto Service Tech        29   $156,075    $4,526,175
Facility & Mobile Eq Maint – Automotive Collision      9    $77,295      $695,655
Facility & Mobile Eq Maint – Aviation                  2    $69,850      $139,700
Facility & Mobile Eq Maint – Diesel Mechanics          2                       $0
Facility & Mobile Eq Maint – Power Equipment Tech      5    $16,005       $80,025
Family & Community Services – FACS Education         317    $47,060   $14,918,020
Journ. & Broadcasting – Career Communications          7     $5,000       $35,000
Journalism & Broadcasting – Radio/TV                  18    $62,150    $1,118,700
Law Enforcement – Criminal Justice                    14    $38,440      $538,160
Lodging – Lodging Mgmt (FACS)                          2    $14,450       $28,900
Maint., Installation, & Repair – Ind. Eq. Maint.      12    $48,700      $584,400
Maint., Installation, & Repair – Major Appliance       1    $17,020       $17,020
National Security – JROTC                             42                       $0
Natural Resources/Environmental Service Systems       59    $23,870    $1,408,330
Performing Arts – Career Communications                2     $5,000       $10,000
Personal Care Services – Cosmetology                  15    $50,225      $753,375
Plant Systems – Biological                            26    $57,720    $1,500,720
Plant Systems – Horticulture                          75    $57,720    $4,329,000
Power, Structural, & Technical Systems               195    $34,740    $6,774,300
Printing Technology – Graphic Communications           5   $101,650      $508,250
Production – Furniture Manufacturing                  10    $31,890      $318,900
Production – Machine Tool                              7    $62,550      $437,850
Production – Welding                                  18    $49,275      $886,950
Restaurant & Food/Beverage Svc – Food Prod.           27    $36,800      $993,600
Restaurant & Food/Beverage Svcs – Culinary Arts        3    $44,200      $132,600
Teaching & Training – Education & Training             9    $31,950      $287,550
Therapeutic Svc – Medical Professions Education       50    $45,836    $2,291,800
Visual Arts – Advertising Design                       8    $51,180      $409,440
Visual Arts – Career Communications                    1     $5,000        $5,000
Visual Arts – Commercial Photography                   4                       $0

                                         40
APPENDIX C: Career and Technical Education



Jr. & Middle Agriculture, Food, & Natural Resources    12   $20,890       $250,680
Jr. & Middle Arts, AV Tech, & Communications            2    $5,000        $10,000
Jr. & Middle Business & Marketing                     297   $68,500    $20,344,500
Career Orientation*                                   124    $8,100     $1,004,400
Jr. & Middle Family & Consumer Sciences               100   $49,425     $4,942,500
Keystone*                                               3    $9,600        $28,800
Jr. & Middle Technical & Professional Education        44   $48,725     $2,143,900
JAG/STRIVE                                             46   $20,325       $934,950
Internship/WP Readiness/EAST/Keystone/Senior
Seminar*                                               27   $11,500       $310,500
Principles of Technology/PIC                           28   $26,241       $734,748
                                                                      $113,465,517
*Teacher not teaching any other POS/area




                                           41
APPENDIX D: Secondary Area Technical Center System


                              APPENDIX D
               The Secondary Area Technical Center System

PURPOSE OF SECONDARY AREA TECHNICAL CENTERS

Secondary area technical centers are designed to offer career and technical programs
to high school students within a defined geographical region. Secondary area technical
centers are sponsored by high schools, education service cooperatives, and two-year
colleges.

The area centers draw students from several high schools, allowing them to provide
high-cost career and technical programs that local high schools could not otherwise
afford to offer. By participating in an area center program, a local high school can offer
six or more additional career and technical programs at a greatly reduced cost.


HISTORY

The development of Arkansas’ area centers was made possible by federal and state
legislation in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The federal Vocational Education Act of
1963 made construction costs for area centers an allowable expenditure for federal
vocational education funds. The 1964 amendment to Act 328 of 1957 provided for
establishment of area centers by local school boards. The Little Rock and Fayetteville
school districts were the first to apply to the State Board of Education to establish
secondary area centers. Metropolitan Vocational Technical Center in Little Rock and
Sequoyah Technical High School (later renamed Fayetteville High School West
Campus) became the state’s first two area centers, opening their doors to students in
the 1965-66 school year.

Seven years later, centers were established in Russellville, Texarkana, and Conway
and began classes in the 1972-73 school year. Additional centers in Monticello,
Camden, Warren, and Jonesboro were approved the following year, bringing the
number of centers to nine.

Act 788 of 1985 authorized the State Board of Education to increase the number of area
centers by allowing postsecondary technical schools and education service
cooperatives to serve as sponsoring institutions for area centers. As a result of the
legislation, centers were opened in Bald Knob, Forrest City, Heber Springs, Malvern,
Morrilton, Hot Springs, Harrison, and Leslie. Today, however, only five of those centers
are still in operation. The centers that closed did so because of low enrollment and
inadequate funding.

By 2000, 18 area centers were in operation across the state. The Blue Ribbon
Commission on Public Education stated in its 2002 final report that vocational-technical
courses were not available to all students because of a lack of local course offerings or


                                           42
APPENDIX D: Secondary Area Technical Center System


lack of access to an area secondary technical center. At the time of the report, only 148
high schools in the state’s 312 school districts sent students to an area technical center.

Demand for area center services continued to increase steadily, due at least in part to
the passage of Act 675 of 2003, which mandates that students receive 350 minutes of
organized instruction each day and that students in grades 9 to 12 must attend a full
school day. In addition, students are required to have six career focus units to meet
graduation requirements. Enrollment in area center programs increased significantly
after the passage of Act 675 of 2003, since career and technical programs at centers
provide one means of meeting those requirements.


CURRICULUM CHANGES

The first nine area centers offered traditional vocational education programs, such as
auto mechanics, building trades, drafting, electronics, machine shop, printing, and
welding. Those traditional programs have been updated to reflect current technologies,
and new programs have been added. Students now have 36 different programs from
which to choose. (See list.) In addition, some centers offer work-based experiences
through internship and youth apprenticeship programs.


CURRENT STATUS

There are presently 24 area centers in operation. In the 2005-06 school year, 187 of the
state’s 252 school districts sent students to area centers; however, more than 60 high
schools remain unserved by area centers. (See Map #2.) Because students in these
schools do not have the same opportunities for career and technical education as their
counterparts in schools served by area centers, the state does not meet the equity
standard for public education as established in the 2001 ruling in the Lake View case.
Act 803 of 1997 authorized the State Board of Workforce Education and Career
Opportunities to establish an area center in each cooperative service area and in
Pulaski County. It should be noted that many high schools within an education service
area may not have access to an area center due to distance. It has been proven that if a
high school is more than 30 minutes from an area center, it is difficult to utilize services
efficiently. It should be noted that due to the increase in training fees paid by the high
schools, the addition of six area centers have started since the year 2000. There was no
additional funding from DWE to support these centers. Consequently, as the number of
Full-Time Equivalents (FTE) increased, the dollar amount per FTE has decreased.

DWE has worked in partnership with other educational entities to develop a system that
will provide a seamless transition for students from high school into postsecondary
education. Of the 24 secondary area technical centers, 15 have established
partnerships with institutions of higher education. Students participating in programs at
these centers have the opportunity to earn concurrent credit, meaning that they can
receive college credit for successfully completing certain college courses while earning



                                            43
APPENDIX D: Secondary Area Technical Center System


high school credit. In the 2004-05 school year, more than 2,000 high school students
earned more than 15,000 hours of college credit through the concurrent credit program
at an area center.


FUNDING

The secondary area technical centers are funded from two sources: Vocational Center
Aid, which is distributed by DWE, and training fees collected by the centers from local
high schools that send students to the centers.

Vocational Center Aid is the primary source of funding for the centers. The current level
of funding is $10,289,250, an amount that has remained unchanged since July 2000.
These funds are distributed to the centers through a formula based upon each center’s
pro rata share of the total FTE enrollment. The distribution formula is as follows:

   An FTE is defined as one student enrolled in a technical program for six periods per
    day for one year; therefore, a student enrolled for three hours per day counts as
    one-half FTE. (Students may enroll for one, two, or three periods per day.)
   The state total number of FTEs is divided into the Vocational Center Aid fund to
    determine DWE funding amount per FTE.
   Each center’s funding is then determined by multiplying its number of FTEs by the
    funding amount per FTE.

The second source of funding for the centers, the training fees paid by sending high
schools to the centers, is set in the public school funding formula and is currently $3,250
per FTE.

The graph that follows shows the growth and funding streams beginning in 2001 and
projected through 2010. It becomes readily apparent that as demand for services
increases, the current fund levels will not adequately support the area center system
without some adjustment.


OUTLOOK

Most recently, area centers were opened in partnership with Northwest Arkansas
Community College in Bentonville and Arkansas Northeastern College in Blytheville.
The Phillips College Technical Center expanded to offer programs at the Helena and
DeWitt campuses in addition to its Stuttgart campus. All three of these centers are
serving a population of students who desperately need these services. The State Board
of Workforce Education and Career Opportunities has set the minimum number of
programs that a secondary area center must offer at six programs covering five different
career clusters. Of this group of centers, Northwest Arkansas Community College in
Bentonville is the only area center that offers the full range of programs. This is due to
the college assuming sponsorship of the Fayetteville West Campus Technical Center.


                                            44
APPENDIX D: Secondary Area Technical Center System


The Phillips College Technical Center and the Arkansas Northeastern College
Technical Center, along with four other area centers, do not meet this requirement due
to inadequate funding. There are seven regions of the state that do not have area
centers to provide services. Students in the Batesville, Hope, Melbourne, Mountain
Home, Newport, and Pocahontas areas must rely on their local high schools to provide
career and technical programs. Arkansas State University Mountain Home and Ozarka
College have been approved to operate a secondary area center but have not begun
operating. Local high school program offerings are typically agriculture, business, and
family and consumer sciences. Many of the programs offered through a secondary area
center are more costly and consequently less desirable for the high school to offer.
There is a two-year college in each of these communities that could provide up-to-date
technical education programs through the secondary area center system if funds were
available.

We will look at these unserved areas and project enrollment for each of the seven
proposed area centers and provide for growth in the existing area centers. In recent
years, the growth has been about 5 percent per year. The planned growth of the system
will allow for existing centers to continue growing at this rate and the addition of two new
area centers per year until the seven unserved areas have an area center approved and
operating.


FUTURE PLANS

To provide adequate support for existing programs, accommodate expected growth,
and provide service to all high school students, an increase in the secondary area
technical center funding stream is critical. Funding for the next biennium must take into
consideration
    Opening seven new centers;
    5 percent growth per year in existing centers;
    the high cost of consumable supplies necessary to the programs; and
    meeting economic development needs across the state.

It is projected that DWE will need $16,989,824 in 2007-08 and $19,598,736 in 2008-09
to adequately support the Secondary Area Technical Center System.




                                            45
APPENDIX D: Secondary Area Technical Center System


PROGRAMS OF STUDY 2005-2006


Advertising Design                           Geospatial Technology

Agriculture                                  Graphic Communications

Automotive Collision                         Horticulture

Automotive Service Technology                Hospitality & Tourism

Aviation Mechanics                           HVACR

Banking & Finance                            Industrial Equipment Management

Business Adm./Mgt./Office Adm.               Information Mgt./Desktop Publishing

Career Communications                        Information Mgt./Multimedia

Child Care                                   Machine Tool Technology

Computer Engineering                         Major Appliance Repair

Construction Technology                      Medical Professions Education

Cosmetology                                  Oracle

Criminal Justice                             Power Equipment Technology

Diesel Mechanics                             Pre-engineering

Drafting & Design                            Radio/TV Broadcasting

Electronics                                  Teaching & Training

Food Production                              Web Design

Furniture                                    Welding

POS SUPPORT COURSES:                         Youth Apprenticeship
 Internship & Workforce Tech.




                                        46
APPENDIX D: Secondary Area Technical Center System




                                        47
APPENDIX D: Secondary Area Technical Center System




                                        48
        APPENDIX D: Secondary Area Technical Center System



                                                       Secondary Area Centers
                                                     Assuming - 5% Growth/Year
                                             Training Fee & DWE Fund Remains Constant

8,000



7,000                                                 7,079        7,050                           Combined DWE & Training
                                         6,662                                          6,760
               6,584        6,641                                                                    6,625
                                                                                                                  6,495
                                                                                                                                6,370
                                                                                                                                             6,250
6,000



5,000

            4,250        4,250        4,302
                                                                 3,800
                                                                                        DWE Funds/FTE
                                                   3,829
4,000                                                                                                                                      3,597
                                                                                      3,510        3,375                       3,426
                                                                                                                3,245
                                                   3,250          3,250
              Training Fee/FTE                                                                       3,250         3,250           3,250     3,250
3,000                                                                         3,250                                                          3,000
                          2,391      2,543                                                        3,108         3,263
            2,334                                                                     2,960                                    3,120
                                                                  2,819
                                         2,361      2,687
2,000        2,201         2,257                             Growth


1,000



   0
         2001-2002     2002-2003    2003-2004    2004-2005    2005-2006        2006-2007        2007-2008    2008-2009     2009-2010    2010-2011

                                                                         49
APPENDIX E: Technical Careers Student Loan Forgiveness Program


                            APPENDIX E
    Arkansas Technical Careers Student Loan Forgiveness Program


GENERAL INFORMATION

The Arkansas Technical Careers Student Loan Forgiveness Program offers forgiveness of
up to $10,000 in student loans (a maximum of $2,500 for each academic year of student
loans for a maximum eligibility of four years). The amount of loan forgiveness is determined
by the length of the technical program completed and by the number of years of student
loans.

The loan forgiveness program is open to both full-time and part-time students and to
nontraditional students. Following graduation, participants must be employed full-time in
Arkansas in a career field related to their program of study to be eligible for loan forgiveness;
one year of qualifying employment is required for each year of loans to be forgiven.

Participating institutions include Arkansas public four-year colleges and universities, two-
year and technical colleges, and technical institutes. Some independent institutions also are
participating. Approximately 300 technical programs in the fields of computer/information
technology, biomedical/ biotechnology, and advanced manufacturing have been designated
for loan forgiveness. Designated programs cover all undergraduate degree levels, including
technical certificates, associate degrees, advanced certificates, and bachelor’s degrees.


FUNDING OF THE PROGRAM

The program is funded through the General Improvement Fund and is currently
budgeted for $1.4 million for each year of the current biennium. However, it is projected
that $1.7 million will be needed for each year of the biennium to meet obligations for
current active participants. That figure allows for no growth of the program, although
continued growth is anticipated. The program has never had a solid funding source, so
loan repayments have had to be suspended temporarily several times because of a lack
of funding. With no increase in funding, it is likely that suspension of repayments will
continue to occur as funding is depleted.


STATISTICS

   11 four-year public institutions, 27 two-year institutions, two technical institutes, and
    nine independent institutions offer approved programs.
   280 programs/majors have been designated in the three high-demand career fields
    of computer/information technology, advanced manufacturing, and biomedical/
    biotechnology.
   1,182 individuals are “in process.”
   1,457 individuals were paid as of February 2, 2006.


                                               50
APPENDIX E: Technical Careers Student Loan Forgiveness Program


   $3,431,226 has been reimbursed for loan repayments since August 10, 2000 (date
    of first repayment).
   Students receiving loan repayments have generated an annual payroll of
    $25,014,444.96.


SALARY BY DEGREE LEVEL
  Bachelor’s Degree
   Mean = $37,457
   Median = $39,000
   Range = $9,865-$89,568

    Associate’s Degree                        Technical Certificate
     Mean = $25,098                           Mean = $25,500
     Median = $23,587                         Median = $20,800
     Range = $16,640-$55,344                  Range = $16,640-$43,097

    Salary by High-Demand Career Field
    Computer Information Technology
     Mean = $35,860
     Median = $37,750
     Range = $9,865-$89,568

    Advanced Manufacturing                    Biomedical/Biotechnology
     Mean = $37,469                           Mean = $30,132
     Median = $39,750                         Median = $29,120
     Range = $16,640-$55,000                  Range = $19,240-$60,000




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