Serena Aldrich and Charles Lafon, Department of Geography, Texas A&M
University, and Henri Grissino-Mayer and Georgina DeWeese, University of
Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Fire History and Stand Dynamics of Table Mountain
Pine Forests on Mill Mountain, Virginia.
Forested ecosystems in the southeastern United States have developed under the
influence of fire. Fire exclusion during recent decades has led to a decrease in abundance
of Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.), an Appalachian endemic. Table
Mountain pine is a fire-dependent species that dominates many xeric sites in the
Appalachian Mountains. Federal land management agencies are interested in restoring
the fire regime that historically maintained Table Mountain pine stands. The purpose of
this project is two-fold: (1) reconstruct fire history in Table Mountain pine stands
growing on a ridge (Mill Mountain) in the central Appalachians and (2) characterize
stand age and size structure to explore successional dynamics of the stands. Results of the
fire history analysis show that fires occurred frequently on Mill Mountain between the
years 1726-1930 with a Weibull median fire-return interval (MEI) of 5.4 years, a lower
exceedance interval (LEI) of 2.4 years and an upper exceedance interval (UEI) of 9 years.
Most fires (89.6%) occurred during the dormant season, 9.6% during the early season and
0.7% during the late season. The last recorded fire occurred during the dormant season of
1930. Limited tree establishment has occurred since 1930. Results of stand age and size
analysis shows that increased stand density is inhibiting regeneration of Table Mountain
pine in these stands. The results of this study underscore the need for prescribed burning
at frequent intervals similar to those that maintained Table Mountain pine stands in the
Keywords: dendrochronology, forest dynamics, succession, Appalachia, Virginia
Bharati Ayyalasomayajula, Department of Geography, Texas State University—San
Marcos, San Marcos, TX 78666. Mumbai Monsoon Floods 2005.
Torrential rains in Mumbai flooded the city of Mumbai, India on 26 July 2005; a
record 24 hour rainfall. This poster examines the causes of this torrential monsoonal rain,
and documents its effects on the city. This record event is also placed in context with
other Indian record rainfall events.
Christy Batterson and Bruce Hoagland, Department of Geography and Oklahoma
Biological Survey, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. Upland Forest
Vegetation on the Ozark Plateau, Cherokee County, Oklahoma
The Ozark Plateau of Oklahoma possesses a number of unique habitats, such as
springs and glades, and rare species. Although many floristic studies have been
conducted in the region, few quantitative vegetation studies have been published. The
potential natural vegetation of this region is oak-hickory and oak-hickory-pine forest.
The objective of this study was to quantify woody species composition and distribution in
an Ozark Plateau forest in Cherokee County, Oklahoma. To achieve this goal, 50 400m2
were established on The Nature Conservancy‘s J.T. Nickel Nature Preserve. All species
present in the plot was recorded and DBH for all stems >2.54cm measured. A total of 38
species were encountered and 1,912 stems measured. Ozark chinkapin, a regional
endemic species, was also encountered in the sampling. Total basal area sampled was
1,466m2, of which the oaks constituted 854m2 or 58%. Among the oaks, blackjack had
the greatest BA (187m2). Shortleaf pine constituted 435 m2. Non-metric
multidimensional scaling revealed a distinct compositional gradient based upon the
abundance of shortleaf pine and species richness.
Lucas Baze, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK
73019. The Little Ice Age and the Spiro Mound Culture.
In the early 1400‘s in the central plains there were many cultural changes and
migrations for which we have no explanation. It is my hope to prove within this paper to
what extent environmental causes were the driving forces for this upheaval. This change
just before contact changed the cultural landscape of the plains until contact. The data
consists of dendrochronology, archaeological, and paleoecology data used to determine to
what extent the environment changed from the late 1300‘s to the early 1400‘s. This time
period from the middle 1300‘s to the middle 1800‘s in Europe is called the medieval
warm period and the little ice age, a time of drastic and sudden climactic shifts that had
lasting effects on cultures around the world. Though the effects are not constant across
the whole planet, or the same, all regions of the planet were affected by this climactic
shift. Little research however has been done however on this phenomenon‘s effects on
the peoples of North and South America. There is some debate on whether or not this
actually happened and to what extent this climate shift changed the environment. The
effects of the little ice age were felt in North America and this can be shown by analysis
of the archaeological and paleoenvironmental data.
Paden Beckwith, Norman High School, Norman, Oklahoma, 73069. Extremism
within America: Is There a Threat?
Extremist groups currently operating within America have mainly for the last few
decades been left to themselves and now pose a potential threat. By allowing these
groups to exist without much interference are we may be providing them with time to
retaliate against us. That is a possible dilemma. Groups such as the Aryan Nations, ELF,
or the National Alliance if given opportunity may be able to lash out against our nation. If
this were to happen what would be the consequences, and could it be worse then 911?
This project explores such things as how do these groups come into existence?, what
constitutes their membership, other project questions ask where do such groups operate,
and what are the situations under which these groups flourish? These groups are greatly
shaping our nation whether we know it or not. Our national security has began to focus
more and more on them in the last few decades. To ensure our safety we must deal with
them and end all possible threats. However to do so, these groups must be studied. I hope
to determine where threats lie and explore a few strategies to contain such groups. This
research examines extremist groups of American origin if only to understand which ones
if any may impact our society and where are they located.
Keywords: Terrorism, Extremism, hate groups, militias
Drew Bennett, Department of Geography and the Environment, University of Texas
at Austin, Austin, TX 78712. Indigenous land-use and livelihood transitions in the
Sumaco Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador.
Landscapes in the Ecuadorian Amazon experienced dramatic changes during the
last forty years as various development and colonization schemes expanded road
networks and brought colonists into the region. The indigenous inhabitants of the
Amazon were especially impacted as they confronted new political and socio-economic
forces. This paper investigates the changes in land-use and livelihoods of one indigenous
Kichwa group located in the Sumaco Biosphere Reserve of the Upper Napo region of the
Ecuadorian Amazon. Particularly, through the use of land-use mapping and household
questionnaires, it investigates the current use of natural resources in the construction of
livelihoods. These results are then compared to historical accounts from an adjacent
community to reveal that land-use and livelihoods changed dramatically over the past 40
years but that these changes are not unidirectional and that certain traditional land-uses
remain important for household food security. In addition, a ―mixed-use‖ cash-cropping
strategy that increasingly incorporates shade grown cacao has largely replaced cattle
ranching that came to dominate the area in the 1980s. Several groups promoting
sustainable development in the newly created Sumaco Biosphere Reserve have played a
major role in the adoption of these new strategies.
Daniel S. Berkowitz, Radar Operations Center, National Weather Service, Norman,
OK 73072. Kernel Estimation and Its Application in Radar-Rain Gauge Rainfall
Radar rainfall estimates are often assumed to be representative of what is
reaching the ground at a rain gauge under the volume in space being sampled by the radar
beam (a "point" estimate). However, aside from the limitations of the radar sampling
technique and the algorithms that convert reflectivity to a rainfall rate, there are
geometric, geographic, and meteorological considerations. This presentation will describe
these considerations and illustrate how a nearest neighbor "kernel" estimate (derived from
adjacent radials and adjacent range bins) can be more appropriate than a "point" estimate
when comparing radar data to rain gauge reports. These kernels at various ranges from
the radar antenna will be compared to the Hydrologic Rainfall Analysis Project (HRAP)
grid that is used in the Digital Precipitation Array (DPA) product."
Jennifer L. Beste, Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, MO 64468.
Digging It: A Geographical Analysis of Women‘s Major College Volleyball.
When you think of volleyball today, most likely you will think of the
Olympics, Major College Championships or the continually growing beach
volleyball, often referred to as sand volleyball, as well as, the slang term ‗Beach‘.
Volleyball hasn‘t always been sand, sunscreen, swimsuits and surf. West (1996)
identified two hotbeds of women‘s collegiate volleyball success, the Far West and
Midwest. What is the geography of women‘s volleyball a decade later?
The purpose of this study was to collect NCAA Division I Women’s volleyball
rosters in order to build a geographic database to conduct an updated geographical
analysis. This includes a study of the origin (hometown/high school) and diffusion
(college/university) of the college players. In addition, compiling the necessary database
to determine the overall team success of major college programs through the most
recently completed season 2005 was undertaken. This database included college team
location, overall win-loss records, poll rankings, post-season involvement & success,
home game attendance and number of All-Americans. An examination of the completed
maps and quantitative analysis provides more insight into the present day spatial
distribution of major college volleyball success.
Keywords: sport geography, volleyball, women’s sports
James D. Bothwell, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman,
OK 73019. Ecological zone perturbations embedded in IPCC climate change
This paper aims to explore the analysis of climate patterns embedded in the
Global Climate Data Sets generated by the Community Climate System Model (CCSM)
for the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Report for Climate Change
(IPCC). A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach is taken to examine
spatiotemporal correlates among climate perturbations affecting vegetation and to draw
insights into their relationships and responses to climate change scenarios. The climate
perturbations are assessed using the Holdridge life zone classification which serves as a
correlate for plant function types. Zone undergoing Holdridge life zone classification
perturbations will suffer vegetative shifts, potentially including die back and re-growth.
With foci on El Nino southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and Holdridge life zone
classification perturbation zones, the research explores the modeled extremes of CCSM
climate change cases with the worst-case and best case CO2 emission scenarios. The
scenarios used are A2: continental economic regions dominate with an economic focus
(representing a worst case scenario) and CC: CO2 levels are stable at the current level
(representing the best case scenario). GIS methods were used to examine the spatial and
temporal development of Holdridge life zone classification perturbations under these two
scenarios. A GIS spatiotemporal object growth classification scheme will be used to
aggregate like anomalies and enable the search for underlying correlates. The GIS
spatiotemporal object growth classifications include emergent, dissipative, merging,
splitting and oscillator. The impact of climate change on the ENSO driven ecological
perturbations will thus be analyzed and evaluated.
Tessa Breder, Norman High School, Norman, OK 73019. Swedish-Speaking Finns, a
Culture Within a Culture: Will They Survive?
Swedish-speaking Finns make up the largest minority group of Finland and have
since the beginning of the country. By the 19 th century, the areas of Swedish-Finns had
shrunk to only the locations of Ostrobothnia, the Aland Islands, and the southwestern
coast. Until the second half of the 19 th century, the Swedish-speakers had retained their
primacy, but it was eventually displaced by Finnish. These events pose the question of
whether or not this culture will survive. The rate of marriage between Swedish-speakers
and Finns continues to rise, which is not surprising due to the lack of legal constraints
(although there are many times social and familial constraints). As a result of this outer
cultural crossover, the Swedish language in Finland is dissipating with their children
registering as speakers of the majority language. As of December 2002 the population of
the Swedish-speakers in Finland came to 290,251 out of a total population of 4,797,311.
With the constant decrease of the Swedish-speaking community, it is very likely that
eventually this language will fade out completely. This project proposes to explore the
possibility of Swedish-speaking Finns‘ dissipation and what will become of the country if
this does happen.
Key Words: Swedish-speaking Finns/Finnish-speaking Finns, Social and familial
constraints, population decrease, majority language
Stacey Brown, Department of Geography, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater,
OK 74078. Emergency Shelters and Socially Vulnerable Populations.
This project examines the locations of emergency and temporary shelters for
persons displaced by Hurricane Katrina. A geographic information system was used to
evaluate spatial relationships and patterns within the data. Various demographic
information such as; ethnicity, age, owner versus renter, and income data were analyzed
as well as transportation networks. Pattern analysis and location-allocation models were
applied to shelter distributions to evaluate optimal locations and utilization. The results
suggest the existence of ―shelter deserts,‖ or geographic areas containing socially
vulnerable populations that were underserved by shelters.
Keywords: Shelters, Hurricane Katrina, Social Vulnerability
Lacy Jo Burgess, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK
73019. Invasive species dynamics along a stretch of the Canadian River in Norman,
Cleveland County, Oklahoma.
The goals of this study were to quantify the occurrence of exotic and invasive
species on a stretch of the Canadian River south of the University of Oklahoma, in
Cleveland County, Oklahoma. Saccharum ravennae, Tamarix chinesis, and Phragmities
australis were of particular interest due to the dynamics in the concentrations of these
species that was found during the course of the aerial photography analysis. Historic
vegetation cover was established and analyzed through a series of five aerial photographs
covering the time period 1966-2001. A unique classification consisting of 11 categories
was developed and used to identify specific species of interest, as well as the most
dynamic landcover categories. The aerial photographs were used as a base image and
digitizing was done on screen using Arc GIS version 9.3; change in area in the
classification categories was calculated using the same software. The species composition
and densities were identified through a two part floristic survey of the sight; a walking
survey covering the entire area and a plot survey which was established along transects
near the river. The walking survey was conducted biweekly throughout the field season,
April-October 2005; the plots were surveyed four times throughout the season. One
hundred sixty-five species were encountered through both surveys. River dynamics
appeared to have the greatest impact on the invasive species.
Michelle Bussemey, Department of Geography, Texas State University—San
Marcos, San Marcos, TX 78666. Analysis through the use of repeat photography of
the impact from the reconstruction of the Rio Vista Dam on the San Marcos River.
Use of repeat photography as a field method is a practical and simple interpretive
tool to show changes in the physical landscape. The employment of the technique helps
evaluate the impact of changes and structural improvements made to the Rio Vista Dam
in San Marcos, Texas during the spring of 2006. The severe alterations in the surrounding
landscape and fluvial processes of the San Marcos River are analyzed by comparing nine
sets of photographs. The significance of comparing photographs is important to
understanding the spatial change of not only the physical landscape, but also change in
the cultural landscape and human impact. The relevancy of repeat photography is
addressed by the effects of man-made structures on geomorphic and fluvial systems,
changes in global climate, and growing concerns of increased urban land-use. The spatial
and temporal difficulties encountered were compounded by the drastic changes in the
riparian landscape, river channel, and increase in human use. The consequences the
newly constructed dam will have on the endangered gambusia and Texas wild rice could
be catastrophic if the human impact to the area continues to rise. Without proper
supervision and restraints, the fragile San Marcos River will reflect the impact of
overuse, overcrowding, and degradation in the ecosystem.
Keywords: repeat photography, fluvial processes, urban land-use, riparian
landscape, field research
Paul L. Butt, Department of Geography, University of Central Arkansas, Conway,
AR 72035. Food-Place Associations: A Classification.
The influences of the natural environment and the historical processes of culture
link food to place. Food-place associations often play an influential role in consumer
decision-making, and thus, often have significant economic impacts. For example,
presented with a choice of purchasing Texas-made barbeque sauce and Vermont-made
maple syrup, or Texas-made maple syrup and Vermont-made barbeque sauce, most
consumers would opt for the former product pair.
At least three variations of food-place associations can be identified. All are often
interconnected, so much so that overarching themes are difficult at times to discern.
Places sometimes become associated with particular food items due to a production
emphasis on those items. A second type of association results from invention. There are
food preparations which have originated with traditional recipes in particular places, and
over time, in spite of becoming generic food products, remain associated with the places
of invention. A third type of association is the result of marketing and promotional
strategies employed in an attempt to create links between ―place images‖ and ―food
quality.‖ The assumption is that the quality of food products is enhanced, even
guaranteed, through their association with specific places, thus significantly affecting
consumer decision making.
Keywords: food-place association, highly specialized production, invention,
Stephanie Buway, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman,
OK 73019. Renewable Energy Education and Awareness in Oklahoma.
Television reports, newspapers, and hundreds of websites post stories every day
related to energy issues across the United States. Creating an energy independent nation
by using our own domestic energy sources is a main goal in the US today. From adding
ethanol to gasoline to reduce our oil imports to installing solar panels on our rooftops, the
quest for energy independence is gaining momentum.
Where do the children of our future fit into this revolution? Changing
consumption and energy habits is a long term commitment. It appears to be a better use
of resources, then, to educate our children while they are still able to change their
behavior. As such, there is a strong push in schools today for better energy related
curriculum. Therefore, I intend to determine the level of renewable energy awareness in
the state of Oklahoma and use case studies of schools that have implemented successful
curricula that address renewable energy sources for the purpose of providing solutions to
programs with existing knowledge gaps. Randomly selected schools in the state will be
selected and their high school science and social classes will be surveyed. Both teachers
and students will fill out questionnaires assessing their energy knowledge, background,
and other related issues.
None of the above research could be done without the help and funding of the
Oklahoma Wind Power Initiative (OWPI). The non-profit, research organization is a
collaborative project between the University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma State
University. OWPI is Oklahoma‘s number one resource for wind power information.
Mang Lung Cheuk, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman,
OK 73019. Characterizing Spatial Uncertainty of 3D Building Model for Urban
Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling.
This paper summarizes a research to quantify the spatial uncertainty of a 3D
building model derived from Lidar data. Lidar-based 3D building models are becoming
popular in planning, visualization and other urban applications without a comprehensive
investigation of spatial uncertainty embedded in the 3D models. However, spatial
uncertainty will propagate and augment in subsequent analysis and modeling procedures.
Our goal is to identify spatial uncertainty embedded in lidar-derived 3D building
models and potential causes to the uncertainty, as well as what and how additional
uncertainty may be generated through subsequent applications. We demonstrate the
method using a 3D building model in the Central Business District (CBD) of Oklahoma
City, Oklahoma for urban atmospheric dispersion modeling (UADM), as an example.
The 3D building model is derived from LiDAR data that acquired and preprocessed by
The Joint Precision Strike Demonstration (JPSD) Program Office of the U.S. Army.
Buildings are extracted using an ESRI ArcView 3.x extension provided by the Army
Program Office and are refined via manual digitizing.
We identify three main sources of spatial uncertainty for the 3D building model
and the subsequent UADM application: LiDAR data, features extraction algorithm, and
the transformation of building data into UADM format. Spatial uncertainty from LiDAR
data and features extraction algorithm are quantified by comparing the raw LiDAR data
and features extraction results with a refined building model generated with aerial photos
and ground surveys. Spatial uncertainty from data transformation is quantified by
comparing the x, y coordinates of building model before and after transformation at
various resolutions. Combined results are plotted on maps and in probability distribution.
By examining the results with the urban structures of CBD, Oklahoma City, we
characterize the spatial uncertainty of 3D building model in term of building structures
(e.g. building aspect ratio) and urban environments (e.g. percent of vegetation cover).
Overall, spatial uncertainty introduced by data transformation is much greater than spatial
uncertainty introduced by the other two sources. Uncertainty also tends to congregate in
buildings with extreme height and area, special building materials, and complex
Keywords: GIS, LiDAR, uncertainty, error, accuracy assessment, Oklahoma City,
3D building model, urban atmospheric dispersion modeling,
Amanda Coleman, Department of Geography, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR
97403. The Visual Production of the South and Southerners in Photographs of the
Farm Security Administration: Stories of Region and Redemption.
At the dawn of the Great Depression, President Franklin Roosevelt declared the
US South the nation‘s ―number one economic problem.‖ Roosevelt undoubtedly viewed
the South as the nation‘s number one social problem as well, as poverty, illiteracy, racism
and disease appeared endemic to the region. Housing large numbers of poor tenant
farmers – black and white – and mountaineers residing on marginal lands, 1930s
Arkansas was a microcosm of the South and all of its social ills. This research describes
images of Arkansas and Arkansans produced in the 1930s by the federal government and
disseminated to the general public via popular media. I document prominent themes in
these images, arguing that constructions of ‗southernness‘ such as those created by
photographs taken in Arkansas were intimately linked to contemporary debates about
regional and national identity. My research is thus informed by and contributes to recent
geographical scholarship that reconceptualizes traditional constructions of the US South,
implicating these constructions in the region‘s often-turbulent relationship with the
Matthew Collier, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK
73019. Towards Characterizing the Spatiotemporal Nature of Drought.
The impacts of drought on nature and society have been truly staggering in the
past. Because of the great historical impact, much work has been done to characterize
drought and numerous indices have been developed to quantify its intensity. Yet drought
intensity will vary across space, place, scale, and time. These and other spatiotemporal,
geographic variables remain largely unexplored in relation to drought and its impacts.
Furthermore, current predictions are that drought‘s impact will become even more severe
due to the effects of climate change. The need to more fully understand the
spatiotemporal nature of drought is clear.
This presentation develops the case for a geographical contribution to a greater
understanding of drought through spatiotemporal modeling and query. A review of the
varied impacts of drought will be offered showing that space, place, scale, and time are
all important in understanding it. Contemporary indices that are used to characterize
drought intensity will be explored to illustrate their deficiencies in capturing
spatiotemporal variables and dynamics. The spatiotemporal dynamics of drought will be
discussed, and finally a summary of contributions that may be made through
spatiotemporal modeling and query will be presented.
Jonathan C. Comer and Thomas A. Wikle, Department of Geography, Oklahoma
State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-4053. Global Patterns of Cell Phone
Penetration and Diffusion.
The mobile telephone has become one of the most successful innovations of the
late twentieth century. Introduced in a few cities to serve business‘ needs during the late
1970s, the cellular telephone gained rapid acceptance within industrialized countries and
has recently spread throughout the developing world. Although the ratio of cellular users
to total population is still highest in wealthy nations, the largest new markets for cellular
users are in developing countries with large populations such as China and India. This
research examines the initial development of cellular telephone, its transformation into a
consumer product, and its worldwide diffusion.
Keywords: cell phones, diffusion, telephony
Priscilla H. C. Crawford, Oklahoma Biological Survey, University of Oklahoma,
Norman, OK 73019, and Bruce W. Hoagland, Department of Geography and
Oklahoma Biological Survey, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. Can
Herbarium Records Be Used to Map Plant Invasion Over the Past 100 Years?
We reconstructed the collecting history of invasive and non-invasive plants in
Oklahoma. We recorded the year of the first collection in each township for several
invasive and non-invasive plant species. We log transformed of the cumulative number of
occupied townships of the study species and plotted against time. The slope the linear
regression calculated from the data represented collection effort over time for the non-
invasive and collection effort plus invasion rate for invasive species; the steeper the slope
of the curve, the faster the rate of collection or invasion. We calculated the proportion of
invasive to non-invasive plant collections by dividing the cumulative number of
townships for each invasive species by the cumulative number of townships occupied by
the non-invasive taxa group. By comparing the number of specimens collected each year
for both invasive and non-invasive species, the proportion curves were developed to
illustrate the time period during which the invasive species were likely to be increasing in
abundance. For all invasive species in this study, the proportion curve indicates one or
more time periods during which the invasive species was collected disproportionately
more than the non-invasive counterpart group.
Nathan Currit, Department of Geography, Texas State University—San Marcos,
San Marcos, TX 78666. Indirect Methods of Measuring Leaf Area Index.
Leaf area index (LAI) is an important indicator of ecosystem health and function
and is frequently used in ecosystem models. Direct measurement of LAI is time
consuming and requires vegetation destruction. It is, therefore, unfeasible for regional
studies. Instead, LAI can be regionally estimated through the combination of indirect
methods of vegetation sampling and remotely sensed image analysis. Freeman Ranch is
located in the Texas Hill Country and is used by the Biology, Agriculture and Geography
departments at Texas State University | San Marcos. The 3,500 acre ranch is divided into
parcels with different range management practices. Some parcels have not been grazed
for over a year, while some are intensely grazed. Differences in grazing intensity have
important consequences for vegetation condition, including forest LAI. This project
estimates LAI on the Freeman Ranch to explore the relationships between land
management practices and forest condition. LAI is indirectly measured for a sample of
points using an Accupar Ceptometer to determine light penetration through the forest
canopy. The sample measurements are regressed against vegetation indices obtained from
remotely sensed image analysis. The regression model is then applied to the entire image
to determine regional variations in LAI. Results indicate that LAI is related to range
management practices, as well as canopy closure, soil type and water availability
Miguel de Oliver, Department of Geography, University of Texas at San Antonio,
San Antonio, TX 78249. Democratic Imperialism: Keeping Perspective in the Era of
Democracy‘s International Triumph.
Acknowledging the historical and readily overlooked raison d'être of democracy
is critical in the contemporary era of democratization. Despite popular fixation on its
civic virtues, democracy has been historically linked to the institution of empire due to
the fundamental acquisitive underpinnings that they both share. Given its elemental
function as guarantor of individual possession for the common citizenry, the democratic
state in the international arena serves as an acquisitive collective of private property. It is
no surprise that the materially successful and, thus, stable democratic states that lead the
world system are/have been favorably linked to the structure of imperialism. Any
conception of an emerging era of democratic ‗peace‘ must accommodate the coercive
imperialism of old. Consequently, the growing democratization of the world system of
polities of the late 20th century is the political rearticulation of autocratic imperialism
within a democratic world order.
Ajax Delvecki, Kim Penrod, Brianna Spears, and Douglas A. Hurt, Department of
History and Geography, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK 73034. La
Cultura de la Acequia Madre Revisited: Ditch Day in El Cerrito, New Mexico.
In 2000, Jeffrey Smith et al. analyzed the yearly cleaning (la limpia) of El
Cerrito, New Mexico‘s irrigation ditch (acequia) and its contribution to shaping village
culture. The authors argued that la limpia was an event that promoted use of the Spanish
language during ditch cleaning, allowed multiple generations to gather to tell family
stories, created gender roles with males working in the ditch and women cooking food
and watching children, and illustrated a different work ethnic between generations. We
revisited this article during our return to El Cerrito for la limpia 2006. While many
traditions endure, several cultural changes have occurred in six years. These
transformations include increasing use of the English language and decreased gender
Keywords: El Cerrito, New Mexico, acequias, cultural geography.
Emily Duda, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK
73019. Love in the Wilderness: Forest and Courtly Landscapes in the Lais of Marie
In medieval romance literature, landscapes were often symbolically defined. The
castle or the town represented safety, where a knight could rest, whereas the forest
represented danger or adventure. To quest in the works of authors like Chretien de
Troyes, one went out into the forest, defeated the beasts and returned safely. However,
Marie de France, a medieval poetess who was likely from the twelfth century, re-
imagines and redefines this landscape in her lais. Although her writing is a part of the
courtly tradition, her treatment of the forest/castle opposition suggests a reversal of their
conventional meaning. This paper explores her re-imagining society and the court to be
the source of conflict or danger and the forest and beasts to be the source of love and
Istvan Egresi, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK
73019. The New Romanian Auto-Component Industry and its Impact on Local
Major corporate strategies in the transformation of the global auto industry have
included consolidation through mergers and acquisitions as well as through strategic
partnerships, changing relationships with suppliers and the gradual shift of production to
regions with lower operating and labor costs (Dicken 2003: 355-398). One such region is
Central and Eastern Europe, which capitalizes on its geographical proximity to Western
European markets, and a large pool of skilled and relatively cheap labor. Moreover,
another incentive is that most of the countries are now within the European Union or on
the verge of joining. Foreign direct investment has also played an important role in
economic restructuring in Eastern and Central Europe through the supply of capital as
well as technological and management know-how (Hunya 2002b). At the same time, it
has facilitated the integration of Eastern European economies into the global system
through inclusion of domestic producers in Western advertising, branding and
distribution networks, while Western companies have simultaneously opened retailing
outlets in Eastern and Central Europe (Smith 2005; Pavlinek 2005). However, while
Eastern European economies are increasingly integrated into the global economic system,
the question remains as to the degree to which foreign companies are integrated into or
embedded in the local and regional economies in which they invested. This paper
examines the impact of foreign direct investment in the auto and auto component industry
on local economies in Romania paying particular attention to the embeddedness of firms
within local economies.
Dennis K. Ehrhardt, Department of History and Geography, University of
Louisiana-Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70508. Spatial Vulnerability of Our Air and
Water Transportation Systems in the Era of Global Terrorism
From cruise ships, cargo ships and tankers to air passenger and air cargo traffic,
the ships and airplanes, as well as the ports and airports that serve them are vulnerable in
this time of global terrorism. To highlight the magnitude of the potential for disaster and
the potential threat to the U.S. and world economy, a variety of data are presented. The
acts of violence take on different meanings. Whether they result in loss of life, economic
disruption, or environmental disaster does not matter, as each potential and actual act of
terrorism can have profound affects on the economy, the human psyche and at times the
environment. The sheer number of passengers utilizing air and water transportation as
well as the cargo transported and the facilities handling this traffic magnify the problem
that exists in keeping all aspects of air and water traffic safe. While some aspects of air
and water transportation and locations are less vulnerable than others, all have a degree of
risk associated with them.
Keywords: Global terrorism, magnitude, vulnerable.
Somer Erickson, National Severe Storms Laboratory, University of Oklahoma,
Norman, OK 73019. Tornado Warning Statistics: A Different Perspective.
Many scientists (other than meteorologists) have studied tornado warnings across
various fields including economics, geography, and sociology. Past research has shown
the obvious decline in the number of lives lost and property damaged. Many of these
improvements are attributable to the improved warnings and warning systems. However,
more accurate and timely warnings are not the only avenue that has helped the public.
Other aspects include increased awareness, preparedness, education and mitigation. This
study attempts to analyze tornado warning and event data using slightly different
techniques than have previously been employed. As it turns out the average person in the
US spends about .6 hours or approximately 36 minutes, a year, under tornado warnings.
Using the traditional economic concept of opportunity cost associated with time, a typical
value being $15/hour, we were then able to estimate the implied value of a tornado
warning. Assuming that all people responded to the warning and applying that value to
the length of warnings and the number of people warned allows us to estimate the
opportunity cost of warnings. The national average value amounted to approximately
$2.7 billion dollars a year, found by taking the product of total time under warnings and
estimated population. In terms of cost per person, it equates to about $9 per person per
Bryant Evans, Department of History and Geography, Houston Community
College, Houston, TX. Perspectives of Primacy in the Southern Cone.
Though urban primacy is a characteristic feature within many countries in Latin
America and around the world, each individual primate city has a unique story to tell.
Buenos Aires and Montevideo have long served as epicenters for cultural, political, and
economic activities within Argentina and Uruguay. Though these two colorful Southern
Cone cities share much in common, their historic developments and paths to primacy
were quite distinctive. Buenos Aires, much older than its neighbor across the Rio de la
Plata, had inauspicious beginnings as a backwater and smugglers haven. Montevideo, on
the other hand, developed out of a desire for defensive protection and fortification. If we
fast-forward to today, we can find that residents of Argentina and Uruguay have a
number of disparate perceptions of their capital cities. This paper offers a ―primacy
profile‖ of these two urban giants by revisiting their historic growth trajectories and the
symbols that reflect their primacy, and by providing a glimpse of contemporary
perceptions of Buenos Aires and Montevideo.
Keywords: Urban primacy, perception, Buenos Aires, Montevideo
Dalynda Evans, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK
73019. Encouraging Geography Faculty and Students to Participate in International
This presentation or paper actively encourages professors to investigate
experiential geography and change the lens through which they see students and the
global community by traveling abroad. Travel abroad can foster a better understanding of
many types of geography, especially political, economic, and human geography of other
countries, regions, government systems. Visits abroad help to cultivate balance and a
sense of humor as we patiently traverse security check points. Professors will be more
informed about international travel since September 11 th, 2001: new passports policies,
visa costs, International Student ID cards, lost luggage, Culture shock and Re-entry
shock. Professors will brush up on career mentoring with ―Leveraging Study Abroad Into
Your Job Interview‖ provided by the University of Minnesota. We will discuss the
professors‘ role as the center of information for the students regarding their respective
study abroad office, admissions office, financial aid office, advising office, etc.
We will find ways to get started on funding, university support, and then spread
the enthusiasm to each of our geography students as they learn to explore the world in
their years at our institutions.
Todd Fagin and Bruce Hoagland, Department of Geography, University of
Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. Historical Vegetation Change in the Arbuckle
Mountains, South-Central Oklahoma
The Public Land Survey of Oklahoma began in 1870 and included the
Chickasaw Nation, western Oklahoma, and land held by smaller tribes in the northeast.
Unlike other states surveyed by the General Land Office, all of Oklahoma was re-
surveyed in the 1890s, presenting an excellent opportunity to evaluate the impact of early
settlement on land cover in the state. In this study, we digitized plats from the 1871 PLS
to serve as a baseline for comparison with digitized plats from the 1897 survey. All
mapped features were assigned to categories (e.g., agriculture, vegetation, hydrology,
settlement, transportation) and digitized using ArcGIS. In addition, bearing trees were
recorded into a spatial database and plotted onto the landcover map. Changes between the
two survey periods were substantial. The number of agriculture patches increased both in
number and in size, while grassland and wooded areas decreased in area but increased in
number of patches. The result is increasing fragmentation of forest and woodland
habitats. Analysis of bearing tree data showed a decline in woody plant density and a
shift in size class distribution.
Eugene J. Farrell and Douglas J. Sherman, Department of Geography, Texas A&M
University, College Station, TX 77843. Using Scaled Models in Aeolian
This paper examines the scaling up process of aeolian sand transport models from
wind tunnels to beach and desert environments. Most experimental work is carried out at
small spatial scales due to reductionist approaches and/or logistical and financial
constraints. However, the application of these small scale experimental results to real
world problems has been largely unsatisfactory. This paper demonstrates that airflow -
surface relationships and subsequent transport models derived from wind tunnel studies
should not be applied to natural systems without scaling corrections. Specifically, the
scaling constraints of wind tunnels impact aeolian processes in two ways: (1) wind tunnel
geometry inhibits the development of turbulent coherent flow structures and, thus,
particle trajectories are reduced in height and length, and (2) the saltation enhanced
roughness is much smaller in wind tunnels; probably for the same reason. Until these
process scaling issues are explicitly addressed in wind blown sand studies, the accuracy
of transport models will continue to be poor except by accident. The verification and
validation of empirical and theoretical methods for correcting the results of small scale
process studies to predictions at larger scales remains an important consideration for the
discipline of aeolian research.
Anthony M. Filippi and Lei Meng, Department of Geography, Texas A&M
University, College Station, TX 77843. Autonomous Endmember Identification for
Remote-Sensing Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Vegetation Damage.
Remote-sensing damage assessment for various post-hazard events may require
fast, as well as accurate, data-processing algorithms. Endmember-based hyperspectral
mapping may yield time-efficient remote-sensing information-extraction, particularly if
the endmember algorithm is automated. This study considers the case of post-Hurricane
Katrina vegetation damage assessment at the Chalmette National Battlefield and National
Cemetery (CNBNC), a unit of the Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve,
Louisiana, USA. The accuracies of two autonomous endmember-based classifications are
compared. In general, both algorithms are fast (i.e., with termination in ~<1 minute,
running on a modern desktop computer), and both can accurately classify stressed/non-
photosynthetically active and relatively healthy grasses. However, endmembers for
trees/woody vegetation were difficult to identify using both algorithms tested.
William T. Flatley, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX 77843, and Carolyn A. Copenheaver, Department of Forestry, Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Successive Land
Surveys as Indicators of Vegetation Change in an Agricultural Landscape.
The objective of this research was to identify the nature and timing of historical
vegetation changes in a small agricultural watershed in order to better understand the
underlying causes of these changes. A total of 304 land surveys were collected for a small
agricultural watershed from early settlement in 1787 through to the present day. Types of
witness corners were tallied and tested for shifts in frequency across time periods. Tree
species were also classified by silvical characteristics including sprouting capability,
shade tolerance, and seed type and these groupings were tested for shifts in frequency
across time periods. Results showed significant shifts in white oak (Quercus alba L.),
chestnut (Castanea dentate Marsh. Borkh.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus Wild.), black
oak (Quercus velutina Lam.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), black locust (Robinia
pseudoacacia L.), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and scarlet oak (Quercus
coccinea Muenchh.). The central change was a steady decline in white oak, probably due
to the absence of fire and changes in soil properties. Chestnut replaced white oak as the
dominant species, but was removed by chestnut blight in the 1930‘s. Sprouting capability
appeared to be the most important silvical characteristic across all species.
Keywords: Witness trees, metes and bounds, historical ecology, land surveys,
Abhineety Goel, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX 77843. Human Impact and Indigenous Knowledge on Biodiversity in
Rajaji National Park.
Rajaji National Park lies in the western Uttaranchal, spread over the junction of
Dehradun, Haridwar and Pauri Garhwal districts. It is a complex ecosystem rich in
wildlife. The forest is home to approximately 23 species of mammals, 315 species of
birds and different types of human settlement. This study examines the pressures on, and
dependencies, of the communities living there, namely, Gujjars, Taungyas, Gothias, and
Tehri dam oustees amongst others, on the biodiversity. According to the Rajaji Park
office records, there are 105 villages in and around the park. Intensive forestry
operations, colonization of land for various developmental projects, forest fires during
summers, and poaching are some of the most significant limiting forces. The location of
Gujjar deras (settlements) at the perennial water holes on hill slopes or at seepage springs
prevent wild animals from using them. The peripheral villages face constant threat from
the wild animals from the park, erosion of farmlands by the widening of the raos (small
rivulets) and chronic employment throughout the year. A significant proportion of people
are landless labour or subsistence cultivators working on marginal lands. This paper
reports on a bio-resource inventory of the park, the crucial driving forces resulting in
biodiversity loss, and management of bio-resources using the indigenous knowledge of
the different communities.
Theodore L. Goudge, Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, MO 64468. A
Spatial Analysis of Big 12 Football Blue Chips, 1996-2006.
This paper researches the geography of major college football recruits (Blue
Chips) within the Big 12 Conference since it‘s inception in 1996. Earlier Blue Chip
studies have indicated that the production of quality high school football players is
associated with the region coined, Pigskin Cult, by Rooney. And the creation of this
conference suggested it would aid the traditional Big 8 schools in recruitment of Pigskin
Cult players. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the origins and destinations
of the top high school football recruits who signed with Big 12 schools during the past
ten years of the national letter of intent signing period or Signing Day. And, to determine
what changes, if any, have occurred within individual conference member recruiting
patterns. The blue-chip recruits are mapped by years, state, hometown/high school
(origins) and college/conference affiliation (destinations). Strong regional recruiting
patterns and distance decay factors exist in areas of abundant talent (supply) while
different patterns have evolved in areas of deficit supply.
Keywords: college football, recruiting, sport geography
Eve Gruntfest and Steven Radil, Department of Geography, University of Colorado
at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, CO 80918. Flash Flood and Tornado
Warning Perceptions: A Summary of Research Findings and Directions for Future
―The Warning Project: Toward Improved Understanding of Warnings for Short-
use Weather Events‖ is a four year National Science Foundation study aimed at
improving warnings for short-fuse weather events through detailed case studies of
Denver, CO and Austin, TX. Taking into account how demographic characteristics,
previous experience with flooding, and previous traumatic experience affect public
perceptions and responses to warnings, this study challenges the current state of public
perceptions of disaster warnings through an interdisciplinary collaboration between
geography and psychology.
This presentation summarizes the study and reports preliminary findings from
both Denver and Austin, showing that demographic characteristics and previous flood
experience influence willingness to take both protective actions and risks. Preliminary
findings also indicate a correlation between previous traumatic experience and perceived
ability to feel safe in a flash flood situation. The presentation also discusses the
implications of these results for changing warning messages, measurement of forecast
success, and for reaching diverse urban populations in the US.
New research directions are suggested based on ―The Warning Project‘s‖ findings
including ways to use maps highlighting the spatial dimensions of our findings and
opportunities to build on WAS*IS (Weather and Society Integrated Studies) successes to
build further collaborations between meteorologists and social scientists.
Songgang Gu and Hongxing Lu, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843 Derivation of Beach Attributes From High-Resolution
Aerial Photos for Oahu Island
Coastal beaches like those on the Oahu Island are valuable recreation and tourism
resources. However, quantitative information about beach resources is often unavailable,
incomplete, or out-of-date. This research presents an efficient and effective method for
acquiring and updating the information on beach attributes. First, the beaches are mapped
from high-resolution aerial photos. The vegetation line and constructions define the upper
bound of the beach, while the wet/dry sand boundary line as the shoreline gives the lower
bound. Then, a region growing and labeling algorithm is used to delineate automatically
the beach pixels into individual, disconnected beach objects. The geolocation of the
beach centroid point, length, width, area, sinusoid index, and shape index are computed
for each beach or sections of a large beach. These quantitative beach attributes provides
essential information for coastal resource management and planning.
Keywords: Beach attributes, aerial photo, high-resolution, Oahu
Lindy Guan, Norman High School, Norman, OK 73069, Quebec Culture and
Language: The Future of Quebec Separatism.
The issue of Quebec separatism has been debated for many decades in Canada.
Ever since the 1960s, with the ―Quiet Revolution,‖ to the 1995 Quebec Referendum,
many people of Quebec have been fighting to separate from the rest of Canada to become
its own independent state. Much disagreement on this situation poses the research
question if Quebec will again attempt to gain sovereignty. The poster presentation will
examine the future of Quebec Separatism through the cultural and language aspect of
Quebec compared to the rest of Canada. The project will analyze the cultures of Quebec
and of the rest of Canada in how their differences could expel any agreements between
the two regions. Also, by considering the languages and the preservation of each
language, the project predicts that Quebec will ultimately separate from Canada and
become independent. Looking at statistics, provided by Statistics Canada and Secretariat
de la Politique Linguistique (Secretariat with the Linguistic Policy), French speakers in
Quebec continue to grow, when the rest of Canada has declined in numbers. The
sovereignist view of Canada builds a wall that divides Quebec and Canada the most, such
as Quebec‘s motto, Je me souviens, (I remember), which reminds them to remember
[their] French history and heritage or ―remember what the English did to the French".
Keywords: Quebec separatism, Quebec culture and language, Quebec, preservation of
French language, Canada
Nancy N. Hanks, U. S. Section, International Boundary and Water Commission,
State Department and Texas Clean Rivers Program, El Paso, TX. The Short
Architectural History of Hobbs, New Mexico.
The boom/bust cycle of the New Mexico oil fields defined the growth of Hobbs
and is reflected in its commercial architecture. Beginning with the discovery of oil in the
Hobbs pool, the Village of Hobbs grew from a few hundred people in 1927 to almost
20,000 residents by 1931. The second ―boom‖ in 1935 lasted longer—until about 1965—
and can still be seen in the buildings of downtown Hobbs. This presentation includes
historic and current photos to illustrate how those structures convey the history of Hobbs.
Courtney Harmon, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX 77843. Geomorphology and Dynamics of Desert Pavements, Big Bend
National Park, TX.
Desert pavements consist of a one- to two- layer thick surface armory of stones
overlying finer, virtually stone-free material which often adopts the appearance of a
meticulously tiled mosaic. They cover half of the arid land surface in North America, and
are usually concentrated on low-sloping alluvial fans and desert soil surfaces. Over
twenty years of the most concerted studies on desert pavement have taken place in the
Mojave Desert, with many of the widely-held conventions on this topic being developed
and tested there. No research has been conducted on desert pavement at Big Bend
National Park (BBNP), Texas, despite the occurrence of well-developed pavements in the
park and surrounding regions of the Chihuahuan Desert. This research highlights three
diverse desert pavement sites at BBNP through a detailed geomorphic assessment
including classification into surface mosaic units, examination of subsurface soil
characteristics, and the lithology of the individual pavement clasts. Preliminary findings
indicate that the desert pavements at BBNP may not have formed and evolved in-situ, as
suggested by the accretionary mantle model of desert pavement evolution.
Austin Harris, A.P Human Geography, Norman High, Norman OK, 73069. Is
"Tornado Alley" Still Tornado Alley?
In the Great Plains in the heart of the United States, it is not uncommon to
experience a tornado a time or two in your lifetime. Specifically, from Texas to the
Dakotas, the frequency of these is more than noticeable. This poster project will examine
whether the most common location (Tornado Alley) is shifting or even expanding. The
location and frequency of these twisters will be examined. To explain these changes,
weather patterns over a period of time will be examined as well as frequency and location
of tornadoes during the same period of time. Are the El Nino and La Nina seasons that
alternate from year to year a factor? Are varying temperatures a factor proving to be
instrumental in the frequency of these storms? My research expects to see changes in this
phenomenon from year to year. I expect the frequency and number of tornadoes within
Tornado Alley to be changing. Is "Tornado Alley" still "Tornado Alley"?
Keywords: Tornadoes, Tornado Alley, El Nino, La Nina, Temperature
Xueqin (Elaine) He, Department of Geography, Texas State University—San
Marcos, San Marcos, TX 78666. The Socioeconomic Vulnerability of Rural to
Urban Temporary Migrants in China.
This study examines the socioeconomic vulnerability of Rural-to-Urban-
Temporary-Migrants (RTUTMS), which refers to peasant workers who are working in
urban areas but keep their permanent residences in the rural countryside. First, the origins
of RTUTMS are examined by applying the push-and-pull theory. Then, the
characteristics of RTUTM are described. This is followed by exploration of both the
positive and negative social consequences derived from the massive migration of peasant
workers. The major vulnerability of temporary migrants is marked by employment
discrimination, employment insecurity, harsh working and poor living conditions,
unequal educational rights and social status, and policy bias. The biggest problem that
impedes peasant workers to settle in their working areas is their low levels of education
and lack of special skills rather than the hukou (household registration) system, which
had been criticized by many previous researchers as the major barrier keeping peasant
workers out of cities. The urban-rural gap in the basic education will be decreased after
the adoption of the Law on Compulsory Education of the People‘s Republic of China in
2006, which addressed the state‘s responsibility to bridge this gap. But, the educational
inequality at senior high level has been enhanced through the marketization of college
education since 1997. Suggestions for reducing this educational inequality are proposed.
Keywords: peasant workers, social status, vulnerability, education
Yuhong He, Department of Geography, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK,
Canada, S7N 5A5, Xulin Guo, Department of Geography, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, S7N 5A5; and John Wilmshurst ,Western
Canada Service Centre, Parks Canada, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, R3B 0R9. A
comparison of different methods of measuring LAI in the mixed grassland.
Measurements of leaf area are essential for any description of the interactions of
plants with their aerial environment. There are two methods to measure leaf area. Direct
methods include harvesting, allometry and litter collection. The area harvest approach is
more appropriate for short-stature ecosystems (e.g., grasslands) than for forests because
this approach is very laborious when done for an area of sufficient size to adequately
characterize the spatial heterogeneity (Gower, et al. 1999).
Indirect methods infer leaf area index from measurements of the transmission of
radiation through the canopy, making use of the radiative transfer theory (Anderson,
1971). Two commonly-used commercial canopy analysers, AccuPAR(Decagon Devices,
Pullman, USA) and LAI-2000 (Li-Cor, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA), are available for
measuring the fraction of transmitted radiation that passes through a plant canopy (Bréda,
Few comparisons of methods for measuring leaf area have been published for the
mixed grassland, despite the many ecological uses of such measurements. No
comparisons of LAI measurements from different instruments have been done among
different grass communities. In the absence of such comparisons there is the danger that
users will believe too readily that their instruments give results that reflect reality
(Brenner et al., 1995). Therefore, the objectives of this study are to: 1) compare indirect
measurement of leaf area by two commercially available instruments, AccuPAR and the
LAI-2000, with direct destructive measurements of leaf area; 2)compare LAI difference
between two grass communities (native and invasive grasses) using indirect LAI values
Keywords: LAI, Comparison, Grassland
Melissa Hembera, Norman High School, Norman Oklahoma 73069. Energy
Potential That‘ll Blow You Away.
From the beginning of time people have always had the need for fuel. The energy
source most commonly used in today world is petroleum and natural gas. The long term
effects of these products are now being seen. Examples include climate changes, global
warming, decrease in biodiversity, and desertification. With these environmental
concerns there has been a push to develop and use alleviative energy. A perfect source of
renewable energy is the wind. Wind is a great candidate because it has no pollution and
current wind energy costs are coming down. This project examines what factors have
influenced the spread of wind turbines in Oklahoma.
Keywords: Geography of wind turbines in Oklahoma, renewable resources, and
Franklin T. Heitmuller, Department of Geography and the Environment, The
University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712. Downstream Variability in
Channel Morphology of the Llano River, Central Texas.
The Llano River system in Central Texas is characterized by geologic transitions
and extreme floods. Upper cobble- and gravel-bed reaches incise the Edwards Plateau, a
Cretaceous carbonate upland, and lower sand-bed reaches bisect the Llano Uplift, noted
for Paleozoic sedimentary and Precambrian igneous rocks. As a result of the sedimentary
and hydraulic controls, channel morphology and other alluvial features are markedly
different between the upper and lower reaches. Upper meandering reaches near Junction
have steep banks and greater alluvial development, including active floodplains, terraces,
and abandoned channels. Proceeding downstream, the channel straightens, banks are
more gently sloped, alluvial features are less pronounced, and bedrock controls are more
numerous. Interpretations of channel morphology include: (1) the downstream increase in
sand load results in less cohesive and gently sloping banks, (2) the downstream increase
in bedrock exposures results in a relatively straight channel whose direction is controlled
by linear faults and joints, (3) frequent extreme floods have produced a ‗trough-like‘
morphology, especially in the lower reaches, and (4) the highly variable flow regime
produces a dual-channel morphology.
Keywords: channel adjustment, fluvial geomorphology, geologic complexity,
Diana Hinson, Department of Geography, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater,
OK 74078. A Regional Study of Urban Areas that Compost Organic Waste.
This study is an analysis of the variations between regions in the United States
that compost organic waste in addition to traditional landfill burial. The diversion of
organic material is necessary in some areas due to decreasing land availability in more
densely populated urban areas. Municipalities are adopting more cost effective
procedures to collect, separate and compost organic materials. Increasing environmental
awareness in urban communities has resulted in diverting organic materials from the
waste stream producing an organic compost alternative for amending the soils, landscape
and vegetation in addition to promoting landfill longevity.
Bruce Hoagland, Department of Geography and Oklahoma Biological Survey,
University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. A Baseline for the Study of Land
Cover Change and Settlement: A Digital Public Land Survey Map of Oklahoma,
In 1870, U.S. deputy surveyor Ehud Darling left Fort Arbuckle to establish the
Initial Point for the Public Land Survey of present-day Oklahoma. At a point between
two streams southeast of the fort, he erected a sandstone monument measuring
54'x18'x18' and commenced a survey that continued into 1871. But not all of the future
state was surveyed in 1870, only the Chickasaw Nation, western Oklahoma, and lands
held by smaller tribes in the northeast were mapped. The plats and survey notes produced
by the General Land Office surveyors are a rich source of information on vegetation,
settlement, and transportation networks at the time of the surveys. These data have been
the focus of intense study in many states. This paper reports the results of a project that
digitized the 1,264 plats that were compiled during the 1870-1871 survey. All features
present on the plats were assigned to categories (e.g., vegetation, hydrology, settlement,
transportation) and digitized using ArcGIS. This database serves as an important baseline
for studies of land cover change and settlement.
Keywords: land cover change; Oklahoma; historical
Frank Hopf, Jr., Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX 77843. Coastal Geomorphology and the Aeolian Process Section
of the Coastal Engineering Manual.
Along many natural shorelines, the coastal foredune plays a key role in
protection against coastal flooding while providing a unique environment that supports
specialized flora and fauna. Over the past twenty years, coastal geomorphologists with
backgrounds in geology, geography and engineering have greatly expanded our
understanding of the coastal aeolian processes working over a variety of temporal and
spatial scales to build and shape these landforms.
This paper looks at the aeolian section, Part III, Chapter 4, of the Coastal
Engineering Manual, ―Wind-Blown Sediment Transport,‖ and compares it to the
published research to determine if this manual section currently communicates and
codifies standards reflective of the current state-of-the-art understanding of coastal
aeolian processes. The paper finds that this section does not meet this standard in
providing the two required elements of a technical standard
Jennifer A. Hoss and Charles W. Lafon, Department of Geography, Texas A&M
University, College Station, TX 77843, and Henri D. Grissino-Mayer and Georgina
D. Wight, Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.
Rekindling the Flame: Reconstructing a fire history for Peters Mountain, Giles
Beginning in the late 1930s, strict fire exclusion and suppression regimes have
drastically altered the vegetation dynamics of the Southern Appalachian Mountains.
Extremely low fire frequency has allowed for more shade-tolerant species to invade once
predominantly open forests and has made it almost impossible for fire dependent species
to establish on a site. One such species is the endangered Peters Mountain mallow
(Iliamna corei Sherff.) located on Peters Mountain on The Nature Conservancy‘s
Narrows Preserve in Giles County, Virginia. This paper focuses on the stand dynamics
and fire history of Peters Mountain and how fire exclusion has altered the forest
composition. The successional changes and historic fire frequency discovered here may
provide an insight into management strategies for the mallow. Three 50x20 meter plots
were set up on opposing aspects. All trees within were identified, cored and aged to
determine species composition and the establishment dates of all trees. Eighty fire scarred
cross sections were taken and aged to determine fire history dates and frequencies. Our
results show that many hardwoods (primarily oak species) became established during the
era of fire exclusion and more frequent fires are suggested for mallow management.
Keywords: Peters Mountain, Peters Mountain mallow (Iliamna corei Sherff.), stand
dynamics, fire history
Dustin Howard, Department of Geography and Center for Spatial Analysis,
University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. Invasive Construction: Militaristic
Metaphors, Domination and Nature‘s Stewards
Over the past decade, the study of and debate over invasive species flourished and
grew. Although originally planted in the fertile soil of scientific ecological conservation,
in the United States, the study of invasive species found a successional, institutionalized
climax with Presidential Executive Order 13112 and, more recently, migrated from the
examination of what makes a species invasive to the constructivist discussion of what is
meant and implied by the term ‗invasive.‘ This work is firmly planted in the bare earth of
the following question: How does language-use reflect our conceptions and perceptions
of the nature-society relationship? Exploring how social and political institutions define
invasive species, this paper finds disagreement between the explanations of why a species
is labeled as invasive. While the political definitions of an invasive species are more in
line with the Executive Order definition, social institutions define invasive species more
broadly and militaristically. Both sets demonstrate an understanding of nature as an
inactive, static entity and are sensitive to the impact a species has on human activity. We
need a better understanding of the mechanisms for change before we can appropriately
identify an invasive species or we may inadvertently restrict change which could improve
Keywords: invasive species, militaristic language, nature
Dustin Howard and May Yuan, Department of Geography and Center for Spatial
Analysis, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. Modeling Weather Radar
Terrain Occultation using GIS
The effect of terrain occultation on NEXRAD RADAR coverage is understood.
However, the extent of this blockage is not fully documented. Recent research has
investigated how to model RADAR coverage in a GIS environment. Using ArcGIS and a
raster data structure, we model a continuous beam surface. The height of this beam
surface is calculated and compared to elevation data, highlighting any areas of
occultation. An adjusted viewshed analysis generates an initial coverage for each beam
angle. The result is a raster surface which is easily modeled in a GIS or other 3D
environment which support raster data structures. Modeling in a GIS environment will
allow the comparison of the coverage results with other geographic factors such as
Keywords: GIS modeling, NEXRAD RADAR, terrain occultation
Donald J. Huebner, Department of Geography and the Environment, University of
Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712. Texas Bar-B-Que: melding of place and
Arguably, Texas barbeque is the finest in the world. Texans have created a
spatially distinct cuisine that reflects availability of natural resources and the diverse
ethnicity of the state. Anglos, African-Americans, Hispanics, Germans, Czechs, and more
recently Asians, have all contributed methods and techniques for preparing various types
of smoked meats such as beef, pork, or mutton cooked in subtlety different ways with
hardwoods or mesquite. Barbeque is a reflection in many ways of early settlement
patterns and the subsequent diffusion of cultural characteristics from rural and small-
town Texas to the major metropolitan areas. Barbeque is a link to both landscape and
cultural heritage. Moreover, this cuisine continues to evolve and illustrates the borderland
nature of Texas‘ physical and cultural landscape.
Keywords: cuisine, borderlands, ethnicity, landscape
Lacy Isom, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman,OK 73019.
Spatial heterogeneity and species richness in the mixedgrass prairie, Ellis County,
Heterogeneity affects community structure and species diversity at a variety of
spatial and temporal scales. In a biogeographical context, heterogeneity can be defined as
the product of the non-random distribution of species to abiotic variables within spatially
complex landscapes. The impact of spatial heterogeneity on species richness has been
examined in several regions. In this study, we employ a multiscale sampling technique to
analyze the relationship between spatial heterogeneity at mixedgrass prairie site.
Vegetation was sampled using (5) modified Whittaker plots and (5) extensive plots. The
modified Whittaker plot sampling technique allows for the analysis of species richness at
multiple spatial scales. Extensive plots sample a smaller total area, but are recommended
for analysis of landscape scale patterns of species richness because of the time intensity
of Whittaker plots. Approximately 70 species were encountered during sampling. The
most abundant were Schizachyrium scoparium and Bouteloua curtipendula. A number of
species specific to gypsum derived soils (i.e., Phacelia integrifolia, Psilostrophe
tagetina) were present and increased the overall species richness.
Richard C. Jones, Department of Geography, University of Texas at San Antonio, San
Antonio, TX 78249. Ethnic Segregation, Suburbanization, and Immigration: the Case
of San Antonio.
The 1990s were a time of mounting Hispanic and Asian residential segregation in
U.S. metropolitan areas, although Black segregation diminished. Immigration, which was
rapid as well as directed disproportionately to inner cities, has been identified as a
principal cause of this segregation. This paper employs metropolitan data from the
Mumford Center (University at Albany) and tract data from the U.S. Census to
investigate segregation trends and their causes in Bexar County, San Antonio‘s central
city county with 1.4 million people in 2000. The findings indicate that typical of Western
cities, San Antonio‘s segregation levels are relatively low. Furthermore, both Hispanic
and Black segregation declined while Asian segregation increased over the decade. A
decomposition of the dissimilarity index into inner and outer city components, as well as
historical analysis, shows that the relief of clustering in the inner city by suburbanizing
Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians contributed to their declining segregation. However, in the
case of both Blacks and Asians, re-clustering in the suburbs actually tended to increase
segregation. When Latino immigrants (117,000 in number, and 77% of San Antonio‘s
foreign-born population in 2000) are removed from the Hispanic population totals,
segregation and its increases decline: i.e., San Antonio with immigration is more
segregated than without it. However, further reflection suggests that Latino (largely
Mexican) immigration into the inner city supports both the traditional and tourist
economies as well as the housing market there—a process not unrelated to the economic
success and suburbanization of other ethnic groups in the city.
Keywords: segregation, immigration, suburbanization, U.S. metropolitan areas.
Wesley Jones, Norman High School, Norman, OK 73069. Outsourcing and Its
Effects on Child Exploitation.
In many underdeveloped countries around the world, the exploitation of
children has become a major issue. Children around the world are being forced to work
12 to 16 hours a day for extremely low pay. This is due, largely in part, to the outsourcing
of jobs from more developed countries. In the United States alone, 406,000 jobs were lost
due to outsourcing to other countries by 2004. As globalization and the cost of labor
grows in industrialized countries, corporations are choosing to expand overseas, in order
to save money. The question, at hand, is what could be done to stop or diminish the
effects of exploitation and outsourcing. This project will explore these possibilities, as
well as explaining the crisis of the outsourcing of jobs.
Keywords: exploitation, globalization, outsourcing, industrialized
Bella Bychkova Jordan, Department of Geography and Environment, University of
Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712. Diamonds vs. Oil: Dilemma of the Sakha
Republic (Yakutia) Future Development.
In the mid 1990s, the Russian government signed power-sharing treaties with of
its individual territories, including the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). With Putin‘s
consistent policy of consolidation of ‗vertical power‘ control over the ownership and
distribution of resources is being wrested from republic‘s domain. The Sakha national
elite sees the loss of control over its major diamond-producing corporation as an end to
all of its autonomy. At the same time, the newly emerging middle class of entrepreneurs
and businessmen, less concerned with ethnonationalist projects, is pushing towards a
larger participation in Russia‘s mega projects, especially the construction of oil and gas
pipes, headed to China and Japan and designed to traverse the southern part of the
republic‘s territory. The regional leaders are faced with the dilemma: continue to insist on
its economic sovereignty and isolate itself from a major transnational economic
development, or to forgo the stake in the diamond ownership and invest in a future
development guarantying a participation in global economic process.
Keywords: Sakha (Yakutia), diamond industry, transnational oil and gas
Pamela Skraastad Jurney, Department of Geography, Oklahoma State University,
Stillwater, OK 74078. The Spatial Equity of Parks in the Oklahoma City
This research is an assessment of the existing park system within the Oklahoma
City metropolitan area. Equity is providing a service in proportion to need. Using
accessibility measures provided by Talen and Anselin, the goal of this study is to
determine whether the distribution of parks in Oklahoma City is equitable. Spatial
autocorrelation statistics are also employed. The results of the study find that parks are
distributed equitably to the lower-socioeconomic groups within the metropolitan area.
The methods and results of this research can help to identify the ―unneeded parks‖ and
help to determine the most equitable locations for future parks.
Mahfuz Kabir, Norman High School, Norman, OK 73069. The New World
In the September 14th, 2006 issue, The Economist argued that there was a ―re-
emerging‖ of emerging economies. The economies we classify as ―emerging‖ economies
have for centuries had larger economies (at purchasing power parity) than the so called
―developed‖ economies identified today. In the year 2005, the combined output of
emerging economies reached an important milestone: it accounted for more than half of
total world GDP (at purchasing-power parity). The Developing world economies are
growing faster than ever before. What is to become of the world economies? Will 50
years from now see economic powerhouses such as China, Eastern Europe, Southeast
Asia, Brazil, and India seizing their opportunity? Will the current typecasting of Western
Europe and Anglo-America as the developed rich economies change to one that includes
East and South Asia? Will America still be heart of the world economy? This study
examines the future of the world from an economic standpoint. It will take into account
the inevitable reality of the emerging world with its economic flaws and obstacles. This
study will also address what the emerging economic world will look like in the future.
Keywords: Emerging Economies, Economies, Economic Powerhouse, Purchasing Power
Parity, Developed Economies, Regions, GDP
Maria Kenney, Norman High School, Norman, OK 73069. Frequency of Various
Housing Styles in Norman, Oklahoma.
The diffusion of American housing styles is a geographic process that has been
occurring for centuries. Starting with the first New England homes in the 17th century,
Americans have found styles of homes that they like and replicated all over the country.
However, because of environmental and cultural issues, not all housing styles are
functional in all areas of the country. New Mexico adobe houses are very useful in New
England and the gulf houses on stilts would not be practical in Kansas. This study will
explore the diffusion of various house types. In interviewing local architects, doing field
studies and through additional research I hope to find which housing styles are most
common in Norman, Oklahoma. In my project, I will find an answer to this question and
try to find out why these housing styles are most common in Norman. I will find out what
role diffusion factors have played in influencing Norman‘s housing, concentrating on
environmental and functional characteristics.
Keywords: Diffusion of American housing styles; Norman, Oklahoma;
environmental influences; aesthetic value, functional differentiation.
Shinichi Kobara and William D. Heyman, Department of Geography, Texas A&M
University, College Station, TX 77843-3147. Caribbean-wide Geospatial Analysis of
the Location of Transient Reef Fish Spawning Aggregation Sites.
Most large Caribbean reef fish species form transient spawning aggregations at
specific times and locations. Though reef fish spawning aggregation sites from many
areas have been described and mapped there exists, there is no comprehensive geospatial
analysis of the similarities and differences among them. The aim of this study was to
analyze the locations of all known transient reef fish spawning aggregation sites in
relation to 1. shelf edges and 2. inflection points of the reef using remote sensing and
field-collected position data. Our analysis includes both published and previously
unpublished data from the Bahamas, Belize, the Cayman Islands, Cuba, Mexico, Puerto
Rico, Honduras, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and the Virgin Islands. To test our
assumption that location of shelf edges could be delineated using satellite images, we
compared the positions of shelf edges from field-collected data, to shelf edges derived
from satellite images. Then we evaluated the location of each spawning aggregation site
in relation to both shelf edges and inflection points. This study forms part of an ongoing
project focusing on the geomorphologic, geospatial, and oceanographic aspects of
transient reef fish spawning aggregation sites.
KEYWORDS: transient spawning aggregation, shelf edge, geospatial analysis, remote
Aaron Kreag, Robert Watchal, and Donald Lyons, Department of Geography,
University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-5279. A Spatial Analysis of Variation
in Accidental Trauma Mortality Rates in Texas.
Nationally, mortality from trauma is the leading cause of death for all persons
under the age of 44. Medically, mortality from trauma refers to serious or critical bodily
injury, wound, or shock that results in death. Over the period 1999-2003, rates of
mortality from unintentional (accidents, e.g., automobile, drowning etc.,) trauma varied
widely from close to zero to over 100 per 100,000 people across counties in Texas. The
purpose of this research is to explore any relationships that may exist between variation
in unintentional trauma mortality rates and a series of socio-economic, demographic,
transportation and medical infrastructure variables. By understanding the nature of the
existing variation in mortality rates, it may be possible to develop policy strategies that
could reduce the number of counties with high rates. Preliminary results for the 19 county
North Texas region suggest elevated trauma mortality rates in rural and/or poorer
counties. In addition, the extent of ambulance coverage played a larger role in
survivability than the absence or presence of state certified trauma center hospitals.
Bodo Kubartz, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK
73019. Global fragrance? The changing corporate geographies of the flavor and
Recent work in economic geography has highlighted the globalization of a range
of economic activities including consumer industries such as fashion, music, and food.
In this paper I examine the corporate geographies of the flavor and fragrance industry and
particularly the tension between the emergence of global consumer markets on the one
hand and the highly localized nature of fragrance design and ‗production‘ on the other.
Globalizing processes in the flavor and fragrance industry started early in the form of
trade networks. These processes accelerated post-1945 especially through mergers and
acquisitions and the subsequent creation and opening up of new markets. Nowadays, key
actors in the industry are represented in every major market. However, contrary to this
idea most of the major actors in the industry are anchored in a few urban centers, usually
headquartered in and strategically governed from cities like New York and Paris. In this
presentation I will document the globalized patterns of corporate actors in the industry
and will discuss some of the reasons for these particular geographies. The material will
be based on corporate reports, the general industry press, and initial interviews with
actors in the flavor and fragrance industry.
Marcie Kuehl and Kimberly Zerr, Department of Geography, University of
Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. ―Would You Light My Candle?‖ A Geography of
The Peace Candle Movement on Myspace.com
As long as there has been global conflict and unrest, there have been various
social movements advocating for World peace. Traditionally these movements have
clearly stated their agenda by convening at a specific place and time, for instance by
marching on Washington D.C, by having local parades, or simply by tying yellow
ribbons around trees. However, with the ever-increasing speed at which internet
communities are being incorporated into daily life, many of these social peace
movements are reaching out to their members (and to new members) by using websites
such as Myspace.com in order to make their point. The user-friendly environment of
Myspace has caused several new peace movements to arise, including the focus of this
poster: The Peace Candle Movement. The geographic significance of The Peace Candle
Movement is that it is solely an internet-based organization and yet it seeks to affect
change in the real world. This study examines the relative internet-geographies of this
movement and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using the virtual world in
an attempt to change the material world.
Keisha Lambeth and Kateri Zapp, Norman High School, Norman OK 73069.
The global business community increases immensely everyday. From
independently owned small grocery stores to world wide corporations. Along with
rapidly growing economic atmosphere, is a cultural group Chinese entrepreneurs are
growing also, adding profit and scorn from other ethnic groups. Diaspora of overseas
Chinese has become an issue in many countries all over the world. It has become not
only a topic of growth, but of cultural concern.
The large migration of overseas Chinese historically began in the 19 th century
when many countries lacked laborers in store factories. The Chinese government sent
workers to suffering companies where labor force was lacking. The Chinese assimilated,
in their new countries very easily, causing them to become more involved in the business
aspects of the country they were in.
Today there are billions of dollars generated through businesses owned by
overseas Chinese. This poster presentation will document how overseas are impacting the
global business world, examine it‘s importance and identify various global and regional
Keywords: Overseas Chinese, Diaspora, Migration, Entrepreneurs
K. Maria D. Lane, Department of Geography, University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001. High Science: Mountain Geography in Astronomical
As the first mountaintop astronomical observatories were built in the American
West in the 1880s, astronomers began to gain prestige among their peers and in the public
eye by emphasizing the isolation and purity of the remote mountains in which they
worked. Many astronomers also engaged in personal travel to mountainous regions and
conducted field explorations near their observatories as a way of cultivating further
legitimacy. As a result, personal mountaineering experience became a kind of currency
among American astronomers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, allowing the new
Western observatories to claim superiority over the established Eastern metropolitan
facilities on the basis of their geography. This development not only established the
persistent view of astronomy as a mountain science, but it also introduced numerous
metaphors and representations of mountaineering experience into seemingly unrelated
astronomical knowledge claims.
This paper investigates the scientific and imaginative functions of mountain
representations by presenting and contextualizing the publications and personal papers of
several prominent American astronomers who observed and wrote about the planet Mars.
For each of these astronomers, the essay will analyze the relation between their personal
experience with mountain geographies and the various narratives they created to
represent this physical experience as the basis of scientific and personal credibility on the
subject of Mars. As a whole, the paper contextualizes astronomers‘ mountain narratives
within the professionalization of American astronomy, the popular enthusiasm for
scientific expeditions, and the rise of the field sciences. It shows that astronomers‘
reliance on highly individualized mountaineering experiences as the basis of their
legitimacy actually undermined claims to the universality and replicability of their
scientific work. At the same time, however, astronomers‘ mountain narratives conveyed
an unassailable personal authority that reinforced the validity of their individual work.
Carlie Lawson, University of Oklahoma, and Mark Meo, School of Civil
Engineering and Environmental Science and Science and Public Policy Program,
University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. The Fire Danger Model and the
Mesonet – The Underutilized Benefit of IT Software in Oklahoma‘s Drought
Planning and Management.
Oklahoma experienced two brief yet intense drought events in the periods 1995-
96 and in 1998. The Oklahoma Mesonet, and the Oklahoma Fire Danger Model that uses
it, became publicly accessible subsequent to the first but prior to the second drought.
Emergency management and wildfire suppression personnel, who responded to survey
questionnaires distributed by the authors after each of the two drought events, indicated a
preference for accessing the Mesonet and using the Fire Danger Model as part of their
drought response protocols. Survey respondents ranked the Fire Danger Model as the
number one external drought indicator used by their agencies and ranked the Oklahoma
Mesonet as the second most useful climate and weather resource available. In this
presentation, the authors discuss the development of the Fire Danger model and the effect
it had on emergency response and wildfire suppression activities. More specifically, the
authors discuss the independent development of Oklahoma‘s drought planning process
and the potential role of IT software to benefit current and future drought response
Chris Leonard and Donald Lyons, Department of Geography, University of North
Texas, Denton, TX 76209. Measuring the impact of rail transit on surrounding
property values in Dallas County: A hedonic approach.
Advocates of urban light rail transit argue that positive developments around
station area(s) should offset the costs of implementing a transit system by creating more
livable communities, reducing pollution due to less automobile use, and enhanced
surrounding residential property values. However, empirical studies suggest mixed
results at best. In some cases, higher crime rates and decreased urban landscape aesthetics
have been reported. Similarly, some studies have reported that impacts on residential
property values are not significant. The purpose of this study is to contribute to this
debate via an analysis of the impact of the Dallas Area Rapid Transit system on
residential property values in Dallas County. By examining the impact of distance on
property values of two features of the DART system: the transit station and the rail line,
and by holding a series of structural variables constant, a net change in value can be
calculated using a multi-regression model. The results suggest that only certain regions
and housing types benefit from DART. For example, in the northern sector the main
beneficiaries are most multi family properties located in proximity to their associated
transit stations. In contrast, in the southern sector, where far less multifamily housing
exists, the main positive affects are confined to selected transit stations and their
surrounding single family properties. In almost all cases, proximity to the rail line serves
as a nuisance.
Bailing Li and Douglas J. Sherman, Department of Geography, Texas A&M
University, College Station, TX 77843. Temperature corrections for aeolian sand
Air density and kinematic viscosity are commonly treated as constants in aeolian
sand-transport experiments and modeling. However, they are not universal constants, and
will change gradually with air temperature, pressure and humidity. The typical range of
temperatures that we find in nature or in wind tunnels is large enough that these effects
can substantially impact results. For example, if the air temperature rises from 0ºC to
40ºC and the atmospheric pressure is fixed at 1 atm, the air density decreases by 12.8%,
kinematic viscosity increases by 25.8% and sediment transport rate, for a constant wind
speed, will increase 23.0%. On the other hand, density increases when pressure rises, but
decreases with increased pressure and specific humidity. Specifically, if the pressure
drops from 1 atm to 0.7 atm (associated with high altitude arid regions, for example) and
the temperature is fixed, the density will decrease by 30.0%, kinematic viscosity will
increase by 42.9% and the sediment transport rate increase by 19.5%. Humidity‘s
influence is not as pronounced as the above two factors. At 10ºC and 1 atm, a relative
humidity change from 0% to 100% will cause decreases in air density, kinematic
viscosity and sediment transport rate of only 0.5%, 0.3% and 0.9%, respectively.
As air density and kinematic viscosity are significantly changed under different
conditions, two equivalent dimensionless-parameters (free stream velocity and grain size)
are recommended to standardize the reporting of aeolian sediment dynamics under
different temperature, pressure and humidity conditions. Here,
2 1/ 3
Dimensionless mean flow velocity: U 0 ( ) U
Dimensionless sediment grain size D 0 ( 2 )1 / 3 D
From the above two parameters, the free stream velocity and grain size under
different conditions can be converted to an arbitrary reference condition (here we use dry
air at 1atm and 10 ºC ). This adjustment makes it feasible to compare directly sediment
transport dynamics from measurements made in different temperature and pressure
Keywords: equivalent density, equivalent kinematic viscosity, air temperature, air
pressure, air humidity, aeolian sediment dynamics
Li Li, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
77845-3147. Spatial Differentiation and Driving Mechanisms of Urban Sprawl in
Since the economic reform was initiated in 1978, urbanization in China has been
accelerating and most cities have experienced rapid expansion. Yet spatial differentiation
and driving mechanisms of urban sprawl in China are not well understood. Based on the
analysis of the urban land use changes between 1994 and 2001 in Shenzhen, this paper
aims to examine the amount and intensity of urban sprawl and shed light on the defining
characteristics of its spatial differentiation using Shannon‘s information entropy measure.
Using the hierarchical clustering classification approach according to the amount and the
entropies of the urban sprawl, we can detect four spatial patterns of urban sprawl in
Shenzhen: compact congregation pattern, administrative-center congregation pattern,
traffic-center congregation pattern, and low-density sprawl pattern. Conceptual and
policy implications of our empirical results will be discussed in detail.
Keywords: Urban sprawl, information statistics, Shenzhen
Shujuan Li, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
77843. Does Urban Planning Matter? A Case Study of Shenzhen, China.
Rapid urban development in China attracted abundant research while relatively
few enquiries focus on the urban planning. Few studies have been done to examine the
relationship between urban planning and the built environment. This paper provides a
review and demonstrates a quantitative evaluation of Shenzhen‘s urban planning which
will provide enlightenment for urban planning for other Chinese cities. During the short
urban development history of Shenzhen, three master plans were established in 1982,
1989, and 1996 along with numerous revisions. Instead of guiding urban development,
master plans seem to try every effort to catch up with the rapid pace of urban
development. The quantitative evaluation of Shenzhen‘s third layout plan was conducted
with land census data of 1996, 2000, and 2003. The result shows that newly built up area
was primarily located out of area planned rather than within its originally proposed
boundaries. Proposed ecological reserves were seriously threatened by urban growth. It is
quite questionable whether master plan plays its role.
Keywords: Urban planning, Land use, Shenzhen,
Zhenqian Lu, Hong S. He, Mark C. Cowell, and Jian Yang, Department of
Geography, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211. A Method for
Developing a Decision Support System for Forestry Management.
Landscape-scale models are of increasing interest in forest management, but most
available models require complicated input parameters and numerous data sources. This
limits forest managers‘ willingness to use them, and therefore reduces the application of
research designed to ensure more scientific environmental planning. The lack of feedback
from managers then also hinders the further development of successful and useful
landscape models. This paper presents an expandable method to develop an integrated
Forestry Management Decision Support System (FMDSS) to bridge the gap between
research and application using the LANDIS model as an example. LANDIS is a spatially
explicit mode model of forest landscape disturbance, management, and succession. In our
approach, a user-friendly interactive system was designed and implemented that allows
forest managers to directly apply LANDIS 4.0 in their management planning processes.
We also illustrate how this approach supports the integration of GIS functions into a
landscape model, as this flexible and interactive tool was implemented with Visual Basic
6, MS Access and ESRI ArcGIS. The system has been applied in Mark Twain National
Forest, where parameterization of LANDIS 4.0 has been completed. Results show that
the system is a successful tool for forestry management.
Keywords: decision support system, geographical information system, forestry
Kathryn M. Lucchese, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX 77843. Modelling the Meaning of Place Using Continuums of Scale
Evaluating the meaning of place in any objective way is difficult. For my doctoral
research, I inquired into meaning of a rash of unattributed cultural terrorist attacks that
took place in Italy during the first six months of 1993. To each site of these attacks I
applied three sliding scales or continuums. These three continuums, which I referred to as
Time, Site and Situation, accounted respectively for how crowded each site was at the
time of the bombing, how common or how culturally unique each site was, and how
easily accessible it was for the bombers. The three-dimensional plot thus formed I called
The Terror Grid. In my current study, I revisit this Grid in the context of more universal
uses of spatial grids or continuums in ascribing meaning to place, examining the
processes by which a place acquires cultural as well as practical meaning – both to people
living locally and to those living at a distance from the place – and how the daily or
seasonal patterns of a place‘s use contribute to its overall meaning.
Keywords: Terror Grid, continuums of scale, meaning of place.
Yin Luo and Michael A. Urban, Department of Geography, University of Missouri-
Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211. Assessing Altered Flood Hazards in the Poyang
Lake Region: A Remote Sensing Study.
Poyang Lake, located in the Jiangxi Province, China, is a large freshwater lake
(~4000 km2) connecting to Yangtze River. The flood in Poyang Lake has caused severe
damages to the surrounding regions in recent years, which may be partly attributed to
land use change (from water cultivation to land plantation). Upon the completion of
Three Gorges dam in the upper stream of Yangtze River, the flood risk may change
substantially due to the anticipated change of water level in Yangtze River. In this study,
we explored how the land use and water level changes will affect the flood potential in
Poyang Lake regions. We used remote sensing images to compare the land cover change
between 1989 and 2000, and estimated the areas that have the highest flood risk. The
counties that have the highest flood risk are Boyang County and Yongxiu County, where
Poyang Lake has shrunken the most in the past years. We estimated the potential flood
area in these two counties based on observed land use change and predicted water level
change in Yangtze River. The enhanced flood potential is predicted, suggesting that part
of the agriculture should return to water cultivation to reduce flood risk in these two
Keywords: Flood hazard, Poyang Lake, Land cover change
Michael J. Lynch III, Social and Behavioral Sciences Department, University of
Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, AR 71601. Dorf, Furt, Stadt: Contemporary
Examples of Haufendörfer Development in Germany.
The Haufendörfer village form in western and southern Germany dates from prior
to AD 800. The Haufendörfer village has been a ―dispersed place‖ with an agriculturally
based economy supporting few ―central place‖ functions. This village form has existed
for over a melinnium, and remained relatively unchanged through the Industrial
Revolution‘s restructuring of other German community forms. This study compares three
contemporary examples of the Haufendörfer village to the literary paradigms of this
community form. The study concludes that there are changes occurring to this
community form, escecially during the ongoing Communications Revolution, but these
villages are retaining significant aspects of their previous geographical functions.
Adriana Martinez, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX 77840-3147. Sediment Dynamics of an Impounded River: Yegua Creek,
Dams have changed rivers everywhere. They have altered flow distributions and
sediment transport, causing a host of adjustments in morphology and sediment dynamics.
Although major changes in flow regime have occurred along Yegua Creek, Texas, since
the closure of Somerville Dam in 1967, the issue of sediment transport has not been
studied in detail, and the extent to which sediment is moving through the system remains
unclear. Because Yegua Creek is a principal tributary to the Brazos River and an
important source of water supply in the south-central region of Texas, increased
understanding of sediment dynamics within Yegua Creek is especially important. This
study evaluates the extent to which sediment is being transported through Somerville
Dam and downstream of the dam. Sediment characteristics are examined to test the
working hypothesis that little sediment is passing through the dam. Analyses of aerial
photographs further evaluate the extent to which immobile sediments are forming
depositional features. Results give insight into the consequences of stream impoundment.
They also increase our understanding of the efficacy of sediment delivery into the Brazos
River and ultimately to the Texas coastline.
Keywords: sediment, sediment transport, Yegua Creek, Somerville Dam
Adriana Martinez, Tavia Prouhet, Joni Kincaid, Nikki Williams, Michelle Simms,
and Russell Evans, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College
Station, Texas 77843-3147. Graduate Student to Scientist: Enhancing Graduate
Studies Through Public School Interaction.
Advancing Geospatial Skills in Science and Social Sciences (AGSSS) is a 3-year
NSF GK-12 program designed to produce scientists with an interest in developing skills
related to education by bringing graduate student Fellows into secondary education
classrooms. The AGSSS program is unique in the GK-12 program because of its
emphasis on spatial thinking. During the 2005-2006 academic year 4 graduate and 2
undergraduate Fellows participated in the program. In the current 2006-2007 academic
year, 5 graduate Fellows are participating. These graduate Fellows are working in close
collaboration with middle school science and high school social science teachers and
bring the perspective of a scientist into the classroom. The structure of the program
includes summer training in which the fellows instruct secondary school teachers in the
use of geospatial technologies. With the Fellows assistance, the teachers then implement
these technologies in their classrooms. Collaboration with the teachers during summer
training also has led to the creation of lessons by Fellows that fit into existing school
curriculum. As part of self-assessment, Fellows keep weekly journals of observations and
thoughts about classroom activities and challenges. Bi-weekly seminars are led by the
principle investigators on the grant to discuss relevant educational literature and reflect
on interactions in the classroom setting. Graduate fellows perceive three primary benefits:
(1) developing collaboration and communication skills (teamwork), (2) enhancement of
spatial thinking skills and problem solving processes, (3) improved teaching skills and (4)
developing confidence as scientists.
Keywords: NSF, GK-12, spatial thinking, geospatial technologies, education,
Olen Paul Matthews, Department of Geography, University of New Mexico,
Albuquerque, NM, 87108. The Commerce Clause, Navigation and Federal Power
The Clean Water Act makes it unlawful to discharge materials into the navigable
waters of the United States without a permit. This provision places a limit on the
application of the Act. The Supreme Court decided a few years ago that navigable waters
did not include isolated potholes that were disconnected to navigable waters (Solid Waste
Agency v. U.S. Corp of Engineers, 531 US 159). Since that decision the composition of
the Supreme Court has changed. In June 2006 the Supreme Court once again addressed
the issue of navigable waters under the Clean Water Act (Rapanos v. US, 126 S.Ct.
2208). The decision was split 4-4-1. My paper examines this latest court decision, and
compares it with the earlier one. I will also examine whether the definition used in the
Act is the true limit of federal power over water quality or whether an amendment to the
Act could reverse the court‘s opinion.
Keywords: Supreme Court, Water Quality, Navigable Waters, Commerce Clause.
Richard Mbatu, Department of Geography, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater,
OK 74078. Measuring the Rate of Forest Loss in Cameroon: Case Studies of the
Limbe/Buea and Bertoua Regions.
Cameroon is a country endowed with abundant forest. The southern part of the country
constitutes part of the spectacular lowland rain forest of Central Africa that stretches
across regions of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Congo Brazzaville, the
Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. The abundance of forest
resource in Cameroon has led to a vibrant forest sector that contributes more than 3% of
the gross domestic product (GDP) and accounts for 7% of total export. Due to the socio-
economic, cultural and environmental role forest plays in the lives of Cameroonians, it is
important to determine what land use activities contribute to forest loss in Cameroon and
to measure the rate of loss. This will lay ground work for changes on the country‘s forest
policy. This paper uses remotely sensed data (Landsat imageries TM and ETM+) to
determine changes that have occurred in the forest cover of Cameroon over a period of
sixteen years (1984 to 2000). Two study sites are extrapolated for this study: The
Limbe/Buea area in the Southwest Province and the area around the town of Bertoua in
the East Province. The changes in forest cover are determined by a pixel-base
classification of two images of two different dates (post-classification method). Socio-
economic data of the Bertoua and Limbe/Buea study areas is linked with the results of
changes observed from space, to determine how they affect land use in these areas. This
is done using a multidimensional statistical regression model (Panel analysis). It is
concluded that expansion in agricultural fields and increase in urban/rural built are a
major cause of forest loss in Cameroon. These causes are driven by population growth.
The role of socio-economic activities is discussed.
Keywords: Forest loss, land cover, land use, land change, Cameroon,
Darrel L. McDonald, David Barfield and LaRied Oates, Columbia Regional
Geospatial Service Center, Arthur Temple College of Forestry and Agriculture,
Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX. How Large is a Rural Block?
An Integrated Approach to Education and Training Among Students and
The Columbia Regional Geospatial Service Center System has established an
integrated education and training program that connects academic students and
professionals by linking programs based upon geospatial sciences. A principal focus of
the education and training programs is to stress the fundamental importance of geography
as a component of spatial analysis. Stephen F. Austin State University is the lead campus
of a three unit component of the System. Currently, the three university system centers
are located in distinct geographic Texas locations (Nacogdoches, El Paso and Lubbock)
which have an extremely low probability of ever having the same disaster strike all
locations at the same time. The regional service centers hold redundant datasets that are
versioned and connected to serve as fail over sites. The education and training programs
are designed to allow for career preparation support for geospatial science students,
emergency management responders, opportunities for professional development. The
centers provide training for local first responders, emergency management coordinators
and local and regional agencies as well as students in areas ranging from using GPS
equipment to accessing, creating analyzing incident generated data. Internships blend
academic programs with community professionals, while the regional service centers
provide an environment for professional development. One area of emphasis is creating a
better understanding of rural/urban distinctions between differing entities responding to
Keywords: Regional Geospatial Service Center System, Integrated Geospatial Training
Kent M. McGregor, Department of Geography, University of North Texas, Denton,
TX 76203. Inside the Texas-Oklahoma Drought of 2005-2006.
The continuing drought in Oklahoma and Texas is the worst in the past decade.
Some areas have received less than half their normal rainfall since January 1, 2006. The
causes of the drought were investigated with data from the "Reanalysis Model".
Reanalysis is a comprehensive, global atmospheric data set produced by the National
Centers for Environmental Prediction. These data provide a superior way to analyze or
reconstruct historical weather events since1948. The data showed notable anomalies in
precipitation, humidity, potential evapotranspiration, and soil moisture. Thus,
atmospheric conditions maintained the drought through a positive feedback where less
evaporation resulted in less precipitation. In addition, the winds showed anomalous
patterns in horizontal velocity, vertical velocity and momentum. The 700mb wind
anomalies were especially revealing. The results indicated similar causes to the summer
1998 drought in the same region. While the 1998 drought was linked to unusual
temperatures in the Pacific, the current drought occurred during a time of relatively
normal sea surface temperatures there.
Keywords: Drought, Reanalysis model, precipitation.
Mark Micozzi, Department of Cartography and Geography, East Central
University, Ada, OK 74820. The Corp of Discovery: Reinforcing of the Geographic
Perspective Along the Lewis and Clark Trail
The lure of the American West and its inspired landscapes of the known and
unknown are relived in the Corp of Discovery, a government-led expedition fathered by
Thomas Jefferson and carried out by Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. As
the 200th Anniversary of their epic voyage comes to a close, their legacy continues to
inspire. Journals, sketches, maps, and letters provide us a glimpse into a memorable
account of nationalism, trust, loyalty, courage, teamwork, leadership, perseverance,
discovery, and friendship. Although the journals are seen as a written history, it is equally
important to read the journals as a visual history and explore the various geographies that
lead us back into the past. Although numerous texts have recently documented the
expedition by air, what was the journey really like from the ground? What was the
physical and human landscape like 200 years ago? What has or has not changed? How
did several dozen men survive over two years in virtually unchartered landscapes? How
did the Corp of Discovery unlock and open the American West?
Keywords: Lewis and Clark, geographic perspective, landscapes, visual history
John Milbauer, Department of Geography, Northeastern State University,
Tahlequah, OK 74464. Courthouse Squares in Oklahoma.
Scholars have long pondered the regional affiliation of Oklahoma. Is it the South,
the Middle West, the Southwest, the West, Amerindia, or something else? The
Shelbyville courthouse square is considered a cultural indicator of the Upland South. It
consists of a square with roads intersecting at all four corners with a courthouse in the
center. The feature derives its name from Shelbyville, Tennessee, but its origin is to the
east. In 2005 and 2006 the author examined the street patterns surrounding all seventy-
seven of Oklahoma‘s county courthouses. He analyzed the courthouse settings in the field
and he studied them on the historical Sanborn maps and on the original townsite plat
maps. The Sanborn maps were especially valuable because they illustrated how
courthouse squares change through time. The greatest number of courthouses, fifty-five
percent, occupied part or all of a city block. The second largest category, however, was
the Shelbyville, which accounted for accounted for thirty-four percent of all courthouses.
Also present were the Lancaster and Harrisonburg squares as well as other types. The
number of Shelbyville courthouse squares indicates that the culture of the Upland South
is significant in Oklahoma.
Keywords: Oklahoma, courthouse squares, field, Sanborn maps, Upland South.
Jennifer Miller, Department of Geography and the Environment, University of
Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712. Southern Two-Lined Salamanders in an
Urbanizing Area: Their Fate and a New GIS Classification Technique.
Forested riparian buffers are an increasingly common method of mitigating the
negative effects of impervious surface cover on water quality and wildlife habitat. I
sampled larval southern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea cirrigera) in 43 streams,
representing the range of impervious surface cover and forested riparian buffer width
across Wake County, North Carolina, USA. Larval abundance decreased with increasing
impervious surface cover in the upstream catchment, but was not affected by buffer
width. This is likely a result of an incomplete buffer system and culverts or other
breaches along streams. Larval abundance increased with detritus cover in the stream to a
threshold and then decreased as detritus continued to increase. As percent pebble
substrate in the stream increased, especially in perennial streams, larval salamander
abundance also increased. I suspect salamanders were unable to migrate with the water
column during dry periods in intermittent streams with sedimented interstices below the
surface, resulting in low abundances. A combination of increased peak flows and
sedimentation, reduced base flow, and chemical changes likely reduces the abundance of
salamanders in urban and suburban streams. I suggest creation of catchment-wide,
unbreached buffers to maintain the integrity of stream habitats in urbanizing watersheds.
Andrew Millington, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX 77843. Considering Conservation when Forests Fragment
Landscape ecologists have developed sophisticated forms of spatial analysis to
describe the fragmentation of landscapes, but have mainly failed to link these to the
causes in fragmentation in anything but a simplistic manner. This paper looks at forest
fragmentation along a vitally important ecotone for nature conservation in South
America, that is the ecotone between lowland humid tropical forests of the Amazon Basin
and lower montane forests of the Andes. This ecotone suffers extensive fragmentation
from various forms of colonization and agricultural development. I examine the evolution
of fragmentation along one part of this ecotone, show how fragmentation patterns can be
explained through an understanding of socio-economic processes, and speculate on the
relevance of this to current conservation efforts in the region
William Monfredo, Department of Geography, University of New Orleans, New
Orleans, Louisiana 70148. Hurricane Katrina, Evacuation Issues, and Assessing the
This presentation concerns events of Hurricane Katrina: this nation's costliest
natural disaster. It explores some of the meteorological and evacuation issues and
discusses the damage assessment, primarily in Lakeview and the Lower Ninth Ward in
Louisiana and in Bay St. Louis, MS. Conceived from the position of a
participant/observer, that is, a hazards researcher who evacuated New Orleans 18 hours
before the storm struck, it brings important questions and considerations to the forefront,
including suggestions for the future. This catastrophe facilitates an understanding of the
fatal results of a few tragic and senseless flaws in New Orleans: denial, woeful
preparation, segregation by race and class, and poverty. Residents residing along the Gulf
coast live during a climatic pattern of increased tropical-storm frequency and intensity
compared to the period from 1965 to 1995. The most advantageous advice when asked to
evacuate from these dangerous storms is to find a way to say, ―Yes‖. More research is
necessary to determine how automobile exhaust and smokestack emissions might
contribute to enhanced sea-surface temperatures as well as favorable upper-level wind-
patterns, both of which are crucial for the formation of significant hurricanes.
Keywords: evacuations, floods, hurricanes, Katrina, New Orleans.
Alexandra Myers, Department of Geography and the Environment, University of
Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712. Evaluating Remediation Effectiveness with an
The flume-based field studies to document the remediation efforts at the
abandoned Gambonini mercury mine in California indicate that although overall
concentrations of mercury entering Walker Creek continue to decrease, significant annual
variations can result from changing discharge regimes. An all-scenarios matrix allows
comparison between distinct hydrological years, including an El Niño year, to quantify
remediation effectiveness. In 1998, Whyte and Kirchner (2000) documented over 82 kg
of total Hg entering Walker Creek, sourced from 300,000 m3 of calcine-rich
unconsolidated waste piles. Our study, conducted during the winter storms of 2004-2005,
indicates that erosion controls effectively decreased total suspended solid concentrations
and decreased mercury loading, totaling 0.11 kg Hg. The all-scenarios matrix suggests
that if intense storm events occurred during the post-remediation study, the amount of
mercury entering the creek would have approximated 2 kilograms, while if the pre-
remediation study was conducted in drier conditions, the amount of mercury detected
would have totaled only 10 kg Hg, instead of 82 kg. The all-scenarios matrix suggests
that while higher precipitation and discharge years may trigger slightly larger mercury
fluxes, the overall amount of mercury leaving Gambonini will continue to decrease
throughout time and can be effectively quantified and compared.
Robert Newcomer, Department of Cartography and Geography, East Central
University, Ada, OK 74820. Ethnic Change and Cultural Adaptation in One
Oklahoma‘s largest population increase by race/ethnicity is those of Hispanic
origin, a whopping 24.4 percent increase from 2000 to 2004, according the U.S. Census
Bureau. The growth of agricultural industries has provided a boom in employment, and a
large number of Hispanics have taken advantage of new job opportunities in rural areas
or small towns away from more traditional, metropolitan growth areas such as Oklahoma
City and Tulsa.
Recent Hispanic growth in small towns has been the catalyst for cultural change
and adaptation in and by those places. One such adaptation experience has been that of
Heavener, Oklahoma. New businesses, places of worship, and festivals exemplify some
of the adaptations that have developed in response to demographic changes in recent
years. The cultural landscape of Heavener reflects how one small town has adapted in
response to its population‘s changing ethnicity.
Keywords: ethnicity, cultural landscape, culture
Tait Nilsson, Norman High School, Norman, OK 73069, Taking It To the Limit:
Overfishing is reducing the world‘s fish population at an unprecedented rate.
Edible fish are endangered in 14 of 16 major fishing areas. These areas are showing
changes in the global ecosystems, with other species growing in numbers due to the lack
of their predators or prey, i.e jellyfish or sharks. Due to overfishing, several major fishing
areas have outlawed commercial fishing. The business is no longer viable is some areas,
which means some governments subsidize fishermen to catch and market. The rate of fish
caught every year was increasing, due to the world‘s growing population; an 8 percent
increase annually. That number leveled off in 1989, with 82 million tons of fish caught.
This project explores fishing populations and current global levels. This project examines
the question: Can the industry supply the needs of the growing population of the world?
Keywords: Overfishing, endangered, ecosystem, subsidize.
Anna Noichl, Norman High School, Norman, OK 73069, Esperanto: Can It Survive?
Our globalized world is dominated by the English language because of its ability
to create new words and the ease to learn to write and speak in this language. What if
there was a language which is even easier to learn? When L. L. Zamenhof created the
language of Esperanto at the end of the 19 th century, he wouldn‘t have thought that it
would spread across the world so quickly. Some Esperanto websites even mention one
million speakers across the planet. The language is useful for neutral communication,
which means it gives no advantage to any particular culture or language because
Esperanto has no native speakers. Because of its regular structure and roots in many other
languages it is easy to learn. This study asks: What is the future of Esperanto? Can it take
the place of English in the foreseeable future? Areas of usage will be documented and
Keywords: lingua franca, international language, constructed language
Stephen O‘Connell, Department of Geography, Oklahoma State University,
Stillwater, OK 74078. Exploring with GK-12: Using GISci in Secondary Education.
Through the Rural Alliance for Improving Science Education (RAISE), several
hundred students throughout central Oklahoma now use GISci tools as a part of their
classroom education. In addition to learning the technical aspects of the software, the
students are actively learning to view the world spatially. Whether it involves earth
science or history, biology or environmental science, GISci provides students with a
dynamic tool for understanding the complex relationships present in the world. This
paper will present some examples from the integration of Geographic Information
Systems into a middle school classroom. Results of specific approaches and successful
activities will be followed by potential and actual obstacles to GISci integration.
Keywords: geographic education, GISci, secondary education, GK-12
Aya Oda, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
77843. College Students‘ Cognitive Representations of a City: A Case Study in
Bryan and College Station, Texas
The major objective of this study is to investigate how the length of residence is
related to college students‘ cognitive representations of Bryan and College Station,
Texas. The development of urban cognitive representation is crucial because the
perception and understanding of the environment enhances or limits individuals‘ daily
activities. A number of studies across disciplines have investigated the development and
characteristics of urban cognition. Texas A&M University students who have various
lengths of residence were asked to draw a map of Bryan and College Station. For the
analysis of sketch maps, the study incorporates the concept of landmarks introduced in
Golledge‘s anchor-point theory (1978). The extent of the drawings, dominant features,
and environmental cues are explored with the subjects‘ information of the length of
residence, travel modes and previous residential experience in city. The analyses of the
sketch maps revealed that overall drawing elements gradually increased with the length
of residence. Moreover, the results suggested that the degrees of details and the extent in
geographical areas were influenced by the subjects‘ travel modes.
Jeremy Odenwald, Department of Geography, Oklahoma State University,
Stillwater, OK 74077. Testing the Effectiveness and Efficiency of a Local Irrigation
Network in Morocco.
Irrigated agriculture is a fact of life for most of Northern Africa. The village of
Rissani, Morocco is one of many such villages that support themselves using irrigated
agriculture. It lies to the east of the Atlas Mountains and derives its main source of
irrigation water from the Oued Ziz, a river that has its source there. The residents of
Rissani water their fields using an ancient earthen canal network built centuries ago and
maintained to this day. The purpose of this research project is to determine whether or not
the original builders of the canal network at Rissani built a truly efficient canal network.
Was the network simply built in a random and haphazard manner to get the necessary
water into the fields, or is knowledge of distributive efficiency evident in the
incrementally built network? This is determined by analyzing the network to see if it is
nearing any sort of efficient ideal or was simply a series of incremental additions to the
system of irrigation canals that, in sum, did not effectively dispose surface water to all
potentially arable land. Using GIS to determine network connectivity and efficiency it is
possible to answer these questions.
Keywords: Morocco, irrigated agriculture, canal networks, GIS
Wendy Patzewich, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University. The
Challenge and Response of Water Management: A Case Study of Fire Prevention in
the Central Business District.
The introduction of waterworks to Texas fundamentally changed the way Texans
viewed water. Once water was available from the tap, it was taken for granted. The
establishment of waterworks was not, however, intended to bring water to individual
households, but rather to provide a reliable supply of water under sufficient pressure to
fight fire in the central business district. Using archival sources I show that during the late
nineteenth century major fires destroyed significant amounts of the central business
district of each of Texas‘ ten largest cities, leading to demand for the establishment of
local waterworks. Fifty years of municipal bond records from the archives of the Office
of the Comptroller were analyzed. Fifteen hundred water bonds were identified and input
into a database. GIS techniques were employed to construct time-slice maps showing the
spread of waterworks funded by municipal bonds. Finally, a case study of the early
history of the waterworks at Bryan, Texas was examined using Sanborn insurance maps
to identify changes in the landscape reflecting a fundamental change in water
Key terms: Historical geography, water management, geography of change.
Gregory Plumb, Department of Cartography and Geography, East Central
University, Ada, OK 74820. The Murals of Oklahoma.
Murals are sanctioned artistic expressions drawn upon walls of buildings. They
have a clear presence within Oklahoma, as they are usually situated prominently on the
exterior of buildings within the downtown areas of communities large and small
throughout the state. They often occur as a single instance within a town, or as multiple
paintings grouped within a city block. Sometimes they are scattered, as in the extreme
case of over 40 murals within the small town of Hominy.
These features can also be seen on interior walls of buildings, particularly within
museums, government buildings, and other public areas. One especially interesting subset
of interior murals exist in several post offices within the state. They were commissioned
during the New Deal years of the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
Most of the murals depict images of landscape. Some are urban, others rural;
many a combination of both. They communicate to the viewer something about the
identity of the town; usually quite representative, but sometimes embellished. Common
themes include history, culture, industry, celebrities, environment, and patriotism.
Anyone who pays more than cursory attention to murals should absorb a definite sense of
Keywords: murals, place, identity, art, landscape
Lisa J. Powell, Department of American Studies, University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712. Tourism and Nature in Gateway Communities to Great Smoky
Mountains National Park.
Visiting a national park has become one of the most popular ways to "experience
nature" in the United States. Though early national parks had close ties to major
railroads, the automobile altered and ultimately defined park tourism. Near most park
entrances are ―gateway communities,‖ towns which visitors generally must pass through
as they drive into the national parks. Gateway communities typically provide services for
visitors such as food, lodging, gasoline, and sales of gear and souvenirs; in many cases
the economies of these communities rely heavily on revenue from park visitors.
Gatlinburg and Townsend, Tennessee, provide two case studies of gateway communities,
fewer than twenty five miles from each other at two of the main entrances to Great
Smoky Mountains National Park. This paper considers how the appropriation of nature
imagery in gateway community business, tourism promotion materials, and built
environments contributes to the sense of place and nature experience in the park.
Danny Redo, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station,
TX 77843. Park Performance and Usage in the Bolivian Chaco from a Human-
In 1995, Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco National Park (KINP) was established in the
vast Chaco of Bolivia as the largest PA in the country (34,411 km2 or 5% of the country)
and home to the largest remaining intact dry forest in South America. It also holds the
highest diversity of large mammals on the continent and claims to be the only park in the
Americas co-managed by a national government and an indigenous organization. But in
the same light, human development threatens this novel approach to protected area
implementation as colonists drive the agricultural frontier ever closer, commercial
hunters search for pelts and skins, the Bolivia government undertakes highway
construction, and trans-national hydrocarbon industries seek natural gas deposits in and
around the park‘s core. Reconnaissance work in the summer of 2006 and visual
examination of satellite imagery shows this trend, but the degree of forest loss and
livelihood effects to the park and people is undocumented. The performance of KINP in
conserving, but economically developing one of the keystones of the Chaco forest for
economic prosperity, has yet to be assessed. In addition, a variety of ethnic groups living
on the park‘s periphery use the land and the park quite differently. Many questions
remain unanswered. Has KINP been successful? What effect is the park having on the
livelihoods of local peoples and vice versa? How are local people using natural
resources? Is there conflict over resources? This paper seeks to answer some of these
questions from a human-environment perspective using sensed analyses and formal and
Cyrus Reed, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Texas at
Austin, Austin, TX 78712. Farmer Water Use, Conservation and Conversations in
the Conchos Basin, Chihuahua in a Free Trade Era, 1990-2005
Outflows from the Conchos River in Chihuahua, Mexico into the Rio Grande
along the Texas-Mexico border averaged less than 10 percent of their historical between
1993 and 2005, prompting an international dispute with the U.S., lawsuits and major
investments in water conservation. The proposed paper analyzes how drought, low flows,
free trade and decentralization policies have impacted the governance, distribution and
use of water and other resources in two irrigation districts through which the river flows.
Utilizing a case-study approach, the paper examines specific local and international
conservation efforts in agricultural communities to assess their differential impacts, and
responses and perspectives of local producers operating within a global environment.
Jack Renfroe, Norman High School, Norman, OK 73069. The Geography of High-
Speed Rail in the U.S.
In the United States, long distance ground transportation has been neglected
(HSGTA). Almost all the focus is on nationwide air transportation even though air travel
is costly and inefficient (www.taipeitimes.com). Will high-speed rail transportation
revolutionize the United States or at least exist? In this project, I plan to research the
positive and negative aspects of high-speed rail transportation, compare rail
transportation to air transportation and list the changes that will have to occur in order to
implement high-speed trains into our daily lives and our society. Also, I will research the
areas in the world that have existing high-speed rail networks that function properly, and
compare those places to areas in the United States desperately need a high-speed rail
network or a faster system?
I anticipate that high-speed rail transportation will make life easier for Americans.
With these networks, it will decrease the need to live near one's job in a large city, thus
ultimately decreasing the crowded population of major cities.
KEYWORDS- high-speed rail networks, transportation, travel, need, revolutionize, easier
Jerry Reynolds, Department of Geography, University of Central Arkansas,
Conway, AR 72035. The Failure of the Federal Government to Promote Public
Responsibility in High Risk Hazardous Environments of the United States.
From an ―Act of God‖ to an ―Act of Man‖ to an ―Act of Government‖, natural
hazards risk management in the United States has undergone major transformation in the
quest for reduced economic losses. Although over $100 billion has been expended on
control and protection works, education and mitigation programs, and regulatory
measures, property losses resulting from natural hazards continue to increase, even prior
to Hurricane Katrina. Although there are numerous factors to consider for this trend, such
as population increases, increased population concentration in high risk areas, and global
warming, another possible factor is the lack of an aggressive hazard management
program emphasizing individual responsibility and accountability. This paper discusses
the significance of this factor and the consequences of reduced individual responsibility
in natural hazards risk management. Although one benefit of the National Flood
Insurance Program was to increase individual responsibility in natural hazards mitigation,
this benefit has continued to erode due primarily to liberal federal relief and rehabilitation
assistance. In the past fifty years, the federal government‘s role in risk management,
excluding control works has evolved from one of limited responsibility to that of ultimate
risk manager. This role transformation appears to have contributed to increased economic
losses rather than the expected loss reduction.
Key Works: risk management, public responsibility, federal assistance
Todd Reynolds, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK
73019. A Dualism in the Production of Difference.
The production of difference is a critical part of indigenous activism.
Accordingly, indigenous activists emphasize their political and economical
disempowerment difference as a strategy to influence changes in oppressing policies.
Likewise, disability activist discourse complements indigenous advocates, placing
emphasis on difference in order to increase awareness of disabled people‘s extreme
vulnerability. Contradictory to the strategy that emphasizes difference is the approach
taken by academics. The opposing approach emphasizes commonalties in order to de-
emphasize difference. This essay will demonstrate the causes of both strategies as well as
common end results of each. Upon providing justification for the method, a critical
discourse analysis reveals more than a single strategic use of the production of difference.
The article concludes by bringing to attention a dualism in production of difference
Murray D. Rice, Department of Geography, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
76203. A Comparative Analysis of the Headquarters Communities of New York and
This study analyzes and compares the headquarters communities of the two
dominant, national corporate centers in North America. As the pre-eminent cities of their
respective countries, New York and Toronto fulfill an important role within their national
urban and economic systems. Both cities host businesses and institutions that determine
and symbolize the direction of their respective national economies. The analysis of
Toronto and New York examines recent trends in the growth and change of the
headquarters hosted by the two cities. The results show that the cities are comparable in
some ways, such as in their common dominance among the financial institutions of their
countries. However, in other ways the headquarters community in each appears to be
following distinct paths, as in the distinctive location tendencies of the most rapidly-
growing firms in the two cities. The paper presents an analysis and comparison of the
corporate community in each city, and provides some interpretation as to the meaning of
the results for further development of theory in economic geography.
Keywords: New York, Toronto, headquarters location, location quotient.
Alpan Risvanoglu, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman,
OK 73019. Recreation and Leisure Spaces in Istanbul.
In a city of more than 12 million inhabitants, one of the most important questions
to address, arguably, is the lack of recreational spaces. The current land use map of
Istanbul is evidence that this issue has been overlooked by authorities and city planners
for some time. Obviously, people‘s needs for leisure and recreation areas have to be met.
This paper presents the results of face-to-face interviews with Istanbul residents who
suggest that green spaces be taken into immediate consideration in future urban
development plans. My findings provide insight into human-nature relations, the sense of
belonging and spatial attachments in Istanbul, as well as into the expectations of people
who desire to live in a better city.
Keywords: Istanbul, urban planning, recreation, sense of place.
Hayden Roberts, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK
73019. Virtual Representations of Space their Impact on Cultural Relations to
This presentation examines the way in which understandings of place have been
transformed by virtual presentations of physical spaces. Pulling from core semiotic
theory, I will consider ways that visual elements in virtual setting (such as the World
Wide Web) form a sense of place that is directed by the creator of the site who controls
the information and projects an intended perception. To explore this process, I will use
webcams, virtual tours, and Internet travelogues as the basis for my analysis. While this
examination could also be extended to other virtual forms, these three share certain
elements, including the intent or aim of their dissemination, a relationship to time, and
their unapologetic depiction of space. Using the concepts of veneer and vignette as
relational tools, I will dissect both the way in which these spaces are presented in virtual
form and the intended reception of such presentation by designated audiences.
Ultimately, I will theorize and, through examples, illustrate the impact this has had on
certain cultural psyches.
David Robertson, Department of Geography, SUNY-Geneseo, Geneseo, NY 14454.
The Genesee Valley: Confronting the Pristine Myth on the Developer‘s Frontier.
Western New York was opened for settlement by private developers early in the
nineteenth century and the landscape continues to reflect their influence. Nowhere in this
"Developer's Frontier" has the mark of the developer proved more enduring than in the
Genesee Valley. A parkland reminiscent of rural England surrounds the village of
Geneseo. Long renowned for its stately oaks and Arcadian atmosphere, the landscape
bares the influence of frontier settlers. The area‘s pastoral atmosphere, however, is also
rooted in a much earlier history of Iroquois land use. This research confronts the ―Pristine
Myth‖ underlying historical accounts of the Genesee: namely, that the developer‘s hands
were solely responsible for humanizing these lands. Not only is the developer‘s influence
in shaping this environment considered, but so too is the role of earlier indigenous
populations and their maintenance of a rare ecological community. The majestic traces of
an ancient and unique oak savannah still spread their limbs over the Genesee.
Keywords: Genesee Valley; developer‘s frontier; pristine myth.
Kevin Romig, Department of Geography, Texas State University—San Marcos, San
Marcos, TX 78666, and Alex Feidler, Department of Geography, University of
North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202. Therapeutic Landscape? Contextualizing
Methamphetamine in North Dakota
Crystal methamphetamine production and consumption has rapidly expanded over
the last ten years throughout much of the Great Plains. One of the states experiencing
tremendous growth is North Dakota. Distinct spatial patterns exist when examining
methamphetamine crimes of production and consumption creating a geographic duality in
the landscape of abuse. In terms of treatment, a cursory inspection might suggest North
Dakota to be a therapeutic landscape due to its rural nature and slow pace. A more
detailed investigation reveals that few treatment facilities exist internally and North
Dakota regularly exports offenders who seek treatment. This paper highlights the
problems faced by the state in limiting crystal methamphetamine production and
consumption and suggests applying a more holistic approach to confronting this issue.
William C. Rowe, Department of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State
University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Post-Conflict Development in Western
Afghanistan: A Preliminary Assessment
With the news full of both the Taliban resurgence and the record opium harvest in
southern and eastern Afghanistan, the relatively more peaceful western region gets little
attention. What is the situation on the ground in the region around the key city of Herat
and how could it potentially present a model for (or against) future development
throughout Afghanistan? If the Western coalition and the Afghan government are focused
on drug eradication and the violent resurgence of the Taliban, how does one get their
attention if neither issue is a real threat in your region but the development needs are just
as formidable? Using the first summer of interviews and preliminary data from the field,
this presentation will show the situation on the ground in a non-combat area of the
country and how issues of development have been hampered by warlords, indifference,
and an inability to focus on the day-to-day needs of the population because of fears of
―security‖. It will also seek to provide an initial assessment of the local ecology and the
adaptations by the local population, both rural and urban, to meet the challenges of
Keywords: Afghanistan, development, cultural/political ecology, warlords, drugs
Robert Rundstrom and Joseph Swain, Department of Geography, University of
Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. E-mail: email@example.com. The Origins of the
‗Unfortunate Child‘: Preliminary Results from a New Study of the Resettlement of
Oklahoma Territory, 1889-1907.
Oklahoma Territory (O.T.) circa 1900 was a place resettled by people primarily
from the Middle West and the Upland South. Here, several geographers claim,
Americans of diverse cultural backgrounds mixed or intermingled on the plains, forming
a new regional sub-culture in the process. The purpose of this paper is to offer
preliminary results from an examination of this ―intermingling thesis‖ using town- and
county-of-origin data from a sample of thousands of mostly non-Indian, non-Black
migrants who moved to the territory between 1889 and 1907. Our data derive from
biographies of pioneer families contained in county or regional histories, including the
county or town where white migrants became acculturated before moving to O.T. We
summarize the advantages of these sources versus the ‗snapshot‘ federal census records
of state-of-birth used in prior studies.
Some preliminary assessments of earlier claims about O.T. and, more generally,
the southern plains, are possible. We discuss the parts of O.T. where people of diverse
origins lived, notably the Unassigned Lands and the western territory. We also provide a
first-look at an important but previously unexamined part of the southern plains, the
Kiowa, Comanche, Apache, Caddo, and Wichita reservations, following their 1901
opening for white resettlement. Finally, we reassess an earlier claim that the southern
plains was resettled by people migrating from south of the 36-degree line of latitude.
Keywords: settlement, Oklahoma, Plains
Michael Seman and Donald Lyons, Department of Geography, University of North
Texas, Denton, Texas, 76209. More Buildings about Songs and Food: A Case Study
of Omaha‘s Slowdown Project.
The success of independent rock music (―indie rock‖), once a marginalized sub-
genre of the rock idiom and now a globally recognized cultural force, has afforded the
urban landscape of Omaha, Nebraska a downtown revitalization — a result of cultural
production by the city‘s successful indie rock business entities. While geographic
research has previously analyzed urban redevelopment initiated by fine artists, the event
of indie rock music being a catalyst for urban redevelopment has never been considered
in a geographic scope. This paper presents an ongoing case study concerning Saddle
Creek Records‘ ―Slowdown‖ mixed-use redevelopment project in downtown Omaha.
Although the paper represents preliminary research, findings have already emerged that
point to the benefits of government cooperation, the dubious value of a reduced cost-of-
living/cost-of-doing-business, and the emerging opportunities for indie rock
entrepreneurs afforded by technology in the vertically disintegrating and aspatializing
Rebecca Sheehan, Department of Geography, Oklahoma State University,
Stillwater, OK 74078. Order and Disorder in New Orleans: Jackson Square in its
Making and Doing.
Too often geographers conflate all forms of public places into the umbrella
category ―public space,‖ yet the type of public space matters greatly in terms of historical
and contemporary principles. In this paper, I discuss how New Orleans‘ Jackson Square
evolved, tracing prevailing ideologies, the economy, and the growing pains of the city.
Using newspapers, City Council proceedings, and ordinances, I construct the Square‘s
day-by-day life. I explain how urbane and uncultivated spaces and tensions between them
actually effected the Square, moving beyond its ―preferred‖ meanings and imaginings.
Thus, I show how disorder and order necessarily manifest, extending the scope in
understandings of what public spaces like Jackson Square signify and do.
Binita Sinha, Department of Geography, Diablo Valley College, Pleasant Hill, CA
94523. The Influence of School Quality on Residential Real Estate.
Since early 1990s, several reports have indicated that school quality significantly
affects residential location choice as well as residential property value. School districts
can act as ‗pull‘ or ‗push‘ factor in residential relocation. Case studies have revealed that
houses in a top school district sell for several thousand dollars more than the ones in a
less desirable school district. Also, the appreciation of residential real estate has a spatial
variation that seems to follow the pattern of school district quality.
This paper presents empirical and quantitative survey of the influence of school
quality on residential real estate within the San Jose-Santa Clara-Sunnyvale Metropolitan
Statistical Area. Eleven school districts have been examined based on their Academic
Performance Index and compared with residential real estate trends within the MSA.
Christina Smith and Khadeeja Elyazgi, Norman High School, Norman, OK 73071.
Anti-Americanism and public diplomacy in Middle East, Europe, and Asia.
Many Americans believe that because of U.S. foreign policies in the Middle East,
many peoples in the region are anti-American. This study examines anti-Americanism,
where it exists, and why it exists in these certain regions. Polls by the Pew Global
Attitudes Project show that anti-Americanism does not only exist in the Middle East.
Europeans and Asians also have negative views of both the U.S. and the American
people. With a few exceptions, the majority of many of the nations polled believed that
that U.S. does not consider their countries‘ interests when making foreign policy. Bush‘s
re-election and the war in Iraq have caused negative reactions in not only the Middle
East, but also Europe and Asia. The U.S. is trying to handle these perceptions by using
public diplomacy and aiming it at both the public at large and influential figures. This
study also examines how the U.S. uses public diplomacy to combat negative perceptions
Keywords: Anti-Americanism, public diplomacy, global perceptions.
Jennifer Speights-Binet, Department of Geography, University of Houston at Clear
Lake, Houston, TX 77058-1098. Monument and Memory: The Huey Long Legacy
and the Construction of the Louisiana State Capitol
The legacy of Huey P. Long is rich with colorful backroom stories of shady
politics and populist rhetoric. Though most known for his gregarious and often
questionable character made famous in Robert Penn Warren‘s, All the King’s Men,
Long‘s political career made a tremendous impact on the Louisiana landscape. Over 2000
miles of paved road infrastructure and 111 bridges were built during Long‘s tenure as
both governor and senator for the state of Louisiana. He expanded the state structure of
government to almost preposterous proportions, but within Baton Rouge specifically, he
oversaw the planning and building of Louisiana State University‘s campus, the
renovation of the Governor‘s Mansion, and most notably for this research project, the
State Capitol Building.
This paper delves into the archival history of the construction of the Louisiana
State Capitol, beginning with Long‘s 1927 gubernatorial campaign promise to build a
modern new building following through to completion and dedication in May 1932.
However, Long‘s legacy extends beyond the construction of the building. Just three years
later, Long was assassinated in ―his‖ Capitol in September 1935 and was laid to rest in
the foreground of the Capitol Gardens. While the building continues to serve as the center
of the state‘s government, it is an architectural embodiment of and memorial to Huey
Long‘s legacy. These historical insights facilitate a broader contribution to geographic
literature concerning the connection between memory and place.
Indumathi Srinath, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX 77843. Changing land use and water quality in the Vaddarahalli
Watershed, Bangalore, India.
There has a been significant discourse of the possible impacts of changes in land
use in watersheds in India in terms of water supply, but there have been surprisingly few
detailed studies. This study examines land use change between 1988-1998 in the 31.27
km2 Vaddarahalli watershed near Bangalore in southern India, with the aim deriving
baseline data about the status of land use and other natural resources. Land use data were
derived from IRS-IB and IRS-IC satellites, and water quality parameters (e.g. phosphate,
nitrate, sulfate etc.) were obtained from field samples collected in 1999. The main
findings were that: (i) there was significant shift in land use from agriculture and
commercial plantations to urban areas, (ii) some of the main lakes in the watershed had
dried-up between 1988 and 1998 because of irrigation water demand, (iii) many of the
remaining lakes had become eutrophic, and (iv) the groundwater obtained from many
well was unfit for human consumption or domestic purposes according to Indian
Steve Stadler and Allen Finchum, Department of Geography, Oklahoma State
University, Stillwater, OK 74078, Robert Rabin, National Severe Storms
Laboratory, Norman, OK 73019, Phillip Bothwell, Storms Prediction Center,
Norman, OK 73019, and Elaine Prins, Jason Brunner, and Christopher Schmidt,
Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies. An Exploratory Study of
Oklahoma‘s Wildfire Pattern Using Spatial Databases.
In 2005-2006, Oklahoma‘s winter was the 2 nd driest and the 13th warmest since
1895. The dry landscape made for a considerable wildfire hazard over the entire state.
Approximately 240,000 hectares burned and none of the fires was of natural origin. Can
statewide spatial databases be brought to bear to explain the geographic pattern of the
fires? In this paper we report on an exploratory study of Oklahoma in which we have
spatially compared statewide patterns within a GIS. A 4-month composite of half-hourly
GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) fire products was
employed to produce a fire location data layer. Population density was operationalized
using NOAA‘s 1-km grid estimates derived from Census data. Gross vegetation types
were obtained from Landsat 30-m GAP analysis. September NDVI minus January NDVI
values from NOAA polar orbiters were used as a biomass change estimator. Satellite
observed fire occurrences were used as the dependent data layer; the other layers were
used as independent layers.
Keywords: wildfire, Oklahoma, GIS analysis
Joseph Swain and Robert Rundstrom, Department of Geography, University of
Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. The Origins of the ‗Unfortunate Child‘: A First
Progress Report from A New Study of the Resettlements of Oklahoma.
In 1988, geographer John Hudson published an iso-latitude map showing the
birthplaces of early North American white settlers moving into the Middle West. He
found what he termed a ―latitudinal zonation‖ where, despite the myriad directions
people followed, the general result was a latitudinal occupation of the mid-continent U.S.
ordered along the same lines as their places of origin. Four geographers at the University
of Oklahoma began a project in January, 2005, one of the purposes of which is to
determine whether Oklahoma fits this westering pattern. Eighteen months later, we began
analysis of our database containing town- or county-level origins of a sample of
thousands of mostly non-Indian, non-Black migrants who moved between 1889 and 1907
to lands in what became the State of Oklahoma. Our two presentations today provide a
progress report on this project.
A dot map of where 10,808 migrants spent their formative years shows important
patterns in the diaspora from the South and Midwest. Our Hudsonian iso-latitude map
shows the full resettlement pattern in the twin territories at statehood (1907). A north-
south latitudinal ordering does exist for Oklahoma, but gradients are steep and radially
twisted in several places. Also, Oklahoma emerges with more isolines and, it might be
inferred, more diverse origins than any of the states in Hudson‘s Midwest. We also
comment on the expected but as yet unexamined role of the widely accepted cultural
boundary at the Canadian River and that of the minorated federal protectorate that was
Keywords: settlement, Oklahoma, migration
Junmei Tang, Department of Geography, Texas State University—San Marcos, San
Marcos, TX 78666. Threatened Natural Landscape in Urbnaization: A Comparison
of Two Petroleum-oriented Cities.
The magnitude and intensity of urbanization resulting from the environmental
change and human activities are of grave concern. These processes change not only the
human settlements, but also the ecological diversity and climatic conditions in our cities.
This research is the first systematic comparison of urban landscape dynamics in two
petroleum-oriented cities, Houston, Texas in United States and Daqing, Heilongjiang in
China from 1970s to 2000. Two categories of Landscape ecology indices with
supplementary ecological meanings were applied to exam how the natural and human
landscape pattern changed using multi-temporal satellite images. Based on the derived
indices, a general trend of landscape change was revealed in these two petroleum-
oriented cities: natural landscape was degraded into half natural landscape or human
landscape resulting in a more fragmented pattern, whereas half natural landscape was
taken over gradually by the human landscape.
Aondover Tarhule and Joseph Zume, Department of Geography, University of
Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. Statistical Analysis of a 300-Year Hydroclimatic
Time Series of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer Based on Tree Rings.
Knowledge concerning the long-term pattern of hydroclimatic variability for a
region is critical for water resources planning and management. Frequently however, this
process is complicated both by the short length of available instrumental records as well
as difficulties with identifying the various modes of variability embedded in the time
series. This paper examines the temporal pattern of variability of precipitation and the
Palmer Drought Severity Index since 1701 for the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer in south
Central Oklahoma. It is a contribution to the technical study of the water resources of the
aquifer mandated by the Oklahoma legislature.
Pre-instrumental values of these variables were derived from a 229-year tree ring
chronology of Post Oaks (Quercus stellata) developed for the aquifer. This chronology
was combined with an existing one developed by Prof. David Stahle for the study area,
and dating to 1700.
To identify the dominant modes of variability and their evolution in time, we
applied continuous wave transform, using Morlet wavelet as the mother wavelet, to
decompose the one dimensional precipitation and PDSI time series into a two-
dimensional frequency time-space. The results revealed wet and dry periods oscillating
between 1-4 year cycles, and a few events on an 8-year cycle. Thus, multi-decadal
drought events (or wet periods) have not occurred in south central Oklahoma during the
past 300 years. The frequency of occurrence of droughts of various magnitudes as well as
the time interval between occurrences of those events may therefore be used to facilitate
aquifer water resources planning, allocation and use.
Keywords: Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, drought, Oklahoma, PDSI, tree rings.
Stefan Terrell and James Horne, A.P. Human Geography, Norman High School,
Norman, OK 73069. Alternative Fuel Sources For Cars.
Fossil fuels currently provide 85% of all energy consumed in the United States
and virtually all of the transportation fuels. Fossil fuels are unique from other forms of
fuel, in that they are limited. Eventually the Earth will exhaust its supply of fossil fuels,
and the demand for the limited supply will drive prices up so that all practical uses
disappear. In the next 20 years, according to calculations by the Energy Information
Administration, our nations demand for oil is expected to jump 30%; yet we produce
40% less oil than in 1970. This projects an increased demand for foreign oil, over which,
we have little control. So what possible energy alternatives to oil are there? Which one, if
any, could replace oil? There are many alternative fuel automobiles, though the most
successful are still dependent on oil (fuel cell/hybrid, liquid petroleum gas, and electric
cell sources). Other fuels, such as hydrogen and Liquid Natural Gas, are poised to replace
oil all together. This study examines the most well-known alternative fuel vehicles,
alternative fuel sources that exist today and the current dependence on oil and possible
Keywords: fossil fuels, alternative energy, hydrogen cell, liquid petroleum gas,
liquid natural gas, hybrid
John P. Tiefenbacher, Department of Geography, Texas State University—San
Marcos, San Marcos, TX 78666. Assessing the Hazard, Risk and Vulnerability of
Low Water Crossings in the Hill Country, Texas.
This paper reports preliminary results of an assessment of the characteristics of
low water crossings (similar to arroyos, dips, or other topographic drainage features that
intersect roadways) on roads in four counties in the southeastern part of Texas‘ Hill
Country region. Site features and situational factors describing the size, shape, visibility
and context of more than 150 crossings collected over a 1-year period are evaluated to
determine which locations are more dangerous and challenging for automobile drivers
during periods of heavy rainfall or heavy run-off. Combining field-collected data with
census and transportation data allows the assessment of motorist exposure to potentially
flooded roadways. A hazard ranking scheme is described and can be employed to
prioritize hazard mitigation efforts by both drivers and transportation managers.
Rachel E. Turney-Work, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma,
Norman, OK 73019. Dendroclimatic Reconstructions for the Arbuckle-Simpson
Aquifer to Facilitate Sustainable Water Use Strategies.
The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, located in south-central Oklahoma, is the primary
source of water supply for the city of Ada and other smaller communities located above
it. Ecologically, the aquifer is important also because it feeds several major springs and
rivers including Byrd‘s Mill Spring and the Blue River. Recent competition over the
aquifer‘s water resources prompted the Oklahoma legislature to mandate in 2003, the
Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) to determine the ―maximum annual yield
that will not reduce the natural flow of water from springs or streams emanating from the
This study is part of the OWRB‘s comprehensive technical investigation of the
Arbuckle Simpson Aquifer. We present preliminary results of the development of a 250-
year tree ring chronology based on post oaks (Quercus stellata). Chronology
development followed standard dendrochronological methods. Subsequently, we used the
chronology to derive proxy records of monthly precipitation, temperature, and PDSI for
south central Oklahoma from 1776-2004. By making use of an existing tree-ring
chronology produced for the area by Professor David Stahle of the University of
Arkansas at Fayetteville, we have extended reconstructions of these variables back to
These reconstructed series provide longer–term context to contemporary climate
variability. The goal is to gain an understanding of the pattern of low frequency climatic
variability and also facilitate sound and sustainable water use strategies.
Jeroen Wagendorp, Department of Geography and Planning, Grand Valley State
University, Allendale, MI 49401. Geography Induced Efficiencies in Operational
Aspects of Local Governments in Michigan.
In Michigan, the 1842 local jurisdictions are almost autonomous on issues of
zoning, land use, taxation, etc. For nearly a century, this has fostered a jurisdictional
―isolationist‖ mentality on the part of most of these units of government . This quest for
jurisdictional autonomy is still strong, and sometimes is almost mistaken for self-
government. Using geography, two entities, one at the state another at the county level
have advocated a spatial approach to ―broaden‖ the local jurisdictional horizons beyond
their own immediate needs while preserving local power. The effectiveness of GIS/G-IT
assisted scalable geographies is slowly but steadily demonstrating the connectivity
between village or city and township, city and county, township and county, and county
and state (and state and federal government). This presentation illustrates a number of
examples of how this spatial connectivity continues to evolve in Michigan and how it
translates into tax savings and other benefits for all levels of government.
Jiao Wang, Department of Geography, Texas State University-San Marcos, San
Marcos, TX 78666. Monitoring Temporal and Spatial Built-up Urban Expansion by
Remote Sensing in Shenyang City, China.
The built-up urban expansion has been an important urban problem that people
focus on. The essence of the built-up urban expansion is the process of humanity
unceasingly adjusting, deploying land utilization in the urban fringe area for the
development of the social economy, and the built-up urban area spatial variation analysis,
is the foundation of urban development trend analysis, and is extremely important to
instruct long term urban planning. Using spatial information technology such as the
remote sensing and geographic information system to carry out research on temporal and
spatial monitoring the urban area expansion and the dynamic simulation analysis is the
main direction of urban remote sensing application.
Shenyang is an old industrial base city in China, the capital of Liaoning Province,
the economy, cultural, transportation and business trade center in the northeast area, and
also the biggest city in Northeast China.
This paper takes 11 TM remote sensing images of Shenyang, , during 1977-2004
to monitor its build-up urban area temporal and spatial expansion, and analyzes its
expansion rate and expansion direction, as well as land of other use types changing into
urban use during the expansion.
During 1977-2004, built-up urban area of Shenyang expanded continuously. The
expansion rate varies in different periods. The main expansion direction is in the
southwest and northeast. Large area of cropland transformed in to urban build-up area.
The population, the social economy condition and the policy synthetically affect the
built-up urban area expansion.
Xianwei Wang, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of
Texas at San Antonio, TX 78249. Comparison of the NEXRAD MPE and Stage III
Precipitation Products in Texas Hill Country.
This study developed a new algorithm, the coefficient of variation (CV) in a 3 by
3 moving window, to exclude extreme heterogeneous rainfall events in space (3 by 3
radar pixels), and use the collocated gauge measurement for homogeneous rainfall events
to assess the performance of the Stage III of the year 2001 and MPE of the year 2004
using a raingauge network (33 in 2001 and 50 in 2004) in the Upper Guadalupe River
Basin of the Texas Hill County area. Results shows that: (1) Point gauge measurement
contributes most of the area-point errors for the extreme heterogeneous rainfall events,
and rain gauge data for homogeneous rainfall events could better represent the ground
truth areal rainfall in a radar cell; (2) Overall, the MPE match well with the gauge rainfall
data after removing the extreme spatially heterogeneous rainfall events, and MPE has
better quality than the Stage III rainfall data; (3) Compared with the Stage III, the MPE
greatly corrects the truncation error which was a serious problem in the Stage III rainfall
data, especially for rainfall rate less than 0.5 mm/hour, and the truncation error of Stage
III was quantitatively identified using POD and frequency analysis of MPE, Stage III and
gauge rainfall data.
Yipeng Wang, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station,
TX 77845-3147. Environmental Impacts of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway: An Initial
The recently completed Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) is a major strategic
investment by the central Chinese government for both economic and political purposes.
Yet the environmental impacts of QTR have been debated since the project‘s inception,
and currently are still not well understood. Relying on a variety of secondary databases,
this paper conducts an initial investigation on the environmental impacts of QTR from
the perspective of landscape fragmentation. GIS-based Road-Induced Landscape Index
(RFLI) analysis was conducted. Preliminary results indicate that the RFLI increased most
prominently in cultivated vegetation and temperate steppes areas. Both conceptual and
policy implications of our findings will be discussed in detail.
Keywords: Human-environment interaction, Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), GIS,
Brad W. Watkins, Department of Geography, Oklahoma State University,
Stillwater, OK 74078. Piecing Together the Past: Public Land Surveys and
Landscape Reconstruction of the Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory, 1894-1898
Public Land Surveys provide a glimpse into America‘s past landscape. Surveys
provide the some of the most accurate historical data available on land use practices and
settlement patterns. They exist both in written and cartographic form and provide data on
topography, soil quality, vegetation composition, hydrology, built structures (buildings,
fences, bridges), and transportation networks. Although the majority of research utilizing
land surveys has dealt with vegetation reconstruction, however, data on the survey plats
and surveyor notes provide an excellent representation of past cultural and physical
landscapes. In this study, the Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory, will serve as a case study
for a cultural landscape reconstruction using the PLS. These surveys were significant
because they were completed at the end of the nineteenth century, prior to allotment of
Choctaw lands. The highly variable geology and topography of the Choctaw Nation
enables one to study the challenges faced by settlers and the choices they made in
creating the cultural landscape. I present preliminary results of reconstructing the
Choctaw Nation historical landscape. In doing so, I account for settlement patterns as
well as patterns of vegetation, topography, and hydrology. I used geographic information
systems to digitize 350 plats within the Choctaw Nation. Digital elevation models were
used to model topography. The results present human-environmental interactions and
reconstruct a cultural landscape within a diverse physical setting.
Keywords: geography-historical, settlement reconstruction, cultural landscape,
geographic information systems, human environment interaction
Brad W. Watkins and Jean Aresco, Department of Geography, Oklahoma State
University, Stillwater, OK 74078. Classroom Connections: Global Positioning
System Technology for Cross-Curriculum Education.
Global positioning system provides one means to connect spatial principles to
biology. For the past two years, I have worked with the Rural Alliance for Improving
Science Education, funded by the National Science Foundation, in which sixth grade life
science students use global positioning system, geographic information systems, and
remote sensing techniques as an integral part of the classroom activities. We set out to
design lessons that encourage students to understand the interconnectedness of biological
phenomena. Global positioning system technology enables students to understand that
biology contains a spatial component for which the ability to think spatially and have
geographic skills prove to be advantages. In addition, students make cross curriculum
connections between biology and geography education. They learn geography can be a
method for studying biological concepts rather than simply an isolated subject area. We
present several examples of lessons that use global positioning system technology to
demonstrate its effectiveness for cross-curriculum concepts. We also address the
challenges of using technology in an inclusive classroom (as designated by Title I) where
needs vary for individual students.
Keywords: education-geography, global positioning system, cross curriculum
David R. Westrop, Norman High School, Norman, OK 73071. Climate Change and
Biodiversity: A Review of the Plight of the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus).
Global warming is having negative effects on the delicate environment of the
Arctic, most noticeably on the extent of sea ice. The average extent of sea ice has
declined eight percent (one million square kilometers) over the last 30 years. Early
melting of the fall sea ice threatens many species of wildlife, particularly the focus of this
review, the polar bear and its main food source, the ringed seal. The most important way
in which the melting of pack ice affects these species is that it shortens the breeding
season and reduces the breeding habitat of the ringed seal. Not only is the size of the seal
population reduced, but the time during which seals are available to polar bears is also
decreased. A recent study has shown that a pregnant female polar bear needs about one
kilogram of fat per kilogram of lean body mass to successfully give birth. This means that
the female must eat large numbers of the fat-rich seals before going into their winter den.
The increasing difficulty in maintaining body mass is likely to get worse, as at the current
rate of global warming, sea ice is projected to decline by 10 to 50 percent by 2100.
Conservation efforts are essential if the extinction of the polar bear and the ringed seal
are to be averted.
Keywords: Polar bear, ringed seal, global warming, sea ice, population decline
Cody Wiley, Department of Geography, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque,
NM 87131. Eagle Vision: Lessons Learned in Helping Teachers use GIS.
Eagle Vision teaches BIA high school teachers GIS and how to integrate it into
their classes. Previous research has shown that incorporating GIS into the K12 classroom
faces significant hurdles. Eagle Vision took a new approach by providing a more
extensive instruction in GIS, lesson planning assistance and year-round technical support.
The first year resulted in varying levels of implementation, which reflected the barriers
faced by and strengths of the individual teachers. The second year, which began in 2006,
has already yielded interesting results. New teachers were brought into the program to
join returning teachers. The new group used online learning and a short course in lieu of
the original two-week course. This proved to be a successful and cost-effective means to
provide the introductory skill levels necessary to progress to a more relevant level of
learning. With some modification, this method should be pursued further. The second
year program allowed the introduction of hand-on use of GIS in a more complex manner
that can be realistically applied in the classroom and with PBL teaching methods and
more sophisticated uses of GIS such as basic data analysis.
Nikki Williams, Tavia Prouhet, Joni Kincaid, Adriana Martinez, Michelle Simms,
and Russell Evans, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College
Station, Texas 77843-3147. Growing a Global Perspective: Utilizing Graduate
Students as Scientists in the Classroom.
Advancing Geospatial Skills in Science and Social Sciences (AGSSS) is a NSF
GK-12 program designed to produce scientists with interests in developing skills related
to education by bringing graduate student Fellows into secondary education classrooms.
The AGSSS program is unique in the GK-12 program because of its emphasis on spatial
thinking. Spatial thinking is defined as the knowledge, skills, and habits of mind to use
concepts of space, tools of representation, and processes of reasoning to structure spatial
problems, find answers and express solutions to these problems. Working collaboratively,
Fellows assist teachers in using geospatial technologies such as virtual globes, GIS, GPS,
NASA‘s ISSEarthKAM, and other online resources. Fellows also customize existing
curricula based on teacher requests to increase focus on spatial thinking and spatial skill
development. The AGSSS program also has an assessment component to investigate the
program‘s impact on teacher attitudes/outlooks and on student performance, especially in
the area of spatial cognition. Observations of middle and high school students
participating in the program reveal that their use of geospatial technologies in interactive
lessons support and develop higher order thinking skills. At the beginning of the year,
middle and high school students were given surveys to self-assess their spatial thinking
abilities. Additional surveys of participating students will be completed at regular
intervals to evaluate their progression and provide preliminary indications of the
effectiveness of the interactive lessons involving geospatial technologies.
Keywords: NSF, GK-12, spatial thinking, education, AGSSS, geospatial
Leslie Wilson, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station,
TX 77843. Misconceptions in Human Geography: Students‘ Understanding of
Misconceptions are detrimental for students in all types of learning environments
and continue to cause problems into adulthood when left unaddressed. One of the first
steps of learning is to identify and correct misconceptions that may be present. This study
attempts to unveil students‘ misconceptions about change in human geography. High
school and college students are selected at random to participate through recorded
interviews. These interviews help educators dispel myths that conflict with the
curriculum so that students have a better understanding of the processes of change.
Keywords: geographic education, human geography, misconceptions
Suzi Wiseman, Department of Geography, Texas State University—San Marcos,
San Marcos, TX 78666. The Motivation for a Global Hydrogen Fuel Economy.
This study identified eighteen countries trialing fuel hydrogen programs and
assessed their reliance on crude oil in 2003, when many commenced hydrogen programs
in earnest. Determining how long they could maintain their accustomed oil consumption
from internal reserves was the goal.
National crude oil consumption was compared with the global total to determine
each country‘s percentage share. Their total energy consumption from all sources was
also determined and converted into Ton Oil Equivalents to attain a total energy
consumption figure. This was divided by their populations, so that a realistic comparison
of the total energy usage per capita of those countries could be made.
The ratio of each country‘s proven crude oil reserves to their rate of oil production
indicated the number of years for which those countries could expect to continue
producing crude oil from their own reserves, at their existing rates, if expense and
circumstances were no barrier. Of the hydrogen trialing countries, only the United Arab
Emirates and China could retain their turn of the century production rates for two
decades. China however is consuming oil at an ever increasing rate so their ratio is in fact
The final section of the poster illustrates countries in which major producers
distribute fuel hydrogen, with an example of a hydrogen transportation trial: The CUTE
(Clean Urban Transport for Europe) bus fleets in eleven major cities with widely
differing climates, geographic and demographic patterns.
The project used Microsoft Excel, ESRI ArcGIS 9.1 and Adobe Creative Suite.
Keywords: Hydrogen, Fuel, Oil Consumption
Zengwang Xu, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station,
TX 77843-3147. Spatial Dimensions of Complex Network Modeling.
The past several years has witnessed the explosive developments on the study of
complex networks and networked systems as a result of the emergence of the ―new
science of networks‖, in which the small-world network is one of the highlights and
major contributions. The small-world network has been discovered a ubiquitous feature
of many real-world networks, and considered a potential model for many real-world
complex systems. This study, with a focus on spatial dimensions, investigates the
manifestations and applications of the small-world characteristics among networks in
three different spaces in attempt to better understanding the complex networks in
geographical study. Initial results show that spatial clustering, distance effects, and
relation between local and global are significant to the spatial dimensions of complex
Keywords: Small-world networks, complex networks
Michael S. Yoder, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, TX 78401. Inland
Ports and Transportation Geography: Lessons From Two International Bridges in
the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.
The sub-discipline of geography concerned with ports and shipping has focused
almost entirely on maritime ports, particularly the largest around the globe. This literature
emphasizes such themes as the connection between a port and its ―hinterland‖ and how
changes in transportation technologies shape that relationship. It also examines the
overlapping of hinterlands in the era of post-Fordist capitalism, and the resulting
competition between two or more ports that serve particular economic regions.
Furthermore, the geography of ports examines the changing urban landscapes of port
cities as their connections to distant locales evolve. Such transformations occur in tandem
with increased flexibility in shipping technologies, including containerization and
telecommunications to streamline this important component of the global supply chain.
This paper argues that ―inland‖ ports, those that handle truck and rail traffic crossing
international borders, must be inserted into the literature on the geography of ports and
shipping. By examining Brownsville and Harlingen, Texas, two cities of the Lower Rio
Grande Valley that are each attempting to carve a niche in the crossing of goods between
the U.S. and Mexico, it considers the impacts of two recently-constructed international
bridges and their related infrastructure on the expanding suburban zones of the two cities.
It examines the nature of the planning and financing of each bridge and its infrastructure,
and describes the marketing of each bridge as components of transportation corridors to
enhance each city‘s participation in international trade.
Keywords: Geography of ports and shipping, inland ports, Texas--Lower Rio Grande
Hongbo Yu, Department of Geography, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK
74078. A 3D GIS Approach of Implementing the Space-time Prism Concept.
The space-time prism concept of time geography provides an effective approach
to delineating the spatial and temporal extent of activity opportunities that are available to
an individual under certain constraints. Researchers have been working on
operationalizing the space-time prism concept in GIS to facilitate accessibility studies
and travel behavior studies. Several GIS designs have been proposed and realized to
support the implementation of the space-time prism concept, but in a simplified two-
dimensional form. Without explicit representation of the time dimension, these GIS
designs cannot provide an effective presentation for the space-time prism concept with
full features. This study adopts a 3D (i.e., 2D space + 1D time) GIS framework and
attempts to provide a closer representation of Hagerstrand‘s space-time prism concept.
3D GIS representations of network-based prisms and other relevant components (e.g.,
forward cones and backward cones) are proposed in this study. Using customized VBA
program with ArcObjects, the proposed approach is realized in ArcGIS with a prototype
system. The prototype includes functions of calculating and visualizing 3D space-time
prisms and demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed design.
Keywords: geographic information system, space-time prism, 3D GIS