Introduction to a History of the Renaissance min sec spread

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					Chapter 1: Introduction to a History of the Renaissance (1 min 3 sec)
The Renaissance began in Italy in the 1300s and spread through Europe over the next 3 centuries;
''renaissance'' means ''rebirth''; during the Renaissance, there was a rebirth of interest in the
achievements of ancient Greece and Rome. (28 sec)
  Chapter 2: Influence of the Ancient World on the Renaissance (1 min 51 sec)
The Renaissance was shaped by the rediscovery of the writings of ancient Greece and Rome. (37 sec)
Renaissance Europe rediscovered the art, literature, philosophy, history and culture of the ancient
Greeks and Romans. (10 sec)
Society was changing during the Renaissance; people turned to the wisdom of ancient civilizations as
a model for how to live in the modern world. (11 sec)
People during the Renaissance used ancient writings as blueprints for action; campaigns of ancient
generals were thought to contain secrets of victory; Renaissance rulers used the history of ancient
rulers to guide them; the art and literature of the ancient world were used as models during the
Renaissance. (37 sec)
The rediscovery of the ancient world during the Renaissance began in Italy in the 1300s. (7 sec)
  Chapter 3: Renaissance Italy: Seeds of Rebirth (1 min 28 sec)
In the 1300s, the nation of Italy did not exist; Italy was a land of small, independent cities and states,
located in the heart of the greatest trading area of the day, the Mediterranean Sea; Italian cities like
Naples, Florence, Venice and Milan were at the crossroads for moving goods between Europe and the
rest of the world, and became very rich. (29 sec)
Italian merchant families during the Renaissance began to place a higher value on education; skills
with words and numbers were valuable assets in business and royal courts. (13 sec)
Rich Italian families often became rulers of their cities; the Medici family ruled Florence for hundreds
of years; Renaissance. (13 sec)
Rich Italian families like the Medici displayed their wealth and power by becoming patrons of the
arts, which sparked a brilliant period of artistic achievement during the Renaissance; people
throughout Europe began to study and imitate the works of Italian artists, writers and thinkers, which
spread Renaissance ideas across Europe. (27 sec)
  Chapter 4: Petrarch and Humanism during the Renaissance (3 min 28 sec)
Francesco Petrarca or Petrarch lived in Italy during the 1300s, when the Renaissance was getting
started. (22 sec)
Petrarch is famous as one of the greatest poets in the Italian language; during the Renaissance,
Petrarch was best known for launching the rediscovery of the ancient world. (12 sec)
As a schoolboy, Petrarch copied Latin classics to study the language; Petrarch thought the ancient
texts were beautifully written, and used them as a model for his own writing; Renaissance. (16 sec)
Petrarch thought of the ancient writers as members of his family; he lived in northern Italy until his
death; Renaissance. (37 sec)
Petrarch was an early humanist; humanism was the intellectual movement at the heart of the
Renaissance; humanists launched the rediscovery of antiquity; humanists wanted to equal and go
beyond the ancients. (43 sec)
Petrarch searched libraries to find forgotten manuscripts of ancient writings; he popularized these
writings; he died when he was 70. (24 sec)
Ancient architecture influenced the design of the Pazzi Chapel in Florence; Renaissance artists
adapted the style of ancient art and used subjects from ancient history and myths. (35 sec)
During the Renaissance, an explosion of creativity inspired by humanism and the rediscovery of the
ancient world spread across Europe. (11 sec)
  Chapter 5: The Effect of the Printing Press on the Renaissance (43 sec)
New ideas spread quickly during the Renaissance because of the invention of the printing press; in the
1450s, printers used moveable metal type to print books faster and cheaper than ever. (18 sec)
With the development of the printing press, the ideas of Petrarch and other humanists spread further
and faster during the Renaissance than in early days when books were copied by hand. (19 sec)
  Chapter 6: Renaissance Politics (1 min 2 sec)
The Renaissance was a time of political change; Renaissance rulers built fortifications to protect their
cities against war; the Renaissance was a time when rulers throughout Europe were struggling to
create strong, unified kingdoms. (30 sec)
Italy wasn't a single country during the early Renaissance; it was a collection of independent cities
and states; much of Europe was divided into small kingdoms in the 1300s; by the 1400s, rulers were
trying to strengthen their power and unify their nations. (21 sec)
  Chapter 7: Renaissance Monarchs (2 min 5 sec)
Renaissance monarchs unified their kingdoms through war, marriage, financial management and
ruthlessness. (9 sec)
The marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon began the unification of Spain; by 1492,
the African Muslims known as Moors living in Spain were defeated and all of Spain was united under
one government; Renaissance. (30 sec)
In France, Louis XI spent 20 years making himself more powerful than the French nobles; he added
to the territory of France and married his daughters to families who controlled important territories;
Renaissance. (24 sec)
France was unified under one king by the time Louis XI died in 1483; Renaissance. (12 sec)
In England, Henry VII became king in 1485 by ending a civil war, defeating a rival in battle, and
marrying a daughter of the same family; Renaissance. (19 sec)
To remain king, Henry VII eliminated potential enemies and built up the royal bank account through
taxing; Renaissance. (11 sec)
Through war, marriage, money management and ruthlessness, Renaissance monarchs of Spain,
France and England built wealthy and unified kingdoms. (12 sec)
  Chapter 8: Monarchs, Humanism and the Renaissance Church (2 min 44 sec)
The Renaissance was a time of change in religion; the Reformation turned one unified Church into
many churches. (27 sec)
Before the Reformation, the Christian majority in Western and Central Europe shared a common set
of beliefs and practices and one central church organization. (11 sec)
Before the Reformation, the Church was trying to raise money to cover its many costs, like hiring
armies, building great monuments and giving medical care to the poor. (23 sec)
For centuries, the Church had raised money by imposing taxes; once Renaissance monarchs became
more powerful, they wanted that tax revenue to build powerful kingdoms; the tension between
Renaissance kings and the Church set the stage for the Reformation. (21 sec)
Passion for history and the ancient world led the humanists to study the Bible in its original
languages, instead of using the Latin translation approved by the Church; the translation differed from
the original in several key areas; Renaissance. (33 sec)
The humanists' study of history convinced many that the Church had changed over time and had lost
touch with the true values of early Christians; Renaissance. (12 sec)
The Church seemed as powerful as ever, even as Renaissance Europe was on the brink of religious
upheaval. (11 sec)
In the early 1500s, Pope Leo X launched construction of St. Peter's and funded it through the sale of
indulgences; Renaissance. (20 sec)
  Chapter 9: Church Indulgences (1 min 4 sec)
According to Church teachings at the time of the Renaissance, Christians who died without fully
doing penance for their sins could go to heaven after they spent time in purgatory, where they would
suffer to complete repentance. (21 sec)
An indulgence was a certificate issued by the Pope that shortened the number of years in purgatory
and granted faster entry to heaven; Renaissance. (14 sec)
By 1500, Church officials were selling indulgences to raise money for the Church; to finance the
construction of St. Peter's, Pope Leo authorized the sale of more indulgences; Renaissance. (23 sec)
  Chapter 10: Martin Luther and the Reformation (4 min 24 sec)
In 1517, a friar and theology professor named Martin Luther protested the sale of indulgences;
Renaissance. (9 sec)
Martin Luther studied the work of Renaissance humanists and the Greek and Hebrew editions of the
Bible to determine if people were saved by their own faith, as Luther believed; if people didn't need
the actions of a priest or the Pope to gain salvation, then indulgences didn't work. (46 sec)
In 1517, Martin Luther drew up a list of 95 theses on the topic of indulgences; Renaissance. (51 sec)
Martin Luther hoped to reform the Church, which is why the movement is called the
Reformation. (10 sec)
Luther's challenge came at a time when monarchs wanted to weaken the authority of the Church and
the humanists had been encouraging people to think for themselves; the printing press flooded Europe
with arguments for and against Luther's challenge; more people than ever could read these arguments,
thanks to the Renaissance passion for education. (41 sec)
The Church eventually made some of the reforms Luther demanded, but initially tried to make Luther
recant; Luther refused; Renaissance. (53 sec)
Luther's challenge to the Church sparked a reform movement known as Protestantism, because it
began in protest to Church laws and practices; Renaissance. (21 sec)
The Protestant movement provided a basis for many new Protestant churches; Protestant churches
saw the Bible as the only source of truth; Christianity became a religion of many churches;
Renaissance. (30 sec)
  Chapter 11: Conclusion to a History of the Renaissance (57 sec)

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