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COMMUNICABLE DISEASE respiratory disease

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COMMUNICABLE DISEASE respiratory disease

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									                                       COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

A. Communicable diseases- Diseases that are spread from one person to another through
direct or indirect contact with an infected person.

I. Germs/ Microorganisms/ Pathogens- Tiny living creatures that cause disease.
      A. Bacteria- (treatment = antibiotics, rest, fluids)




        B. Virus- (vaccines to prevent virus, -no treatment for virus once you are
infected…medicines are used to relieve the symptoms)




              5. Viruses will only attack certain parts of the body – (highly specific
                  a. rabies virus will attack the brain
                  b. polio virus will attack the nerves system
                  c. chicken pox, mumps, and warts will attack the skin
                  d. cold/flu virus will attack respiratory system
                  e. HIV- will attack the immune system
              6. Antibiotics will have no affect on the virus

       C. Protozoa- (most are harmless)
              1. one-celled organism similar to animals
              2. grows in water
              3. multiples very quickly in moist places
              4. example- diarrhea, malaria
       D. Fungi- (all fungi are saprophytes- meaning they live off on non-living things)
              1. one-celled or multicelluar plants such as molds, yeast, & mushrooms
              2. live in warm moist places
              3. example- athlete’s foot and ringworm
B. IMMUNE SYSTEM- (Your body’s protection against pathogens)
I. Body’s 1st defense against communicable diseases- (non-specific resistance)
      A. Skin-

       B. Mucus Membrane-
            1. Produce mucus to trap harmful germs so they do not enter the body.

       C. Cilia-

II. Body’s 2nd defense against communicable diseases- (specific resistance)
       2. specific resistance- more in debt defense that kills and keeps records
               of pathogens.
       A. Fever- normal body temperature is 98.6. When microorganisms/pathogens get
       in your body, the microorganisms multiple quickly, this raises your temperature.
       The fever slows this process down.

       B. White blood cells-

       C. Chemicals Barriers-

       D. Reflexes-

III. Your Body’s Defense System- continued

       A. Immune Response System- When the immune systems attack and destroy
pathogens and substances that invade the body and causes diseases.

      B. Lymphocytes- types of WBC that travels along two networks. (blood and
lymphatic system)
                               4 types

           1. Killer T cells – attacking cells- Are sent to destroy or attack

           2. Helper Tcells – control the strength and quality of immune
           re s p o n s e

           3. B Cells –produce antibodies

           4. Macrophage- eat and send message “antigens” to B cells
IV. How white blood cells work
   1. Virus enters body system
   2. Macrophage- Bite virus and send antigen to B cells
   3. Helper T cells – act as messenger calling B cells
   4. B Cells – create antibody to protect body
             Virus can no longer invade body’s cells
             Kept on file – body has immunity
   5. Killer T Cells – destroy virus

 Antibodies and Antigens fit together like a lock and key

V. Active Immunity
         1. 2 t yp e s
            A. Natural – body gets disease & recovers
                       Recall immune response from previous illness
            B. Vaccination
                       Dead or weakened strain of virus injected into you
                       b o d y.
                       Body then destroys virus and creates antibodies against
            C. Antigen- foreign substance that invades the body
            D. Antibodies - are created by B-Cells

VI. Ways in which disease enters the body.
      4. break in skin

VII. How microorganisms are spread
             1.   Direct contact-
             2.   Indirect contact-
             3.   Contact with animals-
             4.   Other contact-

VIII. Prevention for communicable diseases
  a. Wash hand
  b. Cover mouth when sneezing or coughing.
  c . P ro p e r c a re o f f o o d
   d. Eat health and exercise
   e. Shower daily

IX. Common communicable diseases.
      1. cold- see handout
      2. Strep Throat- see handout
      3. Mononucleosis- see handout

        a. vaccine- keeps you safe from certain types of diseases by producing antibodies
        b. antibodies- produced by wbc they help fight diseases. When you become well
they stay with you.
        c. antigens- causes wbc to make antibodies - each diseases has its own antigens
“code” when the body detects the antigen it produces antibodies against the antigens.
        d. resistance- helps your body to protect itself against disease.
        e. symptoms- sign of disease.

X. Read Chain of Infection Article
                        NON-COMMINICABLE DISEASES
B. Non-communicable disease-
      a. diseases that can not be spread from one person to another
      b. they are not caused by microorganisms
      c. they can effect any system in the body- ie- circulatory, nervous, respiratory
      d. they can be treated but not cured
      e. no immunity to the disease

I. Causes of non-communicable diseases.
      a. Heredity- passed on from parent to child
              1. cystic fibrosis and down syndrome
              2. studies have shown that there are inherited tendencies
      b. Environment
              1. where you live or work may cause a noncommunicable disease.
      c. Lifestyle
              1. poor health habits- laying in the sun/tanning beds, smoking, drinking,
                  poor diet, lack of exercise, and emotional stress.

II. Preventing noncommunicable diseases
       a. a balanced diet
       b. regular exercise
       c. avoid tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs
       d. regular check ups can identify early warning of disease.

III. Common noncommunicable diseases
        a. Cancer-certain body cells reproduce so quickly that they crowd out the normal
cells. They prevent the body from working properly.

      b. Circulatory diseases- diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
          1. Hypertension- “high blood pressure” Increased pressure on the heart
          2. Athersclerosis- “hardening of the arteries” fatty deposits build up on the
          artery walls.
          3. Coronary heart disease- when the heart does not get enough oxygen.
          4. Heart attack- cells in the heart die.
          5. Stroke- cells in the brain die because the lack of oxygen.

       c. Respiratory diseases- diseases of the lungs and bronchial tubes that makes
breathing difficult.
           1. Asthma- occurs when tiny air tubes become narrow.
           2. Chronic bronchitis- occurs when the air tubes become irritated and
            3. Emphysema- occurs when the tiny air sacs become damaged as a result
               of constant cough.

       d. Allergies - means your body is sensitive to certain substances that other
people are not.

       e.   Diabetes - is caused by an inadequate production of insulin

       f. Arthritis- crippling disease of the joints.

       g. Neurological diseases- diseases that effect the nervous system.
          1. multiple sclerosis- disease that destroys the outer cover of the brain and
             spinal cord. It interferes with the messages getting to the muscles leaving
             the person with no muscle control.
          2. muscular dystrophy- inherited disease that effects muscle movements.
             Doctors know very little about the disease.
          3. Cerebral palsy- effects the part of the brain that causes movement.

1. _____ There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause diseases; bacteria, virus,
protozoa, and fungi?

2. _____ Microorganisms can be spread through direct or indirect contact?

3. _____ White blood cells (WBC) are cells that spread diseases through your body?

4. _____ A cold is not a communicable disease?

5. _____ A healthy person’s temperature is normally 91.6?

6. _____ Protozoa can only live in living things?

7. _____ A fungus causes athlete’s foot?

8. _____ Diseases sometimes enters the body through your ears?

9. _____ Mucous membranes are found in your mouth, nose and throat?

10 ._____ When you are immune to a disease you will become sick from it?

Short Answer

1. List two ways in which a disease can enter the body.

2. List two ways you can protect yourself against communicable diseases.
Fill in the blank Using the following words, fill in the blank spaces in the sentences.

Vaccines    toxin   antigens    antibodies   fever   outer defense

1. A doctor will give you a __________ to keep you from catching certain diseases.

2. Once an __________ enters your body, your body produces __________ to fight it.

3. A __________ is a poison created by certain types of diseases.

4. A thermometer will tell you if you have a __________.

5. Your skin is an example of your __________ against fighting disease.

EXTRA CREDIT Write the definitions for the following words

1. Cilia_______________________________________________________________

2. Skin________________________________________________________________

3. White blood cell_______________________________________________________
I. True or False (20 pts)
1._____ Noncommunicable diseases are diseases that spreads from person to person?
2._____ Chronic diseases are diseases that last for a very long time?
3._____ An example of a poor health habit is sun tanning?
4._____ Heredity is the passing of certain characteristics from parent to child?
5._____ Prevention is the best way to fight against noncommunicable diseases?
6._____ Cancer cells reproduce at a slower rate than normal cells?
7._____ Another name for atherosclerosis is “hardening of the arteries?”
8._____ Cholesterol is only found in animal products?
9._____ A heart attach occurs when cells in the heart die?
10.____ Respiratory diseases are diseases that effect the lungs?

II. Multiple choice/ word box(20 pts)
1._____ is a respiratory disease that occurs when the tiny air tubes in the lungs narrow?
2._____ Substances that cause allergies?
3._____ A doctor who treats people with allergies?
4._____ Diabetes is caused by the inadequate production of a certain chemical called?
5._____ is a crippling disease of the joints?
6._____ Disease of the nervous system are called?
7._____ A treatment for cancer?
8._____ This occurs when the cells in the brain die?
9._____ is a respiratory disease in which the tiny air sacs become damaged?
10_____ A factor leading to heart disease?


Heart attack    neurological disease insulin allergen       chemotherapy
Allergist       arthritis      emphysema smoking            stroke

       1. Name three circulatory diseases and explain how they effect the heart?(6 pts)


       2. Name two respiratory diseases and explain how they effect the body?(4 pts)



Draw a diagram of any of the following diseases --- atherosclerosis, asthma, or

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