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					Introduction to Robotics


  “Robot”s – A historical perspective
What is in a name?
How does one define ROBOT?

Oxford American Dictionary: A machine
capable of carrying out a complex series of
actions automatically, especially one
programmed by a computer


Merriam-Webster Dictionary: 1. A machine that looks and acts
like a human being. 2. An efficient but insensitive person. 3. A
device that automatically performs repetitive tasks. 4. Something
guided by automatic controls.
What is in a name?
The robot rage currently is BIOMIMICRY.
   Biomimicry is the study of nature’s designs and
   processes in search of inspiration for creating
   machines and process that solves human
   problems.
                       So does copying nature
                       DEFINE what robots are?
Robot Institute of America
RIA presents its definition of a robot as:
  A reprogrammable,
  multifunctional manipulator
  designed to move material, parts,
  tools, or specialized devices
  through various programmed
  functions for the performance ofa
  variety of tasks.
Japanese Industrial Robot
Association (JIRA)
JIRA’s chiefly concerned with industrial robots but
   has created a robot classification system.
 Manipulators (Manual, Sequential,
  Programmable)
 Numerically Controlled
 Sensate
 Adaptive
 Smart
 Intelligent mechantronic
Manipulators
 Manual – Machines slaved
  to a human operator
 Sequential – Device that
  perform a series of tasks
  in the same sequence
  every time they are
  activated. (Phone
  switching system)
 Programmable – An
  assembly line robotic arm
 Numerically Controlled
 These are also known as
  Playback robots.
   Robots that are instructed to
    perform tasks through the
    receipts of information on
    sequences and positions in the
    form of numerical data.
   These types of robots are
    often used to make precision
    machinery.
Sensate Robots
 Robots that incorporate
  senor feedback into their
  circuitry – touch sensors,
  proximity sensors, vision
  systems, and so forth.


 The HelpMate trackless robotic hospital courier uses sensors to
 deliver materials within a hospital or medical facility so that the
 staff can focus on patient care instead of running around taking
 care of errands. It includes laser scanners for object detection and
 touch bumper sensors for movement control.
 Adaptive Robots
 Robots that can change
  the way they function in
  response to their
  environment.
KASPAR (Kinesics and
                                       This program works with
Synchronization in Personal            children who are prevented
Assistant Robotics) is a child-sized   from playing, either due to
humanoid robot . This robot has        cognitive, developmental or
been used to investigate the           physical impairments which
possible use of robotic systems as     affect their playing skills, and is
therapeutic or educational tools to    investigating how robotic toys
encourage social interaction skills    can empower children with
                                       disabilities to discover the range
in children with Autism.
                                       of play styles from solitary to
                                       social and cooperative play.
Smart Robots
   Robots that are considered
    to possess Artificial
    Intelligence (AI). Whether
    or not AI exists is still
    debated.



Frontline and White Box Robotics has created a robots called
PC-BOT. The idea is based on collaboration. Teams of these
small robots can be used at factories, plants, & shopping malls.
The software is designed in layers where the first controls the
movement of the robot and its own sensor function which looks
for anomalies in its environment. Once an anomaly is detected a
second layer of programming has the team of robots
communicating, converging on location, sharing information,
and assigning a robot leader.
Intelligent-Mechatronic Systems
 “Mechatronics” a fancy
  word coined by the
  Japanese refers to the
  intersection of
  Mechanical/Electrical
  and computer control
  systems. It refers to
  “smart devices” that are
  embedded into systems
  already in place.
                               iLane™
      An intelligent, portable device that lets you control your
    smartphone using simple voice commands when you're inside
   your vehicle. Now you can open, listen to, and respond to email
            entirely hands-free simply by speaking aloud.
So how would you respond if you
were asked what is a robot?
   Carlo Bertocchini (Battlebots Champion) –”Deciding if a
    machine is or is not a robot is like trying to decide if a certain
    shade of greenish blue is truly blue or not blue”.
   Roger Gilbertson (owner of THE ROBOT STORE) – “I
    define a robot as any autonomous sensor-processor-actuator
    system that functions in a specific world.”
   Fred G. Martin ( professor of computer science a UMASS)
    – “The term „robot‟, while accurate, is too mentally confining.”
   Rodney Brooks (Director of MIT’s AI lab) – “A robot is a
    machine which senses the world, computes, and then decides
    on some action in the world which has a physical reach beyond
    itself.”
   Gordon McComb (amateur robotics guru) –” I can‟t really
    define robot. I just know one when I see it.”
So why the confusion?
Part of what constitutes a robot has to
  do with the many types of popular
  media which has led robots to infamy.
The term ROBOT comes to us from the Czech word , robota,
which means forced labor or servitude.

The term was first introduced in Karel Capek’s play R.U.R
(Rossum’s Universal Robots). Written in 1920, it centers around
a mad-scientist type who tries to usurp the powers of God by
proving that man has acquired the technology and intelligence
to create life.
R.U.R
In the play, Rossum’s industrialist
    nephew sees the artificial
    humans as the perfect worker,
    a tireless laborer who doesn’t
    complain, doesn’t need health
    insurance, and doesn’t demand
    a paycheck

  Karel himself didn’t coin the term
  robot but rather his brother, Josef.
  Prior to 1920, the term automaton
  was used.
Issac Asimov
 Throughout the 1940’s ,
  Issac, wrote many short
  stories depicting robots for
  various popular sci-fi
  magazines.
 In 1950, I-Robot was
  published.
 In 1942, he used the word
  Robotics in a short story
  called Runaround and is
  therefore credited as the
  author of the word.
Engleberger meets Devol
          In 1956, Joseph Engleberger, an
              aerospace engineer met George
              Devol, an inventor and
              entrepreneur, for cocktails. They
              discovered they both loved the
              stories of Asimov and sci-fi. Devol
              told Engleberger about a patent
              he was trying to get involving a
              programmable manipulator.
              Engleberger immediately saw the
              potential and founded
              UNIMATION with Devol, the
              worlds first robot maker.
UNIMATION
Universal Automation was
  born ad General Motors
  became the first company
  to install a UNIMATE in
  1962. The Unimate was a
  robotic arm used to
  extract hot parts from a
  die-casting machine, a
                             Significant moment in
  dangerous job for a        robot history #1
  human worker.
Dr. W. Grey Walter
 In 1948, Grey
  conducted some
  experiments on a
  mobile, autonomous
  robot. He was
  interested if they could
  model brain functions.
  He built 2 small robots
  he called tortoises and
  named them Elmer
  and Elsie. They were
  crude by today’s
  standards but a
  marvel of the day.
Elmer and Elsie
 The most revolutionary
  thing about Elmer and
  Elsie is that they didn’t
  have any brains or pre-
  programming. They had
  basic analog circuits, 2
  vacuum tubes, a touch       Significant moment in
  sensor, a light sensor,     robot history #2
  and they could even
  recharge their own
  batteries.
SRI’s Intelligent Robot
 In the late 1960’s, researchers
  at the Stanford Research
  Institute (SRI) began work on
  the first “intelligent robot”. The
  robot, named SHAKEY, was
  designed to be mobile and
  reason on it’s own. It was built
  on a 4 wheel base with 2 wheel
  drive. It had a tall camera,
  laser range finders, and a radio
  mast where it received
  information over a radio link
  from computers.
SHAKEY
    Shakey was the world first mobile,
     autonomous, & programmable robot
     in that its programming used 3
     layers.
1.   Basic moving, turning, and
     navigating.
2.   Information it strung together to
     build routines
3.   Receive instructions and plan the
     best course of action to execute the
     plan.
                                            Significant moment in
Problem: SHAKEY took TOO much time          robot history #3
    to contemplate the action needed
    (hours). When it finally moved it
    swayed and shaked to do its task.

				
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