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Mexican Migration


									Linkages between US and
     Latin America
      Lecture 8, Part III
         Geog 313
               Migration Network
1) Kinship

2) Friendship

3) Paisanaje

4) Voluntary Organization
 Characteristics of Migration Networks

1) Memory

2) Acquired new meaning

3) Develop over time

4) Materialized and defined migration network
• Important bases for migration social organization and
  family connections.

• Provides a safe environment for new and future immigrants.

• Family relationships relations- provide assistance,
  information, and services.
   – Father-son, brothers, uncle-nephews, cousins, etc.

• Kinship connection are reinforced through frequent
  interaction on important occasions. Ex. Wedding, baptism,
  quinceaneras, death, and births.
• Are networks created between individuals that grew up
  together, roughly the same age, and shared a formative
  experience (church or sports).

• In this network the assistances include: finding housing,
  jobs, pooling resources, and borrowing or loaning money.

• This type of network grows as new friends from different
  communities are formed through work, housing, and leisure

• Regional alliances within Mexico also favor the formation
  of friendships such from Jalisco or Zacatecas.
• Origin from the same place is not a meaningful basis of
  social organization for people while they are in their home

• It becomes meaningful when they encounter each other
  outside their home country.

• The strength of the paisanaje tie depends on the strangeness
  of the environment and the nature of the prior relationship.

• An example of this network is manifested through fiestas
  that celebrate a patron saint form their home country. Ex.
  Dia de los muertos.
            Voluntary Organizations
• This network provides mechanisms that facilitate the formation and
  maintenance of social ties.
• Voluntary associations created by migrants in the United States
   – regular interpersonal contact
   – greatly facilitating the process of adaptation and mutual assistance.
• Soccer is an example of this type of voluntary organization.
   – Create a space.
   – Focal point for social activities.
   – Establish new friendships with people from other places in
   – Help immigrants to establish or sometimes reintegrate into a
   – Social interaction
         Development of Networks
• Migration networks are valuable adaptive resources in a
  strange environment.

• The interaction of people, goods, and information
  circulation helps create linkages between the Mexico and
  the U.S.

• Connectivity increases as the quantity and quality of
  networks increases.

• “Social Capital” is created by migrant experiences and
  knowledge. Ex. where to cross and how to obtain jobs.

• As networks grow and mature, people’s participation in
  voluntary organizations increases.
Formation of Daughter Communities
• “Channelization” of immigrants occur as social networks
  focus increasingly on specific communities.
   – Migrants move to a particular place because that is where
     networks lead them and provide the greatest opportunity to

• “Daughter Communities” are permanent settlement
  communities in the United States with specific linkages to
  communities in Mexico.
   – Allow circular migration
   – Provide a permanent settlement.
   – Provide extensive links between the parent and daughter
   – Changes the Paisanaje networks as immigrants began marrying
     American or second generations immigrants.
•    Recent studies have focused on the three measures
     of integration of labor markets in the global
    1) The proportion of foreigners in the domestic workforce.
    2) The ratio of the domestic force in export-dependent
       industries and employed by domestic affiliates of
       foreign multi-national enterprises.
    3) Remittances that contribute to a home country’s GNP
       and provide it with valuable foreign exchange.

•    In this case, they propose using the ratio of
     remittances to gross domestic product (GDP) as an
     indicator of integration.
•    Studies of three remittances have often focused on three
    1.   The wealth- generating capacity of remittances through saving
         and investments.

    1.   The factors influencing their flow.

    2.   The effects of remittances in the recipient economies at the
         household level.

•    What studies have concluded about remittances is that
     they have important effects on
    –    economic growth
    –    trade
    –    the distribution of wealth in the home recipient country
    –    different patterns of economic behavior
• Latin America’s economy has become more
  integrated through trade and investments.

  –   North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  –   Southern Cone countries, (MERCOSUR).
  –   Latin American Free Trade Area (FTAA)
  –   Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)

• However, Remittances have emerged as the leading
  economic indicator with the most potential.
               Family Remittances
• Latin American migration to the U.S. in the 1970s
  and 1980s have created new linkages between
  –   Individual-individuals (family)
  –   Towns-towns (Hometown associations)
  –   Cities-cities
  –   Countries-countries (trade agreements)
  –   Regions-regions (CAFTA)

• Family remittances are currently one of the most
  important forms of linkage among emigrant Latinos
  and Latin America.
                Family Remittances
• Researchers have focused on two aspects of the
  globalization of remittances:
   – Scope (Stretching)- are the agents in the circular migration such as
     market intermediaries, governments, hometown associations,
     international groups, and individuals.

   – Intensity (Strengthen)- relates to the level of involvement of the
     previous agents in affecting the impact of remittances in the
     receiving country.

• In other words, the boundaries of spaces are stretched, and
  already existing networks are strengthened.
               Family Remittances
How important are remittances in Latin America?
• The volume of remittances began increasing in the 1980s.

• Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua
  remittances have increased from nearly $1 billion in 1980 to
  $3.7 billion in 1990 and over $10 billion dollars in 2000!!!!

• Just in Mexico alone, remittances increased from $800
  million in 1980, to $2.4 billion in 1990, and to $6.5 billion
  in 2000.

• In Mexico, remittances represents 10% of the total value of
  exports, nearly as much as tourism.
                     Family Remittances
How important are remittances in Latin America?
• Remittances in Latin America during 2002 increased by 17.6% reaching over $32

• Latin America is now the number one destination for remittances worldwide.

• Remittances to every L.A. country except Bolivia increased by 10% in 2002
    –   Colombia (28%),
    –   Jamaica (27%),
    –   Peru (24%),
    –   Guatemala (23%),
    –   Honduras (22%),
    –   Cuba (22%)
    –   Dominican Republic (16.9%)
    –   EL Salvador (15.4%)
    –   Nicaragua (15%)
    –   Haiti (15%)
    –   Ecuador (10%)
    –   Brazil (10%)
             Family Remittances
How important are remittances in Latin America?
• In Nicaragua remittances represent ¼ of the national

• In El Salvador remittances have exceeded the total
  value of exports.

• In Dominican Republic and Nicaragua, they
  represent half of the values of exports, and about 80
  percent of the value of foreign direct investment.
          Hometown Associations
What is the function of HTA?
• Hometown Associations (HTA) or transnational
  migrant organizations (TMOS) are formed among
  remittance senders to coordinate their support not
  only of relatives but also of their towns.

• In addition, to retain a sense of community as they
  adjust to life in the United States.

• Immigrants have formed community groups to
  maintain relationships with the home country or
  with local communities.
               Hometown Associations
•    HTA’s international activities can be described in five
    1.   Charity: Orientations range from charitable aid to investment.
         •   Include the donation of clothes
         •   Construction materials for various projects such as churches
         •   Small cash amounts to purchase goods for local activities.

    2. Infrastructure: raise money for improvements for hometown
         •   Streets
         •   Parks
         •   Build sewage treatment
         •   Water filtration plants
         •   Buy or maintain cemetery plots
         •   Health care facilities
               Hometown Associations
•    HTA’s international activities can be described in five groups:
    3.   Human development: these activities are orientated toward “human
         •   Scholarships
         •   Library books
         •   Health supplies
         •   Medicine
         •   Sports facilities
         •   Nursery homes
         •   Daycares
         •   Schools
         •   Communal soup kitchens

    4.   Investment: capital investment for income-generation projects managed by
         local community members and often supervised by immigrants.
         •   Co-ops
         •   Credit Unions

    5.   Other: General fundraising
         •   Soccer Games
               Hometown Associations
•    HTA’s international characteristics can be described in five
    1.   Activities: Orientations range from charitable aid to investment.
         •   Charity
         •   Infrastructure
         •   Human development
         •   Investment
         •   Other

    2.   Structure and links:
         •   Lack of strong organizational structure
         •   Lack of institutional counterpart in their home country.
         •   Membership is small
         •   Connection is through a local leader such as priest.

    3.   Relationships:
         •   Hierarchical: hometown associations communicate their counterparts what to do.
         •   Joint Cooperation: both parties in the home and host country organization
             communicate to define the agenda. Ex. Hurricane Mitch support in 1998
               Hometown Associations
•    HTA’s international characteristics can be described in
     five features:
    4.   Decision Making:
         •   Financial resources
         •   Relationship with home organizations
         •   Members preferences
         •   Organizational structure
         •   Goal and project might change over time
         •   Membership available time
         •   Needs of the town in the home country

    5. Financing:
         •   Small economic base
         •   Most raise less than ten thousand dollars on overage each year
         •   Money raised is sent in cash or materials.
Who are the players in the Industry?
• Banks- In El Salvador, charge less than $10 for almost any amount to be sent; but they do not
  have the same outreach capacity like Western Union.

•   Courier agencies- Western Union or MoneyGram.
     – In 1995, moreover 44 percent of money transactions through MoneyGram took place from the
       United States to Mexico.

     – In El Salvador, Western Union carries out to a minimum of 70,000 transactions a month worth an
       average of $300.

     – In the Dominican Republic, the minimum, thus likely controlling at least 20 percent of the flow of

     – These companies charge significant fees, ranging from 8 to 14% of the value of the remittance.

•   U.S. Postal Services- created its own delivery system offering a lower rate than Western
    Union or MoneyGram.

•   Hand deliver

•   Third party- encomenderos
Mexico         El Salvador   Nicaragua   Guatemala   Dominican

Dinero Seguro Gigante        Western     Gigante     Mateo
              Express        Union       Express     Express
Western       Leon           MTOM        Western     Western
Union         Express                    Union       Union
MoneyGram Western            Gigante     IRNet       Vimenca
              Union          Express
Wells Fargo    Banco         Nicaragua               La Nacional
               Agricola      Delivery
Bancomer       Bansal        Delivery                Pronto Envio

Raza Express   Bancomercio
  Remittances Agents-Host Country
• A money transfer business (one that can wire
  money to other countries) such as Seven-eleven.

• The transfer institution collects a fee.

• Transfer institutions make a profit on the
   – fee
   – commission
   – foreign exchange differential.
Remittances-Host Country
 Remittances Agents- Home Country
• Money transfer agencies establish agreements with agent-distributions
  in Latin America in order to ensure coverage and efficiency on the
  receiving end.

• Commercial banks are one, if not the only, key player in a given
  market because their financial operations cover large areas and meet
  regulatory requirements.

• In the case of Mexico, the largest distributing agents are large banks,
  such as Banamex, BBVA-Bancomer, HSBC, and BanNorte.

• In Central America, Airpak, works exclusively for Western Union.

• Grace Kennedy is Western Union’s exclusive English Caribbean
 Remittances Agents- Home Country
• Recipient country distributors: also play a key
  role in the remittances.

• Distributors have made agreements with more than
  one company.

• Agents must compete to attract companies to utilize
  their networks, in so they influence the price.

• If they increase the fees it would affect the sender.
Remittances Agents- Home Country
• Banks: play a direct and indirect role in money
  – Function as agents
  – Serve as intermediaries
  – Operate as depositories for the money transfer companies
    and distributors agents

• Banks also charge fees to keep money by the
  company or distributors agents.

• Can control prices, fees, and exchange rates.
What is the role of government as a player in the remittances?
• As remittances become a more stable source of income for Latin
  America, its governments are finding ways to attract more of these

• Governments are making policies to address the cost reduction in
  remittance transfers

• Create an attractive economic environment for various kinds of
  migrant funds.

• Central Banks in Guatemala and El Salvador have regulations that are
  liberal on import duties.
   – Salvadorans are allowed to bring up to $1500 worth of
   – Guatemalans are permitted to bring up to $2000 into the country
      without duty.
What is the role of government as a player in the remittances?

• Other countries have attempted to require that a certain
  percentage of the earnings of their workers abroad can be
  deposited into a national fund.

• Former U.S. Ambassador William Stixrud has suggested
  that Guatemalan emigrants put up the equivalent of 10
  percent of the value of remittances for private investment.

• The Ambassador argues for the implementation of such a
  fund with the assistance of emigrants, the government, and
  international development organizations.
What is the role of government as a player in the remittances?
• Sending-country governments can also stimulate remittances by helping
  emigrant groups to develop migrant associations.

•   The Mexican gov’t has had formal outreach programs since 1990.

• The federal programs include the Paisano program and the Mexican
  Communities Living Abroad (PCMLA) program.

• The PCMLA operates through the network of 42 consulates and 23
  institutes or Mexican cultural centers in the U.S.

• President Fox in 2000, created a new executive-branch office to interact
  more vigorously with Mexicans in the U.S. and attract their resources.

• By late 1998, four hundred clubs were operating throughout the U.S.,
  although most were in Los Angeles and Dallas.
What are other programs established to trap the
• Remittance bonds:

• Joint Ventures:

• Matching funds:

• Economic development funds:

• What do you think the countries should do with the
Latino Presence in The United States

              Geog 313
              Lecture 7
• Barrioization (external processes): seeks to explain the formation of
  barrios as an experience of a less-advantaged Latino population
  staking out a territory which is then overwhelmed by urban
  diseconomies-poverty, crime, negative lands uses, etc.

• Barriology (internal processes): describes the process by which
  Latinos began to reassert control over their neighborhoods through
  acquisition of political power, mastery of the process of urban
  planning, and the use of art and muralism to create identity.

• Globalization: Anthony Gidden defines it as
  “the intensification (networks) of worldwide social relations which
  link distant localities (spaces) in such way that local happenings are
  shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa (circular
  migration)” (1990:64).
Barrioization (1900-1945): In Southern California and parts of
    the Southwest.

What forces were at work?
   1.   Increased migration
   2.   Expansion of cities
   3.   Increased segregation by Chicanos into less desirable parts of the
   4.   Land values increased
   5.   Enclaves of cheap rental housing formed around undesirable
        land in the city. Ex. Railroads, etc.
   6.   Immigrants settling near ethnic neighborhoods or enclaves.
   7.   Urban development (1950-1960)- land was seized to build
        factories, freeways, and bridges.
Barriology began with the creation of symbolic activities– parades, holiday festivities,
   and cultural events as a response to mass deportations and the great depression of
   the 1930s.

Barriology represents a kind of collective decision to find ways to Mexicanize the bland
   spaces that had become home to the Chicano population.

1) In Los Angeles, activists fought to protect the Oregon and Elysian Parks.

2) In other cities in the Southwest “Chicano Parks” were created in Mexican-American

3) Mexican American cultural centers were created in Balboa Park, San Diego.

4) Murals were painted that transformed ugly space into powerful expressions of
   Mexican-American identity.

5) Demonstrations were organized to protect a space near an under bridge that was
   going to be transformed into a police sub-station and a parking lot.
• Today, Mexican murals cover the pillars and each Spring, a special Chicano Day
   celebration takes place to honor the community’s struggle to create this importance
• The borderlands, especially in the Southwest U.S. border region is a globalized

• The proximity to Mexico accelerates the socio-economic integration between the
  two countries.

• NAFTA created an institutional affirmation of the process of globalization.
    – How?

• Maquiladoras with ties to U.S. capital and to Mexican labor.

• San Diego, California is an important example of a globalizing region.

• Some 3 million people reside in the San Diego region, and about 500,000 are Latino.

• Combined with 2 Mexicanos in Tijuana-Rosario-Ensenada.

• The result is a geographical area with 2.5 Latinos/Mexicans out a population of 5
• Joint-venture capital is now moving free back and forth across the border.

• Assembly plants exist on both sides of the border.

• Cultural events are a weekly occurrence as part of the cross-border tourism industry.

•   Identity has been affected by the increased interaction.

• Traditionally Mexicans immigrants to the United States were looked upon by
  Mexican citizens as pochos.

• Pochos, are people who abandoned the homeland and lost their cultural identity with
  Mexico while falling into a stage of marginality in the host nation.

• Pochos, in Mexico were forgotten citizens and in the United States were not even

• However, by 1980 Mexico discovered the political and economic value of
  maintaining relations with its more than ten million brothers in the U.S.
    Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
1. Barriers

2. Recaptured Space

3. Global Tourism

4. Consumerism

5. Post-NAFTA Housing

6. Invented Connections
        Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
1. Globalization imposes new hierarchies on the cities such
   as barriers:

•    The city will grow in function of corporate machines like
     skyscrapers, freeways, and mega-shopping malls.

•    Exogenous actors will have big impacts in the Barrio;
    –    global investors
    –   national government
    –   corporations
    –   large-scale commercial developers
         Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
What are the barriers in San Diego?
•    In the case of San Diego the barriers that have been constructed have been
   –     They are fundamental to the mobile lifestyle of the region but hamper the
   –     For example, I-5 and I-805 freeways and on/off ramps cut across the heart of
         the Barrio Logan.

•       Mega-shopping malls- help destroy the sense of place in a “neighborhood” or

•       Facilities super-imposed by the federal government on the Ysidro community
        such as fences and walls along the international community.
    –      The San Diego-Tijuana wall is 47 miles long and built from metal recycled in the
           Persian Gulf war.
    –      A second wall has been constructed which contains 18 foot concrete pilling topped
           with metal mesh screens and an experimental cantilevered wire mesh-style fence.
    –      The fence/walls runs into the Pacific Ocean.
    –      The zone is buttressed by six miles of stadium lights, twelve hundred seismic sensors
           and numerous infrared sensors used to detect movement
    –      Detention center: immigration detention facility sited in the heart of San Ysidro.
   The overall effect of the landscape is to render the San Ysidro
    border space into a “war zone.”

                   Journey to the USA


                    Gangs vs. Minuteman
     Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
2. Recaptured Space:
• Both Barrio Logan and San Ysidro began to fight back as
  early as the 1970s.

• In the late 1970s when a police station was going to be build
  under the bridge in the barrio.

• Residents erupted in mass protest and occupied the land
  under the bridge.

• Began spontaneously building a community park.

• The city of San Diego agreed to give the land to the
  community, thus Chicano Park was born.
          Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
2.       Recaptured Space:
•        Also, the resistance was a global phenomenon
     –      Chicano artist and architects began to cross the border and participate in the
            rebuilding of the barrio during the 1970-1980s;
     –      with the statewide coalition of Chicano and Mexican artists;
     –      Combined the community and redesigned the space under the bridge by
            painting giant murals on the pillars of the Coronado Bridge.

•        The Chicano Park became a kind of international landmark for the
         use of murals as a form of
     –      community process
     –      Cultural identity

•        Murals on the pillars of the bridge made visual reference to the
         Mexican history, Latin American, and American history.
          Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
2.       Recaptured Space:
•        Redevelopment plan seeks to erase the negative imagery imposed by the federal
         government and recapture the space for local residents.

•        International border zones like San Ysidro can no longer be thought of merely as
         buffer spaces or defensive edges.

•        Nations need to understand the buffer zones can house people, industry, trade
         infrastructure, and other economic activities.

•        34 million vehicles and over 7 million pedestrians cross the gate each year.

•        But the port of entry and surrounding zone on both sides of the border are
         fragmented by a variety of land use and design problems.
     –      Traffic congestions
     –      Poor circulations routes
     –      Disorganized land uses
     –      Conflicts between local interests
     –      Crime
     –      Public safety
     –      Unresolved land development plans
      Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
3. Global Tourism
• An experiment to create a Mexican Disneyland just across the border
   in Tijuana failed.

• Barrio Logan have never been major destinations in the San Diego

• It could never rival the big-ticket tourism destinations like Seaworld,
  San Diego Zoo, and Old Town.

• What to promote in Barrio Logan?
   – City of San Diego is promoting Latin Cultural heritages sites as part of the
     tourism in the San Diego region.
   – Promote the murals, Chicano Parks, and other Latino businesses.

   – San Ysidro has never been a tourism destination, but rather a gateway into
   – A local group wants to build a Museum of Immigration.
       Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
4. Global Consumerism
• The culture of shopping malls and a fast-food consumerist culture is
   part of the globalization of the border.

• Barrio Logan neighborhood historically has been deprived of any
  significant commercials sites, like..

• Latino developers recognize this gap and have located a new
  commercial space to be named the Mercado Shopping Center.

• One of the challenges for the project is in Barrio Logan:
   –   How to create a neighborhood design and architecture,
   –   Respect the Mexican/Latino qualities of the barrio (murals, parks, gardens),
   –   Make it pedestrian friendly
   –   Securing loans
         Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
4. Global Consumerism
• In San Ysidro, the community faces a massive shift toward the construction of retail malls
    and shopping centers

•   to capture the large market of Mexicans consumers and visitors passing through the region.

•   The first new shopping mall, Las Americas, built literally adjacent to the international
    boundary line on the edge of San Ysidro.

•   Las Americas is a three-phase, mixed-use, retail-office complex located ¼ mile west of the
    San Ysidro-Tijuana border crossing.

•   Phase I is 375,000 sq ft. of open-air retail and restaurant space.

•   Phase II will add another 270,000 sq ft. of retail and restaurant space

•   Phase III is expected to add a pedestrian bridge to Tijuana,
     –   new-port-of-entry facility
     –   A transit center
     –   Hotel
     –   Conference building
     –   Office space
     –   More retail space
    Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
4. Global Consumerism
• What are some problems with this development?
  – The project is entirely based to automobiles

  – There is no sense of public space.
     • Private security teams patrol the shopping mall.

  – The project is called a “mixed” use. There is no
    residential space on the site.
      Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
5. Post-NAFTA housing
• Because of the escalating housing prices, Latino Barrios have been
   forced to seek innovative approaches to affordable housing.

• Various local and state groups designed affordable housing units in a
  high-density, but well crafted, residential complex called Mercado

• Mercado Apartments were designed with elements that would
  maintain the identity of Barrio Logan such as:

   – First, Bright colors of the façade of the buildings to conform with the Mexican
     tradition of bright colors in urban setting.
   – Second, The architectural style of the complex was deliberately chosen to be
     similar to the simple “pueblo-adobe” style.
   – Third, the building was intentionally not set back from the street, and it
     incorporates patios and balconies facing the street.
    Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
6) Invented Connections
• San Diego-Tijuana Trolley

• New Ballpark

• The San Ysidro Trolley

• Las Americas Mall pedestrian bridge

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