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Method For Extending The Life Of Hydroprocessing Catalyst - Patent 5589057

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Method For Extending The Life Of Hydroprocessing Catalyst - Patent 5589057 Powered By Docstoc
					


United States Patent: 5589057


































 
( 1 of 1 )



	United States Patent 
	5,589,057



 Trimble
,   et al.

 
December 31, 1996




 Method for extending the life of hydroprocessing catalyst



Abstract

This invention makes possible substantially continuous flow of uniformly
     distributed hydrogen and hydrocarbon liquid across a densely packed
     catalyst bed to fill substantially the entire volume of a reactor vessel
     by introducing the fluids as alternate annular rings of gas and liquid
     (i.e. a mixture of liquid hydrocarbon and a hydrogen-containing gas) at a
     rate insufficient to levitate or ebullate the catalyst bed. Catalyst are
     selected by density, shape and size at a design feed rate of liquids and
     gas to prevent ebullation of the packed bed at the design feed rates. The
     liquid and gas components of the hydrocarbon feed flow into the catalyst
     bed from concentric annular rings that are coaxial with the catalyst bed.
     At the desired hydrocarbon flow rate, such catalyst bed continually flows
     in a plug-like manner downwardly through the reactor vessel. Catalyst is
     removed on a periodic or semicontinuous basis by laminarly flowing
     catalyst particles in a liquid stream out of the bottom of the catalyst
     bed. Intake for such flow is out of direct contact with the stream of gas
     and hydrocarbon liquid flowing through the catalyst bed. The removed
     catalyst is introduced into a high pressure vessel for classification into
     high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and low-activity more
     dense catalytic particulates. The high-activity less dense catalytic
     particulates are separated in the high pressure vessel from the
     low-activity more dense catalytic particulates, and are subsequently mixed
     with fresh catalyst and returned to the reactor vessel.


 
Inventors: 
 Trimble; Harold J. (Hercules, CA), Darsow; Brian A. (St. Louis Park, MN) 
 Assignee:


Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
 (San Francisco, 
CA)





Appl. No.:
                    
 08/342,527
  
Filed:
                      
  November 21, 1994

 Related U.S. Patent Documents   
 

Application NumberFiling DatePatent NumberIssue Date
 235043Apr., 1994
 215254Mar., 19945409598
 14847Apr., 1993
 727656Jul., 1991
 381948Jul., 19895076908Dec., 1991
 

 



  
Current U.S. Class:
  208/148  ; 208/152; 208/158; 208/160; 208/164; 208/166; 208/172; 208/176
  
Current International Class: 
  C10G 49/00&nbsp(20060101); C10G 49/14&nbsp(20060101); B01J 8/18&nbsp(20060101); B01J 8/08&nbsp(20060101); B01J 8/00&nbsp(20060101); B01J 8/20&nbsp(20060101); B01J 8/12&nbsp(20060101); B01J 8/22&nbsp(20060101); C10G 035/00&nbsp()
  
Field of Search: 
  
  








 208/148,158,160,164,166,172,176,152 502/21
  

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Notestein



 Foreign Patent Documents
 
 
 
1217756
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CA

1550285
Aug., 1979
GB



   Primary Examiner:  Pal; Asok


  Assistant Examiner:  Yildirim; Bekir L.


  Attorney, Agent or Firm: Klaassen; A. W.
DeYoung; J. J.
Carpenter; J. W.



Parent Case Text



This is a continuation-in-part application of application Ser. No.
     08/235,043, filed Apr. 29, 1994, now abandoned, which application is a
     continuation-in-part application of application Ser. No. 08/215,254, filed
     Mar. 21, 1994, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,409,598, which application is a
     continuation application of application entitled "APPARATUS FOR AN
     ON-STREAM PARTICLE REPLACEMENT SYSTEM FOR COUNTERCURRENT CONTACT OF A GAS
     AND LIQUID FEED STREAM WITH A PACKED BED" having Ser. No. 08/014,847,
     filed Apr. 1, 1993, now abandoned; which application is a continuation
     application of application entitled "METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR AN ON-STREAM
     PARTICLE REPLACEMENT SYSTEM FOR COUNTERCURRENT CONTACT OF A GAS AND LIQUID
     FEED STREAM WITH A PACKED BED" having Ser. No. 07/727,656, filed Jul. 9,
     1991, now abandoned. The application having Ser. No. 07/727,656, filed
     Jul. 9, 1991 is a divisional application of application Ser. No.
     07/381,948, filed Jul. 19, 1989, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,076,908 dated Dec.
     31, 1991. Benefit of the earliest filing date is claimed, especially with
     respect to all common subject matter. All of the foregoing U.S. patents
     (i.e. U.S. Pat. No. 5,076,908) are incorporated herein by reference
     thereto as if repeated verbatim herein.

Claims  

We claim:

1.  A method for reducing the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading a hydrocarbon feed stream to essentially the same degree as or when compared to the quantity of
hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading the hydrocarbon feed stream in a once through hydroprocessing catalyst replacement mode, comprising the steps of:


(a) withdrawing a volume of particulate catalyst from a hydroconversion reaction zone including a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst having an initially packed bed volume and which is essentially plug-flowing downwardly in the
hydroconversion reaction zone and wherein said withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst includes a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(b) separating in a separation zone said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(c) admixing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture having a mixture volume that is less than the withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst;  and


(d) introducing said catalytic mixture of step (c) into said hydroconversion reaction zone of step (a) such that said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst which is essentially plugflowing downwardly in said hydroconversion
reaction zone of step (a), has a subsequent packed bed volume that is less than the initially packed bed volume.


2.  The method of claim 1 additionally comprising repeating steps (a) through (d).


3.  The method of claim 1 wherein said step (a) withdrawing a volume of particulate catalyst comprises withdrawing said volume of particulate catalyst from said hydroconversion reaction zone in a hydrocarbon feed stream that is intended to upflow
in said hydroconversion reaction zone into said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst which is essentially plug-flowing downwardly in said hydroconversion reaction zone.


4.  The method of claim 3 wherein said step (b) separating said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates comprises introducing into said separation zone said volume of particulate
catalyst and said hydrocarbon feed stream that is intended to upflow in said hydroconversion reaction zone into said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst;  washing said hydrocarbon feed stream off of said volume of particulate catalyst
with a flushing hydrocarbon liquid;  injecting a gaseous material as a fluidizing medium into said volume of particulate catalyst in said flushing hydrocarbon liquid in order to form an expanded fluidized bed having an expanded volume ranging from about
1.1 to about 5.0 times a volume of said volume of particulate catalyst in a packed bed state;  terminating said injecting of said gaseous material into said volume of particulate catalyst in said flushing hydrocarbon liquid, resulting in said expanded
fluidized bed settling into said packed bed state which comprises a lower volumetric layer containing said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates and an upper volumetric layer containing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates, and
resting on and being supported by said lower volumetric layer;  and removing from said separation zone said lower volumetric layer containing said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates.


5.  The method of claim 3 wherein said step (b) separating of said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates comprises introducing into said separation zone said volume of particulate
catalyst and said hydrocarbon feed stream that is intended to upflow in said hydroconversion reaction zone into said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst;  removing in said separation zone said hydrocarbon feed stream from said volume of
particulate catalyst with a hydrocarbon liquid;  mixing said hydrocarbon liquid with said volume of particulate catalyst that has had said hydrocarbon feed stream removed therefrom to produce a hydrocarbon mixture containing said volume of particulate
catalyst and said hydrocarbon liquid;  injecting a gaseous material as a fluidizing medium into said volume of particulate catalyst in said hydrocarbon liquid in order to form an expanded fluidized bed having an expanded volume ranging from about 1.1 to
about 5.0 times a volume of said volume of particulate catalyst in a packed bed state;  terminating said injecting of said gaseous material into said hydrocarbon mixture containing said volume of particulate catalyst and said hydrocarbon liquid,
resulting in said expanded fluidized bed settling into said packed bed state which comprises a lower volumetric layer containing said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates and an upper volumetric layer containing said high-activity less dense
catalytic particulates, and resting on and being supported by said lower volumetric layer;  and removing from said separation zone said lower volumetric layer containing said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates.


6.  The method of claim 4 additionally comprising operating said separation zone, for said step (b) separating said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates, under operating
temperatures and pressures such that said flushing hydrocarbon liquid remains in a liquid state and said gaseous material remains in a vapor state.


7.  The method of claim 5 additionally comprising operating said separation zone, for said step (b) separating said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates, under operating
temperatures and pressures such that said hydrocarbon liquid remains in a liquid state and said gaseous material remains in a vapor state.


8.  The method of claim 1 wherein said step (c) admixing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture comprises mixing said fresh catalytic particulates with said
high-activity less dense catalytic particulates without regenerating said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates before mixing with said fresh catalytic particulates.


9.  The method of claim 1 wherein said step (c) admixing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture comprises mixing said fresh catalytic particulates with said
high-activity less dense catalytic particulates without rejuvenating said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates before mixing with said fresh catalytic particulates.


10.  A method for separating high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from low-activity more dense catalytic particulates from a hydroconversion reaction zone comprising the steps of:


(a) withdrawing from a hydroconversion reaction zone a volume of particulate catalyst in a hydrocarbon feed stream, wherein said volume of particulate catalyst includes a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a low-activity more
dense catalytic particulates;


(b) introducing into a separation zone said volume of particulate catalyst and said hydrocarbon feed stream;


(c) removing in said separation zone said hydrocarbon feed stream from said volume of particulate catalyst;


(d) mixing a hydrocarbon liquid with said volume of particulate catalyst that has had said hydrocarbon feed stream removed therefrom to produce a hydrocarbon mixture having said hydrocarbon liquid containing said volume of particulate catalyst;


(e) injecting a gaseous material as a fluidizing medium into said hydrocarbon liquid containing said volume of particulate catalyst in order to form an expanded fluidized bed having an expanded volume;


(f) terminating said injecting of said gaseous material into said hydrocarbon liquid containing said volume of particulate catalyst, resulting in said expanded fluidized bed settling into said packed bed state which comprises a lower volumetric
layer containing said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates and an upper volumetric layer containing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates, and resting on and being supported by said lower volumetric layer;  and


(g) removing from said separation zone said lower volumetric layer containing said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates, resulting in said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates being separated from said low-activity more dense
catalytic particulates from said hydroconversion reaction zone.


11.  The method of claim 10 additionally comprising operating said separation zone of step (b) under operating temperatures and pressures such that said hydrocarbon liquid remains in a liquid state and said gaseous material remains in a vapor
state.


12.  The method of claim 11 additionally comprising admixing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture.


13.  The method of claim 12 wherein said admixing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture comprises mixing said fresh catalytic particulates with said high-activity
less dense catalytic particulates in said separation zone and without regenerating said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates before mixing with said fresh catalytic particulates.


14.  The method of claim 12 wherein said admixing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture comprises mixing said fresh catalytic particulates with said high-activity
less dense catalytic particulates in said separation zone and without rejuvenating said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates before mixing with said fresh catalytic particulates.


15.  A method for hydroprocessing a hydrocarbon feed stream that is upflowing through a hydroconversion reaction zone having a substantially packed bed of catalyst comprising the steps of:


(a) forming a plurality of annular mixture zones under a hydroconversion reaction zone having a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst such that each of said annular mixture zones contains a hydrocarbon feed stream having a liquid
component and a hydrogen-containing gas component and wherein said annular mixture zones are concentric with respect to each other and are coaxial with respect to said hydroconversion reaction zone;


(b) introducing said hydrocarbon feed stream from each of said annular mixture zones of step (a) into said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst to commence upflowing of said hydrocarbon feed stream from each of said annular
mixture zones through said substantially packed bed of the catalyst and to produce a volume of particulate catalyst in said hydroconversion reaction zone having a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a low-activity more dense catalytic
particulates;


(c) withdrawing said volume of particulate catalyst from said hydroconversion reaction zone to commence essentially plug-flowing downwardly said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst within said hydroconversion reaction zone;


(d) separating in a separation zone said high activity less dense catalytic particulates from said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(e) admixing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture;  and


(f) introducing said catalytic mixture of step (e) into said hydroconversion reaction zone of step (a).


16.  The method of claim 15 wherein said step (a) forming a plurality of annular mixture zones under a hydroconversion reaction zone having a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst additionally comprises forming said plurality of
annular mixture zones with at least one means for reducing a size of a hydrogen-containing gas bubble from said hydrogen-containing gas component of said hydrocarbon feed stream.


17.  The method of claim 15 wherein said step (a) forming a plurality of annular mixture zones under a hydroconversion reaction zone having a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst additionally comprises forming each of said
plurality of annular mixture zones to comprise a generally uniform thickness ranging from about 1 inch to about 4 feet.


18.  The method of claim 15 wherein said step (b) introducing said hydrocarbon feed stream from each of said annular mixture zones of step (a) into said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst comprises flowing upwardly said
hydrocarbon feed stream from each of said annular mixture zones of step (a) into said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst at a rate of flow such that said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst expands to less than 10% by
length beyond a substantially full axial length of said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst in a packed bed state.


19.  The method of claim 16 wherein said step (b) introducing said hydrocarbon feed stream from each of said annular mixture zones of step (a) into said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst comprises flowing upwardly said
hydrocarbon feed stream from each of said annular mixture zones of step (a) into said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst at a rate of flow such that said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst expands to less than 10% by
length beyond a substantially full axial length of said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst in a packed bed state.


20.  A method for maximally occupying a reactor zone with a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst during hydroprocessing by contacting the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst with an upflowing hydrocarbon feed
stream having a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component comprising the steps of:


(a) disposing a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst in a reactor zone having a reactor volume such that said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst occupies at least about 50% by volume of said reactor volume;


(b) upflowing into said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst a hydroprocessing feed stream including a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component and having a rate of flow such that said substantially packed bed of
hydroprocessing catalyst expands to less than 10% by length beyond a substantially full axial length of said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst in a packed bed state;


(c) withdrawing a volume of said hydroprocessing catalyst from said reactor zone to commence essentially plug-flowing downwardly of said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst within said reactor zone, and wherein said withdrawn
volume of particulate catalyst includes a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(d) separating in a separation zone said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(e) admixing said high activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a hydroprocessing replacement catalyst;  and


(f) adding said hydroprocessing replacement catalyst to said essentially plug-flowing downwardly, substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst of step (c) at a rate to substantially replace said volume of said hydroprocessing catalyst of
step (c).


21.  The method of claim 20 additionally comprising repeating steps (b)-(d).


22.  The method of claim 20 additionally comprising forming, prior to said step (b) upflowing into said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst a hydroprocessing feed stream, a plurality of annular mixture zones under said
substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst such that each of said annular mixture zones contains said hydrocarbon feed stream and wherein said annular mixture zones are concentric with respect to each other and are coaxial with respect to said
reactor zone.


23.  The method of claim 22 wherein said step (b) upflowing into said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst a hydroprocessing feed stream comprises upflowing said hydrocarbon feed stream from each of said annular mixture zones into
said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst.


24.  A method for increasing the activity level of catalytic particulates in a lower reaction zone of a catalyst bed during hydroprocessing by contacting the catalyst bed in a hydroconversion reaction zone with an upflowing hydrocarbon feed
stream having a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component, comprising the steps of:


(a) disposing a plurality of catalytic particulates in a hydroconversion reaction zone to form a catalyst bed having at least one upper reaction zone and at least one lower reaction zone;


(b) upflowing into said catalyst bed of step (a) a hydrocarbon feed stream having a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component, until steady-state conditions have been essentially reached and said catalytic particulates in said
upper reaction zone have an upper activity level and said catalytic particulates in said lower reaction zone have a lower activity level differing from said upper activity level;


(c) withdrawing a volume of particulate catalyst from said lower reaction zone in said hydroconversion reaction zone, wherein said withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst includes a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a
low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(d) separating in a separation zone said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(e) admixing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture;


(f) introducing said catalytic mixture of step (e) into said hydroconversion reaction zone of step (a);  and


repeating steps (c) through (f) until steady-state conditions have been essentially reached and catalytic particulates in said lower reaction zone of said catalyst bed have an activity level that is greater than said lower activity level of step
(b).


25.  A method for increasing upgrading capabilities of hydroprocessing catalyst in a substantially packed bed of catalyst downwardly moving in a hydroconversion reaction zone during hydroprocessing by contacting the hydroprocessing catalyst in
the hydroconversion reaction zone with an upflowing hydrocarbon feed steam having a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component, comprising the steps of:


(a) withdrawing a volume of particulate catalyst from a hydroconversion reaction zone having a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst which is essentially plug-flowing downwardly in the hydroconversion reaction zone and wherein said
withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst includes a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(b) separating in a separation zone said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(c) admixing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture;  and


(d) introducing said catalytic mixture of step (c) into said hydroconversion reaction zone of step (a) for increasing upgrading capabilities of said hydroprocessing catalyst in said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst which is
essentially plug-flowing downwardly in said hydroconversion reaction zone of step (a).


26.  A method for increasing demetallizing capabilities of hydroprocessing catalyst in a substantially packed bed of catalyst downwardly moving in a hydroconversion reaction zone during hydroprocessing by contacting the hydroprocessing catalyst
in the hydroconversion reaction zone with an upflowing hydrocarbon feed steam having a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component, comprising the steps of:


(a) withdrawing a volume of particulate catalyst from a hydroconversion reaction zone having a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst which is essentially plug-flowing downwardly in the hydroconversion reaction zone and wherein said
withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst includes a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(b) separating in a separation zone said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(c) admixing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture;  and


(d) introducing said catalytic mixture of step (c) into said hydroconversion reaction zone of step (a) for increasing demetallizing capabilities of said hydroprocessing catalyst in said substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst which
is essentially plug-flowing downwardly in said hydroconversion reaction zone of step (a).  Description  

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


1.  Field of the Invention


The present invention relates to a method for reducing the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading (e.g. demetallizing) a hydrocarbon feed stream to essentially the same degree as and/or when compared to the quantity of
hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading the hydrocarbon feed stream in a once through hydroprocessing catalyst replacement mode.  More particularly, the present invention provides for a method to improve operability, reduce catalyst fouling rate,
and extend the catalytic life of a catalyst bed employed in a hydroconversion reaction zone during hydroprocessing by contacting the bed of catalyst in the hydroconversion reaction zone with an upflowing hydrocarbon feed stream having a liquid component
and a hydrogen-containing gas component.  The present invention more particularly further provides for a method which is intended to improve the operability and reduce catalyst fouling rate, and to extend the catalytic life of a generally "packed
catalyst bed" in a hydroprocessing reactor system which is capable of onstream catalyst replacement through selective recycle of catalyst.  The methods of the present invention may also be advantageously practiced in hydrocarbon reactor systems that
utilize an "expanded catalyst bed", such as the ebullated beds as described in U.S.  Pat.  Nos.  4,571,326 and 4,744,887, and which also have the capabilities of onstream catalyst replacement.


2.  Description of the Prior Art


Hydroprocessing or hydrotreatment to remove undesirable components from hydrocarbon feed streams is a well known method of catalytically treating such heavy hydrocarbons to increase their commercial value.  "Heavy" hydrocarbon liquid streams, and
particularly reduced crude oils, petroleum residua, tar sand bitumen, shale oil or liquified coal or reclaimed oil, generally contain product contaminants, such as sulfur, and/or nitrogen, metals and organo-metallic compounds which tend to deactivate
catalyst particles during contact by the feed stream and hydrogen under hydroprocessing conditions.  Such hydroprocessing conditions are normally in the range of 212 degree(s) F. to 1200 degree(s) F. (100 degree(s) to 650 degree(s) C.) at pressures of
from 20 to 300 atmospheres.  Generally such hydroprocessing is in the presence of catalyst containing group VI or VIII metals such as platinum, molybdenum, tungsten, nickel, cobalt, etc., in combination with various other metallic element particles of
alumina, silica, magnesia and so forth having a high surface to volume ratio.  More specifically, catalyst utilized for hydrodemetallation, hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrification, hydrocracking etc., of heavy oils and the like are generally made up
of a carrier or base material; such as alumina, silica, silica-alumina, or possibly, crystalline aluminosilicate, with one more promoter(s) or catalytically active metal(s) (or compound(s)) plus trace materials.  Typical catalytically active metals
utilized are cobalt, molybdenum, nickel and tungsten; however, other metals or compounds could be selected dependent on the application.


Because these reactions must be carried out by contact of a hydrogen-containing gas with the hydrocarbon feed stream at elevated temperatures and pressures, the major costs of such processing are essentially investment in vessels and associated
furnaces, heat exchangers, pumps, piping and valves capable of such service and the replacement cost of catalyst contaminated in such service.  Commercial hydroprocessing of relatively low cost feed stocks such as reduced crude oils containing pollutant
compounds, requires a flow rate on the order of a few thousand up to one hundred thousand barrels per day, with concurrent flow of hydrogen at up to 10,000 standard cubic feet per barrel of the liquid feed.  Vessels capable of containing such a reaction
process are accordingly cost-intensive both due to the need to contain and withstand corrosion and metal embrittlement by the hydrogen and sulfur compounds, while carrying out the desired reactions, such as demetallation, denitrification,
desulfurization, and cracking at elevated pressure and temperatures.  For example, because of metallurgy and safety requirements, such vessels may cost on the order of $700.00 per cubic foot of catalyst capacity.  Thus a vessel capable of handling 25,000
barrels per day of a hydrocarbon feed stream may run on the order of $4,000,000 to $5,000,000.  Pumps, piping and valves for handling fluid streams containing hydrogen at such pressures and temperatures are also costly, because at such pressures seals
must remain hydrogen impervious over extended service periods of many months.


Further, hydroprocessing catalyst for such a reactor, which typically contains metals such as titanium, cobalt, nickel, tungsten, molybdenum, etc., may involve a catalyst inventory of 500,000 pounds or more at a cost of $2 to $4/lb.  Accordingly,
for economic feasibility in commercial operations, the process must handle high flow rates and the vessel should be filled with as much catalyst inventory as possible to maximize catalyst activity and run length.  Additionally, the down-time for
replacement or renewal of catalyst must be as short as possible.  Further, the economics of the process will generally depend upon the versatility of the system to handle feed streams of varying amounts of contaminants such as sulfur, nitrogen, metals
and/or organic-metallic compounds, such as those found in a wide variety of the more plentiful (and hence cheaper) reduced crude oils, residua, or liquified coal, tar sand bitumen or shale oils, as well as used oils, and the like.


The following three acceptable reactor technologies are currently available to the industry for hydrogen upgrading of "heavy" hydrocarbon liquid streams: (i) fixed bed reactor systems; (ii) ebullated or expanded type reactor systems which are
capable of onstream catalyst replacement and are presently known to industry under the trademarks H-Oil.sub.R and LC-Fining.sub.R ; and (iii) the substantially packed-bed type reactor system having an onstream catalyst replacement system, as more
particularly described in U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,076,908 to Stangeland et al, having a common assignee with the current inventions and discoveries.


A fixed bed reactor system may be defined as a reactor system having one or more reaction zone(s) of stationary catalyst, through which feed streams of liquid hydrocarbon and hydrogen flow downwardly and concurrently with respect to each other.


An ebullated or expanded bed reactor system may be defined as a reactor system having an upflow type single reaction zone reactor containing catalyst in random motion in an expanded catalytic bed state, typically expanded from 10% by volume to
about 35% or more by volume above a "slumped" catalyst bed condition (e.g. a non-expanded or non-ebullated state).


As particularly described in U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,076,908 to Stangeland et al, the substantially packed-bed type reactor system is an upflow type reactor system including multiple reaction zones of packed catalyst particles having little or no
movement during normal operating conditions of no catalyst addition or withdrawal.  In the substantially packed-bed type reactor system of Stangeland et al., when catalyst is withdrawn from the reactor during normal catalyst replacement, the catalyst
flows in a downwardly direction under essentially plug flow or in an essentially plug flow fashion, with a minimum of mixing with catalyst in layers which are adjacent either above or below the catalyst layer under observation.


Of the three acceptable reactor systems, most hydroconversion reactor systems presently in operation on a worldwide basis are fixed bed reactors wherein a liquid hydrocarbon feed and a hydrogen stream flow concurrently through the catalyst beds
in a downward flow path.  While these fixed bed downflow type processes assure maximum density or volume of catalyst within a reaction zone without expansion of the bed, they are limited by the tendency of the catalyst to form local deposits of feed
metals and other contaminates, particularly in the top catalyst bed (i.e. first reaction zone), affecting distribution and reaction rates.  As reactor average temperatures are progressively increased to maintain processing objectives under conditions of
increasing local metal deposits, catalyst deactivation due to carbon deposition accelerates.  When processing objectives can no longer be maintained due to catalyst deactivation (i.e. normally recognized as "End of Run" conditions), the reactor system
must be taken offstream for catalyst regeneration or replacement.  Accordingly, in general, it is preferred to counterflow the catalyst and process fluid streams relative to each other.  However, as noted above, when the process feed rates are high, the
volume of catalyst that can be contained by the vessel may be as little as 10% of the original settled volume.  At lower fluid velocities, catalyst volume may be up to about 80% to 90%, but useful reaction space for the process is still wasted and
turbulence causes axial mixing of the catalyst.  Therefore, one particular object of the present invention is to run a counterflow processing system where the catalyst and fluid velocity combinations limit bed expansion to less than 10% by length (more
preferably less than about 5% by length, most preferably less than 2% or even less than 1% by length) beyond a substantially full axial length of the bed in a packed bed state.


It is also known to use a series of individual vessels stacked one above the other, with fluid flow either current or counterflow to catalyst.  In such a process, catalyst moves by gravity from the upper vessel to a lower vessel by periodically
shutting off, or closing, valves between the individual vessels.  In a counterflow system, this permits removal of catalyst from the lowermost or first stage vessel, where the most contaminated, or raw, feed stock, originally contacts the catalyst.  In
this way, most of the major contaminating components in the hydrocarbon stream are removed before the hydrocarbon material reaches major conversion steps of the process performed in higher vessels of the stacked series.  Thus, most of the deactivating
components of the feed stream are removed before it reaches the least contaminated catalyst added to the topmost vessel.  However, such systems require valves suitable for closing off catalyst flow against catalyst trapped in the line.  Hence, valve life
is relatively short and down-time for replacement or repair of the valves is relatively costly.


Since the late 1960's, there have been several heavy oil hydroprocessing units built and brought on stream that utilize the ebullated or expanded catalyst bed reactor technology where a hydrocarbon feed stream and hydrogen gas flow upwardly
through a dilute phase reaction zone of catalyst in random motion.  Stated alternatively, continuous operation of an ebullated or expanded bed hydroprocessing system include the upward flow of a hydrocarbon feed stream and hydrogen gas through a single
catalyst containing vessel or a series of catalyst containing vessels.  Reactor liquid is recirculated internally at rates sufficient to expand or ebullate the catalyst to produce a dilute phase reaction zone of catalyst in random or ebullating motion. 
Catalyst is replaced by continuous or periodic, onstream removal of catalyst from the vessel followed by addition.  As noted above, such ebullation tends to increase the fluid volume in the vessel relative to catalyst volume necessary to hydroprocess the
feed stream and hydrogen with the catalyst, with adequate contact time to react the fluids.  Further, such ebullated beds tend to result in separation or segregation of "fines" from the larger (and heavier) particles as they pass downwardly through the
upflow streams.  As frequently happens, and especially where the catalyst is locally agitated, as by eddy currents, the particles tend to abrade by such higher flow rates of the feed streams through the ebullating bed.  Depending on the size of the
fines, they either travel upward where they contaminate the product or they tend to accumulate in the reactor because they cannot work their way down to the bottom of the bed.  Such counterflow systems have also been used because of the relative ease of
withdrawing limited amounts of the ebullated catalyst in a portion of the reacting hydrocarbon and hydrogen fluids, particularly where such turbulent flow of the catalyst is needed to assist gravity drainage through a funnel-shaped opening into a central
pipe at the bottom of a vessel.


The basic process design of the ebullated bed reactors with appropriate mechanical features overcome some of the limitations of the conventional fixed bed reactor.  The ebullated or expanded catalyst bed reactor schemes provide ability to replace
catalyst on stream and operate with a very "flat" reaction zone temperature profile instead of the steeper pyramiding profile of conventional fixed bed reactors.  The nature of the process, with a broad spectrum of catalyst size, shape, particle density,
and activity level in random motion in a "dilute phase reaction zone," creates near isothermal temperature conditions, with only a few degrees temperature rise from the bottom to the top of the reaction zone.  Quench fluids are not normally required to
limit reaction rates except in cases when series reactors are applied.  In other words, the reactor internal recycle oil flow, used to expand (or ebullate) the catalyst bed and maintain distribution (typically 10 to 1 ratio of fresh oil feed) serves also
as "internal quench" to control reaction rate and peak operating temperatures.  Because the highest temperatures experienced in the reactors are only a few degrees above the average temperature required to maintain processing objectives and not the
higher "end of run" peak temperatures experienced in fixed bed reactor systems, the accelerated fouling rate of the catalyst by carbon deposition experienced in conventional fixed bed reactor systems at "end of run" conditions is minimized; however, the
normal carbon deposition rate is much greater than that of the fixed bed reactor due to overall operating conditions.


Unfortunately, implementing the ebullated bed technology results in inefficient use of reactor volume and less than optimum usage of hydroconversion catalyst.  Catalyst replacement rates for ebullated bed reactors are based on maintaining
"catalyst equilibrium conditions" necessary to maintain processing objectives.  The backmixing nature of ebullated catalyst beds, combined with the characteristics of the typical extrudate catalyst particulate used (i.e. a full range of sizes and
shapes), promote isothermal temperature conditions but create selectivity difficulties in regard to the withdrawal of expended catalyst.  Fresh or partially expended catalyst commingle with expended catalyst withdrawn from the bottom of the catalyst bed
requires complicated procedures and equipment to recover, and are usually discarded with minimum recovery value.  In other words, use of various size and shape catalyst in ebullated bed type reactors leads to somewhat inefficient use of catalyst value.


The additional reactor volume required for the ebullated bed process is to accommodate the expansion of the catalyst load by 25-35% of its original slumped (or "packed bed") volume or height, by controlling the velocity of an internal liquid
recycle stream.  Space required within an ebullated bed reactor for the disengagement of solids and catalyst bed level controls, and the space required to satisfy suction conditions for the reactor internal recycle pump, combined with the space the pump
suction line occupies, consumes a substantial amount of space available within the ebullated bed reactor.  Additional disadvantages of the ebullated bed technology are the added cost, maintenance, and the reliability of a single supply source for the
reactor recycle pump which is required to expand the catalyst bed.  In order to compare efficient use of reactor volume purchased, the following examples are offered.


If ebullating bed reactor technology is implemented and 13-foot diameter reactors are selected, the tangent line to tangent line dimensions required for the 13-foot diameter reactors would be approximately 60 feet in order to load approximately
5,000 cubic feet (or about 175,000 lb) of typical hydroprocessing catalyst.  Thus, the 5,000 cubic feet of catalyst occupies about 63% by volume of the approximately 7,900 cubic feet of reactor volume available between the bottom and top tangent line of
the reactor.  In the case of fixed bed reactors, in order to load 5,000 cubic feet of typical hydroprocessing catalyst in 13-foot diameter reactors would require tangent line to tangent line dimensions for the 13-foot diameter reactors of about 43 feet;
however, the operating run length for the fixed bed reactors would be short as catalyst could not be replaced on stream.  Should the 60-foot tangent line to tangent line dimensions required for the ebullated bed reactors be maintained for a fixed bed
reactor, an additional catalyst volume of approximately 2000 cubic feet could be loaded.


In order to load 5,000 cubic feet of typical hydroprocessing catalyst in a 13-foot diameter bed reactor with the broad features and descriptions as disclosed in U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,076,908 to Stangeland et al, would require tangent line to tangent
line dimensions of approximately 41 feet.  There would be a reduction of reactor empty weight of between 100 to 200 tons, depending on the design pressure specification.  Should the 60-foot tangent line to tangent line dimensions for a Stangeland et al
reactor be maintained, an additional catalyst volume of approximately 2500 cubic feet could be loaded.


As particularly distinguished from prior known methods of on-stream catalyst replacement in hydroprocessing, the method and apparatus in U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,076,908 to Stangeland et al more specifically provides a system wherein plug flow of the
catalyst bed is maintained over a wide range of counterflow rates of a hydrocarbon feed stream and hydrogen gas throughout the volume of the substantially packed catalyst bed.  Such packed bed flow maintains substantially maximum volume and density of
catalyst within a given vessel's design volume by controlling the size, shape and density of the catalyst so that the bed is not substantially expanded at the design rate of fluid flow therethrough.  The proper size, shape and density are determined by
applying coefficients gained during extensive studying of bed expansion in a large pilot plant runs with hydrocarbon, hydrogen and catalyst at the design pressures and flow velocities as particularly described below.


To further control such packed bed flow, the bed level of catalyst within the vessel is continuously measured, as by gamma ray absorption, to assure that little ebullation of the bed is occurring.  Such control is further promoted by evenly
distributing both the hydrogen and liquid feed throughout the length of the bed by concentrically distributing both the hydrogen gas component and the hydrocarbon fluid feed component in alternate, concentric annular paths across the full horizontal
cross-sectional area of the vessel as they both enter the catalyst bed.  Additionally, and as desirable, hydrogen is evenly redistributed and if needed, augmented, through a quench system at one or more intermediate levels along the length of the
catalyst bed.  Equalizing hydrogen and liquid feed across the full horizontal area along the length of the packed particle bed prevents local turbulence and undesirable vertical segregation of lighter particles from heavier particles flowing in a
plug-like manner downwardly through the vessel.


Further in accordance with the method that is more particularly disclosed and described in U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,076,908 to Stangeland et al, a system for replacing catalyst during continuing operation of the non-ebullating bed is assisted by
carrying out the process at relatively high liquid feed rates, even without ebullation of the bed.  In a preferred form, the catalyst transfer system includes an inverted J-tube as the withdrawal tube, so that the tube opens downwardly adjacent the
center of the lower end of the vessel and directly above a center portion of the surrounding annular flow paths of liquid and gas into the catalyst bed.  Thus, the intake for catalyst is out of the direct flow of such streams, and particularly the gas
flow.  In such a preferred form the annular flow paths are through a conical or pyramidal screen, or perforated plate, which supports the bed or column of catalyst across the vessel through a plurality of radially spaced apart and axially elongated
concentric rings, or polygons, supported by radial arms extending from the center of the vessel to the cylindrical side wall of the vessel.  Each ring is formed by a pair of peripheral members extending between the radial arms directly under the conical
screen so that this forms a circular gas pocket at the upper level in each ring so that between each pair of said peripheral members alternate rings of gas and hydrocarbon liquid enter the bed simultaneously.


In accordance with a further preferred form of the method and apparatus that is more particularly disclosed and described in Stangeland et al, catalyst is both withdrawn from the bed and added to the vessel under laminar flow conditions as a
liquid slurry to avoid abrasion and size segregation of particles during such transfer.  Both the supply and withdrawal flow lines have a minimum diameter of at least five times and, preferably more than twenty times, the average diameter of the catalyst
particles.  Further, the flow lines are of uniform diameter throughout their length from either the catalyst supply chamber to the vessel, or from the vessel to the receiving chamber, including through the bore of a rotatable ball of the isolating
valves, known commercially as "full-port valves".  Additionally, a flush line is connected to the flow line of the withdrawal system between the isolating valve and the reactor vessel so that liquid hydrocarbon may be used to flush the line of catalyst
or catalyst fines if necessary, before the valve ball is closed.  Preferably, but not necessarily, the withdrawal line may include means for flowing auxiliary hydrogen back into the reactor through the withdrawal tube to prevent coking due to hydrogen
starvation near or in the withdrawal tube.


The prior art does not disclose or suggest the above enumerated and pertinent features of either the total system or significant portions of such a system in U.S.  Pat.  No. 076,908 to Stangeland et al, as disclosed by the following patents:


Jacquin et al. U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,312,741, is directed toward a method of on-stream catalyst replacement in a hydroprocessing system by controlling the feed of hydrogen gas at one or more levels.  Catalyst, as an ebullated bed counterflows through
the reactor but is slowed at each of several levels by horizontally constricted areas which increase the hydrogen and hydrocarbon flow rates to sufficiently locally slow downward flow of catalyst.  While local recycling thus occurs at each such stage,
rapid through-flow of fresh catalyst, with resultant mixing with deactivated or contaminated catalyst, is suppressed.  The ebullating bed aids simple gravity withdrawal of catalyst from the vessel.  Improvement of the disclosed system over multiple
vessels with valves between stages is suggested to avoid the risk of rapid wear and deterioration of valve seals by catalyst abrasion.


Kodera et al. U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,716,478, discloses low linear velocity of a mixed feed of liquid and H.sub.2 gas to avoid expansion (or contraction) of catalyst bed.  By low linear velocity of fluid upflow, gas bubbles are controlled by flow
through the packed bed, but the bed is fluidized by forming the bottom with a small cross-sectional area adjacent the withdrawal tube.  This assists discharge of catalyst without backmixing of contaminated catalyst with fresh catalyst at the top of the
single vessel.  The range of the bed level in the vessel is from 0.9 to 1.1 of the allowable bed volume (.+-.10%) due to fluid flow through the bed.  A particular limitation of the system is that flow of the fluids undergoing catalytic reaction is
restricted to a rate that will not exceed such limits, but must be adequate to ebullate the bed adjacent the catalyst withdrawal tube.  Alternatively, injection of auxiliary fluid from a slidable pipe section is required.  The patentees particularly
specify that the diameter of the lower end of the vessel is smaller to increase turbulence and ebullation of catalyst adjacent the inlet to the catalyst withdrawal line.  Fluidization of catalyst is accordingly indicated to be essential to the process. 
However the disclosed gas flow rates are well below commercial flow rates and there is no suggestion of temperatures or pressures used in the tests or the size, density or shape of the catalyst.


Bischoff et al, U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,571,326, is directed to apparatus for withdrawing catalyst through the center of a catalyst bed counterflowing to a liquid hydrocarbon and gas feed stream.  The system is particularly directed to arrangements for
assuring uniform distribution of hydrogen gas with the liquid feed across the cross-sectional area of the bed.  Such uniform distribution appears to be created because the bed is ebullating under the disclosed conditions of flow.  Accordingly,
considerable reactor space is used to initially mix the gas and hydrocarbon liquid feeds in the lower end of the vessel before flowing to other bottom feed distributors.  The feeds are further mixed at a higher level by such distributor means in the form
of "Sulzer Plates" or a "honeycomb" of hexagonal tubes beneath a truncated, conical, or pyramidal-shaped funnel screen.  The arrangement may include an open ramp area parallel to the underside of the screen between the tube or plate ends.  Further, to
maintain gas distribution along the length of the catalyst bed, quench gas is supplied through upflowing jets in star-shaped or annular headers extending across middle portions of the vessel.  The arrangement for withdrawal of spent catalyst requires
ebullation of at least the lower portion of the bed.  As noted above, added vessel space for uniform mixing of hydrogen and feed before introducing the fluids into an ebullated bed, as well as an ebullating bed, increases the required size of the
hydroprocessing vessel, increases catalyst attrition, increases catalyst bed mixing and substantially increases initial, and continuing operating costs of the system.


Bischoff et al. U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,639,354, more fully describes a method of hydroprocessing, similar to U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,571,216, wherein similar apparatus obtains uniform ebullation through the vertical height of a catalyst bed, including a
quench gas step.


Meaux U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,336,217, is particularly directed to a catalyst withdrawal method from an ebullating bed reactor.  In the system, catalyst accumulating at the bottom of a vessel and supported on a flat bubble-tray may be withdrawn through
an inverted J-tube having a particular ratio of the volume of the short leg of the J-tube to the longer leg.  The diameter of the J-tube is suited only to flow of catalyst from a body of catalyst ebullated by the upflowing hydrocarbon feed and gas.


U.S.  Pat.  Nos.  4,444,653 and 4,392,943, both to Euzen, et al., disclose removal systems for catalyst replacement in an ebullating bed.  In these patents, the fluid charge including hydrocarbon containing gas is introduced by various
arrangements of downwardly directed jets acting laterally against or directly onto the conical upper surface of the bed support screen or screens.  Alternatively, the feed is introduced through a conical screen after passing through a distributor
arrangement of tortuous paths or a multiplicity of separate tubes to mix the gas and liquid feed over the conical screen.  Such arrangements use a considerable volume of the pressure vessel to assure such mixing.


U.S.  Pat.  Nos.  3,730,880 and 3,880,569, both to Van der Toorn, et al., disclose a series of catalytic reactors wherein catalyst moves downwardly by gravity from vessel to vessel through check valves.  As noted above, such valves require
opening and closing to regulate the rate of flow, or to start and stop catalyst transfer, with catalyst in the valve flow path.  Feed of process fluids is either co-current or countercurrent through the catalyst bed.


Van ZijllLanghaut et al. U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,259,294, is directed to a system for on-stream catalyst replacement by entrainment of the catalyst in oil pumped as a slurry either to withdraw catalyst from or to supply fresh catalyst to, a reactor
vessel.  Reacting feed is suggested to be either co-current or countercurrent with catalyst flow through the reactor.  Valves capable of closing with catalyst in the line, or after back-flow of slurry oil, are required to seal off the catalyst containing
vessel at operating temperatures and pressures from the receiving reactor vessel, or isolate the catalyst receiving lock hopper from the withdrawal section of the vessel.


Carson U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,470,900, and Sikama U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,167,474, respectively illustrate multiple single bed reactors and multi-bed reactors in which catalyst is replaced either continuously or periodically.  The feed and catalyst flow
co-currently and/or radially.  Catalyst is regenerated and returned to the reactor, or disposed of.  No catalyst withdrawal system is disclosed apart from either the configuration of the internal bed support or the shape of the vessel bottom to assist
gravity discharge of catalyst.


One of the basic principles and teachings of Stangeland et al in U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,076,908, is that by specifically selecting the size, shape, and density of the catalyst pellets, combined with appropriate control of process liquid and gas
velocities, random motion and backmixing of the catalyst can be minimized, and plugflow characteristics of the catalyst downward and the liquid and gas flows upward, maximized.  Stangeland et al economically utilizes space within a hydroprocessing vessel
over a wide range of processing rates without substantial random motion or ebullation of a packed bed of catalyst during high counterflow rates of the hydrocarbon feed and a hydrogen containing gas through the packed bed, while maintaining continuous or
intermittent replacement of catalyst for plug-like flow of the bed through the vessel.  More or less in layer fashion, such plug flow with high processing rates is obtained by Stangeland et al by selecting the size, shape and density of the catalyst
particles and appropriate vessel configurations to prevent ebullation and bed expansion at the design flow rate so as to maximize the amount of catalyst in the vessel during normal operation and during catalyst transfer.  Catalysts are selected utilizing
data gained while studying catalyst bed expansion, such as in a large pilot plant run, with hydrocarbon, hydrogen and catalyst at the design pressures and flow velocities within the available reaction volume of the vessel.  Catalyst is removed from the
bed by Stangeland et al through laminar flow of the catalyst particles in a liquid slurry system in which the liquid flow line is uniform in diameter, and substantially larger than the catalyst particles, throughout the flow path between the reactor
vessel and a pressurizable vessel including passageways through the flow control valves.


Experience in practicing the principles and teachings of Stangeland et al, U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,076,908 has demonstrated maximum utilization of available reactor volume, operability of reactors with feed upflowing through dense phase "packed
catalyst beds," and the ability to replace catalyst on stream.  Catalyst selection by size, shape and density of catalyst particles to fit each unique processing case has been validated as a key element in optimizing performance of an upflow type
hydroprocessing reactor, regardless if "packed bed" or "expanded bed" reaction zones are involved.  In other words, through experience with same or uniform size, shape and density catalyst, additional technical advantages and opportunities have been
discovered to further enhance performance and maximize catalyst life--not obtainable when random particle size catalyst is used in units where catalyst is replaced on stream.  Therefore, a particular object of the present invention is to extend the life
of hydroprocessing catalyst from a hydroconversion reaction zone.  Experience in practicing the principles and teachings of Stangeland et al has also demonstrated that when operating on once through catalyst replacement mode, the temperature profile in
the final reaction zone (i.e. the freshest most active catalyst) could affect catalyst fouling rate by carbon deposition.  The present invention provides for a method to adjust catalyst activity profile (i.e. temperature profile) in order to more
favorably enhance overall hydroconversion reactor performance, thus optimizing reactor performance and extending the life of the hydroprocessing catalyst in the hydroconversion reactor.


The prior art does not teach or suggest any of the particular methods and/or systems of the present invention for extending the life of hydroprocessing catalyst in a hydroconversion reactor, especially the life of a substantially packed bed of
hydroprocessing catalyst which is plug-flowing downwardly (or otherwise moving downwardly) in a hydroconversion reaction zone during hydroprocessing by contacting the hydroprocessing catalyst in the hydroconversion reaction zone with an upflowing
hydrocarbon feed stream having a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component.


Principal objectives and direction of development of catalyst for hydrocarbon processing ebullated bed reactors have been toward very small high surface area catalyst that can be easily expanded (i.e. lifted into random motion) within the
reactors with minimum recycle oil requirements.  Basic teachings and practice of technologies implementing expanded or ebullated bed reactors, emphasize achieving a "backmixed" reaction zone by the random motion of the various size, shape and density
catalyst, to promote isothermal temperature conditions.  The prior art relating to expanded or ebullated bed reactor systems does not reveal any specific attempts to appropriately develop catalyst that promotes classification by density internal to the
reactor or in separation and recovery vessels outside the reactor by eliminating the influences of size and shape.  The following prior art patents relating to catalyst recovery patents involve complicated systems to segregate random size particulate,
etc., and/or regeneration procedures in auxiliary equipment and systems:


U.S.  Pat.  No. 2,987,470 to Turken describes a process for demineralizing hydrocarbon oils using an ebullated catalyst bed.  Fouled catalyst may be withdrawn from the demineralizer, regenerated and returned to the demineralizer.  Suggested
regenerative procedures include abrading the fouled catalyst to remove metallic deposits, and separating the catalyst particles from the removed metal.


U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,685,842 to Smith et al teaches withdrawal and replacement of solid partially slurried in a liquid.  L-valves are used to control the flow into and out of a vessel containing the slurry.  After the solid particles are removed
from the vessel, they may be regenerated independently of the system, if desired.  Smith et al does not teach or suggest how the solid particles are regenerated or otherwise treated.


U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,576,710 to Nongbri et al. illustrates a single or two-stage desulfurization process for petroleum residua.  In U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,576,710, used catalyst is withdrawn from the first stage, a minor portion of the catalyst is
discarded to limit metal concentration deposited on the catalyst, and the remaining catalyst is regenerated by burning of carbon deposits.  The regenerated catalyst is returned to the reactor system for reuse, along with fresh make-up catalyst.


U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,287,088 to Sirkan discloses a system for segregating used catalyst contaminated during extended processes of hydrocarbon feedstock.  The method of Sirkan includes fluidizing the catalyst in upflowing liquid in a recovery vessel
having at least two concentric compartments and recovering the less contaminated catalyst upper fraction for reuse.


U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,932,269 to Lehman describes an ebullated bed, liquid-phase hydrogenation process for residuous hydrocracking in which catalyst is continuously withdrawn from the process and is regenerated in the presence of steam and air to
remove coke deposits.  A portion of regenerated catalyst is then returned to the process.


U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,893,911 to Rovesti et al describes a similar process for withdrawing catalyst from an ebullated bed demetallization reactor, regenerating the withdrawn used catalyst to remove carbon deposits, and recycling the regenerated
catalyst to the reactor.


U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,541,002 to Rapp teaches a method for semi-continuously withdrawing, regenerating, and replacing particulate catalyst in a continuously operating high pressure hydrogenation treatment process, particularly a process utilizing an
expanded or ebullated catalyst bed.  In this method, the withdrawn particulate catalyst is separated from a light oil medium, stripped with hydrogen, and regenerated in the presence of air to remove coke on the catalyst.  Regenerated catalyst is then
recycled to the process.


The prior art has disclosed several processes for separation of catalyst.  One such process makes use of density differences of the active and inactive particles.  The inactive or spent particles usually have a higher effective density, making it
possible to separate them by suspension in a liquid or vapor medium so that the less active more completely deactivated catalyst particles and the more active catalyst particles form separate layers.  For example, U.S.  Pat.  No. 2,567,207 issued to A.
W. Hoge on Sep. 11, 1951 discloses a method for pneumatically classifying catalyst particles.  U.S.  Pat.  No. 2,631,968 issued to N. E. Perry on Mar.  17, 1953 discloses a process for float separating inactive spent powdered catalyst from active
catalyst from a fluidized bed reaction.  U.S.  Pat.  No. 2,688,401 issued to G. E. Schmitkons et al on Sep. 7, 1954 discloses a process for separating spent catalyst particles by a float-sink method where the denser, inactive catalyst gravitates toward
the bottom and the active particles are floated off to a separator for recovery.  U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,209,840 issued to Sherwood, Jr.  et al on May 11, 1993 describes a hydrodesulfurization process which includes steps for reactivating spent catalyst,
including removing the catalyst from the reaction zone, washing the catalyst, elutriating the catalyst with air to separate the catalyst into a high-activity, upper, less contaminated fraction and a lower more contaminated fraction according to particle
density, and returning the high activity fraction to the reaction zone.


None of the foregoing prior art patents teach or suggest the present invention wherein a process is provided for the periodic or semi-continuous withdrawal of particulate catalyst from a hydroconversion reactor zone; the separation of the
particulate catalyst into a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a low-activity more dense catalytic particulates; mixing the high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture;
and introducing the catalytic mixture into the hydroconversion reactor zone.  None of the foregoing prior art patents teach or suggest the present invention wherein a method is provided for extending the catalytic life of catalyst used in hydroprocessing
of a hydrocarbon feed stream; that is, for reducing the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading a hydrocarbon feed stream to essentially the same degree or extent as and/or when compared to the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst
required for upgrading the hydrocarbon feed stream in a once through catalyst replacement mode.


SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION


In accordance with one aspect of the present invention there is provided a method of periodically or semi-continuously transferring catalyst into and out of a substantially packed bed of catalyst which is flowing downwardly at a desired rate
through a reactor vessel during hydroprocessing over a wide range of counterflow rates of a hydrocarbon feed stream that comprises a liquid hydrocarbon and a hydrogen-containing gas component which are flowing upwardly through the vessel.  Such plug-like
flow of the packed catalyst bed is achieved by selecting the average density, size, and shape of the catalyst particles forming the catalyst bed so that the catalyst bed expands by less than 10% by length at the maximum anticipated fluid flow velocities
of the gaseous and liquid components therethrough.  Desirably such movement and bed level of such catalyst is continuously monitored to prevent overfilling and to assure minimum ebullation and attendant wastage of reactor space and particle size
segregation.  Uniformity of gas flow is maintained across the cross-sectional area of the vessel and the full volume of the bed so as to avoid ebullation of the bed, including eddy currents or localized recirculation, of catalyst particles moving
downwardly in plug-like flow through the vessel.  Preferably, the gaseous component of the feed stream is uniformly distributed through a plurality of annular concentric rings, or polygons, formed by axially extending annular and radially spaced apart
concentric supports under a truncated conical or pyramidal support screen.  Such supports are axially elongated sufficiently to form a plurality of pairs of connected annular gas pockets and adjacent concentric liquid annular feed rings between each
adjacent pairs of annular supports.  Thus, the catalyst bed is provided with uniformly concentric annular and alternate feed rings of both liquid and gas across the full cross-sectional area of the downwardly flowing catalyst bed.


In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the system for introduction of quench gas at an intermediate level in the vessel maintains the plug-like flow of catalyst downwardly through the vessel.  Quench gas is introduced by a plurality
of transversely extending pipe members covered or shrouded by inverted V-shaped sheds.  Each shed overlies a quench gas supply pipe and acts to deflect catalyst outwardly and downwardly over the apices.  Each of the distributor sheds preferably includes
a plurality of elongated slots along the lower edges of the transverse sides.  These slots form lateral gas redistribution channels for both upwardly flowing process gases and quench gas introduced through the transverse pipes.


Additionally the invention relates to methods and apparatus for on-stream replacement of catalyst without local levitation or ebullation of catalyst particles around the withdrawal point within the catalyst bed by laminarly flowing a liquid
hydrocarbon stream either into, or out of, the reactor vessel through a pair of flow paths.  Each of the flow paths has a substantially constant cross-sectional area throughout its length and a diameter at least five times the average diameter of the
catalyst particles flowing between said vessel and at least one and preferably two, pressurizable catalyst lock-hoppers or receptacles, serving respectively to supply fresh catalyst to the top of the bed and to remove spent catalyst from the bottom. 
Further, each flow path includes at least one in-line control valve having a through-bore of substantially the same diameter as the flow path and at least one auxiliary fluid flow path for introducing fluid flow into the slurry path for flushing catalyst
particles from the path.  Preferably, the flush fluid is a liquid, and selectively, by reverse hydrogen flow through the line when catalyst is not being moved, particles are blocked from entering the flow path and coking is prevented at the entry to the
flow tube.  The catalyst vessels are selectively pressurizable as required to induce such laminar flow of liquid-entrained catalyst to feed replacement catalyst into the upper end of the reactor vessel and to withdraw spent catalyst from the lower end of
the vessel.  Desirably, each of the withdrawal flow paths is characterized by an inverted J-tube, which includes an inlet portion for the liquid stream and entrained catalyst having a reverse upward flow section substantially shorter than the downward
flow path.  Preferably, in the reactor vessel the inlet portion for withdrawing catalyst is disposed above an unperforated central portion of the conical bed support screen so that such catalyst withdrawal position is adjacent the bed bottom, but
substantially out of a plurality of concentric feed paths for upwardly flowing liquid hydrocarbon feed and gas streams.  This avoids gas entrainment with the catalyst slurry, as by ebullation of the bed around the intake point.


The catalyst employed in the present invention has a uniform or substantially the same size, shape and density over the axial length of the reactor vessel.  Preferably, the catalyst is for producing a plug-flowing substantially packed bed of
hydroprocessing catalyst with an upflowing hydrocarbon feed stream.  More particularly, when the catalytic particulates are disposed in a hydrocarbon reaction zone, a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst is produced; and when a
hydrocarbon feed stream flows upwardly through the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst and a quenching matter is injected into the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst, plug-flowing commences when a volume of the
catalytic particulates is withdrawn from a bottom of the hydrocarbon reaction zone.  As used herein "catalyst" includes other particles which interact with a feed stream, such as sorbents, or other fluid contact bodies.  The catalyst is disposed in a
reaction zone and a hydrocarbon feed stream is flowed upwardly through the catalyst for hydroprocessing the hydrocarbon feed stream.


In a preferred embodiment of invention, the present invention accomplishes its desired objects by broadly providing a method for separating high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from low-activity more dense catalytic particulates from a
hydroconversion reaction zone (e.g. an onstream reactor).  A volume of particulate catalyst in a hydrocarbon feed stream is withdrawn from a hydroconversion reaction zone.  The volume of particulate catalyst includes a high-activity less dense catalytic
particulates and a low-activity more dense catalytic particulates.  The hydrocarbon feed stream containing the volume of particulate catalyst is introduced into a separation zone, which may be a high pressure catalyst transfer vessel that also serves as
a catalyst separator vessel (e.g. a catalyst classifier that separates catalyst according to catalytic particulate density).  To separate high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from low-activity more dense catalytic particulates or to classify
the volume of withdrawn particulate catalyst by density elutriation, a gaseous material as a fluidizing medium is injected into the separation zone containing the volume of particulate catalyst in the hydrocarbon feed stream in order to form an expanded
fluidized bed, preferably having an expanded volume ranging from about 1.1 to about 5.0 times (more preferably from about 1.1 to about 2.0 times) a volume of the volume of particulate catalyst in a packed bed state.  The injection of the gaseous material
into the volume of particulate catalyst in the hydrocarbon feed stream is terminated, preferably by smoothly reducing the injection and then stopping, resulting in the expanded fluidized bed settling into the packed bed state which comprises a lower
volumetric layer containing low-activity more dense catalytic particulates and an upper volumetric layer containing high-activity less dense catalytic particulates.  The upper volumetric layer rests on and is being supported by the lower volumetric
layer.  The lower volumetric layer containing the low-activity more dense catalytic particulates, is removed from the separation zone to effect the separation of high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from low-activity more dense catalytic
particulates.  In a more preferred embodiment of the present invention, prior to injecting the gaseous material into the separation zone, the hydrocarbon feed stream is removed from the volume of particulate catalyst, preferably by washing with a
suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid such as a process gas oil or the like.  Washing is typically accomplished by flowing the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid into and through the separation zone containing the removed or withdrawn volume of
particulate catalyst; and overflowing continually the separation zone until the hydrocarbon feed stream has been essentially washed off the withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst to produce a volume of withdrawn washed particulate catalyst.


If the hydrocarbon feed stream is washed from the withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst by a suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid in accordance with a more preferred embodiment of the present invention, the volume of withdrawn washed
particulate catalyst (i.e. catalyst with the hydrocarbon feed stream essentially removed) remains in and/or immersed in the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid to form or produce a hydrocarbon mixture within the separation zone comprising the suitable
(washing) hydrocarbon liquid containing the volume of washed particulate catalyst.  The gaseous material is injected into the hydrocarbon mixture to produce an expanded fluidized bed having an expanded volume, which again preferably ranges from about 1.1
to about 5.0 times a volume of the volume of particulate catalyst in a packed bed state.  The remaining previously mentioned procedure for obtaining high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from low-activity more dense catalytic particulates is
repeated; that is, the injection of the gaseous material into the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid containing the volume of washed particulate catalyst is terminated, preferably again by smoothly reducing the injection until subsequently fully
stopped, resulting in the expanded fluidized bed settling into the packed bed state having the lower volumetric layer containing the low-activity more dense catalytic particulates, and the upper volumetric layer containing the high-activity less dense
catalytic particulates which rest on and are being supported by the low-activity more dense catalytic particulates in the lower volumetric layer.  The latter is removed from the separation zone, leaving the high-activity less dense catalytic particulates
in the separation zone, which remains in the separation zone as recovered "useful life" catalyst that can be recycled to the hydroconversion reaction zone (e.g. the on-stream reactor).


A "high-activity" and/or "less dense" catalyst as used herein means a catalyst having usable life or activity, but less usable life or activity than a catalyst that would possess the highest possible life or activity, such as by way of example
only, a catalyst that has been obtained directly from a catalyst manufacture with the highest desired catalyst life or activity and has never been employed before in hydroprocessing a hydrocarbon feed stream or the like.  Thus, a "high-activity" and/or
"less dense" catalyst would not be a catalyst with the highest life or activity and the least density, but would include a medium activity less dense catalyst.


A "low-activity" and/or "more dense" catalyst as used herein means a catalyst having a minor amount of or little usable life or activity at the time; that is, at the time of being separated from the high-activity less dense catalyst.  A
"low-activity" and/or "more dense" catalyst may have some residual usable life or activity, and the "low-activity" and/or "more dense" catalyst may have more usable life or activity than a catalyst that would possess the least possible life or activity. 
Thus, a "low-activity" and/or "more dense" catalyst would not necessarily be a catalyst with the least life or activity and the most density, and could include catalyst that are capable of being regenerated or rejuvenated.


The present invention accomplishes its desired objects by broadly providing a method for increasing the activity level of catalytic particulates in a lower reaction zone of a catalyst bed during hydroprocessing by contacting the catalyst bed in a
hydroconversion reaction zone with an upflowing hydrocarbon feed stream having a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component, comprising the steps of:


(a) disposing a plurality of catalytic particulates in a hydroconversion reaction zone to form a catalyst bed having at least one upper reaction zone and at least one lower reaction zone;


(b) upflowing into said catalyst bed of step (a) a hydrocarbon feed stream having a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component, until steady-state conditions have been essentially reached and said catalytic particulates in said
upper reaction zone have an upper activity level and said catalytic particulates in said lower reaction zone have a lower activity level differing from said upper activity level;


(c) withdrawing a volume of particulate catalyst from said lower reaction zone in said hydroconversion reaction zone, wherein said withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst includes a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a
low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(d) separating said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(e) admixing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture;


(f) introducing said catalytic mixture of step (e) into said hydroconversion reaction zone of step (a); and


(g) repeating steps (c) through (f) until steady-state conditions have been essentially reached and catalytic particulates in said lower reaction zone of said catalyst bed have an activity level that is greater than said lower activity level of
step (b).


Further provided by the present invention is a method for increasing upgrading capabilities and/or demetallization of hydroprocessing catalyst in a substantially packed bed of catalyst downwardly moving in a hydroconversion reaction zone during
hydroprocessing (especially at equilibrium or steady-state conditions) by contacting the hydroprocessing catalyst in the hydroconversion reaction zone with an upflowing hydrocarbon feed steam having a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas
component, comprising the steps of:


(a) withdrawing a volume of particulate catalyst from a hydroconversion reaction zone having a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst which is essentially plug-flowing downwardly in the hydroconversion reaction zone and wherein said
withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst includes a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(b) separating said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from said low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(c) admixing said high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture; and


(d) introducing said catalytic mixture of step (c) into said hydroconversion reaction zone of step (a) for increasing upgrading and/or demetallization capabilities of said hydroprocessing catalyst in said substantially packed bed of
hydroprocessing catalyst which is essentially plug-flowing downwardly in said hydroconversion reaction zone of step (a).


The present invention also accomplishes its desired objects by broadly providing a method for reducing the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading a hydrocarbon feed stream (or stated alternatively for extending a life of
hydroprocessing catalyst in a hydroconversion reaction zone) during hydroprocessing by contacting the hydroprocessing catalyst in the hydroconversion reaction zone with an upflowing hydrocarbon feed stream having a liquid component and a
hydrogen-containing gas component.  The reduction of the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required in accordance with the present invention provides or allows for upgrading a hydrocarbon feed stream to essentially the same degree as and/or when
compared to the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading the hydrocarbon feed stream in a once through hydroprocessing catalyst replacement mode.  The method broadly comprises the steps of:


(a) withdrawing a volume of particulate catalyst from a hydroconversion reaction zone having a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst having an initially packed bed volume and which is essentially plug-flowing downwardly in the
hydroconversion reaction zone and wherein the withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst includes a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(b) separating the high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from the low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(c) admixing the high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture having a mixture volume that is less than the withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst; and


(d) introducing subsequently the catalytic mixture into the hydroconversion reaction zone such that the substantially packed bed, which is essentially plug-flowing downwardly in the hydroconversion reaction zone, has a subsequent packed bed
volume that is less than the initially packed bed volume.


In another aspect of the invention, the present invention also accomplishes its desired objects by broadly providing a method for hydroprocessing a hydrocarbon feed stream that is upflowing through a hydroconversion reaction zone having a
substantially packed bed of catalyst comprising the steps of:


(a) forming a plurality of annular mixture zones under a hydroconversion reaction zone having a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst such that each of the annular mixture zones contains a hydrocarbon feed stream having a liquid
component and a hydrogen-containing gas component and wherein the annular mixture zones are concentric with respect to each other and are coaxial with respect to the hydroconversion reaction zone;


(b) introducing the hydrocarbon feed stream from each of the annular mixture zones into the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst to commence upflowing of the hydrocarbon feed stream from each of the annular mixture zones through
the substantially packed bed of the catalyst and to produce a volume of particulate catalyst in the hydroconversion reaction zone having a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(c) withdrawing the volume of particulate catalyst from the hydroconversion reaction zone to commence essentially plug-flowing downwardly the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst within the hydroconversion reaction zone;


(d) separating the high-activity less dense catalytic particulates from the low-activity more dense catalytic particulates;


(e) admixing the high-activity less dense catalytic particulates with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture; and


(f) introducing the catalytic mixture into the hydroconversion reaction zone.


In another broader aspect of the invention, the present invention also accomplishes its desired objects by broadly providing a method for maximally occupying a reactor zone with a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst during
hydroprocessing by contacting the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst with an upflowing hydrocarbon feed stream having a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component.  The method for maximally occupying a reaction zone with a
substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst preferably comprises the steps of:


(a) disposing a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst in a reactor zone having a reactor volume such that the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst occupies at least about 75% by volume of the reactor volume;


(b) upflowing into the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst a hydroprocessing feed stream including a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component and having a rate of flow such that the substantially packed bed of
hydroprocessing catalyst expands to less than 10% by length beyond a substantially full axial length of the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst in a packed bed state;


(c) withdrawing a volume of the hydroprocessing catalyst from the reactor zone to commence essentially plug-flowing downwardly of the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst within the reactor zone; and


(d) adding hydroprocessing replacement catalyst to the essentially plug-flowing downwardly, substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst at a rate to substantially replace the volume of the withdrawn hydroprocessing catalyst.  The
substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst is disposed in the reactor zone within the reactor volume such that the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst maximally occupies the reactor volume.  The substantially packed bed of
hydroprocessing catalyst occupies at least about 50% by volume of the reactor volume; preferably at least about 60% by volume; and more preferably at least about 65% or 70% by volume of the reactor volume.


From the foregoing summary it will be apparent that several significant factors contribute directly to the present invention accomplishing its desired objects, and to the efficient use of a given process reactor vessel to assure non-ebullating,
plug-like flow of a body of catalyst particles therethrough while being contacted by a counter-flowing hydrocarbon fluid stream of gas and liquid at maximum space-velocity.  Among such significant factors are: (i) the size, volume and density
characteristics of such catalyst particles at preselectable flow velocities and pressures of the hydrocarbon fluid stream; (ii) control of catalyst bed ebullation and/or levitation during hydrocarbon and hydrogen fluid flow(s); (iii) laminar flow of the
catalyst particles during movement into and out of the catalyst moving bed for replacement (or regeneration or rejuvenation) without bed ebullation or levitation; (iv) concentric annular feed of alternate rings of the gas and liquid components of the
hydrocarbon feed uniformly into the full moving catalyst bed, which is capable of recovering promptly from upset or pressure changes in the reactor vessel to restore such alternate rings of gas and liquid over process runs of extended length (e.g.
several thousand hours); and (v) redistribution of the gas components along the axial length of the catalyst bed.


It is therefore an object of the present invention to broadly provide a method for reducing the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading a hydrocarbon feed stream (i.e. extending the life of hydroprocessing catalyst in a
hydroconversion reaction zone) to essentially the same degree as and/or when compared to the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading the hydrocarbon feed stream in a once through hydroprocessing catalyst replacement mode.


It is another object of the present invention to broadly provide a method for hydroconversion having lower operational temperatures and including a hydroconversion reaction zone with an adjusted temperature profile, while sustaining or preferably
increasing the hydroconversion capability of a hydroconversion reactor containing the hydroconversion reaction zone.


These, together with the various ancillary objects and features which will become apparent to those skilled in the art as the following description proceeds, are attained by this invention, a preferred embodiment as shown with reference to the
accompanying drawings, by way of example only, wherein: 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS


FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a typical hydroprocessing vessel to which the present invention is particularly directed for on-stream catalyst replacement during continuous plug-like flow of catalyst through up-flowing liquid hydrocarbon feed and
gas streams;


FIG. 2 is a bottom plan view of the concentric and radial catalyst bed support means for a truncated conical or pyramidal screen, taken in the direction of arrows and along the plane of line 2--2 in FIG. 1.;


FIG. 3 is an elevational cross-sectional view of the support means and screen taken in the direction of arrows and along the plane of line 3--3 in FIG. 2;


FIG. 4 is a partial elevational view of an alternate form of a laminar flow arrangement for withdrawing deactivated catalyst particles from the reactor bed;


FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional plan view of the reactor vessel taken in the direction of arrows and along the plane of line 5--5 in FIG. 1 showing a preferred form of gas redistribution and quench system over a central portion of the catalyst bed;


FIG. 6 is a perspective view, partially in cross-section, of one of the quench or redistribution shed units shown in FIG. 5;


FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a preferred arrangement of two tiers of shed units of FIG. 5 at a given level in the catalyst bed;


FIG. 8 is a partial cross-sectional view illustrating a catalytic bed with a plurality of superimposed layers with respect to each other before commencement of a plug-flow;


FIG. 9 is a partial cross-sectional view illustrating a catalytic bed which is moving downwardly in a plug-flow fashion;


FIG. 10 is a partial cross-sectional view of the reactor and a partial perspective view of another embodiment of the catalytic support means;


FIG. 11 is a partial cross-sectional view of the reactor and the catalytic support means of FIG. 10 which includes a plurality of annular mixture zones under the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst with each annular mixture zone
containing a liquid hydrocarbon component and a hydrogen-containing gas component and wherein the annular mixture zones are concentric with respect to each other and are coaxial with respect to the reactor and the substantially packed bed of
hydroprocessing catalyst;


FIG. 12 is the partial cross-sectional view of the reactor and support means in FIG. 11 with the inert pellets, and illustrating ribs or spokes secured to an imperforate center plate and supporting a plurality of segmented plates;


FIG. 13 is another cross-sectional view of the reactor and support means as similarly illustrated in FIG. 12 with a bed of inert pellets having a liquid hydrocarbon component and a hydrogen-containing gas component flowing around the inert
pellets for entering the annular mixture;


FIG. 14 is a schematic view of a hydroprocessing vessel to which another preferred embodiment of the present invention is directed for continuous or periodic or semi-continuous catalyst removal and replacement with a catalyst mixture containing
partial spent catalyst and fresh catalyst, during continuous plug-like flow of catalyst through up-flowing liquid hydrocarbon feed and gas streams;


FIG. 15 is a typical temperature profile of a downflow fixed bed reactor with three equal size reaction zones and operating with a total 80.degree.  F. exothermic temperature rise;


FIG. 16 is a typical temperature profile of an ebullated or expanded bed reactor operating at equilibrium (or steady state conditions) and with a total 80.degree.  F. exothermic temperature rise;


FIG. 17 is a typical temperature profile of an upflow substantially packed bed reactor of the present invention (identified as "OCR") with three equal size reaction zones, operating at equilibrium (or steady conditions) and with the
countercurrent once-through catalyst replacement mode producing a total 80.degree.  F. exothermic temperature rise;


FIG. 18 is a typical temperature profile of an upflow substantially packed bed reactor of the present invention and operating with a total 80.degree.  F. exothermic temperature rise;


FIG. 19 is a typical temperature profile of an upflow substantially packed bed reactor of the present invention (identified as "OCR") with four equal size reaction zones, operating at equilibrium (or steady state conditions) and with
countercurrent 1 to 1 catalyst recycle mode, with a total 80.degree.  F. exothermic temperature rise;


FIG. 20 is a schematic diagram of catalyst density and activity level profile within a packed bed reactor of the present invention with once-through catalyst replacement mode;


FIG. 21 is a schematic diagram of catalyst density and activity level profile within a packed bed reactor of the present invention with 1 to 1 catalyst recycle mode;


FIG. 22 is a schematic view of a preferred embodiment of the catalyst recycle mode of the present invention having spent catalyst withdrawn from a reactor vessel and deposited in a high pressure catalyst transfer vessel;


FIG. 23 is a schematic view of a preferred embodiment of the catalyst recycle mode with the spent catalyst in the high pressure catalyst transfer vessel being washed;


FIG. 24 is a schematic view of a preferred embodiment of the catalyst recycle mode with the spent catalyst in the high pressure catalyst transfer vessel being classified by elutriation after having been washed;


FIG. 25 is a schematic view of a preferred embodiment of the catalyst recycle mode after the spent catalyst in the high pressure catalyst transfer vessel has been classified into high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and low-activity
more dense catalytic particulates and after the low-activity more dense catalytic particulates have been removed from the high pressure catalyst transfer vessel, leaving the high-activity less dense catalytic particulates in the high pressure catalyst
transfer vessel;


FIG. 26 is a schematic view of a preferred embodiment of the catalyst recycle mode after fresh catalyst has been added to the high-activity less dense catalytic particulates in the high pressure catalyst transfer vessel; and


FIG. 27 is a schematic view of a preferred embodiment of the catalyst recycle mode while the added fresh catalyst and the high-activity less dense catalytic particulates are being transferred to the reactor vessel. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
THE INVENTION INCLUDING PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION


Referring in detail now to the drawings, and initially more particularly to FIG. 1, a hydroprocessing system is shown embodying the method of the present invention to increase substantially both the continued catalytic activity of a volume or bed
of catalyst 10 and the efficient use of a single reactor vessel of a given reactor volume, such as reactor vessel 11.  Vessel 11, as indicated by the thickness of its cylindrical side wall 12 and domed closure heads, or ends, 13 and 14, is designed to
react a hydrogen containing gas mixed with a liquid hydrocarbon stream at a pressure of up to about 300 atmospheres (about 4500 lbs per square inch) and up to about 650.degree.  C. (about 1200.degree.  F.).  Such reaction gas and a feed stream of
hydrocarbon liquids are preferably premixed and introduced as a single stream through bottom head 13 by line 16.


To assure maximum catalytic benefit during the hydroprocessing of the hydrocarbon feed stream and the hydrogen-containing gas, it is essential that vessel 11 contain as much catalyst as possible within the design volume of vessel 11.  Accordingly
as indicated, support means 17 for catalyst bed 10 is placed as low as possible in vessel 11 while assuring full and adequate dispersion of the hydrogen phase within the liquid hydrocarbon stream.  At the same time, the upper limit of bed 10 is near the
top of domed head 14, while providing an adequate space 21 for disengaging any entrained catalyst from the resulting products withdrawn through center pipe 18.  To insure that catalyst is not entrained into product fluids exiting through center pipe 18,
a screen 15 may be installed in space 21 above a bed surface 20 defining the top of the catalyst bed 10.  Fresh catalyst is then added to bed surface 20 through pipe 19 extending through screen 15.  Desirably, the upper level or top of the catalyst bed
10, designated as the bed surface 20, is preferably monitored on a continuous basis by gamma ray absorption measurement made possible by a gamma ray source 22 and gamma ray detector 24 positioned in close proximity to the bed surface 20 of catalyst bed
10.  Such a gamma ray source may be in the form of radioactive isotopes, such as Cesium 137, disposed inside the reactor in a specially designed well.  Alternatively the source can be an electrically controllable source, such as a thermal neutron
activated gamma ray generator.  Detector 24 may be in the form of an ionization tube, Geiger-Mueller tube or a scintillation detector.  Suitable sources and detectors are manufactured by Ronan Engineering Co., Texas Nuclear and other vendors.  By
detecting the level of surface 20, it is possible, in accordance with the invention, to insure that the catalyst inventory is maintained at the optimum level and that the reactor is never overfilled.


Overfilling the reactor increases the chance that catalyst particles will be crushed in the isolation valves in the transfer lines when they are closed, at the end of each transfer.  Bed level indication is also needed to confirm that ebullation
of the bed is minimized and that undesirable excursions from the design flow rate for hydrogen and hydrocarbon feed flowing upwardly through bed 10 are avoided for the selected catalyst.  To this end, the size, shape, and density of catalyst particles
supplied to the bed are selected in accordance with the designed maximum rate of flow of the feed streams to prevent such ebullation.  Such control assures that bed 10 progressively moves down through vessel 11 in layers as by a plug flow.  A "plug flow"
of the catalyst bed 10 is illustrated in FIGS. 8 and 9 and may be best described as when a lowermost volumetric layer A is removed, the next volumetric layer B flows downwardly to replace the lowermost volumetric layer B and assumes a new position as a
lowermost volumetric layer B. The removed lowermost volumetric layer A is replaced with an upper volumetric layer J. The procedure is again repeated (as best shown by the dotted line representations in FIG. 9) by removing the lowermost volumetric layer B
and causing the next volumetric layer C to flow downwardly in a plug-like fashion to replace the lowermost volumetric layer B and assume a new position as a lowermost volumetric layer C. The removed lowermost volumetric layer B is replaced with an upper
volumetric layer K. The procedure may be continually repeated to define a downwardly plug-flowing catalyst bed 10 which is moving in direction of arrow W in FIG. 9.  The procedure to determine whether or not a catalyst bed 10 is plug-flowing may be by
any suitable procedure.  For example, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention wherein metals (e.g. vanadium) are being removed from a hydrocarbon feed stream, the catalyst bed 10 is plug-flowing if a catalytic sample (e.g. 15 catalytic
particulates) from withdrawn catalyst is analyzed and it is found through elemental metal analysis that the catalytic sample has a uniform high metal load, preferably at least about 1.5 times more than the average metal load of the catalyst bed 10, and
more preferably at least about 2.0 times more than the average metal load of the catalyst bed 10.  Those possessing the ordinary skill in the art can determine the average load of the catalyst bed 10 from the total amount of metals removed from the
hydrocarbon feed stream, the weight of the catalytic bed 10, etc.


It is to be understood that whenever the specification or the claims states or mentions any type of catalyst movement or catalyst bed 10 movement (e g "removing", "moving", "supplying", "replacing", "delivering", "flow", "flowing", "transfer",
"transferring", "addition", "adding", "admixing", etc.) for any type or mixture of catalyst without stating or mentioning the basis, the basis for such type of catalyst or catalyst bed movement may be on any type of basis, such as "intermittent basis",
"periodic basis", "continuous basis", "semi-continuous basis", etc. Thus, by way of example only, removal of lowermost volumetric catalytic layers and addition of upper volumetric catalytic layers may be on a "periodic basis", "a continuous basis", or
even "a one time basis", all without affecting the spirit and scope of the present invention(s).  It is to be also understood that the "removal" or "withdrawal" of catalyst and the "addition" or "replacement" of catalyst are mutually exclusive of each
other and may be performed simultaneously or at different times without affecting the spirit and scope and of the present invention(s).  Preferably, the "addition", or "replacement" of catalyst is performed after the "removal" or "withdrawal" of catalyst
and after the catalyst bed 10 has moved downwardly into a non-moving state or non-moving posture.


Catalysts are selected utilizing data acquired by measuring bed expansion, such as in a large pilot plant run, with hydrocarbon, hydrogen and catalyst as described below and illustrated in Example 2.  To further assure that plug flow continues
throughout the full length of the bed, and particularly at the bottom portion, bed support means 17 is particularly characterized by the truncated polygonal or conical configuration of support means 17.


As shown in the preferred embodiment of FIGS. 2 and 3, and as best seen in FIG. 2, support 17 includes a series of annular polygons, approaching the form of annular rings, formed by a plurality of segment plates 27 between radial ribs or spokes
26 extending from imperforate center plate 25 to sidewall 12 of vessel 11.  As shown in FIG. 3, spokes 26 may be any suitable geometric shape, such as rod-like (see FIG. 3) or substantially flat plates (see FIG. 10), which divide the circumference of the
vessel into many segments (eight in this case) and similarly support the ends of outer octagonal ring 23 of support means 17 formed by annular or circumferential plates 27.  In each case, radial ribs or spokes 26, and annular segment plates 27 form a
plurality of concentric rings, or annular polygons which support conical, or pyramidal, perforated plate or screen 28.  Thus screen 28 is permeable to both gas and liquid rising from the lower portion of vessel 11.


In one preferred embodiment of the particular merit of the concentric annular polygons as illustrated in FIG. 3, the interconnected plates 27 form a plurality of ring-like structures extending generally axially parallel to the sidewall 12 with
the radial ribs or spokes 26 radially extending towards the sidewall 12 of reactor vessel 11.  The mixture of the hydrocarbon liquid feed and hydrogen gas that is to enter the catalyst bed 10 separates by gravity into radially alternate gas and liquid
rings, made up of adjacent segments between each pair or radial spokes 26.  Thus, both phases flow upwardly through alternate concentric annular passages under screen 28.  The preferential separation of gas from liquid in each ring includes an annular
cap segment of gas overlying an adjacent lower annular segment filled with liquid.  Hence, both fluids have equal, and angularly adjacent, access to the bed through screen 28.  The plurality of alternate annular rings of hydrogen gas and hydrocarbon
liquid assure even and equal feed of both phases across the full cross-sectional area of screen 28 into bed 10.  Among other factors, we have particularly found that this configuration insures even and equal distribution across the full cross-sectional
area of the catalyst bed.  Such equal distribution across the full diameter of the bed 10, permits a quiescent flow section to form directly above center plate 25 which truncates conical bed support means 17.  This decreases substantially potential local
ebullation or eddy currents from being induced in the catalyst bed at the point of catalyst withdrawal through inlet 30 of inverted J-tube 29 to assure localized laminar flow of catalyst and liquid from within bed 10.


Uniform feed of the mixture of the hydrocarbon feed stream and hydrogen is particularly facilitated to the inlet side of plates 27 of support means 17 through plenum or inlet chamber 33 enclosed between support 17 and circular plate member 31,
which extends across the full cross-sectional area of vessel 11.  The circular plate member 31 defines a grid-like structure for supporting a permeable screen 6 having one or more openings, as best shown in FIGS. 11, 12 and 13.  As further best shown in
FIGS. 11, 12 and 13, the permeable screen 6 supports a bed 3 of a plurality of inert pellets 4 (e.g. alumina pellets) which are sized not to pass through the openings in the permeable screen 6, to prevent eddy currents in the plenum chamber 33, and to
keep bubbles of hydrogen-containing gas diffused within the hydrocarbon feed streams.  Plate 31 includes a multiplicity of similar large diameter tubes 32 forming openings through plate 31.  Each tube is several inches in diameter and extends axially to
a similar depth, say on the order of 4 to 6 inches, below plate 31.  Tubes 32 provide equal access to the mixture of hydrogen and hydrocarbon feed stream into plenum chamber 33.  Even distribution of the incoming feed stream into bottom header 35 from
feed line 16 may also be assisted by deflector plate 34 to assure that oversized bubbles of hydrogen that may be contained in the feed stream will be equally distributed across the full cross-sectional area of plate 31 and equally distributed to each of
tubes 32 for flow into plenum chamber 33.  The length of tubes 32 may be selected to form a suitable gas head under plate 31 to suppress surges in the feed streams entering header 35.


As noted above, the vertical, transverse width or axial length of plates 27 which set off each individual annular and radial segment, provide equal access to both hydrogen and liquid feed into catalyst bed 10, and stepped under screen 28 so that
they effectively form rings of gas and hydrocarbon feed alternately across the full diameter at the inlet side of catalyst bed 10.  In this way, no single area of the inlet to catalyst bed 10 becomes a segregated or preferential, flow path for either gas
or the liquid.  Further, if pressure surges result in full wetting of screen 28 by the liquid phase, recovery of gas flow is assisted by the areal breadth of each segment between plates 27 and radial plates 26.


In another preferred embodiment of the particular merit of the concentric annular polygons as illustrated in FIGS. 10, 11, 12 and 13, there is seen a liquid hydrocarbon component LH and a hydrogen-containing gas component HG (hydrogen-containing
gas bubbles) entering as an LH--HG mixture into the plenum chamber 33 from tubes 32.  The LH--HG mixture is introduced into the plenum chamber 33.  In this preferred embodiment of the present invention, the annular or circumferential plates 27 are
secured to and are supported by the radial ribs or spokes 26, each of which has a vertical or transverse width that is essentially equal to the vertical or transverse width of the annular or circumferential plates 27.  The radial ribs or spokes 26 also
function as a means for reducing a size of hydrogen-containing gas bubbles, especially over-size hydrogen-containing gas bubbles from the hydrogen-containing gas component HG.  Those skilled in the art will readily recognize that the number of radial
ribs or spokes 26 employed will depend on a number of factors, such as the anticipated number of over-size hydrogen-containing gas bubbles in the upwardly flowing hydrocarbon feed stream, the weight of the catalyst bed 10, etc. The interconnected plates
27 and radial ribs or spokes 26 form a web or web-like structure defining a plurality of annular mixture zones, generally illustrated as MZ in FIGS. 10 and 11.  The annular mixture zones MZ are essentially continuous or are generally endless annular
mixture zones MZ, and may contain or be subdivided into any reasonable desired number of mixture zones (or sub-mixture zones), such as MZ.sub.1, MZ.sub.2, MZ.sub.3, MZ.sub.4, MZ.sub.5, and MZ.sub.6 in FIGS. 10 and 11.  Each of the individual mixture
zones MZ.sub.1, MZ.sub.2, MZ.sub.3, MZ.sub.4, MZ.sub.5, and MZ.sub.6 is for all practical purposes an annularly continuous or endless mixture zone of uniform thickness, excepting a periodic interruption by radially ribs 26, which are relatively narrow
vis-a-vis the spaced distance between any pair of contiguous ribs 26--26.  As evident in FIGS. 10, 11, 12 and 13, concentric with mixture zone MZ.sub.1 and as a partial bottom to same is imperforate center plate 25, which is preferably spaced from and
off of the plate 31 and the screen 6 such that inert pellets 4 may be supported by the screen 6 and the plate 31 immediately underneath the imperforate center plate 25.  Mixture zone MZ.sub.1 is essentially a cylindrical annular mixture zone with an open
top and boundaries defined by the space between a plurality of interengaged and coupled plates 27.sub.1 s and the perimeter of the imperforate center plate 25.


The plurality of annular mixture zones MZ (or the annularly continuous or endless mixture zones MZ.sub.2 s, MZ.sub.3 s, MZ.sub.4 s, MZ.sub.5 s, and MZ.sub.6 s) under the catalyst bed 10 are concentric with respect to each other and are coaxial
with respect to the reactor vessel 11 and the catalyst bed 10.  The plates 27 may be radially spaced from each other at any suitable distance (preferably of uniform distance) to assist in accomplishing the desired objects of the present invention;
however, preferably the plates 27 are radially spaced from each other at a generally uniform thickness or distance that ranges from about 1 inch to about 4 feet, more preferably from about 6 inches to about 3 feet, most preferably from about 1 foot to
about 2 feet.  The radially spaced relationship between and among the plates 27 generally defines a uniform thickness for each of the mixture zones (i.e. MZ.sub.2 s, MZ.sub.3 s, etc.).  It is to be understood that while the plurality of annular mixture
zones MZ is represented in FIGS. 2, 3, 10, 11, 12 and 13 as being a plurality of non-circular geometric-shaped zones (e.g. octagonal in FIGS. 2), the spirit and scope of the present invention includes that the plurality mixture zones MZ may comprise any
geometric-shaped zones including not only polygonal-shaped zones, but also a plurality of concentric circular mixture zones, etc., all of which would also be concentric with respect to each other and coaxial with respect to the reactor vessel 11 and/or
the catalyst bed 10 (or the hydroconversion reaction zone).


Therefore, the plates 27 function to form generally uniform thick and essentially circular bands of concentric hydrocarbon feed streams that are also coaxial with respect to the catalyst bed 10.  By way of example only and as best shown in FIGS.
2 and 10, angular mixture zone MZ.sub.2 is defined by the eight (8) interengaged or intercoupled plates 27.sub.1 s and the eight (8) interengaged or intercoupled plates 27.sub.2 s. The eight (8) plates 27.sub.1 s and the eight (8) plates 27.sub.2 s each
form an unallied boundary for the essentially circular band of hydrocarbon feed stream in mixture zone MZ.sub.2.  Because the spacing or distance between plates 27.sub.1 s and 27.sub.2 s is generally circumferentially uniform, the thickness or size of
the essentially circular band of hydrocarbon feed stream in mixture zone MZ.sub.2 is essentially uniform transversely and/or equal in transverse or horizontal cross section.  Similarly, mixture zone MZ.sub.6 is defined by the eight (8) interengaged or
intercoupled plates 27.sub.5 s and the eight (8) interengaged or intercoupled plates 27.sub.6 s, the combination of which form unallied boundaries for the essentially circular band of hydrocarbon feed stream in mixture zone MZ.sub.6.  As was previously
similarly indicated for plates 27.sub.1 s and 27.sub.2 s, because the spacing or distance between plates 27.sub.5 s and 27.sub.6 s is generally circumferentially uniform, the thickness or size of the circular band of hydrocarbon feed stream in mixture
zone MZ.sub.6 is essentially uniform transversely and/or equal in transverse or horizontal cross section.  Plates 27.sub.2, 27.sub.3, 27.sub.4, and 27.sub.5 similarly functionally unallied and intercouple to define unallied boundaries for mixture zones
MZ.sub.3, MZ.sub.4, and MZ.sub.5.  As indicated and as best shown in FIG. 2, ribs 26 extend radially from imperforate center plate 25 and planarly represent visually pie-shaped segments.  Between any pair of contiguous ribs 26--26, the lengths of the
respective plates 27 increase from plate 27.sub.1 to or towards plate 27.sub.6 while the widths are essentially the same as best shown in FIG. 3.  Thus, plate 27.sub.2 is longer than plate 27.sub.1 while possessing the identical approximate width. 
Likewise: plate 27.sub.3 is longer than plate 27.sub.2, plate 27.sub.4 is longer than 27.sub.3, plate 27.sub.5 is longer than plate 27.sub.4, and plate 27.sub.6 is longer than plate 27.sub.5, while all the plates 27 simultaneously have generally the same
width or the same longitudinal extension below the screen 28 (see FIG. 3).  Thus, the vertical dimensions or the widths of the plates 27 (i.e. the structural extensions of the plates 27 that are generally parallel to the longitudinal axis of the reactor
vessel 11 and/or the catalyst bed 10 therein) are generally equal.  All plates 27 are preferably spaced such that the hydrocarbon feed stream flows parallel to the longitudinal axis of the catalyst bed 10 before contacting and entering the same.  Both
the upper edges and lower edges of plates 27.sub.1 s, 27.sub.2 s, 27.sub.3 s, 27.sub.4 s, 27.sub.5 s, and 27.sub.6 s are all at a different level or height, as best shown in FIGS. 3 and 11.  The mixture zones MZ differ from a plurality of tubes,
conduits, or pipe-like passages for introducing an essentially complete or essentially total integral cylindrical hydrocarbon feed stream into the catalytic bed 10.  As best shown in FIGS. 3 and 11, the upper and lower edges of plates 27.sub.1 s are at a
different level or height than the upper and lower edges of plates 27.sub.2 s which are at a different level or height than the upper and lower edges of plates 27.sub.3 s. Similarly, the upper and lower edges of plates 27.sub.3 s are at a different level
or height than the upper and lower edges of plates 27.sub.4 s which are at a different level or height than the upper and lower edges of plates 27.sub.5 s. The upper and lower edges of the latter are at a different level or height than the upper and
lower edges of plates 27.sub.6 s.


After the LH--HG mixture enters and flows through the screen 6 into the plenum chamber 33, the flowing LH--HG mixture enters into each of the generally continuous annular mixture zones MZ.sub.2 s, MZ.sub.3 s, etc. for dividing or separating the
flowing LH--HG mixture into a plurality of flowing generally continuous annular LH--HG mixtures, which have been designated LH--HG.sub.2, LH--HG.sub.3, LH--HG.sub.4, LH-HG.sub.5 and LH--HG.sub.6 in FIG. 11.  As was previously indicated, the mixture zone
MZ.sub.1 is also basically an annular or cylindrical shaped mixture zone defined by the space between the perimeter of the imperforate center plate 25 and intercoupled segmented plates 27.sub.1 s and receives hydrocarbon feed stream (i.e. hydrocarbon
liquid feed and/or hydrogen gas) in and through the space by which it is being defined.  In a preferred embodiment of the present invention and as best shown in FIG. 13, before the flowing LH--HG mixture enters into each of the generally continuous
annular mixture zones MZ.sub.1 s, MZ.sub.2 s, MZ.sub.3 s, etc. the LH--HG mixture flows around the plurality of inert pellets 4 in zig-zag fashions for reducing the possibility of eddy currents and for keeping bubbles of hydrogen gas diffused within the
liquid hydrocarbon and preventing agglomeration of same into larger size bubbles.  The hydrocarbon feed stream entering into mixture zone MZ.sub.1 is designated LH--HG.sub.1.  The plurality of LH--HG mixtures (i.e. LH--HG.sub.1, LH--HG.sub.2, etc.) pass
through the screen 28 and respectively enter into the catalyst bed 10 from each of the mixture zones (i.e. MZ.sub.1 s, MZ.sub.2 s, MZ.sub.3 s, etc.) at a flow rate such as not to ebullate, levitate or expand the catalyst bed 10 upwardly and/or towards
the screen 15 and the domed head 14 by more than 10% by length beyond substantially the full axial length of the bed catalyst 10 in a packed bed state, such as the packed bed state reflected in FIG. 8.  The plurality of generally continuous annular
LH--HG mixtures flow upwardly through screen 28 and into the catalyst bed 10.  The catalyst bed 10 in the present invention preferably comprises catalyst particles which are substantially the same and/or uniform size, shape, and density and which are
selected in accordance with the average optimum velocity of the hydrocarbon feed stream (i.e. a mixture of a liquid hydrocarbon component LH and a hydrogen-containing gas component HG, or the continuous annular LH--HG mixtures) flowing into the plenum
chamber 33 and subsequently into and through the plurality of mixture zones MZ.sub.2 s, MZ.sub.3 s, etc. The rates of flow of the plurality of the respective LH--HG mixtures (i.e. LH--HG.sub.1, LH--HG.sub.2, etc.) from the respective mixture zones
MZ.sub.1 s, MZ.sub.2 s, etc., and thus also the flow rates of the hydrocarbon feed stream into plenum chamber 3 from and through line 16, are all to be controlled in an amount and to an extent sufficient to maintain expansion or levitation of the
catalyst bed 10 to less than 10% by length over or beyond substantially the full axial length of the bed 10 in a packed bed state.  More preferably, the expansion of the substantially packed bed of catalyst is limited to less than 5%, most preferably
less than 2% or even less than 1%, by length over or beyond substantially the full axial length of the bed 10 in a packed bed state.  Ideally the expansion of the substantially packed bed of catalyst is limited to essentially 0% by length.


The flow rate of the hydrocarbon feed stream through line 16 is to be at a rate not substantially greater than the optimum rate of flow.  The optimum rate of process fluid flow through the substantially packed bed of catalyst will vary from
process unit to process unit based on several factors including oil and hydrogen feed characteristics, catalyst specifications, process objectives, etc. Based on catalyst particles having substantially the same and/or uniform size, shape and density, the
flow rate of the hydrocarbon feed stream preferably ranges from about 0.01 ft/sec to about 10.00 ft/sec and more preferably from about 0.01 ft/sec to about 1.00 ft/sec. Similarly and/or likewise and further based on the catalyst particles having
substantially the same and/or uniform size, shape, and density, the flow rate of the continuous annular LH--HG mixtures (i.e. the summation of the flow rates for LH--HG.sub.1 through LH--HG.sub.6 from mixture zones MZ.sub.1 s through MZ.sub.2 s
respectively in FIG. 11) is to be at a rate not substantially greater than the optimum rate of flow, preferably ranging from about 0.01 ft/sec to about 10.00 ft/sec, and more preferably from about 0.01 ft/sec to about 1.00 ft/sec. The specific flow rate
would depend as indicated on a number of variables, such as the particular application (e.g. demetallation or desulfurization etc.) of the hydroprocessing process.  The specific flow rates however would be at any suitable rate controlled in an amount and
to an extent sufficient to limit expansion of the substantially packed bed of catalyst to less than 10% by length over or beyond a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst in a packed bed state.  In a preferred embodiment of the invention and
for such a flow rate for the hydrocarbon feed stream and for such a flow rate for the continuous annular LH--HG mixtures, the catalyst particles preferably have the substantially same and/or uniform size, shape and density in order to obtain over the
desired demetallization and/or desulfurization of the liquid hydrocarbon component LH in the hydrocarbon feed stream (i.e. LH--HC mixture) into produced hydrogen upgraded product fluids that are being withdrawn from the reactor vessel 11 through the
center pipe 18.  At the above indicated flow rates for the hydrocarbon feed stream flowing through line 16, and for the flow rates for the generally continuous annular LH--HG mixtures (i.e. LH--HG.sub.1, LH--HG.sub.2, etc.), the produced upgraded product
fluids are being preferably withdrawn through the center pipe 18 from the reactor vessel 11 at a rate ranging from about 0.01 ft/sec to about 10.00 ft/sec and more preferably from about 0.01 ft/sec to about 1.00 ft/sec. The withdrawal rate(s) of the
produced upgraded product fluids is not to be greater than the optimum rate of flow and will also vary from process unit to process unit based on several factors including oil and hydrogen feed characteristics, catalyst specifications, process
objectives, etc. The specific withdrawal rate(s) would be any suitable withdrawal rate, controlled in an amount and to an extent sufficient to prevent and/or limit expansion of the substantially packed bed of catalyst to less than 10% (more preferably
less than 5%, most preferably less than 2% or even less than 1%) by length over or beyond substantially the full axial length of the bed 10 in a packed bed state.


The arrangement in inlet distributor 31 for uniformly distributing hydrogen gas and liquid hydrocarbon feed as shown in FIG. 3 may be modified by lengthening or shortening tubes 32, forming uniformly distributed cylindrical passageways into
plenum chamber 33.  A particular advantage of using tubes 32, as compared to merely perforations or holes of adequate diameter, lies in the formation of a gas pocket under plate 31 in the areas around the individual tubes 32.  We have found that this is
desirable because such a gas pocket trapped beneath tray or plate 31 provides pressure surge dampening, which may result from flow changes of the mixture of hydrogen and liquid being supplied to the reactor vessel.  However, the length of the tubes 32 is
maintained as short as reasonably possible to so function.  Again, this is because of the desirability of utilizing as little as possible of all processing space available in vessel 11 for anything but contacting the feed streams with conversion
catalyst.  A particular advantage to using tubes 32, as compared to a combination of tubes and perforations, is that the designed flow distribution pattern is maintained over a wider range of flow rates.  With tubes and perforations, gas normally flows
up the perforations and liquid flows up the tubes.  However, gas will find new flow paths through the tubes if the gas flow increases or the perforations become plugged, resulting in undesigned and potentially undesirable flow patterns.


To further assist in maintenance of plug-like flow of catalyst bed 10 throughout its axial length, there is additionally provided in a preferred form or embodiment of the invention a plurality of axially spaced apart hydrogen gas redistribution
or hydrogen gas-quenching stages 39 within bed 10.  In the arrangement of FIG. 1, the location of one of the gas redistribution stages 39 is illustrated by the single inverted angle member 40 extending transverse to the axis of bed 10.  The details of
quench system 39 are best seen in FIGS. 5 to 7 where a plurality of inverted V-shaped sheds 40 (i.e. inverted angle members 40) are equally distributed over at least one transverse row extending generally across the cross-sectional area of vessel 11.  As
shown in FIG. 6 and in FIG. 7, a gas injection line 42 feeds an elongated tube 41 extending through each individual shed 40 from a header 44 and branch lines 45 supplying the individual tubes 41.  Desirably, but not necessarily, a second tier of sheds 40
is axially spaced above the first tier, with the sheds 40 in each tier being positioned at 90 degree(s) to the other tier, as shown in FIG. 7.  Construction of an individual shed 40 is best seen in FIG. 6, wherein distribution pipe 41 includes a
plurality of discharge holes 48, desirably proportioned to give equal distribution of hydrogen gas along the full length of tube 41.  Desirably, holes 48 are on the top side of tube 41 so that gas leaving the tube is forced to flow downwardly within shed
40 to join gas rising from bed 10 under the area enclosed by the V-sides 49 of shed 40.  Preferably, the full length of each skirt formed by sides 49 includes equally spaced slots 50 to exhaust both rising gas from bed 10 and quench gas entering from
line 42.  A particular value of the present arrangement is that gas which may have become channeled in a portion of the bed below the quench system can be redistributed across the full cross-sectional area of the bed to further avoid generation of local
hot spots, eddy currents, or ebullation, within the upper portion of bed 10.  In accordance with another significant aspect of the present invention, FIG. 1 shows a catalyst replacement system, which in general comprises a series of lock chambers for
transferring fresh catalyst into bed 10 through a pair of pressure lock chambers, including charging vessel 60 and supply vessel 70.  A similar series of lock chambers, including discharge vessel 80 and disposal vessel 90, transfer catalyst out of bed
10.  If necessary, a single pair of vessels could be used to charge and discharge the catalyst, although the piping and sequencing procedure would be more complex.  In both cases, transfer flow is specifically designed to be as a liquid slurry and
laminar to avoid undue abrasion of catalyst particles going into reactor vessel 11 and to avoid abrupt agitation of the overlying bed of particles, with consequent ebullation and eddying of catalyst or fines in bed 10, when catalyst is withdrawn through
inlet 30 of J-tube 29 at the bottom of reactor vessel 11.


To achieve laminar flow for supply of catalyst from charging vessel 60 to the top of reactor vessel 11 or for catalyst removal from the bottom of bed 10 to discharge vessel 80, it is essential that the pressure differential between reactor vessel
11 and vessels 60 or 80, be accurately controlled as by detecting the pressure differences between supply line 61 or discharge line 82 and reactor vessel 11.  The pressure difference is best zero when shut-off valves 64 or 84 are first opened or closed. 
The pressure differences between vessel 11 and line 61 is measured by gage 63 and pressure detectors 62 and 65.  Differential pressure gage 83 and detectors 81 and 85 serve a similar function to control transfer of catalyst through valve 84 from the
bottom of reactor vessel 11 to discharge vessel 80.


With reference particularly to supply of catalyst from vessel 60, it will be understood, of course, that the vessel 60 is capable of being brought to a slightly higher pressure than the operating pressure of reactor vessel 11, and closely
controlled to assure that catalyst supplied to vessel 60 from supply vessel 70 is by laminar flow.  For this purpose, as indicated, vessels 70 and 60 are at atmospheric pressure, catalyst is first introduced into supply vessel 70 by way of funnel 100
through line 101 and valve 102, and nitrogen is preferably flushed through supply vessel 70 through line 106 and/or line 71 to eliminate air and moisture that may be present on the catalyst.  Either before or after catalyst is introduced, vessel 70 is
charged with a distillate hydrocarbon stream, preferably gas oil, to provide the necessary slurrying liquid for mixing and transporting catalyst.  This may either be through funnel 100, valve 102, and line 101, or through line 104, valve 105 and line
106.  Valve 102 is then closed and the catalyst is then preferably heated to dehydrate and eliminate water from the catalyst.  It is to be understood that whenever the specification or the claims states, mentions, or implies "mixing" or "admixing" or
"commingling", or any of the like, including of any type(s) of catalyst, such stated, mentioned, or implied verbiage means within the spirit and scope of the present invention any type of "mixing" or "admixing" or "commingling" or any of the like,
including any incidental mixing or any otherwise non-thorough/non-homogeneous mixing.  Preferably, however, any type of "mixing" or "admixing" or "commingling", or any of the like, will be essentially thorough and/or essentially homogeneous.  An
important requirement is that before transferring liquid to the charging vessel 60, the pressure in supply vessel 70 must be equalized to that in charging vessel 60, assuming, of course, that isolation valve 64 between vessel 60 and the reactor vessel 11
is closed, and also that valves 67, 68 and 78 are closed.  With valves 64, 67, 68, 78 and 102 closed and pressure equalized between the vessels 60 and 70, transfer valve 75 may be opened to provide the same diameter path for the catalyst slurry to flow
throughout the path from J-tube 71 to vessel 60.  The transfer is closely controlled by regulating the nitrogen gas flow rate and pressure introduced from line 104 through valve 105.  The pressure and flow rate are just sufficient to assure the desired
laminar flow of catalyst into inlet 72 of J-tube 71 and thus upwardly through line 76 and into charging vessel 60, which forms a catalyst charging vessel.  Laminar flow to transfer catalyst through J-tube 71 is entirely in the liquid phase, with the
catalyst as a slurry in the gas oil.  Transfer of all catalyst is assisted by the funnel shape of bottom 79 of vessel 70, and the position of intake 72 to J-tube 71 at the apex of bottom 79.  If all the catalyst in vessel 70 is transferred to vessel 60,
flush oil from vessel 70 will naturally clear all the catalyst out of line 76.  However, to assure that all such catalyst has passed through valve 75 (so that valve 75 need not close on hard, abrasive catalyst with potential danger of scoring the valve
75 or the valve seat therein) additional flush fluid is preferably introduced from line 77 through valve 78 to clear line 76, either back into vessel 70, or forward into vessel 60.  With catalyst thus loaded into vessel 60, a similar procedure is used
for transferring catalyst under laminar flow conditions as a liquid slurry into reactor vessel 11 through supply pipe 61 for distribution to the top 20 of bed 10.  If desired, of course, a deflector plate (not shown) may be used to distribute catalyst
evenly across the top of catalyst bed 20.  However, we have found that such a distribution aid is not required.  In the transfer of catalyst from the charging vessel 60 to reactor vessel 11, it will be understood that the pressure in vessel 60 is brought
to the pressure of reactor vessel 11.  This is done by injecting process hydrogen through valve 67.  The oil should be heated to a temperature as close as possible to the temperature of reactants in vessel 11, without vaporizing the oil.  We have found
this to be particularly important to minimize any disturbance of the hydroprocessing process when fresh catalyst is added to an onstream reactor vessel, such as reactor vessel 11.  Once these requirements are met, valve 64 should be opened for transfer. 
The actual laminar transfer of the liquid slurry is controlled by valve 67 throttling the flow and pressure of hydrogen admitted from line 66.  After transfer of the catalyst, valve 68 in flush line 69 is opened briefly to assure that any catalyst left
in lines 61 and 19 is cleared before valve 64 is closed, for the reasons noted before.  Excess hydrogen pressure in vessel 60 may be relieved in a controlled manner via a suitable bleed line running back to the common hydrogen source (not shown) of the
hydroprocessing system.  Substantially continuous or intermittent transfer of deactivated catalyst for regeneration or disposal from the bottom of catalyst bed 10 in reactor vessel 11 to discharge vessel 80 is controlled in the same manner.  As in all
transfer of catalyst throughout the system of the present invention depicted in FIG. 1, the flow path from inlet 30 of J-tube 29, through line 82, including the bore of valve 84, is uniform in cross-sectional area and diameter.  Similarly, transfer from
discharge vessel 80 to disposal vessel 90 is through inlet 89 of J-tube 8 6 to discharge outlet 98 of line 92, including valve 94, into vessel 90.  Deactivated catalyst is transferred laminarly from the bottom of the catalyst bed 10 as a slurry in the
hydrocarbon feed stream which, as previously mentioned, comprises the liquid hydrocarbon feed stream or a mixture of hydrocarbon liquid feed and hydrogen-containing gas.  Typically, the catalyst is transferred essentially in the liquid hydrocarbon feed
stream (i.e. the liquid component of the hydrocarbon feed stream).


In general the diameter of these laminar flow passageways are at least five times, and may be as high as fifty or more times, the diameter of the individual particles to be passed therethrough.  In this connection to avoid jamming or obstruction,
the inlets 72, 109, 30, 89 and 99 into their respective tubes 71, 108, 29, 86 and 96 are not flared or otherwise restricted, or perforated, so that all flow is solely and directly through the full and equal bore of such inlets.  In the case of catalyst
removal from reactor vessel 11, inlet 30 of tube 29 is positioned at and over unperforated center plate 25 of catalyst support screen means 17, so that it is out of the direct flow of any hydrogen gas stream rising through the innermost annular
passageway formed by walls 27 and radial ribs or spokes 26.  This assures that flow into entry 30 is substantially a liquid only slurry mixture with catalyst particles.  Such a mixture at laminar flow conditions produces maximum carrying capacity of the
fluid.  Additionally, the external dimensions of the circular bend or arc portion of the J-section of the tube 29 is several times the diameter of inlet 30 and the connected flow path, including the downwardly directed portion.  The portion of tube 29
above inlet 30 is many times shorter and smaller in volume than the remainder of J-tube 29, down to, and including, control valve 84.  A particular advantage of keeping this portion of tube 29 small is to avoid the necessity of forcing substantial
amounts of catalyst back into the bed 11 against the gravity head of catalyst bed 10 when that portion of the line is cleared at the end of each transfer.  Desirably, during periods when the catalyst is not being transferred, a small amount of hydrogen
may be continually bled through valve 88 into bed 10 through J-tube 29 to assure that catalyst particles do not clog entry 30.  This avoids potential build up of coke at entry 30 of pipe 29.  Such an arrangement assures that catalyst can be withdrawn by
laminar flow without artificially fluidizing or levitating bed 10 directly adjacent to J-tube entry 30.  Because gravity drainage of catalyst by an opening through the center of the catalyst support screen means 17 is not required in the present
arrangement, as in the prior art, it is possible to operate the entire system without use of solids handling valves.  Accordingly, each of the transfer valves in the present arrangement are preferably conventional ball valves formed with a single through
bore in a rotatable ball.  Specifically, we have found that conventional valves used to feed and control flow of hydrocarbons, catalyst and hydrogen, into and out of the vessel 11, must seal against high pressure differentials between the vessel and the
transfer vessels.  For this service, a solid satellite, spherical-ball valve having a through bore of the same diameter as the inlet and outlet lines to the valve and metal-to-metal seals, provides superior service when used in the catalyst transfer
lines for carrying out the method of the present invention.  Further, their commercial cost and ready availability for such severity of service makes them most useful economically, both for initial installation and for service replacement.  Valves
manufactured by The Kaymr and Mogas Companies, called full-port valves are particularly useful in the present embodiment.  Further, the arrangement permits transfer of catalyst almost exclusively in a liquid phase which substantially reduces abrasion or
comminution of catalyst particles during transfer.  Additionally, exclusion of entrained gas substantially improves the efficiency of liquid transfer of catalyst particles and further reduces potential damage to the catalyst.


FIG. 4 illustrates a partial view of the bottom of pyramidal catalyst bed support means 17 showing an alternate system for transferring catalyst in a laminarly flowing liquid.  In this embodiment, an L-valve is formed by vertical tube 54 and
horizontal tube 52 for withdrawing catalyst particles from the bottom of bed 10.  As shown, intake 56 is preferably directly above the central, non-perforated, section 25 of the truncated pyramid formed by support means 17.  While such an arrangement is
less preferred than that shown in the embodiment of FIG. 1, such an arrangement is made suitable by the fact that the slurry of liquid and catalyst can be made to flow only under laminar flow conditions.  With either the J-tube of FIG. 1, or the L-valve
of FIG. 4, arrangements, the pressure in discharge vessel 80 is brought up to equal that in reactor vessel 11.  Valve 84 is opened and catalyst flow is controlled, as seen in FIG. 1, by regulating flow through valve 93.  Such flow decreases the
gas-pressure in discharge vessel 80 and line 82 sufficiently to induce a laminar flow of catalyst particles from vessel 11 when transfer valve 84 is opened.  After valve 84 has been flushed with vacuum gas oil through valve 88 and line 87 and then
closed.  The pressure in vessel 80 is then reduced to a lower pressure (about 50 psig or less).  The residuum is drained from discharge vessel 80 through drain line 120, below J-tube 86 and conical screen 121.  Flush oil is then sent in through valve 93
to wash residuum off the catalyst and to cool the catalyst.  The discharge vessel 80 can be drained and filled as many times as needed.  The pressure in disposal vessel 90 is made equal to that in vessel 80 and valve 94 is opened.  The flow and pressure
are then controlled through valve 110 to induce laminar flow of catalyst through J-tube 86 and into disposal vessel 90.  Valve 94 is flushed with flush oil through valve 107 and closed.  The contents of the disposal vessel 90 is preferably washed and
cooled with flush oil which is then drained through drain line 122 below conical screen 123.  The spent catalyst contents of the disposal vessel 90 is then washed with water if desired through valve 110.  The disposal vessel 90 should be purged of any
hydrogen by sending in nitrogen gas also through valve 110.  Finally, disposal vessel 90 is nearly depressurized and the catalyst is dumped using water as the carrier fluid through J-tube 96 by nitrogen flow through valve 110 to control the rate of
catalyst flow in discharge pipe 124.


Referring broadly now (a detailed reference is presented below) to FIGS. 12-27 for another preferred embodiment of the invention, the following aspects are only some of the salient features of this preferred embodiment of the invention: (a) The
specific characteristics of the hydroprocessing catalyst utilized in regard to same size, shape, and density as it relates and applies to controlling plugflow catalyst movement within the reactors 11.  (b) The specific characteristics of the
hydro-processing catalyst in regard to same and/or uniform size, shape, and density (lowest density and highest activity level when loaded to reactor 11) as related to ease and ability to separate partially expended catalyst (medium density and activity
level), from totally expended (highest density and lowest activity level) by classification utilizing elutriation techniques.  (c) The separation and recovery of partially expended catalyst from totally expended catalyst within a high pressure catalyst
transfer vessel (identified as 200 below) used for catalyst withdrawal from, and addition to, an onstream hydroprocessing reactor, such as reactor 11.  (d) The design features and modification that allow the high pressure catalyst transfer vessel
(identified as 200 below) to function as a catalyst classifier.  (e) The utilization of the partially expended recycle catalyst, commingled with fresh catalyst, to redistribute the catalyst activity profile within the reactor 11 and to alter reaction
rates and temperature profile to conditions that minimize catalyst fouling rates by carbon deposition.  (f) The utilization within the catalyst bed 10 of fresh catalyst commingled with partially expended catalyst increases the upgrading capabilities
(more specifically, the capabilities for demetallizing a hydrocarbon feed stream) of the catalyst bed 10.  (g) The utilization of a mixture of fresh catalyst and partially expended catalyst for the catalyst bed 10 allows or provides for reducing the
quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading a hydrocarbon feed stream to essentially the same degree as and/or when compared to the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading the hydrocarbon feed stream in a once through
hydroprocessing catalyst replacement mode.  It is to be understood that whenever the specification or the claims states, mentions, or implies "fresh catalyst" such stated, mentioned, or implied "fresh catalyst" means within the spirit and scope of the
present invention any type of catalyst having any usable catalyst life or activity (e.g. regenerated catalyst, rejuvenated catalyst, partially fouled catalyst obtained from any source, etc.), as long as the usable activity or life of such any type of
catalyst is greater than or more than the activity or the life of any recovered catalyst (e.g. partially spent catalyst recovered in accordance with the present invention) in which it is to be admixed or commingled with before being returned to a
reaction zone, such as the hydrocarbon reaction zone within the reactor vessel 11.  Preferably, "fresh catalyst" means a type of catalyst that has never been used before and is obtained directly from a manufacturer with the highest desired catalyst life
or activity.


It is to be understood, as previously indicated, that whenever the specification and/or the claims states or mentions "high-activity" and/or "less dense" catalyst such as stated or mentioned "high-activity" and/or "less dense" catalyst means
within the spirit and scope of the present invention, a catalyst having usable life or activity, but less usable life or activity than a catalyst that would possess the highest possible life or activity, such as by way of example a catalyst that has been
obtained directly from a catalyst manufacture with the highest desired catalyst life or activity and has never been employed before in hydroprocessing a hydrocarbon feed stream or the like.  Thus, a "high-activity" and/or "less dense" catalyst would not
be a catalyst with the highest life or activity and the least density, but would include a medium activity less dense catalyst.  The mean activity of "high-activity" less dense catalyst is higher than the mean activity of "low-activity" more dense
catalyst.


A "low-activity" and/or "more dense" catalyst when stated or mentioned in the specification and/or the claims means a catalyst having a minor amount of (or little) usable life or activity at the time; that is at the time of being separated from
the high-activity less dense catalyst.  A "low-density" and/or "more dense" catalyst may have some residual usable life or activity, and the "low-activity" and/or "more dense" catalyst may have more usable life or activity than a catalyst that would
possess the least possible life or activity.  Thus, a "low-activity" and/or "more dense" catalyst would not necessarily be a catalyst with the least life or activity and most density, and could include catalyst that are capable of being regenerated or
rejuvenated.  The mean activity of "low activity" more dense catalyst is lower than the mean activity of "high-activity" less dense catalyst.


A method is provided for maximally occupying a reactor volume with a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst (e.g. catalyst bed 10) during hydroprocessing by contacting the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst with an
upflowing hydrocarbon feed stream having a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component.  As previously indicated, a "substantially packed bed" of hydroprocessing catalyst may be defined as a bed of hydroprocessing catalyst in a state of
posture where a hydrocarbon feed stream is upflowing therethrough, but in a controlled amount and to an extent that the catalyst bed 10 expands to less than 10% by length over or beyond substantially the full axial length of the catalyst bed 10 in a
packed bed state.  The substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst, preferably comprising a plurality of catalytic particulates having substantially the same and/or uniform size, shape and density, is disposed in a reactor zone (or reaction zone
or zone for reaction) contained within a reactor volume (e.g. the entire internal volumetric space available within the reactor vessel 11) such that the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst occupies from about 75% by volume to about 98%
by volume of the reactor volume; more preferably from about 80% by volume to about 98% by volume; most preferably at least about 90% by volume or from about 90% by volume to about 95% by volume of the reactor volume.  Stated alternatively,
hydroprocessing catalyst is disposed or otherwise positioned within a reactor volume such that hydroprocessing catalyst occupies from about 75% by volume to about 98% by volume of the reactor volume; more preferably from about 80% by volume to about 98%
by volume; most preferably at least about 90% by volume or from about 90% by volume to about 95% by volume of the reactor volume.  "Reactor volume" (or the entire internal volumetric space available within the reactor vessel 11) means or may be generally
defined as the volumetric space within the reactor vessel 11 (or any similar hydroprocessing reactor vessel), including the summation or addition of the following internal volumes: (i) an internal volume within the reactor vessel 11 represented by a
volume (or internal cylindrical volume or main body volume of the reactor vessel 11) spanning or extending from an upper tangent line 180 (see FIG. 8) to a lower tangent line 182 and generally illustrated as arrow TL in FIG. 8; and (ii) an internal
volume within the upper dome closure end 14 (or hemispherical head) of the reactor vessel 11; and (iii) an internal volume within the lower dome closure end 13 (or hemispherical bottom) of the reactor vessel 11.  A "tangent line" is known to those
skilled in the art as a plane (i.e. horizontal plane) taken generally along the junctures of the sidewall 12 (which is essentially a straight upright wall) of the reactor vessel 11 with the upper and lower dome closure ends 14 and 13 respectively.  A
hydroprocessing feed stream including a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component upflows into the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst at a rate of flow such that expansion of the substantially packed bed of
hydroprocessing catalyst is limited to less than 10% (preferably less than 5%, more preferably less than 1%) by length beyond a substantially full axial length of the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst in a packed bed state.  A volume
of the hydroprocessing catalyst is withdrawn from the reactor zone to commence essentially plug-flowing downwardly of the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst within the reactor zone; and hydroprocessing replacement catalyst is added to
the essentially plug-flowing downwardly, substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst at a rate to substantially replace the volume of the withdrawn hydroprocessing catalyst.  The procedure may be repeated as many times as desired, even
continuously repeated during continual hydroprocessing.


Another method is provided for hydroprocessing a hydrocarbon feed stream that is upflowing through a hydroconversion reaction zone having a substantially packed bed of catalyst which comprises forming a plurality of annular mixture zones under a
hydroconversion reaction zone having a substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst such that each of the annular mixture zones contains a hydrocarbon feed stream having a liquid component and a hydrogen-containing gas component and wherein the
annular mixture zones are concentric with respect to each other and are coaxial with respect to the hydroconversion reaction zone.  The hydrocarbon feed stream from each of the annular mixture zones is introduced into the substantially packed bed of
hydroprocessing catalyst to commence upflowing of the hydrocarbon feed stream from each of the annular mixture zones through the substantially packed bed of the catalyst and to produce a volume of particulate catalyst in the hydroconversion reaction zone
having a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and a low-activity more dense catalytic particulates.  More specifically, the volume of particulate catalyst produced in the hydroconversion reaction zone comprises a low-activity more dense
catalytic particulates and a high-activity less dense catalytic particulates which include medium-activity less dense catalytic particulates.  The volume of particulate catalyst is withdrawn from the hydroconversion reaction zone, which commences
essentially plug-flowing downwardly the substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst within the hydroconversion reaction zone.  After withdrawal, the high-activity less dense catalytic particulates (which include medium-activity less dense
catalytic particulates) are separated from the low-activity more dense catalytic particulates, and are subsequently mixed with fresh catalytic particulates to produce a catalytic mixture.  The catalytic mixture is introduced into the hydroconversion
reaction zone.  The entire procedure or method may be operated on a continuous basis, or a periodic basis, or a semi-continuous basis.  It is to be understood that whenever the specification or the claims states, mentions, or implies "mixing" or
"admixing" or "commingling", or any of the like, of any type(s) of catalyst, such stated, mentioned, or implied verbiage means within the spirit and scope of the present invention any type of "mixing" or "admixing" or "commingling", or any of the like,
including any incidental mixing or any otherwise non-thorough/non-homogeneous mixing.  Preferably, however, any type of "mixing" or "admixing" or "commingling", or any of the like, will be essentially thorough and/or essentially homogeneous.  Thus, the
volume of particulate catalyst withdrawn from the hydroconversion reaction zone is preferably of such a quantity (i.e. a small enough quantity) such that when the high-activity less dense catalytic particulates are separated from the low-activity more
dense catalytic particulates and fresh catalytic particulates are added thereto to produce a catalytic mixture, the catalytic mixture is or becomes an essentially homogeneous mixture by the time it is introduced into the hydroconversion reaction zone.


As indicated above for the subject preferred embodiment of the invention, deactivated hydroconversion catalyst are withdrawn from a hydroconversion reaction zone (e.g. from the bottom of the catalyst bed 10 in reactor 11) under hydroconversion
reaction conditions, with individual withdrawn catalyst particles varying in activity depending on such factors as time spent on stream, and process conditions encountered by the particles during hydroconversion and catalyst recycle rate.  Some of the
withdrawn catalyst particles will have reached their useful life while other withdrawn catalyst particles will retain sufficient activity to be useful for hydroconversion.  To select out or to divide out the partially active catalyst particles, the
withdrawn catalyst particles are separated (or classified) by density into one or more catalyst layers of varying catalytic activity.  One or more of the catalyst layers having some remaining catalytic activity are mixed with fresh catalyst and returned
to the hydroconversion reaction zone, and the remaining catalyst particles are removed from the reactor system for disposal, or treatment such as by catalyst regeneration or rejuvenation.  The one or more catalyst layers which are returned to the
hydroconversion reaction zone are returned without having been regenerated (such as by coke burning, etc.) or rejuvenated (such as by acidic cleaning, etc.).


In operation of a hydroconversion process at equilibrium or steady-state conditions and on the basis of a once through catalyst replacement mode, a volume of particulate catalyst is withdrawn from the lowermost portion of the lowest (or bottom)
reaction zone or catalytic bed of hydroconversion reaction zone.  The withdrawn catalytic volume is typically essentially totally expended with very little or no usable life or activity remaining.  Fresh catalyst is introduced into the top of the
hydroconversion reaction zone to replace the withdrawn catalytic volume.  The lowest (or bottom) reaction zone or catalytic bed of a hydroconversion reaction zone, operating on the basis of a once through catalyst replacement mode and at equilibrium
conditions, typically has very little upgrading or conversion capabilities.  Hydroreactions in the field of the present invention are exothermic and with a bed of highly active catalyst, there is a pronounced temperature profile for the hydrocarbon feed
passing through or over the bed of highly active catalyst; that is, there is a pronounced or noticeably precipitous temperature differential between the catalyst bed inlet temperature of entering hydrocarbon feed and the catalyst bed outlet temperature
of exiting hydrocarbon feed.  Thus, a catalyst bed or reaction zone with essentially highly expended catalyst with little usable life or activity would produce little or diminished exothermic reactions and the temperature profile would not be that
pronounced in that there would be a little rise in temperature (or temperature differential) between the catalyst bed inlet temperature of entering hydrocarbon feed and the catalyst bed outlet temperature of exiting hydrocarbon feed.


As illustrated in FIG. 17 which is representative of a temperature profile of a hydroconversion reaction zone operating at equilibrium or steady-state conditions on a once through catalyst replacement mode with three reaction zones or catalyst
bed respectively separated by a quenching or cooling stage, the rise or elevation in temperature (or temperature differential) across the first (or bottom) reaction zone (or catalyst bed) is about 15.degree.  C. (i.e. the difference between a 735.degree. C. first reaction zone inlet temperature and a 750.degree.  C. first reaction zone outlet temperature).  In practicing the present invention, and as illustrated in FIG. 18 which is representative of a temperature profile of a hydroconversion reaction
zone operating at equilibrium or steady-state conditions on the basis of recycling partially spent catalyst mixed with fresh catalyst, the rise or elevation in temperature (or temperature differential) across the first (or bottom) reaction zone (or
catalyst bed) is about 20.degree.  C. which is the difference between a 740.degree.  C. first reaction zone inlet temperature and a 760.degree.  C. first reaction zone inlet temperature.  The larger temperature differential across the first or bottom
reaction zone as shown in FIG. 18 means that more upgrading (i.e. demetallizing) activity is being accomplished than in the first or bottom reaction zone depicted in FIG. 17.  Similarly and continuing to refer to FIGS. 17 and 18, the change in
temperature across the third (or top) reaction zone in FIG. 17 containing fresh catalyst and operating in a once through catalyst replacement mode is about 40.degree.  C., whereas in FIG. 18 the temperature change across the third (or top) reaction zone,
which contains a mixture of partially spent catalyst and fresh catalyst and is operating in accordance with the present invention, is about 20.degree.  C. Thus operating a hydroconversion reaction zone in accordance with the present invention changes the
temperature profiles of the reaction zones from the once through catalyst replacement mode at equilibrium or steady-state conditions.  More specifically, operating a hydroconversion reaction zone in accordance with the present invention alters the
temperature profile of the reaction zones from the once through catalyst replacement mode of equilibrium or steady-state conditions by elevating the temperature profile of the lower reaction zones and lowering the temperature profile of the upper
reaction zone.  In other words, altering the temperature profile of the reaction zones in accordance with the present invention redistributes catalyst activity profile such that the lower reaction zones contain a higher activity catalyst and can be
safely operated at higher temperatures without "over expending" the catalyst and creating operatability problems from high carbon deposition on the catalyst.  More work or hydrogenation is accomplished in the lower reaction zones, and the temperature
profile may be shifted to cooler temperatures for the upper reaction zones, and reaction rates in the upper reaction zones are decreased, and fresh catalyst residence time in the upper reaction zones are decreased since the entire catalytic bed 10 is
moving more often.  A once through catalyst replacement mode replaces the entire initial catalytic bed 10 in a greater or longer period of time, say about 26 weeks, vis-a-vis operating in accordance with the present invention which replaces (or has moved
out) the entire initial catalytic bed 10 in about 13 weeks, by way of example only.


It has been discovered that the practice of the present invention increases the upgrading capabilities, more specifically the demetallizing capabilities, of the catalytic bed 10 over a catalytic bed under a once through catalyst replacement mode,
especially after equilibrium or steady-state conditions have been reached.  Such discovered feature(s) provides for reducing the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading (more particularly demetallizing) a hydrocarbon feed stream to
essentially the same degree as and/or when compared to the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading/demetallizing the hydrocarbon feed stream on a once through hydroprocessing catalyst replacement mode.  By way of example only and
assuming all parameters (temperatures, flow rates, same catalyst, etc.) remain constant, if a catalytic bed operating on a once through catalyst replacement mode removes about 28% by wt. metals from a hydrocarbon feed stream, the same catalytic bed
operating under the present invention could remove about 31% by weight metals from the same hydrocarbon feed stream.  This would enable the user of the present invention to reduce the volumetric size of the catalytic bed, say 5% by wt. less catalyst, and
still obtain the 28% by wt. metals removal obtained by the once through catalyst replacement mode.  The economic advantages (i.e. the monetary savings from less catalyst expenditures) of the present invention are readily apparent.


Recapitulating briefly and not being bound to or by any theory or explanation, it is believed that introducing intermittently a mixture of partially spent (i.e. high-activity less dense) catalyst and fresh catalyst into the moving catalyst bed 10
after withdrawal of a volume of at least partially spent catalyst from the moving catalyst bed 10 has beneficial effects on the hydroconversion process when compared to hydroprocessing in a once through hydroprocessing catalyst replacement mode.  At
equilibrium or after steady state conditions have been reached, a volume of catalyst containing high-activity less dense catalytic particulates and low-activity more dense catalytic particulates is withdrawn from the lowermost reaction zone.  For a
start-up unit or reactor vessel 11, withdrawal would preferably be before the catalyst to be withdrawn has become completely expended and/or before the normal time for withdrawal of the catalyst from a catalytic bed 10 operating under a once through
catalyst replacement mode.  For a reactor vessel 11 containing a catalyst bed 10 already operating under a once through catalyst replacement mode (such as in FIG. 1), withdrawal should commence preferably before the time the catalyst to be withdrawn has
become completely expended in order to be able to recover some high-activity less dense catalytic particulates.  Thus, the catalyst loading and unloading system and hydroprocessing conversion precess (see FIG. 1) already operating under a once through
catalyst replacement mode may be modified into the catalyst loading and unloading system of the present invention as illustrated in FIG. 14, with the modification procedure preferably commencing with withdrawing a volume of catalyst at a time when the
volume of catalyst would contain at least a little or a small amount of high-activity less dense catalytic particulates.  Subsequent volumes of catalyst to be withdrawn would preferably be at a time (to be withdrawn) the volumes of catalyst have not been
totally expended and would still possess some usable life.  If it is desired to reduce the entire volume of catalyst bed 10 and still obtain essentially the same upgrading (i.e. demetallizing) capabilities, the volume of the (to be added) mixture of
partially spent (i.e. high-activity less dense) catalyst and fresh catalyst would be less than the volume of withdrawn catalyst until the time that the desired decreased volume of catalyst bed 10 has been reached.  Considering the range of
hydroconversion systems and/or hydroconversion reaction zones which could benefit from the preferred embodiments of the present invention, one skilled in the art will appreciate the variety of catalysts, having a variety of physical properties and
elemental compositions, which could be used in such a range of systems.  It is within the spirit and scope of the present invention to encompass these systems employing catalysts having a size, shape and density which vary widely from system to system. 
However, it is preferable for the present preferred embodiment of the invention, and as taught in U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,076,908 to Stangeland et al, that the catalyst particles be of uniform and/or same size, and shape (same density when in fresh catalyst
state) within a single hydroconversion reaction zone of a hydroconversion system, in order to achieve the desired catalyst and hydrocarbon flow patterns within the hydroconversion reaction zone.  Stangeland et al more specifically teaches packing reactor
vessel 11 with at least one bed of catalyst particles having substantially the same size, shape and density in fresh state over the axial length of the reactor vessel.  The catalyst particles characteristics are to be selected in accordance with the
average optimum velocity of the hydrocarbon feed stream (including any gas components) flowing through the catalyst bed 10.  Plug-like flow of the substantially packed bed of catalyst is achieved in accordance with Stangeland et al's teachings by
selecting the average density, size and shape of the catalyst particles forming the catalyst bed 10 so that the bed expands by less than 10% by axial length at the maximum anticipated fluid flow velocities of the gaseous and liquid components
therethrough.  To this end, the size, shape, and density of fresh catalyst particles supplied to the bed are to be substantially the same size, shape, and density, and selected in accordance with the designed maximum rate of flow of the feed streams to
prevent ebullation.


A hydroconversion system and/or a hydroconversion reaction zone of a present preferred embodiment of the present invention contains as indicated the preferred catalyst having substantially the same and/or uniform size, shape, and density, and may
also be operated as a fixed bed (i.e. a catalyst bed which does not expand), a moving bed, an ebullated bed, an expanded bed or a fluidized bed configuration.  A moving bed system is preferred.  By "moving bed", as used herein, is meant a reaction zone
configuration in which a catalyst is added at one end of a catalyst bed in an intermittent or substantially continuous manner and is withdrawn at the other end in an intermittent or substantially continuous manner.  A "moving bed" also includes a
"plug-flow" or "plug flowing" catalyst bed 10 or substantially packed bed of catalyst.  In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the "moving bed" is an intermittent moving bed.  As previously indicated, when any type of catalyst or catalyst
bed 10 movement is mentioned, stated, or implied, the spirit and scope of the present invention includes such type of movement on any type of basis or in any manner (e.g. "periodic", "fully continuous", "non-continuous" etc. ) without the necessity of
having to specifically mention the type of basis or manner.  Preferably, catalyst is intermittently added at the top of the reaction zone and intermittently withdrawn at the bottom.  In the type of intermittent moving bed to which the present preferred
embodiment is directed, the catalyst particles in the bed are substantially in contact with one another and plug-flow downwardly.  The catalyst bed is not significantly expanded when process fluids (e.g., liquid and gas) passes through it.  It has
essentially the character of a fixed bed except for maybe a slight expansion upwardly and during the addition and removal of catalyst.  As the term is used herein, a "moving bed" is not the same as a "fluidized bed", "ebullating bed" or "expanded bed". 
In fluidized beds, the flow rate of a single phase fluid, relative to the particles of the catalyst, is fast enough so that the catalyst behaves like a fluid, with particles circulating throughout the bed or even being carried out of the bed with the
products.  Ebullating or expanded beds are very similar to fluidized beds, except that the relative rate of flow of two phase fluids (e.g., liquid and gas) is regulated to expand the catalyst bed in random motion typically between 110% and 140% of the
height of the catalyst in a "slumped" or packed state.  The typical ebullating bed reactor will have a mass of solid particles whose gross volume in the reaction vessel is at least 10 percent larger when fluid is flowing through it, as compared to the
stationary mass with no fluid flowing through it.  Although the particles in the bed do not necessarily circulate as if they were fluids, they are separated from one another and go through random motion influenced by their independent size, shape and
density.


Several advantages ensue from use of an intermittent moving bed reactor.  By establishing and maintaining appropriate gas and liquid velocities in packed bed type reactors, just below the threshold of inertia that would cause the catalyst bed to
fluidize and/or "channel" and/or lift the catalyst into random motion, the uniform catalyst size and shape characteristics described above will allow the catalyst to migrate downward through the reactors in a predictable plugflow manner, as catalyst
batches are withdrawn from the reactor bottom.  And further, by maintaining plug flow catalyst movement downward within the reactors (e.g. reactor 11), the catalyst within the reactors can be maintained in layers having differing activity levels and
reaction rates.  The number of catalyst layers depend on the frequency of catalyst addition and withdrawal, and the amount added and withdrawn in any given period of time.  Typically, however, the number of different aged catalyst layers within the
reactor (e.g. reactor 11) will be in the range from 10 to 60.


Referring now to FIGS. 20 and 21 for illustrative purposes only, there is seen in FIG. 20 a schematic diagram of various catalytic layers having differing catalyst density and activity level profile within a packed bed reactor (e.g. reactor
vessel 11) with once through catalyst replacement mode.  A once through catalyst mode may be defined as upflowing a hydrocarbon feed stream through the catalyst bed (e.g. catalyst bed 10) without recycling any of the catalyst.  As clearly shown in FIG.
20, a once through catalyst bed after hydroprocessing for a certain length of time may be defined by a plurality of catalytic layers CL.sub.1, CL.sub.2, CL.sub.3, CL.sub.4, CL.sub.5, CL.sub.6, CL.sub.7, CL.sub.8, CL.sub.9, CL.sub.10, with the catalyst in
layer CL.sub.1 possessing minimum activity and being the most dense, completely spent and fouled; and with the catalyst in layer CL.sub.10 possessing the highest activity and being the least dense of all the catalyst layers (i.e. CL.sub.1 -CL.sub.10) and
further possessing additional activity which should be utilized, but however may not totally be utilized because of the once through catalyst mode.  FIG. 21 is a schematic diagram illustrating various catalytic layers having differing catalyst density
and activity level profile within a catalytic bed of a reactor (e.g. reactor vessel 11) and where a 1:1 recycle catalyst mode of operation has been implemented.  The various catalytic layers in FIG. 21 have been broadly classified into an upper layer,
generally illustrated as 160, and into a lower layer, generally illustrated as 170.  As will become more apparent as the detailed description of this preferred embodiment proceeds, the life of the catalyst in the catalyst bed in FIG. 21 is being and has
been extended by lowering its residence time in the hottest zone(s) of the reactor vessel 11.


Intermittent or continuous catalyst additions and withdrawal may be used.  Catalyst replacement rates can range from several percent of the total reactor catalyst charge (or inventory) per day to several percent of the charge per week, depending
on the reactor size, catalyst metals loading capacity, feed rate, and feed composition and processing objectives.  Fresh catalyst is introduced into the downstream end of the catalyst bed (e.g. catalyst bed 10), and a corresponding volume of deactivated
catalyst is removed from the upstream end of the catalyst bed, at a rate which is sufficient to maintain the actual overall average level of catalytic upgrading activity of the bed as a whole at or above the selected minimum average activity level.  By
"upstream" end of the catalyst bed (e.g. catalyst bed 10), as used herein, is meant the end of the moving bed into which the heavy hydrocarbonaceous feed is introduced.  By "downstream" end of the catalyst bed is meant the end of the bed from which the
process effluent last contacts the catalyst bed 10.  In a normal process flow system, the catalyst is added and effluent removed at the top of the vessel (the downstream end).  Spent catalyst is withdrawn and feed introduced at the bottom (the upstream
end).  In a particularly important application of the present invention, catalyst is added in batches at the top of the reactor (e.g. reactor 11) to the slowly (intermittent) moving bed (e.g. bed 10), and spent (and deactivated catalyst) catalyst is
withdrawn in batches from bottom of the slowly (intermittent) moving bed.  The deactivated catalyst is removed from the reactor (e.g. reactor 11) after it has been deactivated to a substantially lower level of activity than an acceptable minimum average
level of activity of the overall catalyst bed.  This allows more efficient and complete use of the catalyst activity, e.g. its metals loading capability, for such feed upgrading functions as demetallation.  As previously indicated, spent (and
deactivated) catalyst is withdrawn from the bottom of a reactor in a hydrocarbon liquid.  One of the features of the present invention is that the hydrocarbon liquid that is withdrawing and transporting catalyst is the liquid hydrocarbon component LH
which is intended to flow upwardly through the bed of catalyst but has not.  The hydrocarbon liquid for transporting spent (and deactivated) catalyst is an unconverted liquid hydrocarbon component LH or a partially converted liquid hydrocarbon component
LH or a mixture of both; and the transporting hydrocarbon liquid (i.e. the liquid hydrocarbon component LH) has not passed entirely upwardly through the catalyst bed.  The product from the method of the present invention exits a reactor (e.g. reactor
vessel 11) and is normally subjected to further conventional refinery processing.  All or part of the product can be passed to a conventional, fixed bed upgrading operation, such as a hydrodesulfurization operation.  Part of the product stream can be
recycled, either for further catalytic treatment or as a diluent.  Treatment of heavy feeds by catalytic demetallation according to the present process followed by fixed bed desulfurization is particularly effective, but all or part of a demetallized
product from the countercurrent demetallation reaction zone can also be processed in a countercurrent moving bed desulfurization reaction zone.  The present preferred embodiments of the present invention are applicable to hydroconversion reaction zones
for hydrocracking, hydrodemetalization, hydrotreating, hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrification, hydrofinishing and the like, all of which catalytically upgrade a heavy hydrocarbonaceous oil that represents the liquid hydrocarbon stream or liquid
hydrocarbon feed stream (i.e. the liquid hydrocarbon component LH).  By "heavy" liquid hydrocarbon stream, as used herein and as previously indicated, is meant liquid hydrocarbon stream at least 50 volume percent of which boils above about 204.degree. 
C. and which preferably contains a substantial fraction boiling above about 343.degree.  C. and particularly preferably above about 510.degree.  C. Preferred liquid hydrocarbon streams are residual fractions and synthetic crudes.  They can be derived
from crude petroleum, from coal, from oil shale, from tar sand bitumen, from heavy tar oils, and from other synthetic sources.  The present invention is advantageously employed to refine highly refractory and contaminated liquid hydrocarbon streams.  The
liquid hydrocarbon stream may be substantially free from finely divided solids such as shale fines, sand or the like.  Alternatively, the liquid hydrocarbon stream may contain a substantial concentration (e.g. about 1 weight percent or more) of finely
divided solids.  As previously indicated, the liquid hydrocarbon stream (i.e. the liquid hydrocarbon component LH) is preferably premixed with any type of hydrogen-containing gas (i.e. the liquid hydrocarbon component HG) which is preferably hydrogen,
before being introduced into the reactor vessel 11 as a single stream or hydrocarbon stream.  The mixing ratios of the liquid hydrocarbon stream to the hydrocarbon containing gas may be any suitable ratio, well known to those artisans possessing the
ordinary skill in the art.


Typically, a heavy hydrocarbonnaceous oil employed as a hydrocarbon feed stream in the present invention contains undesirable metals.  Undesirable metals which are often present in hydrocarbonaceous feeds notably include nickel, vanadium,
arsenic, and iron.  These metals deactivate conventional, fixed bed catalysts (such as fixed bed hydroprocessing catalysts) and also rapidly and irreversibly deactivate catalysts when high metals level feed are charged directly to conventional units. 
These metals are often present as organo-metallic compounds.  Thus, the use of the terminology "iron, nickel, arsenic or vanadium compounds" means, those metals in any state in which they may be present in the hydrocarbon feed stream in the process of
the present invention, either as metal particles, inorganic metal compounds, or an organo-metallic compounds.  Where amounts of metals are referred to herein, the amounts are given by weight based on the metal itself.  For maximum efficiency in such a
countercurrent demetallation process, the hydrocarbon feed stream should have levels of undesirable metals greater than about 150 ppm by weight of the hydrocarbon feed stream, preferably greater than about 200 ppm by weight of the hydrocarbon feed
stream, and more preferably greater than about 400 ppm by weight.  Although nickel, vanadium, arsenic, and iron are the usual metal contaminants, other undesired metals, such as sodium and calcium, may also contribute to the metals content of the
hydrocarbon feed stream for purposes of catalytic demetallation upgrading processing.


Catalytic upgrading conditions (e.g. catalytic desulfurization conditions, catalytic hydrogenation conditions such as designed for asphaltenes saturation, catalytic denitrification conditions and catalytic hydrocracking conditions, etc.) employed
in the hydroconversions reaction zones within the reactor vessel 11 for preferred embodiments of the present invention all include a reaction temperature generally in the range of from about 230.degree.  C. to about 480.degree.  C. a pressure generally
in the range of from about 30 to about 300 atmospheres, a hydrogen rate ranging from about 1000 to about 10,000 standard cubic feet per barrel of feed, and a liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) in the range of from about 0.20 h.sup.-1 to about 10
h.sup.-1.  For feed demetallation upgrading, the temperatures and pressures within the reaction zone can be those typical for conventional demetallation processing.  The pressure is typically above about 500 psig (514.7 psia; 35.5 bar).  The temperature
is typically greater than about 315.degree.  C., and preferably above 371.degree.  C. Generally, the higher the temperature, the faster the metals are removed; but the higher the temperature, the less efficiently the metals loading capacity of the
demetallation catalyst is used.


While demetallation reaction can be conducted in the absence of added hydrogen, hydrogen is generally used and therefore requires full and equal distribution into the moving bed along with any gases evolving from the feed.  In carrying out a
process of the preferred embodiments of the present invention, a minimum average level of catalytic feed upgrading activity for the countercurrently moving catalyst bed (e.g. catalyst bed 10) as a whole is selected for the particular catalytic upgrading
reaction.  For a moving bed (e.g. catalyst bed 10) in a demetallation reaction system, for example, the minimum average upgrading activity level for the catalyst bed is one which removes the necessary amount of metals from the hydrocarbon feed stream
when it passes through the moving bed at demetallation conditions.  Similarly, for a desulfurization reaction system, the moving catalyst bed (e.g. catalyst bed 10) removes the necessary amount of sulfur from the hydrocarbon feed stream when it passes
through the moving bed at desulfurization conditions.  Thus, as will be apparent to those skilled artisans, the minimum average upgrading activity level for a particular reaction system will depend on the desired degree of a contaminant, such as metals,
sulfur, nitrogen, asphaltenes, etc., which the refiner desires to remove from the heavy oil feed.  The degree of demetallation or desulfurization (or etc.) will typically be set by economics and the downstream processing that the heavy feed will undergo. Further, according to preferred embodiments of the present invention, the actual average level of catalytic upgrading activity for the catalyst bed (e.g. catalyst bed 10) as a whole is measured.  Measurement of the actual average level of upgrading is
made by determining the extent to which the hydrocarbon feed stream is being upgraded in the countercurrent moving bed system.  For example, when upgrading involves demetallation, demetallation activity is measured by a determination of the residual
concentration of metals remaining in the liquid effluent stream from the moving bed system.  When upgrading involves desulfurization, desulfurization activity is, analogously, measured by a determination of the residual concentration of sulfur remaining
in the liquid effluent from the reaction system.  Overall catalyst bed upgrading activity for other upgrading reactions is measured in a similar manner by determining the residual amount of the containment which is to be removed by the process.  In the
present preferred embodiments, the rate at which catalyst is removed from the reaction zone, and the rate of catalyst replacement to the reaction zone, is established by a number of economic and operating factors, which include maintaining a desired
average level of catalytic upgrading activity.  In the subject preferred embodiment of the present invention which is broadly depicted in FIGS. 14-27 and as previously indicated for the embodiment of the invention depicted in FIGS. 1-13, catalyst is
introduced into the downstream end of the catalyst bed (e.g. catalyst bed 10), and a corresponding volume of deactivated catalyst is removed from the upstream end of the catalyst bed, at a rate which is sufficient to maintain the actual overall average
level of catalytic upgrading activity of the bed as a whole at or above the selected minimum average activity level.  As was previously mentioned, the "upstream" end of the catalyst bed (e.g. catalyst bed 10) means the end of the moving bed into which
the heavy hydrocarbonaceous feed is introduced.  The "downstream" end of the catalyst bed means (as was also previously mentioned) the end of the bed from which the process effluent last contacts the catalyst bed 10 and is recovered.  In a normal gravity
flow system such as in the subject preferred embodiment of the present invention, the catalyst is added and effluent removed at the top of the vessel (the downstream end).  Spent catalyst is withdrawn and feed introduced at the bottom (the upstream end). The withdrawn catalyst, comprising deactivated (e.g. spent) and partially deactivated (partially spent) catalyst particles, is separated within a catalyst recovery vessel (identified as 200 below) into at least one portion having relatively more
remaining catalytic activity and at least one portion having relatively less remaining catalytic activity.  At least one portion of the separated catalyst particles will retain sufficient hydroconversion activity to be reused in a hydroconversion process
by, for example, recycling the catalyst particles to the hydroconversion reaction zone from which they are removed.  The catalyst vessel in which the separation takes place, termed here the "catalyst recovery vessel" and generally illustrated and
identified as 200 below, may be a multi-purpose vessel serving several functions in the removal and addition of catalyst to the hydroconversion reaction zone.  Alternatively, the catalyst recovery vessel may be a single purpose vessel designed solely for
catalyst recovery, separation and recycle.  Thus, one of the salient features of the present invention is that the catalyst recovery vessel, which will be identified as 200 below, may function as any of the following without the necessity of having any
additional or ancillary catalyst vessel: (i) a catalyst withdrawal vessel for receiving catalyst directly from a reaction zone having high temperatures and pressures; (ii) a catalyst segregation vessel (or classifier) for segregating or classifying
catalyst through elutriation or the like; (iii) a catalyst loading vessel for loading catalyst into a reaction zone; and (iv) a presulfiding vessel for presulfiding catalyst before loading into a reaction zone.  As a primary vessel for receiving catalyst
directly from the reaction zone, it will be expected to tolerate severe conditions, including temperatures up to about 900.degree.  F. and pressures up to about 4000 psig.  Alternatively, the catalyst recovery vessel may receive catalyst from a primary
catalyst vessel in which catalyst has been transferred from a hydroconversion reaction zone.  In this case the catalyst recovery vessel will encounter temperature conditions up to approximately 500.degree.  F. and pressure conditions up to approximately
100 psi pressure.  In this way there may be a number of catalyst vessels available to the practitioner which have the capacity and design parameters for conducting the catalyst separation as described herein.  Any of these catalyst vessels would be
suitable in the subject preferred embodiment of the invention.


Catalyst removed from the hydroconversion reaction zone is transferred to the catalyst recovery vessel (which as previously indicated, is identified as 200 below) in which the separation takes place, and to and from any intervening vessels if
present, in a slurry comprising the catalyst and a hydrocarbon liquid.  As previously indicated, the hydrocarbon liquid that is withdrawing and transporting catalyst is selected from the group consisting of unconverted liquid hydrocarbon component LH,
partially converted liquid hydrocarbon component LH, a mixture of unconverted liquid hydrocarbon component LH and the hydrogen-containing gas component HG, a mixture of partially converted liquid hydrocarbon LH and the hydrogen-containing gas component
HG, and mixtures of any of the foregoing, and which is or are intended to flow upwardly through the bed of catalyst but has not.  Thus, the catalyst slurry removed from the hydroconversion reaction zone generally comprises hydrocarbon oil feed (i.e. the
hydrocarbon liquid as immediately defined) which is being converted in the reaction zone.  The slurry of catalyst and hydrocarbon oil feed removed from the reaction zone has a high ratio of catalyst to hydrocarbon oil feed (e.g. 30 to 80% by wt.
catalyst).  This high concentration or catalyst density serves to facilitate catalyst transfer and to minimize possible disruptions to the hydroconversion process in the reaction zone from which the catalyst-containing slurry is removed.


The catalyst particles in the catalyst recovery vessel are immersed and contained in a liquid (e.g. the hydrocarbon liquid as previously defined, or a process gas oil or distillate hydrocarbon, etc.) during separation of the catalyst particles. 
If the catalyst particles are transferred to the catalyst recovery vessel as a slurry with hydrocarbon feed oil (i.e. the hydrocarbon liquid as previously defined) from the reaction zone, it may be preferred to remove the hydrocarbon feed oil by washing
with a suitable hydrocarbon liquid for washing catalyst contained in hydrocarbon feed oil, such as a process gas oil, a flush oil, or the like.  During washing, the suitable hydrocarbon liquid for washing catalyst has a temperature ranging from about
300.degree.  F. to about 500.degree.  F. An exemplary flush oil is a heavy distillate fraction boiling above about 500.degree.  F. and more preferably boiling in the range of from about 500.degree.  F. to about 975.degree.  F. It will be apparent to one
skilled in the art, however, that hydrocarbon oils boiling below that immediately specified will be suitable in the subject preferred embodiment, so long as the oil does not vaporize to any significant extent at separation conditions during the
separation process in the catalyst recovery vessel.  As previously indicated; washing is preferably accomplished by flowing a suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid into and through the separations zone (i.e. the catalyst recovery vessel identified as 200
below) containing the removed or withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst; and overflowing continually the separation zone until the heavy hydrocarbons have been essentially washed off the withdrawn volume of particulate catalyst to produce a volume of
withdrawn washed particulate catalyst.


As previously mentioned, the catalyst particles are separated in the catalyst recovery vessel into at least two portions having differing densities and differing remaining catalyst activities.  During hydroconversion, there are a number of
reaction pathways which lead to catalyst deactivation.  The deactivation pathways tend to increase catalyst density.  Thus, separating by density of catalyst having substantially the same size and shape characteristics is an effective method to
apportioning catalyst particles into portions differentiated by remaining catalytic activity.  The following is a non-limiting example of catalyst densities for various level of catalyst deactivation and serves to illustrate the use of catalyst density
(on a dry weight basis) in separating catalysts of varying remaining activity: fresh catalyst (about 37 lb/ft.sup.3); 25% expended catalyst (about 44 lb/ft.sup.3); 50% expended catalyst (about 52 lb/ft.sup.3); 75% expended catalyst (about 59
lb/ft.sup.3); and spent catalyst (about 66 lb/ft..sup.3).


In order to separate in the catalyst recovery vessel (which, as previously indicated, is identified as 200 below) the catalyst removed from the hydroconversion reaction zone into one portion containing a high-activity less dense catalytic
particulates and another portion containing a low-activity more dense catalytic particulates, a gaseous material is injected as a fluidizing medium through a distribution grid at the bottom of the bed of recovered catalyst particles which are immersed in
a liquid hydrocarbon (i.e. the hydrocarbon liquid as previously defined or process gas oil or flush oil) in the catalyst recovery vessel.  The operating temperatures and pressures in the catalyst recovery vessel are such that the liquid hydrocarbon
remains in a liquid state and the gaseous material remains in a vapor state.  The fluidizing medium may be any material which is normally a vapor at separation conditions.  Hydrocarbon gases, nitrogen, and hydrogen are typical examples which may be used
as a fluidizing medium.  Certain hydrocarbon gases, which may be soluble in the hydrocarbon liquid within the catalyst recovery vessel, are less preferred.  In another embodiment of the present invention, the fluidizing medium is a hydrocarbon liquid
(e.g. process diesel or gas oils, etc.) having a boiling point above about 400.degree.  F.


In a more preferred embodiment of the present invention, the fluidizing medium or gaseous material is injected into the separation zone (i.e. catalyst transfer vessel) containing the liquid hydrocarbon having the withdrawn volume of catalyst
immersed therein while the liquid hydrocarbon is flowing through the withdrawn volume of catalyst.  More specifically, after a suitable (washing or flushing) hydrocarbon liquid has flowed through the separation zone (i.e. catalyst transfer vessel) to
wash (or flush) off the heavy hydrocarbons from the withdrawn volume of catalytic particulates, the suitable (washing or flushing) hydrocarbon liquid is continually flowed through the volume of withdrawn washed particulate catalyst (and continually
overflowing the separation zone) in order to keep the withdrawn washed particulate catalyst warm or heated, preferably to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree.  F. to about 550.degree.  F. The spirit and scope of the present invention includes any
suitable means for keeping or maintaining the withdrawn washed particulate catalyst warm or heated, especially warm or heated within the preferred temperature range of about 200.degree.  F. to about 550.degree.  F. Simultaneously to the continual flow of
the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid through the volume of withdrawn washed particulate catalyst in the separation zone and simultaneously to the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid continually overflowing the separation zone, the fluidizing
medium or gaseous material is injected into the separation zone, preferably through a distribution grid at the bottom of the volume of withdrawn washed particulate catalyst.  As previously indicated, the temperature of the flowing suitable (washing)
hydrocarbon liquid ranges from about 200.degree.  F. to about 550.degree.  F., depending on process design.  The rate of flow of the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid through the withdrawn volume of catalyst in the separation zone, both for washing
purposes and while the fluidizing medium or gaseous material is being injected into the separation zone, will vary from process design to process design and would also depend on the particular hydroprocessing application.  Generally, the fluid velocity
of the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid during washing of the withdrawn volume of catalyst ranges from about 0.01 to about 4.00 ft.  per sec; and during the fluidizing procedure, the flow rate of the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid while the
fluidizing medium or gaseous material is being injected into the separation zone (i.e. the catalyst recovery vessel) ranges from about 1.01 to about 4.00 ft.  per sec. Separation pressures will be determined by the design of the catalyst recovery vessel
and more generally by the design of the hydroconversion reaction system.  Preferably, the separation will take place at pressures below about 100 psig.


The actual flow rate of the fluidizing medium and the time required to achieve desired classification by elutriation is dependent on several factors, including: (a) size of catalyst pellets; (b) shape of the catalyst pellets; (c) relative density
of the catalyst pellets; (d) stationary liquid density; (e) density of catalyst pellets relative to density of fluidizing gas medium at process conditions; and (f) length to diameter ratio of the fluidized bed.  The flow rate of the fluidizing medium
required (either gas or liquid) will vary from process design to process design depending on several factors well known to those skilled in the art.  Design of the liquid and gas system will include flexibility features to adjust flow rates within a
broad range to achieve desired separation or classification of the catalyst by density.


When the fluidizing medium or gas is introduced and preferably while the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid is flowing through the withdrawn washed particulate catalyst, the bed of catalyst particles will expand to form a fluidized and/or
expanded bed having a volume from about 1.1 to about 3 times, and preferably from about 1.1 to about 2 times, and more preferably from about 1.1 to about 1.8 times, the volume of the bed of catalyst particles in a packed bed state.  A device such as a
nuclear density detector will identify when the catalyst within the catalyst recovery vessel is sufficiently expanded to classify the catalyst according to density by elutriation.  After the fluidizing gas is introduced, classification will normally be
accomplished within 1-20 minutes, and preferably within 3-10 minutes, after which the gas rate is smoothly reduced to zero flow.  After and/or while the flow of the fluidizing medium or gaseous material has been or is being smoothly, gradually, and
slowly reduced to zero, the flow of the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid is terminated, preferably terminated by also smoothly, gradually, and slowly reducing the flow rate of the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid to zero.  Should the flow of
the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon liquid be terminated subsequent to ceasing the flow of the fluidizing medium or gaseous material through the volume withdrawn washed catalyst, it is preferably subsequently terminated within a short reasonable time,
such as within about fifteen (15) minutes or a time span ranging from about one (1) second to about fifteen (15) minutes.  Following classification and removal of flow of the fluidizing gas and terminating the flow of the suitable (washing) hydrocarbon
liquid, the bed of catalyst particles in the catalyst recovery vessel will have settled back to a packed bed state, with the catalyst particles lying at or near the bottom of the bed having relatively lower remaining activity and high density.  The lower
layer of catalyst particles contain low-activity more dense catalytic particulates which are removed, leaving an upper layer of catalyst particles containing high-activity less dense catalytic particulates.  The upper layer of catalyst particles, which
contains high-activity less dense catalytic particulates, is still immersed in a liquid hydrocarbon, which is preferably the suitable hydrocarbon liquid (e.g. a flush oil) that was employed to wash away and off hydrocarbon feed stream from the withdrawn
volume of catalytic particulates.  Regardless of which type of liquid hydrocarbon contains the upper layer of catalyst particles, the concentration of the catalyst particles (i.e. the upper layer of catalyst particles containing high-activity less dense
catalytic particulates) in the liquid hydrocarbon may be in any suitable range, such as 30% to 80% by wt. catalyst.  Fresh catalyst is added in any desired amount to the liquid hydrocarbon containing the upper layer of catalyst particles (e.g.
medium-activity less dense catalyst) to produce a mixture containing fresh catalyst, the upper layer of catalyst particles, and the liquid hydrocarbon.  The fresh catalyst is preferably added in an amount approximating the amount or volume of removed
lower layer of catalyst particles which contained the low-activity more dense catalytic particulates.  After and/or before the fresh catalyst has been added and admixed with the liquid hydrocarbon containing high-activity less dense (including
medium-activity less dense) catalytic particulates, additional liquid hydrocarbon (e.g. the suitable hydrocarbon liquid (e.g. flush oil) that was employed to wash hydrocarbon feed stream off of or from the withdrawn volume of catalytic particulates) or
the like may have to be added after and/or before the addition of fresh catalyst to produce an appropriate mixture containing the upper layer of catalyst particles, the liquid hydrocarbon or the like, fresh catalyst, and the additional liquid
hydrocarbon.  The produced mixture is laminarly flowed as a slurry (with a high catalyst concentration) into the top of the hydroconversion reaction zone, as previously described.  Thus by the practice of a preferred embodiment of the present invention
there is provided a method for recovering catalyst activity of hydroconversion catalyst withdrawn from a packed catalyst bed or substantially packed bed of hydroprocessing catalyst in a hydroconversion reaction system by separating the withdrawn catalyst
bed by density into at least two layers characterized by differences in the extent of catalyst aging.  In the practice of the invention, catalyst is removed from a reaction zone in the hydroconversion reaction system while hydroconversion reactions
conditions are maintained within the zone.  In the practice of the present invention, the specially selected physical characteristics of the catalyst, specifically same and/or uniform size, shape, and density, combined with appropriate process
conditions, promote downward plugflow catalyst movement within a reactor, such as the reactor vessel 11, as substantial batches of catalyst are withdrawn from the reactor bottom.  By eliminating the influence of size and shape, the catalyst batches of
different activity levels and density and withdrawn from the reactor bottom can be easily separated (or classified) by elutriation techniques.


Among other factors, the present invention is based on the discovery that significant catalyst activity can be recovered from demetallation catalyst withdrawn from a packed bed hydroconversion reactor by separating withdrawn catalyst using the
varying densities of the various catalyst particles based on the extent of fouling of the particles.  Furthermore, we have discovered that, by adding to the catalyst bed of a hydroconversion reactor a mixture of partially spent catalyst and fresh
catalyst, the overall deactivation rate of the catalyst within the reactor can be reduced because of reduced residence time of the fresh catalyst in the hottest zone of the reactor.  Furthermore, more active catalyst in the lower section of the reaction
zone and less active catalyst in the upper section of the reaction zone will yield a slightly modified temperature profile; thus, product quality will improve and overall reactor temperature requirements can be reduced (and/or redistributed) without
product quality penalties.


Referring in particular and more specific detail now to FIGS. 14-27 for this preferred embodiment of the present invention and as a non-limiting example, the reactor vessel 11 is operating with the hydrocarbon feed stream flowing through line 16
at high feed hourly space velocities.  Higher feed hourly space velocities using countercurrent processing are more efficient than concurrent moving bed processing.  It will be readily appreciated that the faster a hydrocarbon feed stream can be passed
through the catalyst bed 10, the more cost effective the reactor vessel 11 becomes, especially during its operation.  The feed hourly space velocity for the present invention is greater than about 0.5 hr.sup.-1, and preferably greater than about 1.0
hr.sup.-1.  Stated alternatively, the feed hourly space velocity ranges from about 0.5 hr.sup.-1 to about 5.0 hr.sup.-1, more preferably from about 1.0 hr.sup.-1 to about 4.0 hr.sup.-1, and most preferably from about 1.5 hr.sup.-1 to about 3.0 hr.sup.-1. The reactor vessel 11, operated without catalyst recycle according to the present preferred embodiment, may operate (for example) with 26 layers of catalyst of declining activity level, from reactor top to bottom, with one batch replaced every week, or a
total theoretical life of 6 months within the reactor vessel 11 for any batch of catalyst loaded.  As was previously mentioned above and as is clearly illustrated in FIG. 20, a once-through catalyst bed after hydroprocessing for a certain length of time
may be defined by the plurality of catalytic layers CL.sub.1, CL.sub.2, CL.sub.3, CL.sub.4, CL.sub.5, CL.sub.6, CL.sub.7, CL.sub.8, CL.sub.9 and CL.sub.10.  The catalyst in layer CL.sub.1 possesses essentially no useful activity and is the most dense,
completely operating and/or fouled.  The catalyst in layer CL.sub.10 possesses the highest activity and is the least dense of all the catalyst layers (i.e. catalyst layers CL.sub.1 -CL.sub.10), and further possesses additional activity.  To operate at a
1:1 catalyst recycle rate according to the present invention, and in order to produce the extended-life catalytic bed as illustrated in FIG. 21, a batch size double the normal catalyst addition rate is withdrawn from the bottom of the reaction zone or
catalyst bed 10 (see FIG. 14) and is sent to a high pressure catalyst recovery vessel, generally illustrated as 200.  As previously indicated, FIG. 21 is a schematic diagram of various catalytic layers having differing catalyst density and activity level
profile within the reactor vessel 11 operating with a 1:1 recycle catalyst mode and with the various catalytic layers having been broadly classified into the upper layer 160 and into the lower layer 170.


To replace the removed catalyst, catalyst typically comprising 50 weight % fresh catalyst and 50 weight % recycled catalyst may be added to the top of the hydroconversion reaction zone.  The catalyst to be withdrawn is either intermittently or
semi-continuously or continuously withdrawn in the hydrocarbon liquid as defined above from the reactor vessel 11 bottom through inverted J-tube 29 and discharged into conduit 198 via valve 84 for transfer to high pressure catalyst recovery vessel 200
(see FIG. 22 by way of illustration only).  The withdrawn catalyst will typically be from about 40% to about 60% expended, more preferably from about 45% to about 55% expended, where a 100% expended catalyst will be fully fouled and will possess
essentially no useful hydroconversion activity at reaction conditions in the hydroconversion zone.  The catalyst in the hydrocarbon liquid has a high concentration of catalyst to hydrocarbon liquid.  As previously indicated, the hydrocarbon liquid may
comprise liquid hydrocarbon component LH which has not been converted (into lighter products) or partly converted or a mixture of partly converted and unconverted liquid hydrocarbon component LH, or a mixture of the hydrogen-containing gas component HG
and any of the foregoing.


The withdrawn catalyst is typically a volumetric layer (i.e. the lowermost volumetric layer) of catalyst from the catalyst bed 10 and during withdrawal commences the plug-flowing of catalyst bed 10 downwardly.  The withdrawn catalyst is a
partially expended catalyst comprising a high-activity less dense (including medium-activity less dense) catalytic particulates which still have useful conversion activity and a low-activity more dense catalytic particulates which essentially have no
more conversion activity.  As previously indicated, the withdrawn combined expended and partially expended catalyst is transferred in the hydrocarbon liquid (as defined above) to the high pressure catalyst transfer vessel 200 as a concentrated highly
dense liquid slurry in laminar flow, in order to avoid undue abrasion of the withdrawn expended catalyst particles that are being transferred into the catalyst transfer vessel 200 by conduit 198.  The withdrawn expended catalyst is also withdrawn from
the lowermost section of the catalyst bed 10 in the previously mentioned hydrocarbon liquid (which is intended to upflow in the hydroconversion reaction zone or catalyst bed 10) under laminar flow conditions in order to avoid abrupt agitation of the
overlying bed of catalyst particles (e.g. the second most lowermost section or volumetric layer of catalyst particles overlying the lowermost volumetric layer of withdrawn partially expended catalyst) in the catalyst bed 10 of reactor vessel 11.  Any
abrupt agitation of the overlying bed of catalyst particles causes ebullation and eddying of the overlying bed of catalyst particles and/or fines in the overlying bed of catalyst particles; and thus, disrupting the downwardly plug-flow of the catalyst
bed 10.  To achieve laminar flow during catalyst removal from the bottom of the catalyst bed 10 for transfer through conduit 198 to the high pressure catalyst transfer vessel 200, it is essential that the pressure differential between reactor vessel 11
and the catalyst transfer vessel 200 be accurately controlled, for example, by detecting the pressure differences between conduit and the reactor vessel 11.  The pressure differential is zero when valve 84 is initially opened or closed.  It is to be
understood of course that the catalyst transfer vessel 200 is capable of being brought to a slightly lower pressure than the operating pressure of reactor vessel 11 during catalyst removal.  To initiate laminar flow of slurry catalyst (i.e. the indicated
hydrocarbon liquid containing the catalyst particles) from the reactor vessel 11 to the catalyst transfer vessel 200, the pressure in catalyst transfer vessel 200 is brought up to equal that in the reactor vessel 11, and subsequently valve 84 is opened
to cause laminar flow of slurry catalyst.  Slurry catalyst flow is controlled by regulating flow through valve 204.


In transfer of deactivated catalyst from reactor vessel 11 to catalyst transfer vessel 200, the flow path, including the flow path through valve 84 and conduit 198, is preferably uniform in cross-sectional area and diameter.  In general, the
diameter of these laminar flow passageways are at least five times, and may be as high as fifty or more times, the diameter of the individual particles to be passed therethrough.  It is desirable that flow through conduit 198 is substantially a liquid
only slurry mixture with catalyst particles.  Such a mixture at laminar flow conditions produces maximum carrying capacity of the fluid.  The preferred type of transfer valves (e.g. valves 84 and 204) for the embodiment of the invention depicted in FIGS.
12-25 are preferably the same type (e.g. ball valves) of transfer valves employed in the embodiment of the invention depicted in FIG. 1, such as those manufactured by The Kaymar and Mogas Companies.  Desirably, the level and density of a catalyst
transfer bed 209 within the catalyst transfer vessel 200 is preferably controlled on a continuous basis by gamma ray density detectors 230 and a gamma ray source 231 positioned in the catalyst transfer bed 209.  Such a gamma ray source may be in the form
of radioactive isotopes, such as Cesium 137, disposed inside the catalyst transfer vessel 200.  Alternatively, the gamma ray source can be an electrically controllable source, such as a thermal neutron activated gamma ray generator.  Detector 231 may be
in the form of an ionization tube, Geiger-Mueller tube or a scintillation detector.  Suitable sources and detectors are manufactured by Ronan Engineering Co.  The catalyst withdrawal from the reactor vessel 11 to the high pressure catalyst transfer
vessel 200 is automatically terminated when a level is detected at the middle density detector 230 of the reactor vessel 11 (typically a reactor type-gamma ray detector).


After valve 84 and valve 204 have been flushed with flush oil (e.g. vacuum gas oil) through valve 88 in the line 87 and then closed, the residuum is drained from catalyst transfer vessel 200 through a drain line 210.  Hot (300.degree.-500.degree. F.) flush oil or the like is then sent from a flushing oil drum 240, through line 242 and its associated valve 244, and through a valve 211 contained in line 246 to commence washing hydrocarbon liquid (as defined above) from the catalyst.  The flush oil
overflows the catalyst transfer vessel 200 through conduit 260 having a valve 266 to control flow back to the flushing oil drum 240.  Conduit 262 with an associated valve 264 communicates with conduit 260 for directing the flow of excess flush oil from
conduit 260 to elsewhere.  Conduit 270 conducts lighter fractions from flushing oil drum 240.  The choice of flush oil or similar hydrocarbon is not critical, so long as the oil remains a liquid, with at most insignificant vaporization, during the
separation process.  An exemplary flush oil is a heavy distillate fraction or a vacuum gas oil boiling above about 500.degree.  F., and more preferably boiling in the range of from about 500.degree.  F. to about 975.degree.  F. With catalyst transfer
vessel 200 filled with a flush oil such as a distillate fraction, an appropriate flow of a fluidizing medium is introduced below a distribution grid 207 of the (modified multiservice) high pressure catalyst transfer vessel 200 to classify the catalyst
within the transfer vessel 200 by density into portions having varying remaining catalytic activity.  As previously indicated, the fluidizing medium may be any suitable gaseous material (hydrocarbon gases, hydrocarbon liquid having a boiling point above
about 400.degree.  F., etc.).  If a hydrocarbon liquid having a boiling point above about 400.degree.  F. is the fluidizing medium, the fluidizing of catalyst transfer bed 209 is being conducted in the absence of air and at a temperature of at least
about 400.degree.  F.


After the withdrawn catalyst batch has been washed and cooled with flush oil, valve 244 is closed and valve 213 is opened and the fluidizing medium or gas is introduced through line 212 and valve 213 and through line 246 and open valve 211 and
into the catalyst transfer vessel 200.  The fluidizing gas lifts the catalyst particles, and expands and ebullates the catalyst bed 209 to a volume at least 10% (preferably at least 35%) greater than the volume of the catalyst bed 209 before introduction
of the fluidizing medium or gas.  The objective of the fluidizing step is to ebullate the catalyst bed 209 and to separate the catalyst particles by density.  The degree of separation depends on a number of factors, some of which have already been
indicated above, and additionally the volume of fluidizing gas introduced into the catalyst bed 209 and the time during which the bed is fluidized can be adjusted to achieve the degree of separation desired.  Stated alternatively, the quality of catalyst
separation depends on the characteristics of the catalyst and the time and the volumetric flow rate of elutriating gas, both of which are influenced by the specific equipment being used.  An acceptable method of determining a "sufficient" vapor flow for
acceptable catalyst separation involves running a trial vapor flow followed by analyzing a catalyst sample for density distribution from the catalyst transfer vessel 200.  The density detectors 230, which may be any suitable density detectors such as a
nuclear density detector manufactured by Ronan Engineering Co.  and Texas Nuclear, will identify when the catalyst bed 209 within the multiservice high pressure catalyst transfer vessel 200 is expanded significantly to classify the catalyst according to
density by elutriation.  Classification will normally be accomplished within a short time frame of 1-20 minutes, after which the gas rate is smoothly reduced by valve 213 to zero flow and the fluidized catalyst allowed to settle to a packed bed state. 
FIG. 22 broadly illustrates classifying by elutriation.


After the fluidized catalyst has settled into a packed bed state, a valve 216 in a line 21 is closed and a valve 215 in a line 217 is opened and the spent portion of catalyst in the recovery vessel 200 is then discharged through a line 214
communicating with a line 217 (see the diagram in FIG. 25 for illustrating the discharge of spent catalyst).  Depending on the process, this spent catalyst may be, for example, regenerated, using regeneration processes known in the art, or used in some
other process or discarded.  One of the density detectors 230, such as a nuclear density detector (i.e. detectors 230) mounted at the appropriate lower level on the catalyst transfer vessel 200, will terminate the transfer of spent catalyst through line
214 and through line 217 and its associated valve 214 to the disposal system, leaving the portion of partially expended catalyst in the catalyst recovery vessel 200.


After low-activity more dense catalyst has been removed from the catalyst transfer vessel 200 and as best shown in FIG. 24, valve 215 is closed and a valve 218 in a line 220 is opened to add fresh catalyst from a fresh catalyst vessel 219 through
the line 220 and into the catalyst recovery vessel 200.  The amount of fresh catalyst added is generally such that the total of fresh catalyst plus partially deactivated catalyst already in the catalyst recovery vessel 200 is equal in volume to the
catalyst removed from the reactor vessel 11.  The ratio of fresh catalyst to partially deactivated, recycle catalyst depends on the requirements of the operation and on the reactor system, and can range from 100% fresh catalyst added to the hydrocarbon
reactor vessel 11 to 100% recycle catalyst (i.e. all of the spent catalyst which was removed from the reactor vessel 11 is returned as recycle catalyst to the reactor vessel 11), or any combination thereof.  With catalyst thus loaded into catalyst
transfer vessel 200, a similar procedure is used for transferring catalyst under laminar flow conditions as a liquid slurry into reactor vessel 11 through line 221 for distribution to the bed surface 20 of the catalyst bed 10.


In transfer of catalyst from catalyst transfer vessel 200 (see FIG. 27 which illustrates the transfer of fresh and recycle catalyst) to reactor vessel 11, it will be understood that the pressure in vessel 200 is brought up to the pressure of
reactor vessel 11.  This may be done by injecting hydrogen through line 212 and its associated valve 213.  The oil (e.g. the previously defined hydrocarbon liquid or flush oil) in which the catalyst (e.g. partially deactivated catalyst plus fresh
catalyst) is immersed in should be heated to a temperature as close as possible to the temperature of reactants in the reactor vessel 11, without vaporizing the oil.  We have found this to be particularly important for minimizing process upsets when
fresh catalyst being added to the reactor vessel 11.  Thus, one of the features for this preferred embodiment of the invention is that catalyst (i.e. partially deactivated catalyst and/or fresh catalyst) and carrier flush oil is returned to the reactor
vessel 11 through lines 214 and 216 and 221.  Valve 215 is initially closed and valve 216 should be opened to effect the transfer.  The actual laminar transfer of the liquid catalyst slurry is controlled by valve 215 throttling the flow and pressure of
hydrogen admitted from the line 212.  After transfer of the liquid catalyst slurry into the reactor vessel 11, a valve 222 in a flush line 223 is opened briefly to assure that any catalyst left in the line 221 is cleared before valve 216 is closed.


While not intending to be bound by any theory or explanation for the method of the invention, it is believed that recycling a portion of partially spent catalyst to a moving bed hydrocarbon reactor system has beneficial temperature and activity
effects on the conversion process.  We believe that recycling catalyst at, for example, a 1/1 volume ratio of recycle to fresh catalyst redistributes the catalyst activity profile so that a substantial portion of the catalyst in the lower section of the
reactor has an activity level of approximately 50% or more, and so that further the bottom of the reactor vessel 11 can be safely operated at higher temperatures without "over expending" the catalyst and potentially creating operability problems due to
high carbon deposition on the catalyst, and possible catalyst agglomeration.  By operating at higher temperatures with higher activity level catalyst in the lower sections of an upflow packed bed reactor, more work (e.g. hydrogenation), which creates an
exothermic temperature rise, is accomplished in these lower sections with catalyst suitably aged or conditioned so as not to experience high carbon deposition rates as that of fresh catalyst.  It is believed (and known to those skilled in the art) that
fresh hydrogenation catalyst will experience abnormally high carbon deposition fouling rates during its early life (e.g. first several days) in a reactor.  The rate of fouling during this period of high activity level is greatly influenced by both the
temperature the catalyst is subjected to and the duration it is in residence in high temperature zones.  By either lowering the temperature in zones where fresh highly active catalyst are in residence, or by shortening the time of fresh highly active
catalyst in residence at high temperature, the useful life of the catalyst will be enhanced and/or extended.


Thus, by the practice of the present invention, there is provided a hydroprocessing conversion system that lowers the peak temperatures of the catalyst bed 10 in the upper reaction zones within the reactor vessel 11 by causing the lower catalyst
zones to perform a large portion or percentage of the conversion and/or hydrotreating of the hydrocarbon liquid stream.  By accomplishing more work in the lower sections of the packed catalyst bed 10 of the reactor vessel 11, the temperature profile can
be shifted to cooler temperatures in the top section of the reactor containing the freshest catalyst.  By reducing the residence time and residence temperature of highly active fresh catalyst in the hottest reaction zones (i.e. the upper zones) of the
reactor vessel 11, the deposition of coke in the pores of the catalytic particulates is decreased, minimizing early deactivation of the catalytic particulates.  FIGS. 15 through 19 depict expected typical temperature profiles for various reactor systems. FIG. 15 is a typical temperature profile (after quenching) of a conventional downflow fixed bed reactor with three equal size reaction zones and operating with a total 80.degree.  F. exothermic temperature rise; and FIG. 16 is a typical temperature
profile of an ebullated or expanded bed reactor operating with a total 80.degree.  F. exothermic temperature rise.  A typical temperature profile of an upflow substantially packed bed reactor of the present invention is illustrated in FIG. 17 with three
equal size reaction zones and operating with the countercurrent once-through catalyst replacement mode with a total 80.degree.  F. exothermic temperature rise.  FIG. 18 illustrates a typical temperature profile of an upflow substantially packed bed
reactor of the present invention with three equal size reaction zones and operating with countercurrent 1 to 1 catalyst recycle mode and having a total exothermic temperature rise of 80.degree.  F. Similarly, a typical temperature profile of an upflow
substantially packed bed reactor of the present invention is illustrated in FIG. 19 with four equal size reaction zones and also operating with countercurrent 1 to 1 catalyst recycle mode and having an identical total exothermic temperature rise of
80.degree.  F.


By the further practice of the present invention, there is also provided a process for the periodic or semi-continuous withdrawal, separation and replenishment of particulate catalyst to a substantially packed bed of catalyst, and an overall
improvement in the hydroprocessing system by providing a system and process in which the same transfer vessel (i.e. high pressure catalyst transfer vessel 200) can be employed for introducing solids into and withdrawing solids from the reactor vessel 11
and, in particular, a high pressure reactor.  By recycling an equal volume of partially expended catalyst as the fresh catalyst charged to a reactor, the fresh catalyst is spread over a greater depth and lowers the temperature gradient at the reactor top
(while increasing the temperature of the reactor bottom), and then transferred out of the hottest zones of the reactor more expediently due to the double size batches.  By recycling partially expended catalyst that has been commingled with fresh
catalyst, the catalyst activity profile can be adjusted to more favorably enhance overall reactor performance; thus optimizing the reactor performance and extending the life of the catalyst.  Extension of catalyst life means economizing and operating the
reactor vessel 11 in a cost effective manner.


By use of the present process the catalyst may be used until it is extremely inactive.  For example, in demetallation as much as 90 percent of the total metals loading capacity of the catalyst can be used before the deactivated catalyst is
removed from the bed.  Simultaneously, the average upgrading activity of the bed as a whole is maintained at a desirably high level by the presence of relatively fresh catalyst in the downstream portion of the bed.  In contrast to fixed bed processes,
catalyst can be utilized so efficiently that catalyst removed from the reactor may have an average activity substantially below the lowest acceptable overall activity for the catalyst bed as a whole.  In a fixed bed system, on the other hand, once the
actual average level of activity for all the catalyst in the fixed bed reaches the minimum acceptable average activity, the whole process must be shut down and the entire catalyst bed replaced.  Thus, much of the metals capacity or other activity of the
fixed bed catalyst can go unutilized.  From the information described above, those skilled and knowledgeable in the art will recognize the technical advantages of applying the present process to ebullated or expanded bed reactor systems, as well as to
moving bed reactor systems.


EXAMPLES


The following examples are exemplary examples of process runs, conducted in accordance with various method steps of the present invention and employing the apparatus in accordance with various preferred embodiments of the present invention.  The
following set-forth examples are given by way of illustration only and not by any limitation, and set-forth a best mode of the invention as presently contemplated.  All parameters such as concentrations, flow rates, mixing proportions, temperatures,
pressure, rates, compounds, etc., submitted in these examples are not to be construed to unduly limit the scope of the invention.


Example I


In a semi-commercial scale residuum conversion pilot plant operating at 100-200 BPD, the catalyst transfer procedure, as described above, was demonstrated more than 50 times.  During each transfer, about 2 cubic feet of catalyst was moved into
and out of the reactor vessel running continuously at typical residual desulfurization (RDS) conditions.  Transfer rates up to 16 cubic feet per hour of catalyst were accomplished through pipes with an inside diameter 8 times larger than the catalyst
diameter.  Plug flow movement of the catalyst and the absence of bed ebullation were proven using radioactively tagged catalyst particles incorporated in the test bed.


Among the significant features of the invention specifically demonstrated in such runs were that: (1) ball valves, such as those made by the Kaymr and Mogas companies, can be used to isolate the RDS reactor from the catalyst transfer vessels, and
to transfer catalyst particles without using solids handling valves, (2) the catalyst bed level and thus ebullation can be adequately monitored using a gamma-ray source and detector, (3) J-tubes (all with upward flow sections substantially shorter than
the downward flow paths) will satisfactorily transfer catalyst particles, without local ebullation, by laminar fluid flow, (4) use of fluid feed inlet distributor means with a conical support and concentric annular segment plates prevents ebullation at
the base of the catalyst bed and provides adequate radial distribution of gas and liquid, by forming concentric alternate rings of gas and liquid (5) substantial differences were shown where bed ebullation (expansion) occurred with one catalyst as
compared to no significant be debullation (expansion) with another catalyst using the same size and shape but with a lower density, and (6) transfer of catalyst into, and out of, a bed travelling downwardly by gravity in a reactor vessel while
continuously operating a hydroprocessing system to react a gas containing hydrogen and a feed stream of hydrocarbon liquids flowing as a single stream from the bottom of the bed, will permit countercurrent flow without separation during upward passage
through and out of the top of the reactor vessel, and (7) as the result of intermittent catalyst discharge, the catalyst bed moves countercurrently down through the reactor in plug-like flow.


Example II


From the foregoing tests in an apparatus under flow conditions described in Example I, the effectiveness of the foregoing mechanical and hydraulic factors were validated for performing hydrotreating processing with hydrocarbon and hydrogen
streams counterflowing through a moving bed of catalyst particles, as follows:


In a pilot plant operating at up to 4 BPD hydrocarbon feed and hydrogen at 2200 PSI, catalyst bed expansion measurements were made at commercial-scale flow velocities with beds of catalysts of different sizes, shapes, and densities as indicated
in Table I. Each type of catalyst was tested separately.  Bed ebullation (expansion) was measured using a gamma-ray source and detector means mounted to detect 10% bed expansion.  Table I shows flow velocities required to produce 10% bed expansion with
several catalysts at a standard hydrogen recirculation rate of 5000 SCFB.  These results confirmed the bed expansion results from the semi-commercial scale plant of Example I.


Table II is a similar set of runs using beds of three of the same catalyst particles as those tested under conditions shown in Table I except that the liquid viscosity, liquid density and pressure of the hydrocarbon feed stream and gas were lower
in Table II than Table I to match a different set of commercial operating conditions.  From Tables I and II the effect of catalyst particle size, density and shape are clearly indicated for different flow conditions for the liquid and gas components of
the feed.  The design feed rates for a hydrocarbon treating process were calculated by standard scaling procedures to indicate the values in MBPD (thousands of barrels per day) through a reactor vessel containing a catalyst bed 11.5 feet in diameter.


In general catalyst for commercial use would be selected on the basis of levitation or ebullation at a selected rate which is substantially higher than normal design feed rate, say up to 100% greater.  Additionally, these tests indicate that some
commercial catalysts will not lift at reasonable design feed rates if the particles have a high degree of uniformity and are sufficiently strong to maintain their integrity during movement into and out of the reactor vessel, without attrition or
breakage.


 TABLE I  __________________________________________________________________________ CATALYST BED EXPANSION STUDY TEST RESULTS  2200 PSI Hydrogen and Flush Oil  Liquid Density 51 lb/ft 3 Viscosity 1.1 cp  Gas Density 0.49 lb/ft 3 Viscosity 0.016
cp  Flow rates for 10% Bed Expansion  @ 5000 SCFB H.sub.2  Cata-  Relative Skeletal  Particle  Effective Density  Liquid Velocity  Gas Velocity  MBPD in 11.5  lyst  Size Shape Density  Density  In Oil (1)  Ft/Min Ft/Sec Ft. ID 
__________________________________________________________________________ Reactor  A 1 Cylinder  2.69 1.05 0.55 0.46 0.11 13  B 1.6 Quadralobe  3.55 1.03 0.56 0.60 0.14 17  C 2 Cylinder  3.61 1.60 1.05 0.46 0.11 13  D 3.2 Sphere  2.33 0.60 0.21 0.32
0.07 9  E 3.2 Sphere  3.63 0.83 0.47 1.38 0.33 40  F 3.2 Cylinder  3.58 1.37 0.89 1.38 0.33 40  __________________________________________________________________________ (1) Effective Density in Oil = Density of the Particle in Oil with  Buoyancy Forces
Includes = (Skeletal Density) (vol % Skeleton) + (Oil  Density) (vol % Pores) - Oil Density


 TABLE II  __________________________________________________________________________ CATALYST BED EXPANSION STUDY TEST RESULTS  With Hydrogen and Hydrocarbon at 1000 PSI  Liquid Density 48 lb/ft 3 Visocisty 0.56 cp  Gas Density 0.23 lb/ft 3
Viscoisty 0.013, cp  Flow rates for 10% Bed Expansion  @ 5000 SCFB H.sub.2  Cata-  Relative Skeletal  Particle  Effective Density  Liquid Velocity  Gas Velocity  MBPD in 11.5  lyst  Size Shape Density  Density  In Oil (1)  Ft/Min Ft/Sec Ft. ID 
__________________________________________________________________________ Reactor  C 2 Cylinder  3.61 1.60 0.53 0.13 15  E 3.2 Sphere  3.63 0.83 1.38 0.33 40  F 3.2 Cylinder  3.58 1.37 1.50 0.50 60 
__________________________________________________________________________


Example III


In a 4 foot diameter vessel a "cold model" was operated using up to 8000 BPD water and 275 SCFM air.  The features of the inlet liquid and gas distributor as well as the hydrogen gas redistribution and quench stages, described above and shown in
the drawings were scaled and tested.  Flow measurements and underwater photography proved that distribution of the inlet gas and liquid was uniform across the full cross-sectional area of the catalyst support screen in the vessel.  Redistribution of the
rising gas through the inverted V-shaped sheds was shown to be surprisingly effective even when gas was intentionally maldistributed below the redistributor stages.


Summary of Test Results for Example I,II and III


Briefly, these test results show that the present invention makes possible substantially continuous flow of uniformly distributed hydrogen and hydrocarbon liquid across a densely packed catalyst bed to fill substantially the entire volume of a
reactor vessel by introducing the fluids as alternate annular rings of gas and liquid at a rate insufficient to levitats the bed and with the catalyst selected with a density, shape and size adequate to prevent lifting of the bed at the desired feed
rates.  (Catalysts are selected by measuring bed expansion in a large pilot plant run with hydrocarbon, hydrogen, and catalyst at the design pressures and flow velocities).  At the desired flow rate, such catalyst continually flows in a plug-like manner
downwardly through the vessel by introducing fresh catalyst at the top of the bed by laminarly flowing such catalyst in a liquid stream on a periodic or semicontinuous basis.  Catalyst is removed by laminarly flowing catalyst particles in a liquid stream
out of the bottom of the bed.  Intake for such flow is out of direct contact with the stream of gas flowing through the bed and the flow path is substantially constant in cross-sectional area and greater in diameter by several times than the diameter of
the catalyst particles.


Example IV


A plurality of catalytic particulates were charged into a reaction zone contained within a reactor, such as reactor vessel 11.  The plurality of catalytic particulates formed a catalyst bed (such as catalyst bed 10 in FIGS. 1, 8 and 9).  The
catalyst bed was supported in the reactor by a truncated conical bed support similar to the support that is generally illustrated as 17 in FIGS. 8, 9 and 11-13.  An inlet distributor, such as circular plate member 31 in FIGS. 1 and 11 with the
multiplicity of tubes 32, extended across a full cross-sectional area of the reactor underneath the truncated conical bed support to form a plenum or inlet chamber between the inlet distributor and the truncated conical bed support, as generally
illustrated in FIGS. 8, 9 and 11-13.  The truncated conical bed support for the catalyst bed included a series of annular polygons that included a plurality of segmented plates (such as segmented plates 27 in FIGS. 2 and 3) connected to or formed with
radial spoke members such as members 26 FIGS. 10-13.  The plurality of segmented plates, each having a thickness of about 10 inches and a width of about 1.5 inch, were secured to 8 radial spoke members.  The interengaged segmented plates and radial spoke
members formed a web-like structure to produce essentially annularly continuous mixture zones for receiving a flow of hydrocarbon feed stream, and were overlayed with a screen having screen openings with a mean diameter that was smaller than the
catalytic particulates.  Each mixture zone underneath the screen had a generally circumferentially uniform thickness.


The catalytic particulates comprised an alumina porous carrier material or alumina inorganic support.  Deposited on and/or in the alumina porous carrier material was an oxidic hydrotreating catalyst component consisting of NiO and/or MoO.sub.3. 
The Mo was present on and/or in the alumina porous carrier material in an amount of about 3% by wt., based on the combined weight of the alumina porous carrier material and the oxidic hydrotreating catalyst component(s).  The Ni was present on and/or in
the alumina porous carrier material in an amount of about 1% by wt., based on the combined weight of the alumina porous carrier material and the oxidic hydrotreating catalyst component(s).  The surface area of the catalytic particulates was about 120 sq. meters per gram.


The plurality of catalytic particulates were generally spherical with a mean diameter having a value ranging from about 6 Tyler mesh to about 8 Tyler mesh and an aspect ratio of about 1.  The mean crush strength of the catalytic particulates was
about 5 lbs.  force.  The metals loading capacity of the catalyst or plurality of catalytic particulates was about 0.3 grams of metal per cubic centimeter of catalytic particulate bulk volume.


The catalytic particulates had a size distribution such that 98.5% by weight of the catalytic particulates in the catalyst bed had a diameter ranging from R.sub.1 to R.sub.2 wherein: (i) R.sub.1 had a value of about 0.093 inch (i.e. the
approximate opening of an 8 mesh Tyler screen); (ii) R.sub.2 had a value of about 0.131 inch (i.e. the approximate opening size of a 6 mesh Tyler screen); and (iii) the ratio R.sub.2 /R.sub.1 had a value equal to about the square root of 2.0 or about
1.414.  The size distribution of the catalytic particulates was also such that a maximum of about 1.0% by weight of the catalytic particulates had a diameter less than R.sub.1.  The catalyst further also had a size distribution such that a maximum of
about 0.2% by weight of the catalytic particulates had a diameter less than R.sub.3, wherein R.sub.3 was less than R.sub.1 and the value of the ratio R.sub.1 /R.sub.3 was about the square root of 2.0 or about 1.414.


The catalytic particulates of the catalyst had a maximum attrition of about 0.5% by weight of the catalytic particulates through a diameter (i.e. a Tyler screen opening) having the value of R.sub.1, and a further maximum attrition of about 0.2%
by weight of the catalytic particulates through a diameter (i.e. a Tyler screen opening) having the value of R.sub.3 wherein R.sub.3 again was less than R.sub.1 and the value of the ratio of R.sub.1 /R.sub.3 was about the square root of 2.0 or about
1.414.  Stated alternatively, for the catalytic particulates with the specified size range or distribution of about 6 to about 8 Tyler mesh, the specified attrition for the catalytic particulates was up to about 0.5% by weight MAX through 8 Tyler mesh
and up to about 0.2% by weight MAX through 10 Tyler mesh.


The catalytic particulates had a maximum fines content of up to about 1.0% by wt. through 8 Tyler mesh and up to about 0.2% by wt. through 10 Tyler mesh.  Stated alternatively, for the catalytic particulates with the specified size range or
distribution of about 6 to about 8 Tyler mesh, the specified fines content for the catalytic particulates was up to about 1.0% wt. fines MAX through 8 Tyler mesh and up to about 0.2% by wt. fines MAX through 10 Tyler mesh.  The catalytic particulates had
a uniform density such that mean density of the catalytic particulates were about 0.9 g/cc.


The liquid component of the hydrocarbon feed stream was a heavy atmospheric residuum wherein at least 95% by volume of which boiled above about 343.degree.  C. and wherein a substantial fraction (e.g. 50% by volume) boiled above about 510.degree. C. The "heavy" hydrocarbon feed had an undesirable metal content of about 90 ppm by weight of the "heavy" hydrocarbon feed.  The hydrogen-containing gas of the hydrocarbon feed stream was essentially 97% pure hydrogen and was mixed with the heavy
atmospheric residuum stream in a mixing ratio of 623 liters of hydrogen-containing gas at standard conditions per liter of heavy atmospheric residuum in order to form the hydrocarbon feed stream.


The hydrocarbon feed stream was passed through the inlet distributor and introduced into the plenum chamber of reactor at a flow rate ranging from about 0.1 ft/sec. to about 1.00 ft/sec. The hydroprocessing pressure and temperature within the
reactor were about 2300 psig.  and about 400.degree.  C. respectively.  From the plenum chamber of the reactor the hydrocarbon feed stream entered into the annular continuous mixture zones and was uniformly fed through the screen and into the catalyst
bed such as not to induce local ebullation or eddy currents in the catalyst bed, especially in proximity to the conical bed support which was overlayed with the screen.


The catalyst bed in the reactor contained a plurality of axially spaced apart hydrogen gas redistribution (or hydrogen gas-quenching) assemblies (see FIGS. 5 and 7 as illustrative of the hydrogen gas-quenching assemblies).  As the hydrocarbon
feed stream flowed upwardly through the catalyst bed, hydrogen gas was emitted from the hydrogen gas redistribution assemblies, which redistributed any hydrogen-containing gas that had become channeled in a portion of the catalyst bed below (or in close
proximity to) the hydrogen gas redistribution assemblies and further avoided generation of local hot spots, eddy currents or ebullation in the upper part (especially above the hydrogen gas redistribution assemblies) of the catalyst bed.


The liquid hydrocarbon feed stream exited the reactor at a withdrawal flow rate of about 3.6 ft/sec. and had been upgraded such that it contained a metal content of about 50 ppm by wt. of the liquid hydrocarbon feed stream.  As the hydrocarbon
feed stream flowed upwardly through the catalyst bed, a gamma ray source in the catalyst bed in combination with a gamma ray detector on the reactor (see for example gamma ray source 22 in the catalyst bed 10 competing with the gamma ray detector 24 on
the reactor vessel 10 in FIG. 1) detected that the catalyst bed expanded less than 10% by length over or beyond substantially the full axial length of the catalyst bed in a packed bed state.


After the reactor was on stream for about 1 weeks, approximately 7.25 cubic meters (or about 3.3% by weight of the catalyst bed) of catalytic particulates were laminarly withdrawn in the hydrocarbon feed stream through a J-tube (such as J-tube 29
in FIG. 1) at a flow rate of about 3.6 ft/sec. The withdrawn catalyst in the hydrocarbon feed stream had a concentration of about 0.5 lbs.  catalyst/lb.  catalyst slurry (i.e. weight of withdrawn catalyst plus weight of hydrocarbon feed stream).  When
and/or as the volume of catalytic particulates were withdrawn or transferred from the bottom of the catalyst bed, the catalyst bed (i.e. a substantially packed bed of catalyst) began to plug-flow.


The withdrawn catalyst was replaced by introducing a comparable volume of fresh replacement catalyst through the top of the reactor.  The fresh replacement catalyst was slurried in a hydrocarbon refined stream (e.g. gas oil) and was introduced
into the reactor at a flow catalyst replacement rate of about 3.6 ft/sec., and at a catalyst replacement concentration of about 0.5 lbs.  replacement catalyst/lb.  catalyst slurry (i.e. weight of replacement catalyst plus the hydrocarbon refined stream
(e.g. gas oil) as the slurrying medium).


While the present invention has been described herein with reference to particular embodiments thereof, a latitude of modification, various changes and substitutions are intended in the foregoing disclosure, and it will be appreciated that in
some instances some features of the invention will be employed without a corresponding use of other features without departing from the scope of the invention as set forth.


* * * * *























				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: 1. Field of the InventionThe present invention relates to a method for reducing the quantity of hydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading (e.g. demetallizing) a hydrocarbon feed stream to essentially the same degree as and/or when compared to the quantity ofhydroprocessing catalyst required for upgrading the hydrocarbon feed stream in a once through hydroprocessing catalyst replacement mode. More particularly, the present invention provides for a method to improve operability, reduce catalyst fouling rate,and extend the catalytic life of a catalyst bed employed in a hydroconversion reaction zone during hydroprocessing by contacting the bed of catalyst in the hydroconversion reaction zone with an upflowing hydrocarbon feed stream having a liquid componentand a hydrogen-containing gas component. The present invention more particularly further provides for a method which is intended to improve the operability and reduce catalyst fouling rate, and to extend the catalytic life of a generally "packedcatalyst bed" in a hydroprocessing reactor system which is capable of onstream catalyst replacement through selective recycle of catalyst. The methods of the present invention may also be advantageously practiced in hydrocarbon reactor systems thatutilize an "expanded catalyst bed", such as the ebullated beds as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,571,326 and 4,744,887, and which also have the capabilities of onstream catalyst replacement.2. Description of the Prior ArtHydroprocessing or hydrotreatment to remove undesirable components from hydrocarbon feed streams is a well known method of catalytically treating such heavy hydrocarbons to increase their commercial value. "Heavy" hydrocarbon liquid streams, andparticularly reduced crude oils, petroleum residua, tar sand bitumen, shale oil or liquified coal or reclaimed oil, generally contain product contaminants, such as sulfur, and/or nitrogen, metals and organo-metallic compounds which tend to deactivatecatalyst part