GCSE – Syllabus Outline

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					                        GCSE – Syllabus Outline
Section A – People & the Physical World
Plate Tectonics
    Earth’s Structure
    Difference between continental & oceanic crust.
    Convection currents
    Relationship between plate boundaries and tectonic activity (earthquakes &
    Plate Boundaries
           o Convergent/destructive plate boundaries
           o Divergent/constructive plate boundaries
           o Transform/Passive/Conservative plate boundary
       For each boundary – Named location, X-section labelled diagram,
       identification and explanation of all landforms including earthquakes and
       volcanic activity (where relevant).
    Volcano Case Study – Causes & Impacts/Effects - Labelled diagram, name
       plates, describe damage. Physical, social & economic effects.
    Reasons for the difference in impacts between volcanic eruptions in MEDC’s
       & LEDC’s.
    Earthquakes Case Study- Causes & Impacts/Effects - Labelled diagram, name
       plates. Define focus, epicentre, richter scale and seismic waves. Physical,
       social & economic effects. Difference between primary & secondary effects.
    Reasons why people live in earthquake areas.
    Reducing the impacts of volcanic earthquakes – prediction, warning,
       monitoring, preparation, education, drills etc.
    Reasons for the difference in impacts between earthquakes in MEDC’s &

    Global Hydrological System – What is it?
    River Basin Hydrological System – Identify; Flows, Stores, Inputs, and
       Outputs (Know your definitions!)
    The Water Balance
          o What is a Drainage Basin?
          o What is the Water Balance?
          o What factors influence rates of Evapo-transpiration and Runoff?
          o How can humans influence runoff?
    Hydrographs
          o What is a hydrograph?
          o What factors influence them? (Flashy & Subdued)
    Why do annual hydrographs vary? (R. Dart, R. Avon, R. Elan)
    How can humans influence discharge patterns?
    Flooding –     MEDC – Lynmouth 1952
                    LEDC – Bangladesh (1988 / 1998)
              o Examine; causes, impacts (Primary & Secondary), prediction and
              o Medway floods 2000 – Causes, Leigh Barrier.
      River Processes – Description of Erosion, Deposition, + diagram for
      What are the downstream changes of the R. Tees (Lower, Middle & Upper
          o Explain formation of;
          o UPPER COURSE - waterfalls, V- shaped valleys, potholes, vertical
          o MIDDLE COURSE – meanders, ox – bow lakes, lateral erosion
          o LOWER COURSE – floodplain, levees, human use of floodplain,
               human management of river.

    Coastal Processes
        o Definitions of; erosion, longshore drift, deposition
        o Definitions of transport processes
        o Factors influencing waves
        o How do they form?
    Coastal Erosion
        o Labelled diagrams for; cliffs and shore platforms, headlands (to
            include discordant coast, headland arches, stacks and stumps)
    Coastal Deposition
        o Labelled diagrams for; Hurst Castle spit, Chesil Beach, Tombolo (Holy
            Island), Beaches.
    Coastal management - Fairlight Case Study
        o What factors influence the shape and features of the Sandstone and
            Clay cliffs?
        o Why was the Fairlight Barrier built? What has its impact been? Was it
            worth it?

Section B – People & Places to Live (Population & Settlement)
Population Density and Distribution
    List of Physical and Human/Economic Factors that influence Pop. Density
    Why is NW Scotland a low density area?
    Why is SE England a high density area?
International Migration
    General reasons for int. mig. (physical/economic/forced) push and pull factors.
       What are asylum seekers and refugees?
    Case study of migration of Polish workers to UK since EU enlargement
       including reasons and impact on UK and Poland
Population Changes
    Definitions of Pop. Terms
    Global Pop. Change over last 50 Years including continental patterns
    Demographic Transition Model – include reasons for changes in Birth Rates
       and Death Rates
    Pop. Pyramids- compare MEDCs and LEDCs
Population Policy
    China One Child Policy – Reasons, How it Works, Success, Impact (compare
       urban and rural areas)
    Brief notes on policy in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines
Case study - UK
     Pop. Trends – include baby boomers and current low fertility
     Issues and impact of Ageing Pop.
Global Urbanisation
     Global Urban Trends in last 60 Years – Compare MEDCs and LEDCs and
       distribution of Million cities
Sao Paulo Case Study
     Reasons for Growth – push/pull factors in Brazil – impact on rural areas
     Urban Problems
     Industry
     Housing types
     How to improve Housing
     How to make the city more sustainable
Urban Land Use Zones in UK
     Model of Zonal Growth – CBD, Inner City, Suburbs and Urban Fringe
     Case study to illustrate eg Maidstone
Urban to Rural Migration in the UK – Counter Urbanisation
     Counter Urb from London to Cranbrook and nearby Villages
     Include reasons (push/pull factors), impact on Villages (social, economic and
       environmental changes)
     Characteristics of CBDs
     Types of shops and other zones
     Changes to CBDs in recent years
Inner Cities
     Reasons for Inner City decline
     Inner City Problems
     Case Study – London Docklands – include all types of changes and evaluate
       success of scheme
Urban/Rural Fringe
     What are the pressures on the fringe – include Business Parks, Housing,
       Shopping Centres. Arguments for and against
Out of Town Shopping
     Type of locations and reasons
     Type of shops - Retail Parks, Shopping Centres, Superstores
     Impact on the surrounding area, other areas of the town(CBD), people
     Relate to examples
Settlement Hierarchy
     How type and number of shops and services changes from villages up to large
     Concepts of range, threshold, low/high order, convenience/comparison
     How hierarchy can change with modern influences
Traffic Problems in Towns
     Types of traffic problems and reasons
     What can be done to reduce these problems
     Case Study – Maidstone (or other) traffic management schemes in the CBD
       and town
Section C – People & Their Needs
    Changes in farming over time in the UK, East Anglia(Agribusiness) – reasons
       and impacts
    Economic and political influences on farming – CAP (evaluate),
       diversification, future management/sustainability.
    Farming in an LEDC, Sahel – Changes over time, impacts and future
    Farming as a system – inputs, processes and outputs for MEDC commercial
       farming (arable, East Anglia) and LEDC subsistence farming (Sahel).
    Types of industry – Primary, secondary, tertiary & Quaternary
    Industry as a system – inputs, processes and outputs
    Factors that influence location of industry.
    Industrial location change in the UK
    Named examples of tied industry (Aluminium manufacturing), distribution
       centres (Argos) & hi-tech industry (M4 corridor) and locational factors
    Employment structure - % of people employed within primary, secondary and
       tertiary industry. Variations between LEDC’s & MEDC’s.
    Newly Industrialised Countries (NIC’s) – Reasons for rapid industrialisation
       in named LEDC and the impacts.
    Trans/Multi National Companies (TNC’s/MNC’s) – How do they work? What
       are the impacts?
    Changing patterns in tourism
    Reasons for the growth of tourism
    Impacts of tourism in LEDC’s - Antigua
    Impacts of tourism in an EU country (not the UK) - Spain
    Future sustainability of tourism – management solutions
Quality of Life
    Quality of Life & Global Variations – Quality of Life Indicators. Variations
       between MEDC’s & LEDC’s.
    Changes in energy use over time in the UK – Description & reasons
    Fossil Fuels/Non renewable – Name and examine the advantages and
    Renewable/Alternative Energy – Name and examine advantages and
       disadvantages. Potential within the UK.
    Nuclear Power – Advantages and disadvantages
    Solutions - Energy conservation and a sustainable future
    Impacts of changes of energy use – coal mine closure. Reasons, impacts and
       management for the future regeneration of these areas.

Section D – People & the Environment
National Parks
    History of National Parks
    Conflicts of interest in National Parks
    Management/sustainability of National Parks
Quarrying & Mineral Extraction
    Advantages and disadvantages
Water Pollution
    Sources of water Pollution
    River Rhine - reasons/causes and impacts of water pollution. Management for
      future sustainable use.
Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect
    Causes – Diagram and written explanation.
    Sources of greenhouse gases
    Consequences of global warming – Global and within UK
    Managing global warming and a sustainable future –
      Interdependence/international agreements, conservation of energy etc.
Acid Rain
    Causes and effects of acid rain.
    Managing the impacts of acid rain.
    International agreements
Tropical Rain Forests
    Global distribution of TRF
    Climate of the TRF
    Structure of the rainforest and characteristics
    Nutrient cycle – stores, flows, inputs, outputs – a fragile system
    Causes/reasons for deforestation – Named example
    Impacts of deforestation – global, regional and local – climate, weather,
      species diversity, indigeneous people, hydrology, nutrient cycle, river
    Sustainable management – viable options for the future use of TRF.

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