GCSE – Syllabus Outline Section A – People & the Physical World Plate Tectonics Earth’s Structure Difference between continental & oceanic crust. Convection currents Relationship between plate boundaries and tectonic activity (earthquakes & volcanoes) Plate Boundaries o Convergent/destructive plate boundaries o Divergent/constructive plate boundaries o Transform/Passive/Conservative plate boundary For each boundary – Named location, X-section labelled diagram, identification and explanation of all landforms including earthquakes and volcanic activity (where relevant). Volcano Case Study – Causes & Impacts/Effects - Labelled diagram, name plates, describe damage. Physical, social & economic effects. Reasons for the difference in impacts between volcanic eruptions in MEDC’s & LEDC’s. Earthquakes Case Study- Causes & Impacts/Effects - Labelled diagram, name plates. Define focus, epicentre, richter scale and seismic waves. Physical, social & economic effects. Difference between primary & secondary effects. Reasons why people live in earthquake areas. Reducing the impacts of volcanic earthquakes – prediction, warning, monitoring, preparation, education, drills etc. Reasons for the difference in impacts between earthquakes in MEDC’s & LEDC’s. Rivers Global Hydrological System – What is it? River Basin Hydrological System – Identify; Flows, Stores, Inputs, and Outputs (Know your definitions!) The Water Balance o What is a Drainage Basin? o What is the Water Balance? o What factors influence rates of Evapo-transpiration and Runoff? o How can humans influence runoff? Hydrographs o What is a hydrograph? o What factors influence them? (Flashy & Subdued) Why do annual hydrographs vary? (R. Dart, R. Avon, R. Elan) How can humans influence discharge patterns? Flooding – MEDC – Lynmouth 1952 LEDC – Bangladesh (1988 / 1998) o Examine; causes, impacts (Primary & Secondary), prediction and prevention. o Medway floods 2000 – Causes, Leigh Barrier. River Processes – Description of Erosion, Deposition, + diagram for Transportation. What are the downstream changes of the R. Tees (Lower, Middle & Upper course) o Explain formation of; o UPPER COURSE - waterfalls, V- shaped valleys, potholes, vertical erosion o MIDDLE COURSE – meanders, ox – bow lakes, lateral erosion o LOWER COURSE – floodplain, levees, human use of floodplain, human management of river. Coasts Coastal Processes o Definitions of; erosion, longshore drift, deposition o Definitions of transport processes o Factors influencing waves o How do they form? Coastal Erosion o Labelled diagrams for; cliffs and shore platforms, headlands (to include discordant coast, headland arches, stacks and stumps) Coastal Deposition o Labelled diagrams for; Hurst Castle spit, Chesil Beach, Tombolo (Holy Island), Beaches. Coastal management - Fairlight Case Study o What factors influence the shape and features of the Sandstone and Clay cliffs? o Why was the Fairlight Barrier built? What has its impact been? Was it worth it? Section B – People & Places to Live (Population & Settlement) Population Density and Distribution List of Physical and Human/Economic Factors that influence Pop. Density Why is NW Scotland a low density area? Why is SE England a high density area? International Migration General reasons for int. mig. (physical/economic/forced) push and pull factors. What are asylum seekers and refugees? Case study of migration of Polish workers to UK since EU enlargement including reasons and impact on UK and Poland Population Changes Definitions of Pop. Terms Global Pop. Change over last 50 Years including continental patterns Demographic Transition Model – include reasons for changes in Birth Rates and Death Rates Pop. Pyramids- compare MEDCs and LEDCs Population Policy China One Child Policy – Reasons, How it Works, Success, Impact (compare urban and rural areas) Brief notes on policy in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines Case study - UK Pop. Trends – include baby boomers and current low fertility Issues and impact of Ageing Pop. Global Urbanisation Global Urban Trends in last 60 Years – Compare MEDCs and LEDCs and distribution of Million cities Sao Paulo Case Study Reasons for Growth – push/pull factors in Brazil – impact on rural areas Urban Problems Industry Housing types How to improve Housing How to make the city more sustainable Urban Land Use Zones in UK Model of Zonal Growth – CBD, Inner City, Suburbs and Urban Fringe Case study to illustrate eg Maidstone Urban to Rural Migration in the UK – Counter Urbanisation Counter Urb from London to Cranbrook and nearby Villages Include reasons (push/pull factors), impact on Villages (social, economic and environmental changes) CBDs Characteristics of CBDs Types of shops and other zones Changes to CBDs in recent years Inner Cities Reasons for Inner City decline Inner City Problems Case Study – London Docklands – include all types of changes and evaluate success of scheme Urban/Rural Fringe What are the pressures on the fringe – include Business Parks, Housing, Shopping Centres. Arguments for and against Out of Town Shopping Type of locations and reasons Type of shops - Retail Parks, Shopping Centres, Superstores Impact on the surrounding area, other areas of the town(CBD), people Relate to examples Settlement Hierarchy How type and number of shops and services changes from villages up to large towns Concepts of range, threshold, low/high order, convenience/comparison How hierarchy can change with modern influences Traffic Problems in Towns Types of traffic problems and reasons What can be done to reduce these problems Case Study – Maidstone (or other) traffic management schemes in the CBD and town Section C – People & Their Needs Agriculture Changes in farming over time in the UK, East Anglia(Agribusiness) – reasons and impacts Economic and political influences on farming – CAP (evaluate), diversification, future management/sustainability. Farming in an LEDC, Sahel – Changes over time, impacts and future management/sustainability. Farming as a system – inputs, processes and outputs for MEDC commercial farming (arable, East Anglia) and LEDC subsistence farming (Sahel). Industry Types of industry – Primary, secondary, tertiary & Quaternary Industry as a system – inputs, processes and outputs Factors that influence location of industry. Industrial location change in the UK Named examples of tied industry (Aluminium manufacturing), distribution centres (Argos) & hi-tech industry (M4 corridor) and locational factors Employment structure - % of people employed within primary, secondary and tertiary industry. Variations between LEDC’s & MEDC’s. Newly Industrialised Countries (NIC’s) – Reasons for rapid industrialisation in named LEDC and the impacts. Trans/Multi National Companies (TNC’s/MNC’s) – How do they work? What are the impacts? Tourism Changing patterns in tourism Reasons for the growth of tourism Impacts of tourism in LEDC’s - Antigua Impacts of tourism in an EU country (not the UK) - Spain Future sustainability of tourism – management solutions Quality of Life Quality of Life & Global Variations – Quality of Life Indicators. Variations between MEDC’s & LEDC’s. Energy Changes in energy use over time in the UK – Description & reasons Fossil Fuels/Non renewable – Name and examine the advantages and disadvantages Renewable/Alternative Energy – Name and examine advantages and disadvantages. Potential within the UK. Nuclear Power – Advantages and disadvantages Solutions - Energy conservation and a sustainable future Impacts of changes of energy use – coal mine closure. Reasons, impacts and management for the future regeneration of these areas. Section D – People & the Environment National Parks History of National Parks Conflicts of interest in National Parks Management/sustainability of National Parks Quarrying & Mineral Extraction Advantages and disadvantages Water Pollution Sources of water Pollution River Rhine - reasons/causes and impacts of water pollution. Management for future sustainable use. Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect Causes – Diagram and written explanation. Sources of greenhouse gases Consequences of global warming – Global and within UK Managing global warming and a sustainable future – Interdependence/international agreements, conservation of energy etc. Acid Rain Causes and effects of acid rain. Managing the impacts of acid rain. International agreements Tropical Rain Forests Global distribution of TRF Climate of the TRF Structure of the rainforest and characteristics Nutrient cycle – stores, flows, inputs, outputs – a fragile system Causes/reasons for deforestation – Named example Impacts of deforestation – global, regional and local – climate, weather, species diversity, indigeneous people, hydrology, nutrient cycle, river pollution Sustainable management – viable options for the future use of TRF.