U. S. DEPARTMENTOF LABOR
                           JAMES J, DAVIS, Seaetery

                            GRACE ABBOTT.    Chief

                 DEPRESSION I92I AND 1922


                      EMMA OCTAVIA LUNDBERG


                          Bueau         No,
                               Publication | 25

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      Letter of transmittal-. . .                                                                                      IX
      What the father's unemployment means to the children- -                                                           I
      The field of the study. -.                                                                                     5-11
          Purpose                                                                                                       D
          Citiesincluded--. ---.                                                                                     6.10
               R e a s o nts . , " r " . t i o o -- . - - - : - - - - . - - - - - : - - . '                             6
               Extentofunemployment--.-                                                 ..---.-.----.-.--.---.:..:      7
               tr{easures  takea to provide employment-.                                                                I
          Sourcesof information                                                                                        l0
      The familiesof the unemployed..-------.                                                                       13-96
          Racine, is-----.-.-                                                                                      75-2L
               Duration of unemplolment.. -.                                                                           15
               Number of children afrected-                                                                            15
               General facts concerning the fathers-                                                                   16
               Previouswork status of fathers------                                                                    17
               Ownership of home-. - -. - -                                                                            18
               Housing conditions- -. -                                                                                t9
               Rentspaid--..                                                                                           20
          Springfield, Mass..-. -.                                                                                 22-27
               Duration of unemployment... -                                                                           22
               Number of children affected-                                                                            22
               General facts concerni:rg the fathers-                                                                  23
               Previous work status of fathers. -. -. -                                                                24
               Ownership of home- -. -. - -                                                                            26
               Housrng conditions. -. -                                                                                26
               Rents paid-. - -                                                                                        27
          Remurces during unemployment- -. - - - -                                                                 27-35
               Sourcesof livelihood- -                                                                                 27
               hoportions of total maintenance derived from the various soruces--.-.                                   30
              Weekly resourcesat the time of inquiry. - -. -                                                           31
              Average monthly resourcesduring unemployment-. -                                                         32
              fncome during year preceding unemployment                                                                32
         Lowered standards of living. - - - -                                                                      36-45
              Monthly resourcesbefore and during unemployment-. . . -                                                 36
              Comparison of resources during unemploJment with estimated family
                 budgetn- -. -
                            -..                                                                                       36
              Illuetmtions of the effect of unemployment on standards of living. -. -                                 39
         Employment of the mother.                                                                                 45-56
              Relation to unemployment of father-.                                                                    45
              Work at home and away from home-.-.----.-                                                               46
              Eours employed per week-                                                                                46
              The children of working mothere..---.-                                                                  47
              Care of the children duri:rg the mother's absence-- -. - -.                                             48
              The mother's earnings- - -                                                                              49
              fypical instaaces.. - -. -                                                                              49

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     w                                     c0NTENTS.

     The families of the unemployed-Continued.                                               Pase'
        Employment of the children                                                   - - - 57-60
                       income from children's earnings-- - - -                                 57
              Number of chjldren employed- - -. -                                              57
              Agesof worki'g      children------                                               57
              Gldes completed by children who went to work" - " "                              58
              OccuPations-                                                                     59
              Wages-.-....--                                                                   59
         Savings"exhausted-.-.-.-----                                                   '- 60_6b
              Atount of savings-.---                                                           60
              Charitable aid in     relation to saYings-----                                   61
              Loss of homes-                                                                    61
              Families who bad used up their       savings-'                                    61
         Theburdenofdebt--------                                              '-''''' 65-79
              Extentand formsof indebtednesE-----          -                                    65
              Proportion of maintenance secured through credit or loans-""'-'' ' ' ' -          66
              The cost of cash loans--                                                          67
              Families who had mortgagedthe future- - - -                                       68
               Credit for food suPPlies-.                                                       76
         Cbaritable aid by public or private agencies-- ' - ' '               ' ' - ' ' ' - 79-84
              Assistance   given the families-----                                              79
               Interval between loss of work and application for aid- '                         80
               Duration of aid.-----..-                                                         80
               Aid to iamilies of skilled and unskilled workers- ' - - - ' '                    81
               Relation of aid received to total resourceg------                                82
         The coincidence      of illness and unemployment-------"'                       - - 85-90
               Extent of illnese-.--.-                                                          85
               Debtsfor   medicalcare-----------                                                86
               Unemployment among families given nursing serYice''''-'--                        86
               Familieshandicappedbyillness-----                                                92
     Unemplolment and the relief problem in B,acine- - -                            ' ' ' 97-108
         The ciiY semmiesary-                                                                   97
         Relief work and loans by factories-                                                    99
         The city poor ofrce..--.                                                              100
         Theprivatereliefagency-                                             -----' 100-102
               Relief to families of unemployed men- - -                                       10f
               fncrease i.lr the relief problem-                                               102
          Familieggivenaicl because unemplolment- - - -
                                           of                                  "'--        103-105
               Duration of unemplol'ment before applyrng Ior aid '                             103
               Nativity and reeidenceof fathers- -                                             103
                Children in families given aid- - - - -                                        104
                EmPlolment of children-                                                        104
             . Illnese in the fami lies .                                                      104
          Free milk to school children-                                                        105
          Children   brought to the day nursery- - - - -                                       106
          Mothers'pensionsand unemplolment-----                                                107
      Families   of men given emergency employment in Springfield-             " " ' 109-114
          thefather'spreviousemplolment                                        '"--        109-111
                Interval between loss of employment and application for city work- "           109
                Weeklywa,ge8..----                                                             110
                OccuPations.                                                                   110
          socialdata-                                                              "- 111-114
                Ages of fathere                                                                111
                Nativity and length of residencein city-                                       111

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                                                   CoNTDNTS.                                                 v
       Families of men given emergency employment in Springfield-Continued.
           Social data-Continued.                                                                           Pago.
                Number and agesof children-                                                                  11I
                Debts. - -                                                                                    IIz
               Assistanceby public and private agencies.-.                                                   11g
       Child ]abor in an unemployment period-                                                  . . . - 11b-132
           Children eligible for work-                                                                       115
           Effect on child Iabor in Racine. - - - -
               Children euolled in continuation school-- - - : . - . . . - - . . : . - - - - . - - . - itti?8
                Tine elapsed since leaving regular school. _                                                  lL7
                Decline in child labor- -                                                                    ]rl7
               Jobs secured by children during unemployment period-                                          11g
           Effect on child labor in Springfeld                                            .. - -. _ 1ZO-IS2
               Employment certificates- -. -                                                                 irz}
               Child labor before and during the unemploy'ment period- - -                                   l.2T
               Cbjldren attending continuation school-.                                                      l2Z
               Children securing work during the unemployment period.                                        I2S
                     tle children left school to go to work. - _                                             126
               Unemplol'ment of children-                                                                    726
       Summariesof conditions by districts--.                                                                1g3
           Appendix A. Tables.                                                                               r43
           Appendix B. Formsusedin the study-                                                             169
          Table I.-Sources of family maintenance
                                               during father's unemplolment;
                         based on reports of 136 families                                                  g1
                  Il.-Comparison of average monthly tesourcesand estimated budget
                         requirement; fami_liesfor whom average monthly resources
                         were reported                                                                     gg
           Table A.-Sources of maintenance during father's unemployment- . _ - - ..                        34
                 B.-trfothers working away from home during father,s unemploy-
                         ment- _                                                                           U
                 C.-Debts incurred or unpaid becauseof unemployment_ _-. - - -. . _                        74
                 D.-Families receiving charitable aid during unemployment of
                         father.--.-                                                                       8g
                 E.-Familisg reporthg illness duriag the period of the father's un-
                         employnenl.                                                                       gg
                 F.-Springfield: Children 14 and 1b years of age to whom employ-
                        ment certificates had been issued since IIay 1, 1g21, who
                        were unemployed February 1,1922-                                                  I2g
                G.-Springfield: Children 14 and 1b years of age to wbom employ-
                          ment certificatcs had been issued prior to May 1, 1g21, who
                          were unemployed February I,7922,--                                              129
       , Table l.-Racine: Duration of unemplolment of father and last regular
                         occupation....                                                                   143
                  2.-Springfield: Duration of unemployment of father and last regu-
                         lar occupation                                                                   lr41
                 3.-Racine: Country of birth of unemployed fathers, by length of
                         residence in United States and work status_                                      I44
                 4.-Springfield: Country of birth of unemployed fathers, by length
                         of residence in United States and work status.                                   I4b

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      VI                                  CONTENIS.

      Appendix-Oontinued.                                                              Page
         Table 5.-Racine: Literacy and nativity of father, by duration of unem-
                        Ploynent of father.                                             146
                 6.-springfield: Literacy and nativity of father, by duration of
                        unemplol'ment of father-                                         I46
                 7.-Racine: Citizenship of foreign-born unemployed fathers, by
                        length of residencein the United States--                        Iro

                 8.-springfield: Citizenship of foreign-born unemployed fathers,
                        by length of rcsidence in the United States- -                   147
                 9.-Racine: Tenure of homes occupied by families of unemployed
                        men, by duration of occupancy-                                   r47
               10.-springfield: Tenure of homes occupied by families of un-
                        employed men, by duration of occupancy-                          147
               1l.-Racine: Monthly rental of families occupying rented houses
                        during father's unemployment, by number of roomsin house- 148
               12.-springfield: Monthly rental of fa"miliesoccupying rented houses
                        during father's unemplolment, by number of roomsin house-        148
                l3.-Racine: Number of personsin householdsof unemployed men,
                        by number of rooms in house-                                     r48
                14.-Springfield: Number of persons in households of unemployed
                        men, by number of roomsin house.                                 r49
                15.-Racine: Ilonthly rental at time of study of families of un-
                        employed men, by monthly rental previous to unemployment         149
                16.-springfield: Monthly rental at time of study of famiiies o{
                        unemployed men, by monthly rental previous to unemploy-
                        ment-.                                                            150
                l7.-Racine: Total resources of family during father's unemploy-
                        ment, by duration of unemplol'ment and ownership of home - -      151
                18.-springfield: Total resources family during father's unemploy-
                        ment, by duration of unemplo)'ment and orvnershipof home- -       t52
                19.-sources of income during unemplo)'ment in lamilies of unem-
                        ployed men, by city- - - - - - -                                  L52
                20.-Racine and Springfield: Average monthly resoulcesof families
                         of unemployed men, prior to unemplopnent and during
                         unemplo)'ment- - - - - - - - - - - -                              153
                 2l.-Racine: Duration of father's unemploym.ent, by father's total
                         earnings from temporary work during unemploynent- - - - - - -    153
                 22.-springfield: Duration of father's unemployment, by father's
                         total earnings from temporary work during unemployment- -        751
                 23.-Racine: Number of persons families'ofunemployed men, by
                         weekly income at time of stud,v.                                 TM
                 24.-springfield: Number of personsin families of unemployed men,
                         by weekly income at time of study.                               IDO

                 25.-Racine and Springfield: Number of children in families iu
                         rvhich the average monthly resources during father's un-
                         emplolment were specified percentages of receipts prior to
                         unemployment,by age of child- --. -..                             155
                 26.-Racine: Average monthly resourcesduring unemplo;'ment and
                         estinated budget requirements for families of unemployed
                         men.-..                                                           156
                 27.-Springfield: Average monthly resourcesduring unemplolment
                         and estimated budget requirements for families of unemployed
                         men-- -                                                           lDo

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                                               CONTENTS.                                            VII

      Appendix--Continued.                                                                         page.
         Table 28.-Racine: Interval elapsing between beginning of unemployrnent
                       and receiving charitable aid, by previous work status of
                       unemployed men- - - -.                                                        156
                29.-Springfield: fnterval elapsing between beginning of unemploy-
                       ment and receiving charitable aid, by previous rvork status of
                       unemployed men.. -.                                                           lrb7
               30.-Racine: Amount and duration of charitable aid received bv
                       familiesof unemployedmen. - -                          . .. - . . -. -. -..   Ibz
               3l.-Springfeld:            Amount and duration of charitable aid received by
                       familiesof unemployedmen.--._--                                               1b8
               32.-Racine: Average number of working hours per week for mothers
                       who worked during father,s unemplolrnent, bv type of work
                       and place of employment-_----.-                                               lbg
               33.-Springfield: Average number of working hours per week for
                       mothers who worked during father,s unemplolment, by tlpe
                       of work and place of employment- - - - -.                                     159
               34.-Racine and Springfield: Employ'ment of mothers during unem-
                       ploJment period of.fathers,by place of employment_.- - - -. .                 159
               35.-Racine: School gade of children of unemployed men, by age
                       and sex... -                                                                  160
               36.-Springfield: School grade of children of unemployed men, by
                       a g ea n d s e x - - . _ - _ - _ . .                                         161
               37.-Racine and Springfield: Amount of weekly salnings of working
                       children of unemployed men, by age and sex. . - -                             162
               38.-Racine: Occupation of working children during father,s unem-
                       ployment, and time of beginning work, by age and Bex_. - -.                   162
               39.-Springfield: Occupation of working shilfllsn during father's
                       unemploy'ment, and time of beginning work, by ageand sex..                   163
               40.-Racine and Springfeld: Time of beginning work and grade in
                       school of working children of unemployed men, by age and
                       s e x - . . . - - . . . .-                                                   164
               4l.-Racine and Springfield: Length of time since leaving school of
                       working children of unemployed men, by ageand sex. __.- _-                   16b
               42.-Springfield: Emplol'ment status February l, L922, of children
                       whose fust employment certificates were issued subsequent
                      to May 1, 1921, ageand sex.-..
                                                  by                                                16b
               43.-Springfield: Length of time since original emplolment certifi-
                      cate was issued to children who received certificates subse-
                       quent to May 1, Ig2l, but who were not at ryork February 1,
                       1922; by amount of time worked- _-                                           16b
               44.-Springfield: Number of jobs held and total amount o{ time
                      child had worked prior to February I,1922; children with
                      employment certificates,unemployed February L, Ig2Z. . . - -                  166
               45.-Springfield: Grade completed by children between 14 and 16
                      years of age to whom emplolm.ent certificates had been issued
                      but who were not at work February l, Ig22, by age and sex.                    166
               4d.-Springfield: Length of emplol,ment history of children between
                      14 and 16 years of age to whom employment certificates hac
                      been issued but who were not at work February I, lg22,by
                      amount of time worked in all positions                                        16Z
               47.-Sprirgfield: Period of residence in the city, of unemployed men
                      who weregiven city work, by courtry of birth. . - -. . -..... -               16Z
               48.-Springfreld: Previous weekly wages of unemployed men, by
                      length of unemployment before application for city work. _..                  169

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       VIII                             CONTENTS.

       Chart I.-Ages of children in families of unemployed men..... -.. - -    -     14
            Il.-Duration of unemployment. .. -                                       2'l'
          Ill.-Percentages of families reporting various sources of maintenance
                    during the fathers'unemplolment                                  28
           IY.-Average monthly resourcesduring the unemployment period com-
                    pared with incomes in the preceding year..                       33
             V.-Employment of mothers before and during unemployment of fathers-     47
           Vf.-Interval     between loss of work and application for aid-            81
          YII.-Racine, \\ris.-Employment of children-----                           118
         Vlll.-Springfieid,    Mass.-Emplol'ment of children- -. -                  122
           IX.-Springfield, Mass.-Employment of children. - - -                     125

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                            LETTER OF TRANSMITTAT.

                                   U. S. DepeRTMENT L.rnon,

       child welfare v'hich is based on a study made in tx.o cities.
          Bmma o. Lundberg, director of the social service division,
                                                                             was in
       charge of the investig;ation and has also *,ritten the report.
                -conducting the field stud}, a1d preparing the' material for
       publication was given by Mary E. Ititbur'u'a         noiil Bloodgood, both
       of the stafl of the social service division of the children's g,;"*".
         The findings of this report make it clear that large groups of
                   temporary but permanent lossesu. u i".].,rt of a period of
      :qr" lo-t
      industrial depression' Those who are interested in raising
      standard of our citizenship through better care of the children
                                                                             of the
      country can not regard as outside the field of their concern,proposals
      for preventing-unemployment       and, failing irr a program of prlvention,
      measureswhich are necessaryfor safeguarding the childrJn during
      period of unemployment.
                                                          Gn,lcn Annorr,
        Hon. Jauns J. Dar.rs,
                   Seuetary of Labor.

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                         This page is blank in the
                           original document.

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                    . WELFARE.
         During the industrial depression of 192L and 1922, the Children's
      Bureau undertook a careful study of the efrect of unemplo5,'ment,
      upon local problems of child welfare. For this inquiry two cities
      were selected in which there was successful coordination of the
      public and private resources and generous expenditure for the
      mitigation of the hardships incident to that period. They were cities
      in which the industries required a large percentage of skilled workers
      and paid wages that permitted a higher standard of living than the
      workers in many industrial co-munities enjoy; both had been
      unusually prosperous during the period irn-mediately preceding the
      industrial depression.
         The families for whom scheduieswere taken were selectedfrom tho
      Iists of the men who were registered in the 1o"sl smplo5zmentoffices
      and represented,as nearly as possible,a cross section of families of
      ulsmployed men in which there were two or more children under 18
      years of age. The evidence shows that their earnings prior to the
      period of depressionhad permitted the families of many of these
      workingmen to begin payments on homes, lay aside money for the
      education of their children, for possible emergenciesand for old age,
      and that they were at the same time living comfortably. It is prob-
      ably safe to say that the families of these two cities had resoulces
      both in actual savings and in credit which the workers in many com-
      munities did not have.
         But a long period ol ulsmployment-more than two-thirds of the
      fathers included in the study had been out, of work for more than
      a year-had gradually exhausted ths resources of the families, and
      recourse to public and private relief as well as great changesin the
      fsmily life had becomenecessary.
         A large proportion of the men being skilled workerc, the incomes
      in the families had, in normal times, ranged from $75 to more than
      $200 per month. More than nine-tenths of the men for whom com-
      plete information as to income was securedhad been earning between
      $100 and $175 per month. During the period of unemplo5rment,
      the complete family resources in four-fifths of the families of_these

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         2              I]NEMPLOYMENT      AND   CITILD   WELTARE.

         s&me men amounted to between $25 and $100 a month-this, too,
         when the earnings of the father in such temporary work as could be
         secured, the wages of the mother and the children, the savings that
         were taken from the bank, and the loans that were made, the food
         and other necessariespurchased on credit, and aid from relatives
         and public and private relief agencies were all included. Half of
         the families for which there was complete information averagedfor
         their maintenance during unemployment one-half as much as while
         the father was working.
            It is inevitable that there should be a lowering of the standards of
         family life when the regular income is interrupted. Frugality in
         food, even to the point of actual privation, a dangerous   saving of fuel,
         economyin clothing and household       supplies,reduction of the housing
         cost through seeking cheaper quarters or crowdiag the family to
         secure an income from lodgers, always follow the breadwinnet's loss
         of work, even though the family does not actually have to seek ouG
         side sourcesof aid. \4&en the father loseshis job the mother must
         secure work if it is possible for her to do so. Approximately one-
         third of the children included in the study were in families in which
         the mother did undertake and was engaged in gainful employment
     '   either within or outside her home. The evidence indicates that in
         some of these families the money for the family's food was secured
         at the cost of permanentinjury to the health of the mother and neglect
         of the children.
            The investigation made by the bureau shows that unemployment
         not only carries with it immsdlsls deprivation and hardship but
         Ieaves a burden of debt and discouragement for the years to come.
         More than two-fi-fths of the families included in the study had been
          able to maintain themselvesin part during the unemplo;zmentperiod
         on their savi:rgs. In many casesthese savings represented years of
         economizing and of planning for the future. Homes that had been
         purchased in whole or in part had to be sacrificed by many families.
             Over four-fifths of the families rvere in debt for food, rent, fuel,
         medical attendance, and other necessities. T&en the father even-
          tually secrrres work, those families which lived on oredit at the stores,
          or on borrowed money, will have a burden of debt to meet.
             It has been pointed out that the families included in this inqutry
          represented as nearly as possiblo & cross section of families of unem-
          ployed men in two cities in which wa,ges   had been high. ft is there-
          fore especially significant to find that over half of them had received
          charitable aid from public or private agencies during the father's
          unemplo;rmeut. fn almost t hree-fourths of the families receivin
          such aid, the men had been skilled workers, and 42 per cent of the
          families that had had savings wheu the father was thrown out of

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
              TITE FATHER'S     UNEMPTO]TMENT       AND TTTE CHILDREN.            3
       work had been compelled to seek aid from public or private rerief
       agenciesafter their savings were exhausted..
           rn addition to the other hardships, almost two-thirds of the
       ilies reported the ilhess or disability of one or more members
       the time the father was out of work. of especialinterest io
       tion with child welfare are the families-almost a fourth of the      "oro""-
      numbei-in which the mother was pregnant or had been confined
      during the father's unegrployment.
          one of the outstanding conditions incident to the industrial
      pression,and one that on its face would appear to be entirely
      ficial, was the shortage of work for children. Many children
      hadt-een employed wereforced to go back to school,uoa oJrr"",
      would have tried to eke out the tamlty income while the father
      unemployed remained in school becausework could not be
      But this gave no guaranty of permanent educatioout guio*.
      that would have assuredmany of the childl"o real Educational
      portunities had been spent. Many of the children in
                                                                     the families
     whose future had been burdened by debts would ,ndoubtedry
     sent_towork just &ssoon as they could fiod any kind of a job.
     ghildre_n  d-,ring all the time when men and woJen *""".o he*p""ut"ty
     in need of empioyment left school and secured work.
          Thus, the hardships that must be endured by a family
                                                                        when the
     father is out of work do not end when conditions imprlve
                                                                           and he
     again has a steady job. The savings of years have bein used
                                                                             up in
     order to provide maintenance during months of enforced idieniess,
    perhaps the home whose purchase ref,resented the fulflllment
                                                                             of the
    family's ambitions has been sacrificed. For many -oott,
                                                                        uiter the
    father secureswork his wages will have to be divided between
    purchase of the necessariesof life and the payment
                                                                   of ihe heavy
    burden of debt. Many of the fathers interviewld had littre
                                                                          hope of
    successfully taking up again the task of providing a home
                                                                       and com_
    forts for those dependent on them.
         Besides the deprivation of material needs, there is the sufiering
    that perhaps can be 'nderstood. only by those who have
    been the victims of the dread unclrtainty and fear that,
                                                                        besets a
    workingman's.     family when the father is 'ilaid off.,, The most im-
    portant feature of unemployment is its efiect
                                                        on the family morale-
   the father idle about the house,unsettred,disheartenea;ine
   going out to work if she can secure it, and using up e"e"y
                                                                       uiior n""
   strength in the double task of providing for the lu-iy,s
   and caring for the household and the                   tne cuaren ,oa""iog
   fr-op_tlu depression           ua-cerf,inty "Iild""o; the future -uy *"ur,
                                               of what
   which is even more to be dreadedihan the discomforts oiit.
   mediate present.

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                     UNIIMPLoYMENT     AND clrrt-D   wELFARE'
                                                             family standards
          I-Inemployment,then, becauseit means lowered
                      dread, the loss of savings, and the   mortgaging of the
       iotor", Uu,  a direct and disastrous efiect upon the welfare of children'
       wtit"'                 are usually able to organize their resources so
                  causedby an industrial crisis, theseresources  have not' been
       ;;;;t;t                                                 groups stricken
        sufficient to prevent very real sy{enn-g in family
        with the misfortune of loss of work by the father'




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                                  TIIE TIELD OF TIIE STUDY.
            For a large proportion of the families of this country, food ancl
       shelter and all the other things necessaryto the maintlnance of a
       fairly adequate standard of life are so contingent upon stead.y em-
       ployment that loss of income for even u oe"y short time may speil
       deprivation or actual hardship. The present study was undertalen
       {*i"g a period when many sections of tne               were sufiering
       from serious industrial depression,l and its p*po.L was to secure
       such concrete first-hand information as could l" obtuio"d with refer-
       ence to the eflect of the father's unemployment on the welfare of
       his children.
           In certain localities unsmploJrment had been prevalent for many
       months, and all grades of workers had sufiered-the skined u, w"ll
       as the laborers and casual workers. rn some types of industries the
       shutdown followed closely the unusual activiiy of the war yeer*.
      The high wagesthat had prevailed had beenlargely offset by the higher
      living costs and the fever for spending which-usualy accompaniesa
      sudden increase in income. Many workers who probably for the
      first time in their lives fo'nd themselves with eamings which per-
      mitted a margin for luxuries spent them for more coilfortableliv-
      ing, and for automobiles, pianos, phonographs, or other means of
      recreation that served as &n outlet for the tension of the times.
      There were, however, m&ny fa'"ilies that put tho surplus income
      into pa)'ments on homes, bank accounts, iiberty bonis, or other
      forms of savings which helped them to tide over the period of unem-
     ployment. Because of the increased populations in tne centers of
     war activity, it had been necessaryfor large numbers of families to
     undertake to buy homes in order to be assured of a placo to live.
     Loss of work found many of these families suddenry deprived of
     their incomes while they were burdened by obligaiions assumed
     when earning conditions were favorable. sometim-es their accuisi-
     tions could be turned into assets, though often at considerably
     depreciated values.
         Employment that had been plentiful for men, women, and children
     of working age came to be at, a premium for both adults and children
     in the unemployment areas. There was slight possibility ef 6sking
     up for the loss of tho father's income through the earnings of the
     mother or the children. The situation was thus not withlout con-
      r Tho flelal work of this study was al@obstw€e!. Dec. 5, lg2l,
                                                                     slal Fob. 28, 1923.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       6             UNEMPLOYMENT      AND CITII,D WELFARE.

      structive features, which must be given due weight. Women,
      many of them with families needing their care at, home, had gone
      into industry during the war becauseof the demand for workers and
      the high pay offered; they now found it difficult to secure work of
      any kind. Boys and girls 14 years of age and oYer were no longer
      induced by unprecedentedwages to leave school and go to work,
      and many working children were compelled to return to the educa-
      tional system, Unfortunately, the deprivations resulting from the
      Ioss of employment by the father as well as by the other wage-
      earning members of the family often outweighed the better chances
      for schooling and the advantagesof the mother's care in the home.
         In this study an efiort, was made to discover the relation between
      the unemployment situation and the more or iess definable factors
      of child welfare, using this term as applyrng not merely to conditions
      related to the individual child but also to his welfare as a member
      of a family group affected by the father's unemployment. The
      most definite criterion of the results of unemployment is, of course,
      dependency,interpreted to include not only child dependencybut
      the need of the family for outside aid. Even dependency, horvever,
      is not so significant a phaso of the problem as the less clearly defined
      condition of "half rations" and deprivation of accustomed comforts
      among families that do not apply for charitable aid. Relief agencies
      report tremendous drains on their resourceswhen periods of unem-
      ployment occur in their iocalities, and point out how quickly many
      families are brought to the need of outside aid when wagesare cut off.
      Some families manage, without assistance,to survive the period of
       stress by living under such conditions of lowered standards and
       deprivation of ordinary comforts that the children sufier very real
          While this report includes certain statistical facts in regard to the
       families that make up the unemployed groups' as a necessarygeneral
       basis for consideration of the child-welfare problem, the purpose of
       the inquiry was to throw as much light as possible upon the extent
       to which the father's loss of work afrected the well-being of his chil-
       dren. Such human facts as those related to the lowering of living
       standards and other special hardships coincident with a reduction in
       the family income, can bo analyzed to only a limited extent by the
       statistical method; they must be dealt with in the main by the " case
       method," presenting the combinations of elements in the conditions
       of various representativo f amilies.
       Beasons for selection.
          The study of unemployment was made in two cities located in
       difierent parts of the country and having somewhat difiorent indus-

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                              TITE FIELD OF TTTE STUDY.

       trial backgrounds-Racine, wis., and springfierd, Mass. Both cities
       were reported by the united states Employment service as having
       serious unemploSzment. The first was rated as having a situation
       that was as severe as any in the country; in the second city the
       industrial depression was less general, though affecting a large
       number of men over a considerable period oi time. Tf,ese cities
       were chosen for the study also because their populations included
       a number of nationalities and represented a vaiiety of social and
          Racine, Wis., had in 1920 a population of over bg,000. When the
      study was undertaken the unemployment situation had been serious
      for more than a year. Springfield, IUass., had a population of
      almost 130,000. ti- tne time tiis city *u.'visited, unemployment
      had been prevalent for about 10 months.
         Among the leading industries in Racine were manu_facture agri-
      cultural implements, foundries and machine shops, manufacture of
      automobiles and automobile parts, electrical-mu"hitr" apparatus and
      supplies, boots and shoes, trunks, furniture, and hardware. In
      springfield, the main industries were foundry and machine shops,
      manufacture of electrical-machine apparatus and supplies, briss
      and bronze products, automobile bodies and parts,
      sporting goods, and games and toys.
     Extent of unemployment.
         Rari'ne'---The estimates given in regard to the number of unem-
     ployed men indicated that the total w&s somewhere      between 10,000
     and 12,000. This apparently included a consid.erablenumber of
     single men, ma,ny of whom had come to the city when workers were
     in demand and had left when they lost their jobs. rt was impossible
     to secure a fair estim.ate of the probable proportion of unemployed
     men in the city at the time the study was-made. The fotio#ing
     data secured from the wisconsin rndustrial commission in
     to the numbers of workers in three Racine factories qive an indi-
     cation of the unemplo5rment    situation:
         Plant No. 1:
             Men employedJuly, 1920- _
                                     -.                            948
             Men employed October, t92I- - -.. -                   199
         Plant No. 2:
             trIenemployedJuly, 1920---_                  - -... - 4.282
             Men employed October, 1921-._-. -.                      g24
         Plant No. 3:
                                l                         ._..-. t,ZgI
            Men employed October, 1921-- __-.                      484
      The manufacturers' associationhad compiled a chart on which
    were plotted figures from the reports of z0 factories giving monthly


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       8               UNEMPLOYMENT            AND CHILD WELFARE.

       information to the association on the number of emplovees. The
       following figures were given:
                   Month snalyear.                            Employees.
            March, 1920...           ... -.-- 19,351-The employ'ment     peak.
            April, 1921.                       9,215-42 per cent less than the     peak'
            June, 1921-                        7,785---60 per cent less than the   peak'
            August, 1921.--.                   6,415-47 per cent less than the     peak.
            October, 1921.. . -                6, 600--66 per cent less than the   peak.
            December,1921-- .                  6,192--48 per cent less than the    peak.

          The reports made by the State and city emplo;rment office on the
       number of registrations for jobs give something of a guide to the
       situation, though one not entirely reliable because of the fact that
       when jobs are very scarce men do not keep on applying.
          Syr;,ngf.eld^-No definite data on the extent, of unemployment, -
       could be securedfor Springfield. Excerpts from the Industrial Em-'
       ployment Survey Bulletin, published monthly by the Emplo;ment
       Service of the Lrnited States Department of Labor, give a general indi-
       cation of the situation in the city. The bulletin published in April,
       1921,states: "There is much unemployment in the metal and build-
       ing trades, and in tho textile, paper, motor-vehicle, and motor-
       accessories  industries. A large rubber company in this vicinity nor-
       mally employing 5,000,now employing 1,600,has increased working
       schedulefrom 32 to 48 hours a week." May, 1921: "A large motor-
       vehicle plant, employing 900 is working three days a week, with pros-                   il
       pects for improvement not promising. A large tool plant is closed                            I

       indefinitely. A machine tool plant, closedfor one week, has reopened
       and is working three days a week with a small force. A large plant'                          l
       engagedin manuJacturing games and toys has reduced its force from
       550 to 400." June, 1921: "IJnemployment,continuesin metal and
       building trades." July, 1921: "Unemployment,is generalin all lines.
       The mayor of Springfeld has appointed a committee to deviso ways
       and means of relieving the situation. Textiles are working full time,
       but with reduced forces. Manufacturing plants are running with
       greatly reduced fotces." August, 1921: "There is much unemploy-
       ment in the metal trades and paper industry, while part time prevails
       in nearly all plants." November, 1921: "The general opinion of
       those engagedin businessis that the next, three months will show a                           I
       slow but, steady improvement. The metal trades show the largest
       unemployment. There is no activity in the building trades. A large
       firearms plant is closed, affecting 800. An automobile plant has but
       few working. Paper has shown some improvement. 'Paper-box
       workers advertising for night crews. Certain textiles report shortage
       of skilled help." December, 1921: "Metal trades are Yery quiet.
       One large industry, employing 1,000hands, is about to lay ofr zO0.
       Two plants, employing 1,250, are still closed. Paper and textiles
       show a steady upward trend. Railroad shops are on full time. Iron

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                           TEE IrELD   OT,THE STUDY.                      g

       fo_undries good. Auto-tire industry very busy." January,Ig22:
       "rce cutting, now at its height, will give employment to hundreds
       of men for several weeks. unemployment conditions improved in
       someindustries,but the metal trades continue to be the hardest hit.
       Building trades are dull, wiih indications of improvement in the
       spring. One drop-forge plant is practically closed, afiecting about
       500 hands. one plant, m.anufacturing small arrns closed, ab"out270
       afiected. * * *
                            9r" textile plant which was closedhas reopened.
       one concern, closed since last July, with a normar force of gz-5,has
      reopened with a force of 250 men. One plant manufacturing agri-
      cultural implements closed, afiecting about 1b0.,'
      Measures taken to provide employment.
         Raci,n-e.-Tn August, 1921,the city of Racine appropris,ted$1b0,000
      for road work, bridge building, and park work, in-order to reiieve the
      unemployment, situation. The selection of the men for this work
      was placed in the hands of the state and city employment ofrce.
      The superintendent of the emplo;;'ment office reported that a chance
      at-this city work had been given to about, b00 men a week, the usual
      p.olicy being one n'eek of employment and two weeks ofi.
      times a man \^'as giren work loi two or three weeks in succession,
      with a proportionate period of unemployment following. The pay
      was 35 cents an hour. Park work was for g hours u duy and street
      work for 8 hours. It was stated by the employment offi"" tlat the
      men ayeraged about 5 days a week when employed, and their pay
      averagedabout g15 a week. The employment officereceivedbetween
      200-and 300 applications a day for work on the streets and in the
     parfs; a large proportion of these men had been skilled factory
         Bpri,ngfield.-In August, 1921, the mayor of Springfield put into
     operatio_n plan for city eTplo),ment, and ur, ,pp-p"i-ution of
                 a                                                   $5,000
     was made for specialwork by the street and park defartments for
     month of August. This work was continued,and the amount available
     for wages was increasedas needed. The expendituresfor
                                                                   the city
     work ran from g4,000-to$6,000a month, except in December, lg2l,
     v'hen wagesamounted to more than $1d,000. This was not due
     increase_in unemployment, but was to be accounted for almost
     entirely.by the policy of giving employment to as many men as possi_
     ble during the christmus .ea.on.- the distribution tf this special
     city work was placed in the soldiers' Relief ofrce, and investigatiorr
     were made in all cases the union Relief Association, which relorted
     t-o the employment office. Employment was limited to mei with
     dependent children or with more than one adurt dependent oo
     The work was given for b hours a day, 6 days a rieek, usually I20
     hours at a time. Then the man was iaid ofi, and reemployment de_

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
      10            UNEMPLOYMENT       AND CITILD WELFARE.

      pended on the number of appiications on hand. Usually there
      was about a week'sinterim. The wageswere $12 for 30 hours' work.
      It was stated at the employment, offi.ce that the aYerage amount
      earned by the men was about $10 a week, becausebad weather and
      other conditions inter{ered with steady work. X'rom August through
      November, 1921,there were 975 applicationsfor work, of which 213
      were disapproved becauseof absenceof dependentsliving in the city,
      residencein the city for less than a, year, or for some other reason.
      By February 15,1,017men had been given city work through the emor-
      gency employment office.
                          SOUBCES INFORMATION.
         General information in regard to the unemplo5,'mentin the two
      cities and the basic data for the various sections of the study were
      obtained from the following sources, efiort being directed toward
      securing facts which bore a special relation to the welfare of the chil-
      dren of unemployed men.
            1. State and city employment offices.
           2. City officials and others concerned with special efforts to
                 relieve the unemployment situation.
           3. Manufacturers' associationssad ssmmiltees dealing with tho
           4. Industrial concerns afrected, and especially welfare workers
                 of factories giving assistanceto families of employees.
            5. Public and private relief agencies,visiting nurse associations,
                 and other organizations assisting families.
            6. Offices issuing emplo;rment certifcates, and vocational or
                 continuation schools attended by working children.
            7. Child-welfare agencies, including the juvenile coult, the
                 agency administering mothers' pensions, children's aid and
                 protective societies,institutions for dependent, children.
         The inquiry difrered somewhat in the two cities, in accordancervith
      the features of the situation that appeared especially significant in
      each place. Aside from the general information concerning the back-
      ground, the study included the following main divisions:
            A. Schedulessecured through interviews with families of unem-
                  ployed men.
            B. Data from records of relief agenciesconcerning families given
                  assistancebecauseof unemployment.
            C. Data from employment-office records relating to men with
                  dependent children.
            D. Comparative data on the extent of child labor, and the efiect
                  of the unemployment situation on schooling.
          By far the most important part of the inquiry was the securing of
      direct information from 366 families of unemployed men. Tho re-

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                           TI{E I'IELD OF AEE STUDY.                      1L
     sulting schedulesyielded information pertaining to all phases of the
     study, and since the group of families visited in each city was selected
     as fairly representative of the " average run " of familils affected by
     unemployment, this material is especially significant. rn Racine a
     cr_oss-sectionstudy was made of unemplo5,'ment    casesin the records of
     a_Iarge private relief agency. . rn springfield an analysis was mad.eof
     the data recorded concerning the men with dependent children who
     applied for emergency city work. rn both cities studies were made
     of the childJabor situation, comparing the period of industrial de-
     pression with preceding years. certain other speciar phases of the
    problem were considered-e-ployment of mothds, heaith conditions
    in th9 families during_theunemployment period, juvenile delinquency,
     and dependency, and the credit granted-by retail stores as a'substi-
     tute for charitable aid in tiding the family oyer the period of unem-
       Because of the difierences inherent in the industrial and social
    conditions in the two-cities, it is necessaryto present separately the
    uluty.I_ of the general statistical data relating to the fam'ilies in each
    city. under special topics, however, the data from the two cities are
           -with together. rt has already been pointed out that the real
    meaning of the misfortune o1 unsmployment can best be showu
    through the presentation of the situalions in individual families are
    presented, and the coincidenceof various factors that affect the
    welfare of the children in these farnilies.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                         This page is blank in the
                           original document.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                    TIIE      FAMILIES   OF TIIE   UNEMPTOYED.
        The section relating to the home conditions of unemployed men
      constituted the main part of the inquiry, both becauseof the relative
     importance of the data and the time expended in securing the first-
     hand information from the fnmilies. A total of 366 families in the
     two cities were visited by agents of the Children's Bureau, and infor-
     mation was obtained from them in accordancewith a prepared sched-
     ule form.2 The study was confined to families in which thero wero
     two or more children under 18 years of age living in the home. It
     covered facts as to the father's previous emplo5rment,the duration of
     his unemployment, the composition of the family, home conditions,
     resources the family during the unemplo5rment     period, specialhandi-
     caps under which the family was suffering, the losses sufiered, debts
      accumulated,and the extent of retrenchment intheirmanner of living.
        In order to be of value for the purpose intended, it was necessa,ry
     that the group of families selected for scheduling should be repre-
     sentative of the general run of families of unemployed men, and not
     overweighted by fa,miliesknown to social agenciesor from the lower
     occupational groups. In both cities representative lists of unem-
     ployed men with dependent children could best be securedfrom the
     records of the State and city employment offces. While in times of
     nom.al industrial conditions laborers and casualworkers would prob-
     ably predominate in the applications for work, the unemplo5rment
     periods in both cities had been of such long duration, and all classes
     of workers had been affected so seriously, that the danger was rather
     that the lists of families might include an undue proportion of skilled
     workers. This was the caseespeciallyin one city, where applications
     by laborers were not being recorded at the time of the inquiry, be-
     cause these jobs were filled by a,ny men who happened to be in the
     employment ofrce at the time of the infrequent applications for such
     workers. Overweighting was guarded against in so far as it was
     possible to do so.
        tr'or the most part, families were selected for study in which the
     father had been out of regular work for at least six months. In
     Racine only 3 per cent and in Springfield 10 per cent of the fathers
     of the families included in the study had lost their regular employ-
     ment less than six months before the agent's visit. On the other
     hand, in 71 per cent of the families included in Racine and in 48 per
     cent of those included in Springfield the unemploSrmentof the father
     had been of a year's duration or longer. As defined in the instruc-
      2 For schedule fom see p. 169.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       L4               UNEMpLoyMENTAIID cHrLD wEr,r'ARE.

       tions to the agents, the unemplo;rment period was held to cover the
       time from the loss of the man's regular workl during this period he
       might have had temporary work at other occupations than his trade
       or usual emplo5rment.
          The lists of families selectedin this way from the ernployment-office
       records were "cleared" through the records of pubEc and private
       relief organizations, children's agencies,and other sonrcesof informa-
       tion that might supplement the data secured directly from the fami-
                                            CHMT I.

        AGtr,S Otr CHILDRtrNIN NA.MILItrSOtr
                           UNE,MPLOYtrD MEN
                      1315 CHILDRE}I IN .366 FAI.IILIES   IN TWO CITES

       lies. The person interviewed in the home was either the father or
       the motherl frequently both were seen. The agents were instructed
       not to attempt to secure any information unless the family under-
       stood the pu-rpose the inquiry and was interested in assisting. The
       instructions to the field agents contained the following paragraph:
         The purpose of the inquiry is to discover what happened 1efts fnmily--especially
       the children---as a result of the unemployment of the father. The etatistical items
       sls important ss furniching a background for aralysis of the situation, but themost
       valuable part of the material will be information that shows what unemployment
       meangin human terme.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                 TEE FAMILIES               OF T'I{E UNEMPLOITD.                        75

                                                      RACINE, WIS.3
      Duration of unemployment.
         At the time the study was undertaken there had been a se'ous
      66mployment problem in Racine for about a year and a half. In
      this city 231 representative families were selected for study, in
      accordancewith the plan already outlined. n'or only 3 per cent of
      these had the lack of regular employment of the chief breadwinner
      covered a period of less than six months; for 26 per cent the un-
      employment had continued for from six months up to a year, for
      67 per cent for from a year to a yeat and a half, and for 4 per cent
      for still longer periods. The details of the duration of unemploy-
      ment in months are as follows:
             Duration of unomployment,                                        Number      of fethers
                       Total.---.                                                   ---...._ zBL
            Lessthan4months                                                           .     ----
            5 nionths-                                                                          b
            6 months-                                                                          B
            7 months.                                                                        11
            8 months-                                                                        fi
            9months.                                                               --._---._ 10
            l0 months-
            11 months-                                                                             10
            12 months.                                                                             40
            13 months-                                                                             24
            14 months.                                                                             31
            15 months-                                                                             29
            16 months-                                                                             1g
            17 months-                                                                             11
            18 months-                                                                              4
            19 months-                                                                              z
            20 months.                                                                              1
            21 months-                                                                              I
            22 months-                                                                              1
            Not reported..                                                                          g
     Number of children affected.
        rn the 231 families there were 828 children under 1g years of age
     lioi"g at home. As the following list shows, almost half of these
     children (48 per cent) were under 7 years of age. Thosefrom between
     7 and 14 years of age comprised 42 per cent, and 10 per cent were
     14 years of age or oyer.
            Ages of children.                                                Number of children.
                       Total                                                              ..-- 823
            Underlyear.---                                                         .. - .          4g
            I year-.                                                                               b1
      I Soe Appeodix    A, Tables 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, L7, a\d, n.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       16                     uNEMPLoYMENf AND oEILD wELFARa'

               Ages ohiltlr€n.
                   of                                                    Nmb€r of chililron'
               2years-                                                     "-"-'-'       49
               3 Years.
                                                                            --"'---      60
              'Syears--                                                     "'-"--       62
               6 Years-
                                                                            ""-"'        57
                                                                    --                    51
                                                                            "'-""         57
               10 Years.
                                                                            """"          45
               12 Years.
               13 Years-
               14 Years.
               15 Years-
               16 Years-
               17 Years.
           The age distribution of the children did not difrer materially from
        that of ihe children under 18 years of age in the general
                 that there were_proportionately   fewer children of possible
                                                              is shown by the
        *".fii"g age in the families of the unemployed, as
        following figures:3'                                 Per cent
                                                                          distribution   Per cent
                                                                           infamilies  distribution
                                                                         of unemployetl in Senerel
                                                                              men,      popuauon.
                AgPs of ehilth€n.
                        Total'-"'-                                               100        100
                                                                   '     '        48       e
                                                                                  42           37
                7-13 Years-
                                                                                   6            I
                ll-1-b Years-
                                                                                   4            I
                16-17 Years-
           T\qo-fifths of the 231 families had more than three children. The
        following list gives the number of children under 18 years of age
        .u"6 family:
                Nnmber of children                                           Number of families.
                 under 18years.


          Most of the fathers in this group of families were young men; 58
        p""     were under 40 years of ug", 49 per cent being between30 and
        iO. Thirty-three per cent were from 40 to 50; 9 per cent were oYer
        limitetionto families with t]tro chiltlron under 18 years of ege'


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                         rHE    FAMILIES OF THE UNEMPLOYED.                     L7

    50. Nineteen fathers were from 50 to 60 years old, and B were 60
    or over.
       Among the unemployed men included in the study the proportion
    of foreign born was much larger than a,mongthe males 21 years of
    age or over in the general population of the city-the comparative
    percentagesbeing 77 and 45. Of the foreign-born fathers, however,
    85 per cent had been in.the United States for 10 years orlonger
    and only 1 for less than 5 years. The length of time the 129 foreign-
    born fathers had been in the United States is shown in the following
         Length ofresidence in tho                      Number of foreim-
              United Stats.                               born fathers.-
                Total.----                               -..--.---- 179
         Less than 5 years -                                        I
         5-9years----.-:-                                  --.-.__- 2b
         1O-14years-                                                62
         1F-19years-                                                60
         20-24yarc-                                                 Z0
         2lyans and over.                                           20
         Not reported--                                               1
      tr'our-fifths of these fathers had become citizens or had taken out
    their first papers.
      More than half of the 231 men had been residents of the city for
    10 years or more, only 6 had lived there for less than two years.
    The following list gives the length of residencein the city:
         L€nsthof resioencs city.
               Total--.                                       . -"ltff#!. g l
                                                                  .-- 2
         I year--                                                        ;
         2-3 years.                                                     29
         4-5 years-                                                     16
         & - 7y e a r s -                                ... -. -. _. 28
         8 - 9 y e a r s- .                               -... .. . - gb
         10 years and over.                                     -. - - I2I
         Not repor0ed-.                                                   1
      A11 the nativo-born fathers were reported as able to read and
    write. Of the foreign-born, 13 per cent were reported as illiterate,
    but only 2 men were unable to speak English.
     Previous work status of fathers.
       Almost three-fourths of the unemployed men had previously been
    skills4 workers in regular trades or semiskilled operatives, and one-
    fourth had been unskilled workers; only two men had been casual
    laborers. A greater proportion of the native born and those who
    had been in the Ilnited States for 20 years or oyer were rated as
    skilled workers than of those who had been in the country for a
    shorter period-that is, 84 per cent as against 67 per cent. The
    majority of the men had been employed in manufacturirrg or me-

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        18                 utrpMpt-oyMnNf             AND cEnD   \vELFARE.

        chanical occupations             The following list gives the occupations as
        reported by the men:
             Last regular occupation before unemployment.                      of fathers.
                    Total..-                                                         23r
             Laborer in factorl'.-                                                    49
             Molder and cas[er- . .
             |[nclinisi...                                                            32
             Assembler---.-                                                           IJ

             Ilachine operative.                                                      t1
             Blacksmith, forge or hammer man. . -                                      7
             Truckers and drivers.
             Coremaker--- -                                                            5
             Mechanic..-                                                               5
             Tool and pattern maker.--
             Riveter---.                                                               o

             Bench worker                                                              o
             Blacksnith's helper. . -                                                  3
             Painter, varnisher, and sander----                                        3
             Filer, polisher, and buffer-                                              2
             trIiscellaneousmanutacturing and mechanical-- -. . -                     ee

             All other-.--- -                                                         L4

          The father's monthly wages il his last regular emploJrment are
        shown below:
                   earnin€s                                  #trr#:.
                    Total.--                                                 .--..- 231

             Lessthan$l00---..                                                 -.-    n
             $100,lessthan $125..-                                                    58
             $125,lessthan $150...                                                    48
             $150,lesr than $175---                                                   29
             $175,leesthan $200-...                                                   22
             $200,lessthan $225....                                                   14
             $225,leesthan $250----                                                    I
             $250and over- - -                                                         I
             Not reported.-                                                           23
         It is seen that prior to the loss of employment more than a third
       of the families included in the inquiry had had a, monthly income of
       $150 or oyer through the earnings of the chief breadwinner. The
       wagesof more than one-tenth of the heads of families had been $200
       or more a month.
         Ninety per cent of the men stated that their loss of employment
       was causedby shutdown of the factory or "Iay-ofi" of workers. In
       seyen casesill:ress rvas given as the active cause; in three, "trouble
       with the boss or company," and various reasonswere alleged in the
       1s66ining cases.
       Ownership of home.
         Ownership of homes had been almost, a necessity, in order to be
       assuredof a place to live during the period of congestion of popula-


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                         TTIE FAMILIES   OF TIIE   UNEMPLOYED.                        19

     tion in war time. It was found that, more than three-flfths of the
     families studied had bought, their houses, only 29 per cent, of these
     having acquired them before the war period. The true situation,
     however, is shown by the fact that payments had been completed
     on only 6 per cent of these "owned" homes,while 94 per.cent were
     mortgaged. Two of the g families who owned their homes free of
     encumbrancehad lived in them 10 years or longer, b for from 5 to g
    y_eg.: 1 for 4 years, and 1 for 3 years. Seven of them had presum-
     ably bought the homes before the war period. On the oth& hand,
     alnnosthaif the families whose homes were mortgaged had lived in
    them for less than 3 years. of the families who were renters, nearlv
    three-fourths had livld in the same house for less than B y"ur.. O;
    the whole, the families of unemployed men representedfairly steady
    residents, for only 23 per cent, of them had moved into their present
    li"iog quarters n'ithin a year. Follon'ing are the details as to length
    of residencein the homes occupied at the time of the inyestiEation:
                                                                 Fmilies   Tamilies
                                                                 gwning    lenring
         Iangth of time in house.                                nomes.    noms.
                  Total-.--                                -.--.- I4E         86
         Lessthan6months-                                   --- --            %
         6 months-                                                    B       20
                                                                     25       11
        9 rraqm
        3 years-                                                     303
        5-9 I ears.                                                  ?o,
        10 yearsand over.                                             91
        Time not reported.                                            52
     seven of the families who had previously ov'ned their homes, pre-
   sumably mortgaged, had been compelled to give them up urr,l to
   becomerenters. Four families, on the other hand, who irad bcen
   renting, had had to buy homes bccauseof the housing situation and
   had invested their savings in this rvay during the unemplolznent,
   Housing conditions.
      Housing conditions in this city were not, such as to necessitate
   overcrowding uncler normal conditions, and at the time of the investi-
   gation 50 per cent' of the families had a housing standard. of one or
   more rooms per person; 45 per cent of the families averagedbetween
   orreand two personsper room, 4 per cent,averaged between two and.
   three per room, and 1 per cent, three or ''-rorepersons per room. In
   view of the large proportion of owners as compared wilh renters, the
   crowding that_was found is no doubt to be accountedfor largely by
   the custom of letting rooms or taking in boarders to eke 6ut the
   family resources. In five instances t[e overcrowr]ingwas particu-
   larly serious. A family with slr members lived in a single room.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      20                     UNEMPI,OYMENT          AND CEII,D WELFARE,

      Another o{ the same size occupied only two rooms. A family of eight
      personshad three rooms, and each of two families with nine members
      lived in four-room aPartments.
      Rents paid.
        Nearly three-fourths of the families renting 1,hsh homes^paid a
      rental oi b"t*""o $10 arrd $20 a month' X'our-fifths of the famiiies
      grving infs16a,tl6a on the amount of rent paid lived-in houses or
      i6utrr"" having four or more rooms; three-fourths of these families,
      also,were in the $10 to $20 rent group'
        TL. u-ooots paid at the time of the visits to these families-in
      December, 1921, or January, 1922-werc as follows:         Number
                                                                          of fanilies
            Amount     of reDt Per month.
                     Total--.. -                                               86
            L e s s h a n$ 1 0- . . . . - . . - .
                  t           .
            $10,lessthan $15- ----    -                                        28
            915,lessthan $20-
            g20,lessthan $25- ----    -                                        10
            g25,lessthan $30------
           The difrculties which loss of steady income entailed are indicated
       by the fact that of the 86 families rvho rented their homes at the time
       oi trr" study 7 had owned homes before unemployment-and had had
       to give them up; 1 family remained in the house and was payrng
               uod 6 had moved to rented quarters. Forty-eight other fam-
       ".rT, moved during the unemplo5rment period,                 of them to
       ilies                                                -some
       quurte.s having lower rents, and    others-appare-ntlyb-ecayse. was
                 to moie than pay rent."     Of the families who had moved'
       "huup"" peyng lower reots at the time of the study than they had
       25 #ere
       paid before un-employment; 5 werepaying more than they had done
       *hil" tn" father was workingi and 13 were payrng approximately
        the same as before. Four families had moved from rented houses
        to homes which they had had to buy. complete information was
        not, obtained in regard to amount of rent paid by o-ne    family'
           Of the Bb famif,es who rented previously and had not moved'
        7 were paying less than they had done while the father was working,
        and for Z"O  ti-itie. the rents were apl*oximately the same before
        and during the unemplo5rment,     period. For 2 families infornation
        was not obtained as to the amount of rent paid'
            In connection with the rentals reported above, it is important to
        remember that three-fifths of the lamilies visited in Racine had
        bought their homes. It may well be assumedthat the renters repre-
        sent"to a considerable  extent the families of a lower economicstatus,
         and those rvho could not afiord to make the payrnentsnecessaryto
                                                          of the large manufac-
         " own " a home. The estimatesmade by one

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                             TIIE FAMfi.TES OF TI{E UNEMPLOYED.        2L

     turing concernsin the city of the budgets required for workingmen's
     families, based on data secured from families of their ump1oy""r,
     placed the amount of rent at $30.{


                      356 EAMIUES IN TWO CITTES, REPORIING DURAf,ION
                               or TATHERS UNEMPLO'MENT

                rnonthS              months
                                                    l2to l7
                                                         l8 to 25
      rf it had been possibleto ascertain the averagemontlly amounts
    paid out by the families who had bought their homes and were pay-
    ing interest and principal on the mortgages, the figures on co.t bf
    housing would undoubtedly have been found to equal or exceed the
    amount given in the budget estimate.
     r See budget estimate, p. 37.


Provided by the Maternal and Chitd Health Library, Georgetown University
       22                        UNEMPLoYMENT                  AND crrrlD         WELFARE.

                                                SPRINGFIELD, MASS.6

       Duration of unemploYment.
         In Springfield 135 families were visited. Almost half the fathers
       had been out of work for a year or longer. Ten per cent had been
       unemployed for less than 6 months, 42 per cent for from 6 months
       to a year, and 48 per cent for a year or more. These percentages
       contrast strongly with the 3 per cent, 26 per cent, and 67 per cent
       unemployed for the corresponding periods in Racine. It is seen
       that the unemployment situation in Springfield had been much less
       serious than in the first city studied.
                 Duration of uDomployment                                               Numb€r of fathers.
                         Total-._                                                               -...135

                 Lessthan 4 months.....-                                                                    'g
                 4 months.                                                                                  2
                 5 months-                                                                                  2
                 6 months-                                                                                 10
                 7 months.                                                                                 15
                 8 months-                                                                                  I
                 9months-                                                                 '-"""-           12
                 10 months----                                                                              6
                 11 months.-..-                                                                             2
                 12months.                                                                   "-----'        6
                 13 months.                                                                                16
                 14 months-                                                                                14
                 15 monthe.
                 16 months-                                                                                 4
                 17 months                                                                                  5
                 18 months.                                                                                 1
                 19 months....-                                                                             3
                 24 months.                                                                                 2
                 25 montbs....-                                                                             2
                 Not reported..                                                                             7

        Number of children affected.
          The 135 families of unemployed rnen included 492 children under
        lg years of age living at home. Forty-tbree per-ceirt of these chil-
        dren were under 7, and 43 per cent were from 7 tbrough 13 years of
         age; 14 per cent were 14 years or over. The corresponding per-
        cJniuges-for Racine were very nearly the same-48, 42, and 10'
        The numbers of children of each specific age are shown below:
                  Ages of childr€n.                                                     Numb€r of chilalren,
                          Total--_                                                                 ..- 492

                                                                                                       ;   2r
                  1 year--                                                                                 27
                  2 years.                                                                                 34
                  3 years-                                                                                 34
                  4 years-                                                                                 28

            o $gs dppgnilix   A, Tables 2, 4, 6,8' 70' 12' 11,16, 18' a'trd 22'                                  I

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                               T}IE FAMILIES OF TIIE UN]iMPLOYED.                          23
         Ages of ehildren.                                     Number of children
         D years.-                                                             32
         6years-                                                     ..-..--.- 2g
         7years-                                                     ---"--._- 4L
         8 years-
         I years-                                                              29
         1Oyear.s-                                                   ..----_-_ 84
         llyears-                                                    ---..__.- Zz
         1.2 earr.---._..
            y                                                                  go
         13 years-                                                           27
         14 years_                                                           18
         I5years-                                                 --_-----.. 22
         16 years.                                                           16
         17 yearr.                                                           Iz
      The following list shows that the proportion of children of working
    age was smaller in the group of families studied than in the general
    population of the city-L4 per oent a,saga.inst lg per cent.
                                                                Per cert
                                                              distribution         Per e€nt
                                                              in familie        alistribution
                                                           of unemploycd         iu general
         Ages of children.                                       men.           population.
                   Total--.                                  ..-_ 100            100
         U n d e r7 y e a r s . - . - - . . -                         43          45
         7-13 years.                                                  49           JT
         14-15 years.                                                  g            I
         16-17years..                                                 6             o
      In 49 per cent of the 13b families there were more Chan three
    children living at home. seventeen families had six or more children.
         Nmber ol chit&en                                                    Number of
          under l8 years.                                                     families,
              Total.---.-                                                    -..18b


         7.                                                                        5
         9-".-_-                                        ..-..-.-. 1
   General facts conceming the fathers.
     More than half the fathers whose ages were given (54 per cent)
   were under 40 y_ears age, the greater proportion being bdtween B0
   and 40 years. of the 128 men, only 10 were befin'een50 ind 60 years,
   and 1 man was over 60. Eight of these 11 older men had been out
   of work for periods ranging from 1B to 2b months. of the men
   under 50 years of age,40 per cent had been out of work for lB months
   or longer.
     In the general population of the city the foreign born represented
   36 per cent of the white males 21 years of age and over. Among the

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown university
       24                  uNEntPLoYlrENT   AND cHILD   WELF.{RD,'

      group of unemploye<lmen' on the other hand, 54 per cent were of
      Ioreign birth. However, more than two-thirds of the 73 foreign-
      borrimen had been in the United States for 15 years or over, and
      only 8 had been in this country for less than 10 years'
            Length ofresidenco                                Number of foreisn-
            in tlie Urited States'                              bom fath€rs.-


            Less than 5 1'ears-                                          "-
            5-9 Years-                                                         6
            15-19 years-                                                      20
            2A-24yean-                                                        15
            25 yearsand over                                    '- -'- " "    15

          Only aS per cent of the foreign-born fathers had becomenatural-
       ized, but an additional 22 per cent had secured their first papers.
       Thus, ao per cent, as against 19 per cent in Racine, had taken no
       step towa^rdAmericanization. It is interesting to note that more
       thir two-fifths of the men l['ho had been in the LTnited States for
       15 years or longer had not becomecitizens,whereasmore than three-
       fiftLs of those t'ho had resided here a shorter time had failed to
           The following list gives the length of residence in the city. It is
       seen that the greater proportion had been residentsfor 10 years or
                                                                      Number of
             Length ofresidence
                -                                                      fathers.
                  in city.
                    Total....                                                 135

            Lessthan 1 1'ear.                                                      ,
            1 year-.-                                                           8
            2 years.                                                            I
            &5 yeare-                                                          17
            &-7 years-                                                         12
            &-9 years-                                                         t2
            10 years and over.                                                     t
            Not reported. -

          As in Racine, all the native-born fathers were reported as literate.
       Five of the 23 ioreign born were found to be illiterate, while 18 could
       read in their native language only. only 1 man could not speak
       E"gfirn. Therefore, 17 per cent-of all the men in the unemploved
       grip were handicapped by inability to read English'
       Previous work status of fathers.
          By far the largest number of men (83 per cent) had been employed
       lrr rt iu"a occupa'tion.; 15 per cent were classedas unskilled workers,
       and 2 per cent as casuallaborers.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                THE       FAMILIES        OF THE   UNEMPLOYED.                     25
        A iist of the last regular occupationsof the 185 menfollows:
            Last rezular occupation
                                                                                       Number oi
                     Total                                                           ..... - 135
          l{achinist-. -. -                                                                  JJ
           Laborerin factory... -.                                                            o
           Painter--.. -.                                                                     7
           Laborer,other.-...... -                                                            t)
          llolder and caster-.-..
          Truckerg and drivers-                                                               5
          Tool and patt€rn maker-.. - -.
          Assembler.. - -
          Clericalworker- -... -.                                                             ^
          Ms,shins operative.                                                                 A

          Mechanic-.--.                                                                       4
          Filer, polisher, and buffer                                                         J
          llIigcellaneous mechanicaland manufacturing-..-.. - _                             39
          All other
        rn this city there was not found the distinction that misht be
     expectedbetween the occupationalstatus of the men who we; born
     in the united states or who had been in this country for a consid-
     erable nuno.berof years and those of foreign birth and more recent
     arrival. The native born and those who had been in the Ilnited
     states for 20 years or over r€presented6g per cent of the entire group;
     84 per cent of them were classedas having been emproyed in ri.iu"a
     trades. of the 31 per cent who had been in this country for less
     than 20 years, practically as large a proportion,(g1 per cent) had
     also been in skilied occupations. The two casuallaborers were native
        The men who had been in the city 10 years and over comprised
     practically the same proportion of all skilled workers as they aia ot
     the entire group of unsmployed men-b8 and bb per cent, respec_
     tively. Apparently, the occupational status had no direct rela-tion
     to the length of residencoin the country or in the city.
        More than one-fourth of the men had earned $rb0 or more a month
     when regularly employed. The numbers in each monthly wage group
     were as follows:
          Monttrly emilgs
                        -.                                                 .).,::: "j:i'i?;
         Lessthan$f00..-                                                         .    .    n
         $100,lessthan 9125--                                                              g8
         $125,lessthan 9150-.                                                              Bb
         $150,lessthan $175-.                                                              28
         $175,le*s than $200--                                                              b
         $200,lessthan 9225-.                                                               B
         $ 2 2 5I e s s h a n 9 2 5 0 - . . . : . . . .
                ,      t                    -                                               z
 :       S250  and over..                                                                   1
         Not reported--

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       26                t-rNElrpLoYtrrENT   AlfD crrrlD   WDLFARE.

         Practically ali the men gaYe as the reason for their loss of employ'
       ment the shutdown of the factory or the "laying ofi" of u'orkers.
       One ascribedhis lack of work to a strike; and in six cases  illness was
       the causeof unemployment.
       Ownership of home.
          One-fifth of the families were reported as owning their homes, but
       in every case there was a mortgage. In this city there had, appar-
       ently, not beenthe sameinducementsfor buying homesashad existed
       in Racine during its period of increased production and the con-
       sequent crowding of the population. In the latter eitv more than
       three-fiJths of the tamilies had bought their homes, a considerable
       proportion of them before the war period, and a ferv owned their
       homes free of mortgages.
          Sixteen of the fwenty-eight families who "owned" mortgaged
       homes had lived in them for less than five yeals, evidently having
       bought them during the recent period of industrial prosperity' Of
       the ienters, almosf a third had lived for less than a yeal in the resi-
       denceoccupied at the time of the study; only 16 per cent had lived in
       the same place for fivo years or more.             Familie-s r.amiries
                                                                 os.lling   renting
            L€ngth oftime in house.                              nomes.     tromes.

                   Total.- ..                                         28      107

            Lem than 6 monthg.                                                 18
            6 months, under 1 year. . .                                I       15
            1 year.-.                                                  6       19
            2yeare--                                       -.------    '1      16
            3 years--                                                  I        I
            4 years.-                                                  I       T2
            il9 yeare-.                                                6
            10 years and over.-.                                       q        ')
            Time not reported. - - .

         In Racine the greater proportion of the families were found at the
       ad.dress given at ihe employment office. In Springfield, on the other
       hand, riore than one-fhird of the families could not be located
       becausethey had moved from the addressgiven, and tbough many
       of them weie traceil to several subsequentaddresses,        their present
       whereabouts   was unknolvn to their former neighbors. Since so large
       a majority of the families in this city were renters, it is probable that
       difficulty"in meeting payments of rent was largely responsiblefor
       this shifting
       Housing conditions.
         There were proportionately more families in springfield than in
       Racine living under crowdedconditions. In 7 per cent of the families
       there were 6etween two and three persons per room, and in 1 per
       cent, three persons or more. The average was between one and trvo
       personsto a room, in 51 per cent of the families. In 41 pel cent of
       ihe families there was one or less than one person per room.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                    THE FAMILIES OF 'IHE UNEMPI,OYED,                                                     27

       Rents paid.
         tr'our-fifths of the families visited in springfielcl were renters.
       Information was obtained regarding the rints paid by these 107
       families. The largest number paid from $20 to $2b a month. The
       number of families paylng rents of the difierent amountsfollows:,
               Amourt     ofrent per month.                                                 Number of families renting.

               Leesthan $10-. . - . -. - - -.                                                                         z
               $10,lessthan $lb-.
               $15,lessthan g20-. :- :. - . . . - - . - . . . . - - . . - - - . . . - . - . - - - . . - .      ..   ;!,
               920,lessthan $2b.-                                                                                   g2
               S25,lessthan 930..                                                                                   24
               $30,Iessthan 935.-                                                                                    9
         The majoritv of the families (87 per cent) lived in housesor '. rene-
      ments " having four or more rooms, and trvo-thirds of these f amilies
      paid rents of $20 to $Bb.
         rt has been stated that there was considerabledifficuity in f:rding
      families whose addresseshad been secured from the ernployment
      ofices, becauseof the frequent moving. The proportion of famiiies
      scheduledrvho had moved obviously does not reprlsent the situation
      as fairlv as was the case in Racine. However, it is of interesr ro
      note that 1 family formerly owning its home had moved after unem-
      plovment, and of 2g others who had moved, b were paying iower
      rents a'd 7 higher rents than when the father *ur ruo"king; i2 *"""
      payi'g approximately the same rent in the new quarters, and for
      5 there was insufficient information.
         of the 77 renters who had not moved, 4 were payug less for rent
      at the time of the study than they had paid *L"tr tttu father rvas
      working; 6 were paying higher rent during the time of 'nemploy-
      ment; 59 were paying approximately the same, and there was insuffi-
      cient information concerning S.
                               RESOURCESDI'BING I'NEMPT,OIMENT.6
 '    Sources of livelihood.
                  emergencywork provided by the two cities, and through
      other short-time jobs securedby their own efiorts or assignedto them
      by employment offices, all but 4 of the 866 men whose families were
      visited had been able to earn something toward the support of their
      families during the months that followed the loss of            regular
      occupations. The inadequacy of these earnings, by men who had
      previously been the sole or main support of their fa,miri$, is shown
      bv the facts presented in regard to the sources of livelihood durins
      unemplo;rment. \{hereas only 82 of the mothers had worked prioi
      to thg                 period, in spite of the incentive offered uy ttte
       6 See lppoDdir    ^4,,Tables tZ-Z+, f*fr.i"t


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       28              UNEMPLOYMENT     AND CHILD \\,EI,FARE.

       war activities, 91 who had not previously workecl had securedem-
       ployment after their husbands had lost their jobs. AII but 7-of those
       preoiou"ly employed had had some work during the unemployment
       of tn" faihers, making a total of 116 mothers who supplementecl   the
       family income to some extent. This number rn'ould       turdoubtedly

                        OT        KETOKTING
                            366 FAI'|ILTEs IN T\dO CTTIES




            of fam
                        I                                         I
                        Motherd Childrcnf Savin$s Credit Charitable
                        Earnin$s Larningls' Used and Loans Aid
        have been much larger had not, employment been evell more scarce
        for women than for men.
           There had been a slight increase in the proportion of families that,
        kept boarder€ or lodgers or rented parts of their houses during the
        p"tioa of unemployment. That this increase rvas not ppeater is
        readily accountedfor by the unusual demand for housing accommo-
        dations during the precedingperiod, and the consequenth-    clecreased

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                               THE FAMILIES   OF THE UNEMPLOYED.                     29

    opportunities for this type of income during the time of industrial
    depression. In Racine approximately 5,000 single men who had
    come in when labor was in demand were said to have left the city
    when they were thrown out of work. That the proportion of families
    keeping boa.rdersand lodgers w&s as large as it rvas found to be is
    indicative of the unusual efforts made by them to gain means of
      Only 30 of the 191 families who were compelled to apply for chari-
    table aid at this period had previously needed such assistance.
      Loans, frequently obtained on yery disadvantageousterms; debts
    contracted, especially for rent,, food, clothing, and medical attend-
    ance; aid from relatives; and the expenditure of savings-these were
    other means of support for the families of the unemployed.
      The following list gives the number and per cent of the 366 families
    reporting the various sourcesof livelihood during the unemployment
    period. Instead of specifying the many confusing combinations of
    sources,the iterns are given separately, with the percentageof families
    reporting each source. Many, and sometimes all, of the sourceswere
    found to have been used by a considerablenumber of the families.
                                                               Number of
                                                                 fanflies     Per
         Sources of lirclihood.                                 reporting.   cent.
                  T o t a l .- . . - . .                            366       100
         Father'e eanfngs at temporary work. - -.                   362        99
         Mother's earnings......                                    116        2,


                  :.t,, ::

                                                                     56        15


         Debtsforfood-.--..-                                  ------ 240       66
         Otherdebts...                                     .-...-..253         69
         Aid from relatives..                                         38       10
         Charitablaid- -..
                    e                                      ....... - 191       52
         Other sources.                                               15        4

       Sixty-six per cent of the families had gore into debt for {ood.
    In Racine, where unemplo5rmenthad been of longer durat'ion, 81 per
    cent of the families reported debts for food, while in Springfield the
    proportion was less than half as large. Loans and other debts,
    exclusive of credit for food, reported by more than three-fourths of
    all the families, formed the largest source of maintenance, both as to
    aggregate amount and the number of families reporting them. The
    percentageof such families in Racine was 82, as compared with 66 in
    Springfield. The use of savings, on the other hand, was reported by
    almost the sameproportion of the families visited in each city--42 per
    cent in the first city, and 45 per cent in the second. More than a
    tenth of the families had received aid from relatives. The families
    in Springfeld appeared to have had the greater resourcesfrom this

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       30             UNEMPLOYMENT      AND CHILD WELFARE.

       type of aid-almost three times the proportion of families found in
       Racine-and this no doubt explains to some extent the lower pro-
       portions of loans and debts reported in Springfield. More than half
       the total families visited in the two cities were given assistanceby
       public or private relief agencies. In Racine 61 per cent of the families
       received such aid, and in Springfield 37 per ceirt. This, again, is
       apparently to be accounted for by the longer duration and more
       wide-spread unemployment in the first city.
          In addition to showing the variety of ways in which the families
       of unemployed men had been forced to securethe means of subsist-
       ence, these figures are especially significant for two other reasons.
       Firct, 191 of the 366 families (52 per cent) had become partially
       dependentupon charitable aid, presumably after other resources     had
       been exhausted. Second,a larle proportion of the families-27S, or
       76 per cent of the entire number-had been forced to mortgage the
       future through loans and other debts.
       Proportions of total maintenance derived from the various sources.
          Complete reports on total resources during the unemployment
       period were securedfrom 136families in the two cities. The informa-
       tion obtained shows that only 4 per cent of thesefamilies derived their
       entire maintenanceduring the unemplo;r'ment    period from the father's
       earnings at temporary jobs. The gteater number of fathers were
       able to provide only betrveen15 per cent and 39 per cent of the total
       family income by means of temporary jobs. More than half the
       mothers gainfully employed contributed less than 15 per cent of the
       family maintenance, and in nearly two-fiJths of the families the
       wage-earning children under 18 years contributed similar propor-
       tions. Aid from relatives was small in amount. Income from
       lodgers, boarders, and rent constituted in nearly three-fifths of the
       casesless than 15 per cent of the total resources.
          Of the families receiving charitable aid, over two-thirds reported
       less than 15 per cent of their total living from this source; for the
       remainder, with one exception,charitable aid constituted from 15 to
       39 per cent of the total mailtenance during the unemployment
          Approximately three-fi{ths of the families reporting that they had
       incurred debts for food and other articleshad derived lessthan 15 per
       cent of their total maintenance, during the unemplo5rment period,
       from this source. For a third of the families, 15 to 39 per cent of the
       maintenance was secured through credit and for 9 per cent of the
       families from 40 to 69 per cent. Money loans had supplied less than
        15 per cent of the maintenancefor more than a third of the families
       and from 15 to 39 per cent for almost half the families. In almost a
       fifth of the families loans accountedfor 40 per cent or more of the
       resources  during unemployment.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                rTtE    FAMILIES        OF TTTE UNEMPLOYED.                                      31
        Savings,on the other hand, suppliedlarger proportions of the total
     resources. n'or almost two-fifths of the families, the use of savings
     furnished from 15 per cent to 3g per cent of the total living
     turesl for two-fifths, the savings spent during the unemployment"*p"trdi-
     period represented  from 40 per cent to 6g per cent of the total mainte-
       Table I gives these figures in detail, show-irg the percentagesof
     total income during unemployment derived from the various sources:
     Tesru l.-.so, trcrs Jomils ,o,n,,no
                        of                                                  t ttnrrnptotnrnt: bascd reports
                                                     f ;r,!l;,#{r{:r,.l,n

                                                       Families reporting cach sprcified souree of maintenance

                                                                  Per eent of total familr maintenance from each
        Sources of family maintenance during                                       spmifled souce,
              f ath€r,s unemplolment.

                                                                than 15                                   100
                                                                per @nt.                                p€r cent

                                                         135         39
                                                         31          l8
                                                         27          10
                                                          19         L4
                                                         20           I
                                                          oo          I
                                                          48         18
                                                          86         51
                                                          u          48
                                                           D          5
     Charitable                                          66          4ti

      I Only 136families retwned complete rcports.
      2 Oneincludes a strike b€nefit.
      3 One includes t2,000 life insuance, $800allotment
                                                              from Nary.

    Weekly resources at the time of inquiry.
       At the time of the visit by the bureau's agents, one-third of the
    347 families reporting as to earnings during the prececlingweek had
    no ineome from earnings of father, mother, or children. In a totar
    of nlm651,three-fourths of the families there were no earnings or they
    amounted to less than $20 a week. The percentagesof families hav_
    ing n'eekly earningsof various amounts were as follows:
                                                                                                per cent
                                                                                                 tion of
                         .                                                                      familics
             \r ceru\'earrungs.                                                                reporting.
                    Total._--.                                                                        f00
            Noeamings---                                                                    . .. -
            L e s s h a n$ 5 . . - - - - . - - . -                                                     7
            $5, lessthan $10..... -                                                                   12
            $10, Iessthan 915.                                                                        10
            $15,lessthang20..--..                                                      ......-..      12
            $20,lessthan $25--... -                                                                   i0
            $25,lessthan $30--. - - -                                                                  T
            $30,essthang3S----.                                                                        b
            $35,lessthan ' 40-                                                                         z
            $40and over.- - - -.. -.                                                                   3

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       32                  UNDMPLOYMENT                 AND CHILD WEI,FARE.

       Average monthly resources during unemployment.
          From 188 families in the two cities it was possible to secure rvhat
       appeared to be a close approximation to their average monttrly
                 during the entire unemployment period. The figures below
       "i*o""", numtrer of families and the number of children represented
       show the
       in each income group.                                   iljfl"; il"H;
                                                                                femi-    chil-
            Averags monthly    resotfces of families'                            lies'   dren'
                   Total-----                                           ""'       188     673

            Lessthan$25.----.                                        ------"-        6      19
            $25,lessthan $50-... - -                                                43     L47
            $50,lessthan $75-.-...                                                  63     213
            $75,lessthan $100....-                                                  45     163
            $100,lessthan $150.... -                                                26     114
            $150,lesgthan $200- - -.                                                 i      17

          Of the 673 children, only 131, or 19 per cent', were in families
       whose ayerage monthly resources rvere $100 or more. A fourth of
       all the children were in families having a,n a,Yerage less than $50
       monthly. It should be remembered that, these families averaged
       more than five members each and that the amounts reported as
       resourcesincluded everything that the family had had to live on-
       credit, Ioans, charitable aid, and savings used, as well as wages.
       Income during year preeeding unemployment.
          Complete information as to income during the year prrcceding
       ,rn"*pioJ'*ent could be ascertained for somewhat less than three-
       eighths of the families. Nevertheless, the following data covering
        tar oi the families are believed to be fairly representative of the
       whole group:                                          Number of
                                                                                lng rncom3
                                                                                pre\aous to
            Income duing      year prmding    unemployment.                   unemployment.
                    Total_-....                                               -.-.-...131

            $800,less than $1,000-                                                       1
            $1,000,Icssthan $1,200.                                                      7
            $1,200,lessthan$1,'100.                                        -..---"-     li
            $1,400,lessthan$1,600.                                        --.------' 17
            $1,600, ss han$1,800-
                   le t                                                    ----- -- - - 33
            $1,800,lessthan $2,000-
            g2,000,lessthan $2,200-                                                          18
            g2,200,lessthan $2,400.                                                          i3
            92,400,lessthan$2,600.                                            -------.-       tt
            $2,600,lessthan $2,800.                                                          1'3
            $2,800,less than $3,000-                                                          2
            $3,000,lessthan $3,200-                                                           2

         According to these figures, t'wo-fifths of the families had total
       incomes during the year preceding unemployment of $2,000 or more.
         A more complete index of the previous economic status of the
       families may be found in the following figuresrelating to the father's

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                         TIIE    FAMILIES       OF TI{E    U]i-E,NIPLOYED.                      33
     monthly wagesin his last regular job, which rvere reported for 3BG
                                                                        mbnthli   distri-
         Monthly wages in lsst regular job.                                 wages.'   bution.
                 Total---..                                     .._---...936           100

         $roo-.......-..                                                       +s        1-
         $100,lessthan 9125...                                                96         29
         $125,   lesg.than    $150.....-                                      83         2b
         $l50,lesgthan$175.....                                 .........     52         15-
         $U5, lessthan 9200-..                                                27          8
         $200,Iessthan $225-..                                                tT          b
         $225,lessthan $250.                                                  11          3
         $ 2 5 0 n d o v e r .- . . - - - . .                                  2          |
                                                CHART E.

            THE           PERIOD
                   IN          YEAR

                                   Unemplqym Period

                    t50 - rgg

                    over           lru"
                                   Year Pr ecedi Unempl ment
                                               nQ     oy

                  F6stnanI None
                   650- gg
                  6 1 5 06 1 9 9

                  t250 and

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      34                             UNEMPI,OYMENT                      AND        CHILD         WELFARE.

           Dnr.ru,ro              Teslr       A.-^Sources of mn'intenance during father's unemployrment,t

                              I               I                   Per @nt of incoms derived from each sour@.
             DurationI monthly I
               o r l resources I
      Scheal-                  i
                     unem- | during                                           Income
       ule                                                              chil-
       No.            DtoY- | uqem- J Father's                Mother's dren's from               Savings
                      menr    I Dtov- |                                                                     Loens.
                                      j earnings,             earnings. eam-                      used.
                                   rirerit.                             ings.
                              I            I
                          16 I
                                     /o. aY
                                                  8.1             E.4                     12.6
                                                                                                    44.0   " " : : '. r '
                                                                                                                 h o
          rr I
          ;;               8t
                          ,; I
                                     25.73        28.3                                    7r.7
          r/ I            to         35.6r         6.3                                    36.9
         2rl              20 I       41.60        38.9
         26 1             14i        71.44         3.6
                          1 01
                          15 I
                                                                                                 ""zi.r-                       3.0
          39 1            {6l l      $.m           4.0                                              44.0
          10 I                       83.84         8.4                                              44.0                      do. o
          12 1            17 l  u.                                                                  28.0                       4.0
                          1 7 1 50.46             34.0                                                                        31.3
          {9 I            1 3 1 60.34             10.9                                                                        63.5
          50 I             8l   m.63              rI. t                                                                       63.2

          55 1
                           8l   30.91
                          19 l 268.09
                          16 I  46.3E
                                                  36.I                                                                        18.3
          56 1            14 1 44.LI              28.6                                                                        m.3 : . . . : . : : :
          - ^ l
          6l              15 1 81.09                                                                                          tt.2
          5el             16 1 60.5,1              E.1                                                             t.t        a,D           5.1
          60l             ! c9 1     54.19                                                                         4.9                     20. 1
                                                  tl                                                                           t1          13.0
          62 1            r l        52.m                                                                         37.8
          6.cl            2rl        49.35        23.8                                                                                     10.8
          &l                         60.56        24.0                                                                        50.1          4.0
          6Rl             13l        w.u2           6
                                                  18.                                                                          9.0
          69               el    49.70             t.r                                                                        45.8          r,5
          i4               tt   rm.36              1.0                                                                        28.6
          75              D I 96.57                                                                                                     :.....:::
           /o             121 236.03                                                                                                       31.0
          78              rol    79.33             7.7    t2,g                                                                             11.0
          79              1 61 4 4 . 9 6          41.0 .._-......
          &3              llt I 223.13            31.5.-........                                                                        '-"-ie:o
          84              14 1 103.2a             1?.7 ...-..-...
                                                     1                                                                         6.8
          D                8l    44.41                                                                                        79.2         64.5
          86              18 l   66.85                                                                                        17.8          2.0
          s8                     67.80                                                                                        74.3          6.0
          39              16 I   43.88                                                                                        31.7
          90               8l    72.4                                                                                         40.9
          91               8 l 106.G|                                                                                          1.0
          a               1 0 l ffi.42            48.3
          94               8l    62.85            B.E                                                                         27,I         13.0
          96              1 6I   88.01                                                                                         0.9          I.2
         rv2              15 1 94.6i               7.0                                                                         8.0         15.0
         Tfit             13 1 90.98              44.4                                                                         3.0
         109              lrl    63.39            26.8                                                                        Id.   D

         110              1 4I   42.11            15.4                                                                      - -96.8
         lll              1 2l   12.99             3.2
         r12              r5l    40.06            12.l
         u8                15 1                                                                                               1{8
         125               77 1      69.25                                                                                    42.9
         126               %l                                                                                                 i6.3
         r27                8l       99.36                                                                                     6.1
         136               1 3l     r15.15                                                                                    ro. I
                           13 I      g7.w                                                                                     30..1
         139                6l      r52. il)      2 6 :le : : : : ::.:: 1:..: . : : . :
                                                        :                                                                     36. 8
                           13 1     126.05          9 . 3|         .5I-..-.-.-.                                               46. 8
                           10 1
                           1 4l
                                     20.36        JI.     A
         151                3l      5St. 71
         162               13 l      51,38
         ral               1 4l      30.29         42.7
         155               1 1|     411.80         14.E-
         157               1 81      55.74         4t.2
         162                ,tl
                                     JO. a/        32.9
         163                ol    24.87           lm.0
         lGf               10 1 48.26              16.8
         168               r 5 I 148,56            32.1
         175               1 2 l 101.33             9.9
         t77                 ol   u.5l             31.4
         179               1 5 1 &3.48             59.3
         180               13 l   37.48            35,t
        r Includes onlv tho 136 families for whom complets informatioD. wes obtsined.
        2 Includ€s $2,d!0 tife insusnce and $800aliotment from the NaW.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                   TI{E FAMILIES OF TI{E IINET\IPLOYED.                                                                                     35

    Dnrerr,no T.onr,n A.-rSources of maintmanceduring
                                                      father,s unemploymcnt-contd.
             I           | ^-^.^-^l                                  percentofincomederivedfromeachsouce.
      . _ Dtrmrimlfi#ifriil_
        _'o*1,',-l*;:[flgl;l-___--       __
    ",i,'.*igi*- l't''lHiT'l   |    ]        lTo.o-.1 I         I      I
     :,ro. *iJ+ I uremitFarhcr,s,yoi!_.lli l#?fi|*lr,1Je*rl"*"r.
                    provr-.           9;":,.                    I o"o*.| *f,ii-
             r"i"i'iri.i.l                           l g:n- l:Et
                                        learninss.,eamines.lodgers. l**-.
                                                       r"Er.                                                                             1   |          I aid.

       184          12      $56.84                     .
                                            9/ 9 .t q. . . . . . . . .                                            I       r4.3                   2t,l
       185          l1       85.28          r . 6l - . . . . . . . . . 1                                                   42.4                  11.0
                                            8 8 . 4|                                                              |
       tdr          lo                                        0.9 L                                               t
                                            2 0 . 6 - . . . . . . . . l '1 ." " " ' l - " ' ; . i '';"' 1 I".". . . -3 .-0 . - -                  lo
       188                    8?.67                  l                  . -""
                                                                        1 ."1 . " ' t                  *         I        5      " "i;:t'         3.4
       189          72                      2 & 61 . . . . . . . . t.- - - - - - . - - t . . . . - . . . .| 1              6.0                   50.1
       190          ta      r23.m           30.4     r . . - - . . . - - . 1 30.8                       17 ..2 I
                                                                                                        t7 2              n.2           t.4
       191          15       73.09          4 0 . 1. . . . . . . . -| 1 .
                                                     I                   .                   |                   |
                                                                                                                 I          s.s n.l
                             53. 84
                                             4 . el - . - . . . . . . - 1 .
                                            2 1 . 4- . . . . . . - . . 1 .
                                                    l                        l:.:::::..1.:.::..:.1               I
                                                                2 . 2 lt." " " " - t - - - - " "l' : . . : : : : : .t7. I
                                                                                                                          6 1 . 5 20.6
                             83. 40
                                            5 0 . 7|
                                             8 . 7l             2 . 7|
                                                                                "tr:.'l"   "ii:r'1"  "                                                      9.0
      198           16       62.51          12.s ........-.1.
                                                    1                        l"                                  |
                                                                                                                          zE.a               "
                                             8 . 11 . . . . . . - . . - 1 .
                                                                             l : : : . : . . : . 1 . . : : : . : : . 1 _ . 361..1
                                            6 9 . 8 - . - . . . . . .1-.1 . . . . _ . . 1l { . 0 1:. : . -. : : : : :
                                                                                                                 l .:
      mr                    t36.62         4 1 . 4. - - . . . . . . - l n z . B
                                                                                            1 . . . . . . . . .e.l
                                                                                                                 I                                2.2
      xJz           13       40.28          3 1 . 8- - . . . . . . .I1 .
                                                    l                   .           "'t:a'1....                            1
      a)5          l0
                                                              1 0 . 4I .
                                                                             l:                                    : :8 :: : . : & 0
                                                                                                                                     41r   .     2t.9
      208          t7        60. 81        2 e . 5- . . . . . . - . . 1 .
                                                    l                        i:::::::::l:::::::::i"r                      28,0         3.0       n.5        17.0
                                            14.6 ..........1.
                                                                        - j.
                                           r / . u 1 . . . . . , . . 1. . . . . . I . .     . r 0 .I8 25.2                49.7         9.2       14.4         1.3
      2L2          16                        8 . 5|           r 0 . 5i ." " " " ' t " " " " ' l
                                                                       l                                                                  ..11:i.
                                                                                                                                         ..      20.0 " " " i . ?

                                                                                                                    :.::l::::                    65.3
                             fi.   ll

      2r7                    44,59         7 0 . 4 . . - . . . . . .1. " ". " " ' i " " " " ' l
                                                   1                       1"                                                                    19.6       10.0
      2r9           to                                                   '
                                           3 0 . 4 . . . . . . . - .lt . -1". - -" .' .1."-"l ' : ' : ' 1 ". "! t . . . .
                                                   1                      .. .                           o                           JJ. '       26.0        5.0
      220          r9       65.46            5.0 |            s i . l |I          ,at                           I
                                                                                                                                     19.0        t2.o        7.2
                   13       60.88
                                           83.4 ......-...1.
                                           2 4 . 3 . . . . . . . . . "- "1 . . . . i . . . - - - . . .
                                                   1                        1 . . . . .:::::::.: : . : : : :
                                                                                                     1            :. :-: : . : t : :
                                                                                                                  . .
      zn            lo     119.71          4 7 . 1|
                                                              1 2 . 5l- - . . . . . . . i
                                                                         -                              9.5 ..-.                                 n.9
        I          l6      r09.29          7 0 . 6I                                                               : l.1 .
                                                              1 7 . 4l . . . . . . . . . r . . . . - .:...: : ....:..                               .
                                                                                                                                                 1 13
      236           I       67.n                   r
                                           1 3 . 6 . - . - . . . ^ . _ l 1 8 . 2 . . - . . . . . _6 4 . 6                r
      n7            6      168.47          x.3 i             r2.7|             2 2 . 5 1 3 . 0''".i8.
      240          10      103.28          5 1 . 6- . . . . . - . . . r .
                                                   l                                       |                    1 . . . . i'
      %:6          l9
                           150. 87
                                           1 9 . 1 . . . . . - . - . . 1.-. . . - - l 4 2 . 2 i
                                                             7 7 . 4l -
        :9         13       86.09          5 6 . 8- . - . . . . . . . i 2 5 . 0 . . - . - . . . . . . .:.:. . : .
                                                  i                                        i                        ..
      252                   41.l0          2 2 . 51          2 3 . 8l .
                   10       58.14           3 . 7|           2 7 . 0): : : : : : : : : ] : : : : : : : : : ] : : . t :
      2ffi          I       20.68         1 0 0 . 1 . . . . . . . . - -t" " " " 1 ' . ' . - . . -:-:- - - -
                                                   0                    . -                                      : : . ::
      25?           2       36.95                 0
                                          1 0 0 .1 . . . . . . - . . . 1 .                                       """"'t
      258                  118.01
                                            7 9 . 1 . . . . . - . . .".". - " " 1 " " " " ' , " " ; 1 6 . 9 |
                                            6,.O...._.-...1-                                                        '....--..1
      259                   84.99                  1
                     8      &.14            3 e . 3|      4 5 . 0l : : . : . : : : : l : : : : . . : : : l j
                                                                     .                              15.7 l
      278           t4      85.93                                                                   oo.o
                                            2 7 . 3 . . . . . . . . ." " t t : 6 ' l : : : : . : : : : l I
                                                   1                   .1-.
      282           t2      91.30
                             n. r.
                                              '.* 1...--.....1     I

                                           { 1 . 3. . . . . . . . . . . ,
                                                                                                                           54-8 |
      299        n. r.                                                                                                       ;a.zI
      306           t0      37.63                                                                 "i "
                                            7 . 71 . . . . . . . . . .:.. . : : : : : 16 : i ' i 68.5
                                                                      : .                                                    f I
      307            8      58.24          6 6 . 8 . . . . . . . . . "1" . ' i " " " " - i " " ; "
                                                  1                   ."."
      309        n. r.       n, r.         3 3 . 0|        5 0 . 51 . .                                               " i;:o'l
      3r2            I     100.26          il.2 1...-......1 7.2                                      1 0 . 3. . - -. -. - - - - l
      329                   77.b0          4 1 . 1 . - - . . . . . . ."1' .-. ' - " '|i " " ' - " ' r ' sz.7
      331          13       46.53          e 5 . e . . . . . . . . . r. .1. .. . - . . 1 . - - . - . r . - , - - . - r. - . - - - - - -|l
                                                  1                      .     .
      334          l4       7E.28          4 7 . 3 . . . . . . _ - - .. 1 - . . . . . 1
                                                  1                        .                               .E                zz.s
                                           5 0 . 0 . . . . . . - . - . 1 r o . o ; . - . . . . . . 4 0 . 0I
      335          10       50.86                 1                                                                           -l
      336          10      101,69          20.0 ..........1..
                                                  1                                                                          I 0 . 0i
                                          1 0 0 . l0 - . . . . - . . . 1 . .
                                           u.7 l
                                                    .                       :::::.:_:t...:::.:.1.....
                                                             1 . 3i .. . - . . - . . - 1 . . . . . . . ti               ".'.i1 : o '|l
      346                  106.20          3 8 . 5 . . . . . - . . . ' '1"-i.i . I
                                                  1                   .                               ALOI                   1 6.5
                   14      111.94           ool
                                                                                          8 . 1 ... . . : l .. . . :
                                                                                                  :: .                               |
     348           l5       87.33          2 0 . r . . . - . - . . . . 1 1 . 6 1 2 . e l ?. J I
                                                 1                                                     lt
                                           81.6 ...-..--....
                                                 |        8 1 . 51 . .
                                                                            " " " " ' 1 " ' . - . - .'. 1
                                                                                                  ' ' 'rr; I
                                           7 0 . 2- . . . . . - . - . 1 . . :::::::::l:::.::::.1"",
                                           1 6 . 7- . . . . . . . . " i" '. - " " l-t " - " " t '
                    7       62.70)                                   "- -. -          a
                                           2 2 . 7. . . . . . . . . .' 1 - . 8 6 ; 0 ' l : : : :
                                                                                                       62.5 |
     365                   205.03|         u . 0l - . - , - . . . . . 1                                 - . :: : 1 . :-
                                                     tt                                       II
     3 Includes 8.100
                    strike benefit.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      36                      uNEMPrroYlrENT            AND cHrLD   wELFARE.

                                LOWERED           STANDARDS OF LIVING.?

      Monthly resources before and during unemployment.
         It was not, practicable to undertake an intensive study of the
      standards of living prior to and during unemployment. Tho only
      available criteria of the efrects of the unemployment are, therefore,
      to be found in a comparison of the resourcesof the families before
      and after the father was thrown out of work, and in data based on
      estimated budgets of the minihum requirements for the needs of
      the families. Fo" 61 families-including 203 children-the average
      monthly resources during tho period of unemployment wero com-
      pared with the family income while the fathers wore regularly om-
      ployed. Half of these children (101) belonged in families whose
      aoerage monthly resources during the unemplo5rment,      periods wero
      less than 50    per cent of the average monthly incomes while the
      fathers were working at their regular occupations. Six of the 101
      children were in families in which the income had been reduced to
      less than 15 per cent of what it had been under normal conditions,
      and in the families of 13 children the total resourcesduring unem-
      ployment were only from 15 to 25 per cent of what the income had
      been when the father was working. The families of almost two-
      fifths of the children were forced during the unemployment period
       to live on from 50 to 75 per cent of the amount of the incomo when
       the father had been employed.
          For the younger children, especially, the deprivations implied in
       these findings ca,nnot help but have serious and lasti.g results, and
       tho fact that 60 per cent of the children under 7 years of age wore
       in families in which the average monthly income had been cut to
       less than half of that previously available is evidence of the rela-
       tion of unemployment to child welfare.
       Comparison of resources during unemployment with estimated family
          Analysis of average monthly resources during unemployment as
       compared with estimated family budgets is even more conclusive.
       As a basis for budget estimates applying to the individual familiss
       included in the study, there were available some especially valuable
       data that had been collected by one of the large manufacturi.g
       plants of Racine. For a year and a half prior to the study of the
       results of unemplo5rment,this company had obtained from fa.rnilies
       and from retail stores data which were compiled to furnish in-forma-
       tion on the monthly variation in the cost of the main ite-s of family
       needs, on the basis of which had been figured a standard budget for
       a family of five. Such a budget had been compiled by the compa,ny
           t Soo Appendix A, Tables 20, 25,   ,a[d.n.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                     THE FAMILIES OF TIIE UNEMPLOYED.                                              37

    as of December27, lg?t. Since this date was included in the time
    period of the inquiry made by the Children's Bureau in Racine, this
    budget is of especial value here in connection with the studv and is
    given below.
    I{oNcrEy Buocrr roa Feurr,y or, Frvn, Corsrsrrwc or,MaN, Wouax, Grnr, 10 ro 14,
                      Boy 6 ro 10. .rNo Cmr,o UNosn 3 Ynans.8

                                                          DECEMBER      27, 1921.

                      Food.                                                         Rent,Juel, and,li,ght.
    Man-.-....-..-                                              $2.97   Rent----..                   -.-... $80.00
    Woman.--...-                                                 2.55   Coal.-.                              7.ffi
    Girl 10 to 14 years. -. - -                                  1.98   Wood.-.                              t.Zb
    Boy 6 to 10 years. -. - . . -                                1.80   Fuelgas                              z.fi
    Child under 3 years--... -. -                                1.69   LtCht...--...-                       l.z5
         Perweek----                                            10.99                                           43.50
    Per month (4| weeks)-                                       47.62

                                                                      Soap,towels,etc --.-.--                   5.00
    1lfan.--..--...-                                             6.88
    Woman--.-.--                                                      Car fare                                  1.80
                                                                      fnsurance                                 2.00
    Gtul 10 to 14 years--.-.                                     9.46
                                                                      Doctor and medicine                       5.00
    B o y 6 t o 1 0y e a r s . - - - . . -                       2.77
    C h i l du n d e r Sy e a r s . . . . . . . - - . _ . . .    t.0b                                           13.80

                                                                                          Amount.    percont.
                        Total- - -
                             -.                                                           $122.96 too.o
             Food-.-                                                                         47.62      g8.z
             Clothing-                                                                      18.04       !4.7
             Rent--.                                                                        3o.oo       24.4
             F\rel and liCht. . .                                                           18.50       11.0
             Miscellaneous                                                                  lB. g0      t1.z
       Ghg this budget es a basis, and estimating the B,mountrequfued
     for each family in accordancewith the number, ages, and sex;f its
    members, a comparison is here made between th; a,yeragemonthly
    resourcesduring unemployment end the estimated budE-etsfor i.2l6
    Racine families and 60 farnilies in springfield from which-sufficiently
    detailed information wB.ssecured to make the comparison possible.
    There is possibility of differencesin the cost of itemsin the two cities,
    but the variations were probably not sufrcient to invalidate the data
    as given in, groups of amounts. Table II compares the monthly
    receipts with the budget estimates for each of the total 1g6 families.
      a compiled by the c&se Theshing Machine
                                                    co., Racine, wis.    As no amouxts wero specifled for food and
   clothing for boys and girrs of certain ages, the same amount was auowed. for
                                                                                     u t oy r+ y*., oi ugo and over
   s for a man, and tho same amomt lor s gtl 14 and over as for a women. The
                                                                                          allowance for food. and for
   clothitrg for both boys 8nd Sirls from 10 to 14 years of oge aDd. trom 6 to 10 years
                                                                                         was tho same. For a child
   (rom 3 to 5, $1.75 per woek was sllowsd lor food
                                                        aad S1.91 per month for clothins.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       38                                    UNEMPLOYMENT             AND     CHII,D    WELFARE.

      Taerr           lI.-Co          mparison of ateraqe monthlu resourus and estimakd budqet requ'ireilunt;
                                     fa m i l ics .fo r-t,'ho m,'aretage mon l hl y resourrcs u'n e report ed'

                                                                 Families   with   specified estimated   monthly     budget
      AYeraee monthlv      rcsources I Tolal
       durin'g unemploJment period. I femilies.
                                                                                              tl5&$174I t175-S1991

                Total familim-- ---... -. ..

      I-€ssthan $25.-..                                                                                  ""-""-1""--'
      $25, less than $50.
      $50, less than $75.                                                                                ""-""-l--.'-'-
      $75,lossthan 9100                                                                                  " "" " "1"'- "'
      $ 1 m , e s s h e n5 1 2 5 - - - . - . . - . .
            l     t                  -                                                                          3l
      $125, than S150
      3 1 5 0 l,e s st h a n 5 U 5 . - . . . . . . . . . . . .

         I-Inder the scheme$'orked out by the industrial plant the rnonthly
      budgets for 5 families \\'ould be estimated at between $75 and $99;
      only 1 of them had resourcesduring the unemployment period u'hich
      fell s'ithin the same group. Of the 87 families whose budgets should
      have beenbetween$100 and 8124,62 had averagemonthly resources
      of lessthan g75, 3 of them having an a,yera.ge less than $25 a month.
      In the next group, 50 of the 61 families for rvhom the budgets were
      figured at $125to $149& month had actual resources lessthan $100,
      15 of them averaginglessthan $50 a month
         While there were 94 families for whom the estimated budgets
      exceeded$125 a month, only 8 of the scheduledfamilies had resources
      of $125 or over. Conversely,49 per cent of the budget estimates
      werefor monthly averages lessthan $125,rvhile the actual resources
      of 96 per cent   of the families were under this amount
         The data given in Table II shorv 9 families of the 186 as having
      averagemo.rthly resources       falling in the same group'as the budget
      estimate, or in a higher group. In almost every instance this was
      accounted by doctor bills or other emergency
                   fol                                            not
                                                          expenses allowed
      for in the budget estimates,or by savings that had permitted the
      famiiy to maintain something like their usual standard of living. In
      some families the amounts of the budgets were considerablybelow
      the income they irad had when the father was working, so that even
      though they appeared to have had a fairly adequete &mount to live
      on during the father's unemployment, the standard of living for the
      family had been grea,tlyreduced.
         One of the 9 families had used up savings amounting to $700, and
       another almost $2,000,for the family maintenance. Loans or debts
      for food, fuel, and other necessities,  amountingin somecases several
      hundred dollars, accounted for a considerable proportion of the
      family resources. In one family 'lvhose resources and estimated
      budget both fell within the $100 to $124 group, the man had earned
       $220 umonth when h'e was regularly employed; obviously there had

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                               TETE FAMILIES   OF THE UNEMPLOYED.                39

      been a considerable   decrease the family's living costs, the greater
                                     in                                -having
      share of the maintenance during the father's unemproyment
      been derived through borrowed money, and groceriesand fuel boughi
      on credit; a child was the only member of the family who was worki"ng,
      and the rent was in arrears. In another family the itrcome through
      the fath_er'searnings of $145 a month prior to unemployment was
     practically the same as the a,vera,ge  expenditures while he was out of
     work, but the family had lived mainiy on borrowed.money, being in
     debt to the extent of $1,400; the mother worked regurariy,
     $15 a week, and the father had had some temporary jobs. Thi;     "u-ing
     family's actual monthly expenditures during the unernployrnent
     averaged$148, while the budget estimate amounted to only $ttz.
     They were, as noted, living up to their forrrer income mainry ihrough
     loans and the contribution of the mother who had gone to work.
        rncome data in sufficient detail to furnish the basisfor reliable per-
     centage comparisonswith the estimated budgets were securedfor go
     families. The findings were as follows:
          Ratio of montbly income to                                Number of
              estimated budset.                                      tamilies.
                  Total....-                                               90
          Lessthan 15 per cent- -.                                  . ..   1
          15-24per cent. - -. -. - -                                       6
          2F49percent..-----.                                              38
          5fL74   nar   nont
          7F-99per cent- . -.                                              11
    Thus, for almost half these families the average monthry resources
    during the unemployment period amounted to less than 50 per cent
    of the budget estimates based on the costs of food, clothing, renr,
    fuel, and other necessities.
     Illustrations of the effect of unemployment on standards of living.
         The conditions that resulted from the loss of employment by the
     chief breadwinner may best be shown through brief summaries of
    conditions in a few of the ma,ny families in which the investigators
    found distinct indication of the lowering of the standards of familv
    life. These accounts, secured from the families themselves, eive a
    picture of the results of unemployment,including many factors"*ni.n
    do not lend themselvesreadily to statistical interpretation. The
    stories are related as of the day on which the visit ol tne bureau's
    agent took place.
        one family consists of American-born parents-about B0 years of
    age-and three children,4, g, and 11 years old. The father, a welder
    for an implement works, iost his job a year ago. since then he has
    worked three weeks for the city and has had irregular employm.ent
    at his former place, earning a total of $50b during tbe year. An

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      40             UNEMPLOYMENT     AND CITILD WELFARE.

       aunt came to live with the family during the summer. tr'or four
       weeks she paid $2.50 a week and the flfth week $4. Then she lost'
       her job and has paid nothing since'
          The family has not yet been obliged to ask for charitable aid, but
       the struggie to keep from it, has been hard. When the father was
       Iaid ofi they were Iiving in a nine-room house, for which they paid
       $35 a month. Realizing they couid not keep up this rent they moved
       into a six-room flat at $20' AJter four months they felt they must
       retrench e]renmore, so they moved acrossthe street into their present
       flat of four rooms, at $i5 a month. It is heated by a stove and has
       few of the conveniencesthey had in the other houses' There are no
       sidewalks, and the street is unpaved.
           The father had to drop his own $2,000 insurance policy and also
       smaller policies for his wife and children' The mother has cut the
       food down to the minimum. She tries to give the children miik
       once & day now instead of every meal, as she did when the father was
       working. They have run up a,$200 grocery bill, owe $29 for clothing,
        $6.50 for gas and electricity, and have borrowed about $400 from
        friends. In addition, they owe $9.50 for coal to the factory where
        the father was formerly employed and $160 for groceries obtained
        through the commissarv.

          A Hungarian couple who have been in the United States 18 years,
       and residents of the city 9 years, are about 35 years old and have
       four boys, whoseagesare 1,4, g, and 13 Ye&rs'and a girl of 11. The
       father is a molder and in ordinary times can earn about $1,800e year.
       With so large a famil5' it was not possible to save much, but they      (
       were buying their home bv monthlv payments of $20.
          The father was laid ofr in October, 1920, and the period of unem-    (
       ployment had stretched to 15 montbs. During this time he had
       picked up a few short-time laboring jobs, the pay for which totaled
       less than 9150. The mother economized as much as possible on
       food, reducing the milk from 4 or 5 quarts to 3 a day, cutting out      I
       fruit and su'eets, and buying meat, once a week instead of once or
       twice daily. They ran up a $66 grocery bili and a debt of $6 at a       t
       tea and cofree store, and then credit was refused them. They bor-       b
       rowed g60 from friends and ran behind on insurance payments and
       payments on the house. X'inally the mother, although not a strong
       woman, and with much to do in caring for her own home, succeeded        ta

       in finding cleaning to do, two days a week for seven weeks. Part        ft
       of the time she took the children to a day musery and the other days    d
       the 1l-yea.r-old girl cared for them at home. The mother has earned     I
        a total of $42 during the father's unemployment. The family is now     d
       living entirely on city-commissary orders, and has a biII there of      l
        $36.35.                                                                ti

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                      TITE   FAMILIES   OF T}IE   UNEMPLOYED.                4L
      The l3-year-old boy had kept the family supplied with fuel by
    picking coal off the railroad tracks. He finaliy was caught and
    arrested and he and his father were brought into the juvenil"e court.
    At the first hearing the father was orderedto puy $la for the ,, stolen,,
    coal and was given two weeks in which to gei tle money. Only two
    days of the two weeks are left, and the father expects to go t-o jail
    becausehe has nothing with which to pay.

        A man who had been earning $1g a week working for a baking
     company lost his job just before christmas, and in o"rderto reduce
     gTpg".": his family went -to liyg
                                       fn an apartment with the family of
     his brother. rncluding the child of the brother and his own little
           aged 1 and 3 years, there are seven people living in four rooms.
    Du.ng the two months of his unemployment the father has had but
    onejob-cutting ice-at which he has earnedonly $g. Becauseof a
    weak heart he can not continue at this work or stand city work.
    The payments on insurance policies, which had been carried for the
    father, mother, and one child, have been dropped. No milk is being
    taken, even though the children are so small. The relief society hal
    given aid to the extent of $1b.46. The mother says that the family
    is not in debt.

      slack work caused the unemployment of a metal-pattern worker
    who had been making about $48 a week. In the 18 months sincehe
    lost his job he has earnedonly $202. To get the wherewithal to live,
    he and his wife have sold their jewerry uod a considerabreamount
    their furniture, including two stoves. They have also cashedin
                                                                           at a
   considerable loss the insurance they were carrying. None of the
    three children is strong. The eidest-a girl of i+                     been
   declared by the school physician undern-ourished,but the mother
   says that it is impossibleto afiord the daily quart of milk prescribed
   for her.                             gb37.5o,'alihough
             - Jhe.{_amilyalready owes                      part oi the $225
   gro:gry bill will probably be oflset by the father's .ru"oi".. in repairing
   and keeping in order the grocer's automobile. rn their pr*'puroo,
   days the family had evidentry rived quite up to their incomei
   they are still in possession an autimobile, said to be too ord
                                 of                                          to
   bring anything at a sale, which they can not now afiord to
             whict there,arefour
   '' somehow"-as morher childrenhasmanaged get along
       Ittl"    the
                            p"t it-"rti"tg*u1f:?:1T ?:t":'?il:
   f.aqherhad apparently.earnedorrty OZS. yet"they n"oe k"iio,rt
   debt. Shoesand stockingsa"e ore of the things it.y nuo"'rrot
   {le.to manage, however, and lack of them"had kept t*o-ot tn"
   ehildren out of school and brought & visit from the iruant
                                      a                        officer.
   In this cold month of trebruari. the 2-year-old baby
                                                           is running
   rround barefoot.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       42             UNEMPLOYMENT      AND CrrILD WELFARE.

          Over 14 yearc ago a Syrian f ather and mother emigrated toAmerica'
       Ieaving in their iative- Iand three little sons. I{ine months before
       the viJit of the agent, these boys arrived in this country' They are
       now 16, 17, and 18 years of age, and are crowding the disordered
       home, which shelters also a Syrian-born daughter, four American-
       born children, and the 18-year-old brother of the father. soon after
       the arrival of the three boys, the father was laid ofi, and there was
       no market for the young strength and ability of these additions to the
       famiiy. The fathlr hui eotned only $283 in seven months, a friend
       has loaned him $400, and the oYerseer the poor has supplied some
        clothing. The mother and the oldest son have had spells.ofsickness,
        and all"the children have had the mumps. The family is in ttre habit
        of huddling in the kitchen, which is the oneheatedloom. The 15-year-
        old daughier has just got her working certificate and is employed in
        a launJry. Her wag-es-$6 a week-are the only ascertainable
        presentincome of the iamily. The one pleasant thing apparent in the
        situation is the fact that two of the young immigrants, unable to
        secure work, are getting their first training for future citizenship in
        the schoolroominstead of the factory'
           A sturdy Russian-German couple in their forties, with five chil-
        dren-girls of 16 and 6 years, and boys 14, 13, and l0-live in a
        lO-rooi frame dwelling in a good residence neighborhood. The
        roorns are newly pup""*d and comfortably furnished-:ictrola, china
        closet, Iibrary iuUt", books, and pictures. The father is illiterate
        ancla commonlubo""r, but a steadyworker. The mother is evidently
        a good manager. They are buJ'rng their house on " contract," for
        rvh-i"h the m6nttrly payment is $25. The mother says they have
        struggled for years io get ahead, but as soon as they had a little
        *otri"y saved it had to be used for emergen-cies. O_n-e         died a
        few ylu". ago, and they had large doctor   and funeral bills; then the
        mother had an operation on her leg, which has not healed properly,
         and she still has to spend money for doctor and medicine. However,
        with all their economizing they never lived as they have to now.
         They have meaf only twice a week, instead of once or twice a day, do
         without fruit and desserts entirely, and get, only one quart, of fresh
         milk daily. They livo on what they can get through the city com-
           buring the 14 months sinco the father lost his employment he has
         had somleshort-time jobs. He could not remember just how long
         these lasted, nor how-much he has earned, but reported it-was well
         under $200. The mother tried taking in roomers, but thoy have lost,
         their jobs, too, so can pay no rent. Pgbh have pilsd up until tho
         mother has become almost frantic. The meat bill was $140, and
         the butcher threatoned to cut off further credit unless sometbing

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                    TIIE   FAMIIJES   OF TIIE   UNEMPLOYED.             ifo

     could be done about it. He finally told the mother that if she would
     do the washing for his family he would credit her $b a week on the
     bill and allow her to continue getting meat there. The washings are
    huge-6_to 1Olarge butcher aprons in addition to a good-sizedfamily
    wash. It takes her at Ieast threo half-days a week to do the work,
     and she is scarcely strong enough to do eyen her own washinE. She
    has cut the bill to $109. Besides  this, they owe g2b0 in paymints on
    the house, $69 interest, $64 for last year's taxes, $10 for fuel, $100
    cash which was borrowed, a balance of g5b on a victrola bought in
     1920,and $74 to the city commissary.
       The oldest two boys have had for two yea,rsa paper route for sun-
    day papers only, and they earn about 50 cents a week-which is the
    only income the mother can count,on. During the summer the boys
    caught fish. The family used what fish they could, and then the
    mother took the rest to the neighborsand exchangedit for cofiee'or
    other grocerieswhich they could spare.
       They have given up six ilsurance policies, the weekly premiums
    for which came to 90 cents. The hardest thing the family has had
    to do was to ask for charity. Both the private ielief society and the
    city poor office have helped with clothing and groceries.
       The parents a,reutterly discouraged over the future. credit has
    been cut ofr, taxes are due again, and the mother has just 28 cents in
    the house-what is left of the boys' paper money. " Sometimesr sit
    and cry-it is so heavy."
       A carpenter, the father of a family of four children whose agesrange
    from 7 to 16 years, has not had steady work for 18 months] Iflhen
    he lost his job, his oldestboy had completedthe eighth grade and was
    about to begin learning his father's trade by worklng *ith tne father.
    AJter half a,year out of school the boy became a cleik in a store, and
    is now earning $8 a week. His wages, together with his father's
    earnings at temporary work, bring the fsmiry income for the 18
    months up to $913.67,as against the $8,100*hi.h the father alone
    was able to earn dunng the same period at steady work. rn alrears
    for fi.ve months' rent, the family moved to a housl at a hiEher rental.
    this being cheaperthan to pay the back rent. The home'is in greai
    disorder, and the house old and dilapidated.
      A family with three
                             _children-g, 10, and 12 years of age_had
    always lived comfott-uPl{,_  and-_hadbegun to get ahead fin-ancially
    when the father lost his job. He had 6een in this country 1g years
    and has taken out his first citizenship papers. He made $"30a weeh
    as a machinist until May, 1g21. Since-october he has had about
    half-time work, earning 918 a week. The mother has been doing
    Iaundry work two or three days a week and ayerages a week, bui
    feelsthat she is not strong enoughto do this.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       14            UNEMPLOYMENT      AND CIIILD   \YELFARE.

          The family live in a four-room frame bungalow, which they are
       buying. The house has neither ga,snor electricity and no furnaco,
       so that during the winter the upper rooms can not be used, as there
       is no rvay of heating them. They have no money for the overdue
       taxes nor for the interest on the mortgage, and the mother is afraid
       they rvill have to lose the house. She has been consideringborrowing
       money on a high-interest plan, without consulting the father, in
       order to pay the taxes.
          The father refused an ofier of help at Christmas time from the
       church to which they beiong-they are too proud to let it be known
       that they are in need. He did, however, accept a loan of $5 from a
       visitor from the church and a ton of coal was accepted-the mother
       explained-bec&use it was left at the door and they r,vereentirely
       without fuel. The amount of milk has beenreducedfrom 2 quarts a
       day to 1. Although they have been able to keep in food supplies,
       they do not have what they were used to, and the food the mother
       buys is of a very cheap grade. The two older children are under-
       nourished. The youngest child has trouble with his eyes, and his
       teacher says he needs glasses. The mother is worn out from over-
       work and worry. When the mother and father are bolh at work,
       the children have to shitt for themselves, and frequently they have
       no lunch. There is a little garden in which they raise their potatoes
       for the winter. They also have a ferv hens. The father killed a
       mrmber of rabbits during the fall, rvhich helped their meat supply.
       All their clothes have been made over as there has been no money
        for new ones. The mother sa,ys that she and her husband lvorry
        all the time, but on account of the children they always pretend to
        others that they are getting along very weil.

          In an American-born family, of higher type than many of the
       familisg visited, the mother ir sn Infslligent woman of 38 years,who
       is sssmingly trying, against great odds, to keep up her standard of
       Iiving. The father is a sheet-metal worker rvith an earning capacity
       of about $114 a month in normal times. They have 4 boys, I, 3, 5,
       and 6.years of age. They have put every cent they could save into
       their house and have paid over $1,000 of $4,600-the price of the
       house-and in addition have painted it at, a cost of $179, put on a
       new roof for $175, and had it wired for electricity, the bill for which
       was 9104. It is a two-story frame building with a large, grassy,
       well-fenced back yard. The rooms are nicely furnished, and there
       is a victrola.
          In almost 14 months the father has had only a little irregular work.
       For six weekstheyhad a boarderwho paid $10 a week,and the mother
       earned $15 making a layette for her sister. The family owes $285
       for 1920 and tgZt taxes and interest on the mortgage, $147 for gro-

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                             THE     FAMILTES       OT l'HI'     UNEMPLOYED.   45
  .   ceries, and 912 for fuel. Iror the first time the family has had to
      aciept charity. The relief associationhas given about $Bb in groce-
      ries and milk books. The mother would like to keep roomers, but
      hasn't bedding enough to keep them rvarrn.
         The mother has cut expensesto the minimum, getting 1 quart of
      milk a day instead of 2-the children drink tea and cofiee. The
      family suffer most for alothing. The things they had when the
      father lost his job rveregood, but they have had hard rvear and the
      mother has not been able to replace anything. A friend gave her
      two overcoats,which she ripped, washed,turned, and made over for
      the children. The children's shoes are in very bad conditionl the
      solesale rvorn through and there are such holes in the toes that nerv
      solescan not be put on. The 5-year-old boy is absent from school
      because has no shoes,and the mother estimated that the oldest
      child's shoesrvill last just about one week longer. The mother had
      on her only housedress   and she has no a,prons. The father is working
      this week. Ife will make about $26,but $6 wilt probably be deducted
      before he gets it for union dues. He wilI also have to pay out $12
      for coke that has already been delivered. That will leave only gg.
      "What can you do n'ith that?" askedthe mother.
                               EMPLOIMENT OF THE MOTHER.'
      Relation to unemployment of father.
         In the families of the unemployedmen, 29 per cent of the mothers
      in Racine and 37 per cent in Springfield were gainfully employed-
      almost one-third of the total number of mothers in the families
      visited. Of the 116 working mothers in the tr-o cities, 26, or 22 per
      cent, had been engaged in some gainful employment before ihe
      father's loss of rvork and 90, or 78 per cent, had apparently begun
      rvork as a result of his unemployment. The proportion in the latter
      gr.ouprvas greater in Springfield than in Racine. In both cities only
      7 of the mothers had worke<i prior to but not during the unemploy-
      ment period. The employment offices reported that it \vas yery
      diliicult for women to securework, either irr factories or in irousehold
      service. Women of moderate means, who had formerly employed
      help for washing, cleaning, and other domestic service, were doing
      their own work, and the industrial establishments offered as few
      opportunitiesfor women as for men. If empioyment had been more
      readily obtainable, undoubtedly a much greater proportion of these
      nothers would have secured it. Under the circumstances.it is
      surprising that almost a third of the mothers had been able to find
      some work to aid in supporting their families while the fathers were
      out of regular employment.
       e See Table I (p.31) and Appendix A, Tables 32-3t, inclsive.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       46                    UNEMpLoyMENT               AND cHrLD'wELFARE.

       Work at home and away from home.
          Three-fourths of all the working mothers were employed away
       from home. The proportions working at home and away from home
       were practically the same for each of the two cities. The following
       Iist showsthe occupationsof the mothers, accordingto whether they
       worked at home or a'way from home:
            Typeofwork.                                                 gainfullyemployed.
                  Total...--...--                                        .-...---.- 116

            Athome.--.-.                                                             .. %
               Sewing--                                               .. . . .- -. - 12
               L a u n d r yw o r k - - . . . . - .                                   I
               Keepingstore-.--                                                       2
               B a k i n gb r e a d . - . - . - . . -                                 I
               Weaving rag rugs. - -. -. -                                            I
            Away from home.. - -.                                                       9l
               Cleaning.---.-                                                        25
               Laundry work and cleaning-.-.                                         16
               Factoryand laundry work.---------                                     14
               L a u n d r yw o r k - . - . - . - .                                  14
               Nuning-------                                                          5
               Hotel and reetaurant                work--.---..--                     4
               Sewing--..                                                             4
               Workinginbeetfield.--..                                 -.....-.       2
               Clerkinginstore----                                                    1
               Other----..-.                                                          2
               Daywork, typenotreported------                                         3
               Type of work not reported......                                        1

         Seventy of the 90 mothers who began to work during the father's
       unemplo;rment were working away from home; the proportion for
       those who began work before the father's unemployment was some-
       what larger-21 out of 26.
       Hours employed per week.
          The averagehours of work per week for the women employed away
       from home are given below:
            flours of work                                              Number of mothers
               per we€k.                                                 reporting hous.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                  THE       FAMTLIES   OF TITE    UNEMPLOYED.                               47

                E}IPLOr|IENT MOTHIKS
        BffORE    DURING
              A}\JD                 OFIZIMERS
                                366FAMILIESOF UNE,MPLOYIDMEN

                             Motherworkin€l l"lother worXing
                        before unemploymen? durrnQ unemploSrment

    The children of working mothers.
      In the families of the 116working mothers there were 406 children
    under 18 yearsof age. The agedistribution was as follows, according
    to whether the mother ryas workine at home or awa,vfrom honre.
                                                                   Chilclren in families   Chiltuen in familles
                                                                    of mothers working      of mothers working
                                                                    away from homeome.      at home.
                                                                                  r0298            108
          U n d e r 1 y e a r -- - - . - - - . . .                                    129
          1-2 years- -                                                                326
          3-5 years..--                                                               60            19
          6-13 years--..                                                             164            57
          14-15 yea"re--                                                              18            10
          16-17years-.                                                                1.2            7
     to Inclurles 20 children whose mothers were rvorking both at home and a*'ay.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       48                      UNEMPLOYMENT                         AND CI{ILD WELFARE.

       Care of the children during the mother's absence.
          The deprivation of the mother's carewas particularly seriousin the
       case of the children of preschool age. In the families of the 91
       mothersworking away from home, there rverealtogether298 children.
       In 48 of these families there rvere children under 6 years of age-a
       total of 104 children. Of these 16 lvere going to school, leaving a
       total of 88 chiidren under 6 years of age r,vhoryere at home.
          Twenty-live of the 91 unemployed fathers in families where the
       mother went out to rvork remained at home to look after the children
       all or some of the time while she v'as away. Only seven older cliil-
       dren rverereported as caretakersof their younger brothers or sisters
       part of the time, and three others looked after the little children
       whenever the mother was away working. The children who acted
       as caretakerssomeof the time may have done so mainly when school
       was not in session, they were all of school age. One was 15, two
       were 14, one was 13, three were 12, one was 11, one r-as 10, and one
       was 8 years of age. The three children reported as the onlv care-
       takers of younger children were 15, 13, and 12 years of age.
          The caretakers while the mothers were aw&y rvorliing'were reported
            Caretaker.                                                                    dren under 6.
                      Total..-.                                                              ---.- 48

            il:lH::i1i-:111 :
                                                                                         ,,,,,,,,::: 3
            Daynursery--                                                                  .-.-.---   4
            Older chiid- -.                                                                          3
            Father and day nursery-                                                                  3
            Paid caretaker                                                                           2
            Father and other relative-                                                               2
            Father and neighbor. - -. - -                                                            2
            Father and roomer.--- - -- -                                                             1
            O l d e rc h i l d a n d p a i d c a r e t a k e r - . - - - - - - - . - -               I
            Olderchildanddavnursery-------                                               -----..--   I
            tr{other..-.----                                                                         2
            None-. -  -                                                                              1
            Not reported.-                                                                           I

         For the older children as well, the absence of the mother or her
       gain{ul work at home meant deprivation of care, protection, and
       supervision. They went to school with insuficient breakfast, re-
       turned at noon to a hastily picked-up lunch, and could not help but
       suffer ill efrectsboth physically and mentally. The father's presence
       in the home to some extent ofiset the dangers that are frequently
       found to accompany the absence of the mother. fn fact, the
       attendanceoffcers reported that truancy had decreasedduring the
       unemployment period, presumably due in a me&surer least, to the

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                           rHIT    IIAMILIES        OF THIi   UNEMPLOYND.                      49
     father's opportunity to exercisea stricter disciplineover the children.
     But this gain did not, offset the injury resulting from the neglect of
     the housekeeping,   the ill-prepared food, and the iack of care of the
     children's clothing, which follo'wed when the mother was absent at
     work and was wortr out by her excessive    duties.
     The mother's earnings.
        The average weekly earnings of the mothers are best shol'n in
     Detailed Table B which gives wages for the individual mothers, and
     also in relation to the number of hours worked. tr'or the two cities
     combined it was possible to securefrom only 31 of the families in
     which the mother was working complete information on the propor-
     tion of the total family resourcesrepresentedby her earnings. The
     figures are as follows.
          Per cent of total family resources rep-                           Nmber of fam-
             resented b]' mothers' earnin gs.                               ilies reporting.
                  Total.---                                                     --...- 31

          I'nJTll..                                                                 ':
          iH3:: :                                              :                :::::2
        In the caseswhere the mother contributed a considerablepart of
     the family maintenance, the hardships endured by the family must
     have been especiallygreat. The mother, absent from the home or
     busy with paicl work for a large proportion of each day, could not
     give the necessary  care to her children, and the total resources
     Typical instances.
        The effect of the employment of the mother is shown more clearly
     in the p?esentation of individual casesthan would be possible in any
     general analysis.
       One father has had no work at all for 10 months. During the
     whole of that period the mother has gone out every day to do house-
     work, and by this means earned enough to keep the family gging.
     Since the father often went out to look for work, the two boys of 7
     and 11 years had to prepare their own lunch at noon and were left
     without any supervision after school hours. n'inally the mother broke
     down from the double work of earning the living and caring for her
     home and family, a burden which was made all the harder to carry
     becauseof worry over their unfortunate circumstances. Vflhen the
     father obtained employment {rom the city the mother gave up her
     outside work but began doing fine iaundry work at home. These
     parents have a fine, independent spirit and do not wish to apply for
     charity. They have acceptedtryo loads of wood frorn the city, be-
     causethe father was working in the parks where the wood was being

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      50             UNEMPLOYITENT     AND CITILD WELFASE.

        A famity with two children aged 4 and 12 years had lived very
      comfortably while ihe father was earning between $37 and $40 a
      week. They were buyrng a home, the mother helping by taking
      Iodgers or boarders. But with the closing of the plant which em-
      ployed the father and the lodgers the sourcesof income were cut ofi.
      During the eight and a half months since the shutdown the father's
      earningsby casual employment have amounted to about $600, and
      meetiag the payments on the house is a very difficult matter. The
      mother now does "rvork by the day" for the first time in her life,
      and an aunt, cares for the children while she is arvay from home.
      The family can afrord no recreation of any kind, and they are badly
      in need of clothes.
        In July, 1921,the father of a family in which there are tlro children,
      now 7 and 9 years of age, rvaslaid off, and the mother-a registered
      nurse-went to work in a sanitarium. Atter three weeks she had
      to give up this employment, becausea full day's work of 12 hours
      was demandedof her, and she could not give so much time without
      neglecting her home and children. The father N'as caring for the
      house and the children, but he becameill, and the mother took up
      crochetingbabies'booteesat $1.10per dozenpairs, and could earn
      on an average only $5.50 a month. She was not very strong and
      had beenill in bed the previous summer, though she kept on crochet-
      ing all the time. The total earnings of the father and mother during
      the seven months of unemplo;,'menthad been only $129.50. The
      father is non' emploved, but is earning only $15 at unfamiliar work
      as against the $25 n-hich he earned at his regular emplo;'ment.
          In one familS' visited there are five children, a baby born less than
       a month ago, and four children 1, 3, 7, and 14 years of age. The
       father, 41 yearsold, and the mother, 35, are both native born. The
       father earned 928 a week as janitor-guard in a foundry, but since
       he lost that employment in October, 1920,he has had only a little
       city work and a ferv odd jobs, amounting to about four weeks' work
       in all, for which he received an ayerageof $10 a week. When the
       father lost his job the mother got houseworkin a private family for
       six days a week and also worked half a day on Sunday cleaning a
       bakery. She continued to do this, earning$12 a week and her meals,
       until a week before the baby was born. She was cared for during
       confinoment by a visiting nurse. The l4-year-old girl had been
       kept out of school to care for the younger children while the mother
       was at work and the father was hunting employment. She is now
       at home working on a "home permit" from the school attendance
       office. She is in the eighth grade, but she has lost about half the
       present term. The father says he is sorry she has been kept out of
       school, as he might as well have stayed at home himself-he had
      'wasted his time lookinq for rvork.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                      THE   FAMILIES   OF TIIE   UNEMPLOYED.              51
          The family lives in a dilapidated four-room frame cottage located
      behind other buildings, so that the only entrance is through an alley
      or between the housesrvhich face on the street. They have lived
      here three years,and the rent has beenraisedfrom $10 to $12 a month
      since the father's unemplor,'ment. The floors are bare and the rooms
      are very scantily furnished, but everything is neat and clean. The
      kitchen stove furnishes the onl;' heat. fn order to save electric
      light bills kerosenelamps are used except when one of the family
      "gets excited over reading" and the lamplight, is too poor to seeby.
          A relief society gave the family grocery orders during the time
      the mother was unable to rvork before and after her confinement.
      The father now has temporary city work: if he is able to keep this or to
      get ot'her steady rvork the mother rvill stay at, home. The total
      amount of charitable aid the family has receivedduring the father's
      unemploymentamounts to $75. They were compelledto give up the
      li,fe insurance held by the mother, father, and children, the loss
      amounting to about $20 in all. The mother has a horror of debts
      and will not allorv anything to be bought on credit, and they have
      contracted no debts except the doctor's bill for the mother's recent,
      confinement. If they have no money they have no food. They
      have been getting no milk and only cheap food-and little of that.
          The father has had blood poisoning since he lost his job, the
      3-year-old girl fell and cut her face and eye ri'hile the mother was at
      work, and the year-old child has had a crushed hand. The family
      has had fewer comforts than ever before and nothing but the abso-
      lute essentiaLs. Practically all their clothes have been made over
      from articles given the mother by the people for whom she worked.
         One mother expressedsurprise at the very little that her family
      of four could get along on. Except in the very coldestweather the
      fire in the cook stove has to suffce to heat aii their six rooms. This
      means that the family practically lives in the kitchen. The piano
      and then the parlor furniture were sold for half of what they cost,.
      Insurance payments were stopped, and this meant the loss oi most
      of what had beenpaid in. rn spite of thesesacrifcesand the $132.b0
      earned by the mother, who had done her best to help, the family
      owes$167. Sincethe children are 1 and.B years of age,and the elder
      has some fom of seizures, the father has to give up his hunt for
      employment in order to care for them when the mother soes out,
        During the year preceding uasmploJrment one father estimated
      that his income was 92,600,and when he was laid. ofi he was getting
      $60 per week. The family was in very comfortable circumstances
      and would have saved a considerableamount had it not been for the
      fact that the older of the two children, a girl 2 years of age, had been

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       52             uNEMpLoyrrENTAND crrrr.D WELTARE.

       under the care of an orlhopedic specialistsince birth, on account of
       a weak spine. Tbe father says that no expensewas spared, and
       they r,vere always hoping that, something could be done for the
       chiid. In this case & comJortable income was cut ofr very suddenly,
       and the father has had only four months' work during the past
       year. The mother is now doing work by the day five days a week.
       It is evident that this hurts the father, because is not accustomed
       to hard work and has never gone out before. The family has found
       it cheaper to send the crippled child to a hospital, where the charges
       are made as low as possibie ($7 a week) and where the bili can run as
       Iong as necessary. Feeding the child and paying the specialist
       cost a great deal more than $7 a week. The baby is taken to a day
       numery every morning that the mother goesout to rvork. The father
       feels that the home has been completely broken up since his unerir-
       ployment. The little savings have long since been eaten up, and
       the fs.mily is deep in debt. Even if the father gets work soon he will
       not, be out of debt for years.
          Just when a sheet-metal rvorker-a man of 56 years-was put on
       half-time, his landlord announced a substantial increase in his rent.
       To meet this difficulty, he bought, the house-a three-flat tenement-
       investing in the equity $1,000 which constituted ali his savings.
       Since that time the two rented flats have brought in steadily $64 a
       month. Of this, $40 has had to be used for the interest on the
       mortgage, leaving only $24 a month for taxes, water rent, repairs,
       and the payments to the real estate agent on the remaining $1,500
       purchase price of the house. The arrangement means, at any rate,
       that the family is not pa5ring   rent.
          The father's total earningsin the 17 months since he was first put
       on half-time haye been onlr- g492, and for 4 months he has blen
       entirely out of employment. The city work he found too hard.
       The three children are going to school; the eldest-a girl of 17-is in
       high school. The mother has attempted to help the financial situa-
       tion by making bungalolr aprons, but finds that the most she can
       earn in the time left a{ter she has done her regular housework and
       the family sewing is 72 cents a week.
          If the father's unemployment,continues much longer, it is difficult
       to seehow trhisfa,mily, whosehome though plain is exceptionally neat,
       can fail to lose their equity in the house, which representsthe savirgs
       of a lifetime; and the ambitions of the parents for the better educa-
       tion of their children can not be fulfilled.
         About two years ago a Polish father invested his savings in the
       purchaseof a store. He did not make & success the enterprise,
       and most of the money was lost. He had a few months of employ-
       ment as a sheet-metal worker and then lost his job, and he has been

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                               TIIE      FA},IILIES   OF TITE   UNDMPI,OYED.                     53
     out of steady work for ov€r a year and il half, getting a little work
     during this period at repairing and plumbing. To keep the family
     from actual want, the mother has done rrork by the day, earning
     an ayerageof $6.50 a week for something over a year. Whjle sheis
     at work, the iittle 3-year-oldgirl stays at a friend's house,and before
     the mother leaves home in the morning she sets out the lunch for the
     three childrer 6, L2, and 13 years of age,who go to school.
        Their troubles have been complicatedby ill health, for the mother
     is worn out and sick, though she will not call in a doctor becauseshe
     says they can not afford one. Within the year the eldest child has
     had an operation for glandular trouble and also an attack of grippe;
     the secondchild has been anemic ev-ersince she had scarlet,fever nine
     years ago. The relief society helped in arranging for the operation,
     and has given aid during the two winters to the extent of $339.22.
     The father is now working temporarily for the city at 912 a weck.
     The family seemsto be doing its best to keep up self-respect,            and the
     home, though plain and somewhat scantily furnished, is clean, r,r'eil-
     Iighted, and well-ventilated, and is in a good neighborhood.
        One father lost his job at Thanksgiving time in 1920. During the
     13 months since then, he has 'worked a few weeks for the city and
     perhaps five weeks altogether at his old job at a factory, earning a
     total of $204. This has been entirely inadequate for the main-
     tenance of the family of seven. Since there were no savings to fall
     back on, the family had no resourceexcept to go into debt. They
     now owe a total of $345.32,as follorvs:
          Grocer--..--.                                    . - - . . . . .$ 3 2 . 0 0
          Butcher--.- -    -                                                            23.00
          Baker-.--.---.                                                                50.00
          Coaldeaier-.-                                               -.(lastwinter)--' 1'1.75
          C o a lh o m c i t y . - - .                          .. -. --..(this year).. 31.87
          Landlord-.--.                                                       .---.--- 182.00
          Commissary-        -                                                          14.70
       The mother, in order to help, goes out ironing one day a week,
     making 75 cents or $1. On the day of the visit made b;,-the bureau's
     agent,the 14-year-old girl was staying au'ay from school Coing the
     family il6ning and waiting on the father, who was not feeling well.
     She formerly earned a little money caring for children after school
     hours, but soon after the beginning of the industrial depressionshe
     lost her job becausethe neighbors could not afford to pay for that
     sort of service.
       The 16-year-old daughter left school two years ago, when in the
     seventhgrade,but did not try to find work until last fall. The school
     authorities insisted that she attend the continuation school, so she
     rvent to Chicagoto work. The family doesnot seem to know much
     about what she is doing, except that she is in a factory. So far. she
     has sent no money houre.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        54                            UNEMPLOYMENT                            AND        CHILD               WELFARE.

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                                                   TEE      FAIIILIES             OF TIIE                 UN}]MPLOYED.                                                                                         55
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Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                                                                                                                          CHILD   WELITARE.
         56                                                  UI{E}IPLOYf,IE\T,\ND



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Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                           IIIE   TA}{II-II.]S   OF TI{E    I]NF]}IPLOYI]D.                      ot
                            EMPLOY1VIENT         OF   THE     CIIILDREN.     I'

     Family income from children's earnings.
        In the discussionof the family's resourcescluring the unemrlor--
     ment period it rvas pointed out that in 75 farnilies children uncler.18
     years of age had aided in the support of the family r;hile the father
     rvasout of work. The arnount,earned by the children l-as report,ed
     for 46 of these families; in 20 families they ealneClcss tlian 5100;
     in ll familiesthey earnedfrom 9100to $199:in.1fr-oin$200to $299;
     in 3 from $300to $399:in 1, g455;in 1, g550:in B from $600to $699:
     and in 3 from $700 to S799. In 3 of the'families in rvhich the
     childlen's earnings amounted to $600 or mor.e, 2 children ryele at
       Attention has been called to the fact that the children's eai.ninss
     were a, source of maintenanceduring the father's unemplovrnent iu
     27 of t'he 136 families for which complete reports rvere obtained.
     In 10 of these27 families less than 1b per ceni of the maintenrnce
     came from the children's earnings. In 9 families the chiidren,s
     earningsmade up from 15 to 3g per cent, in 6 from .10to 6g per cenb,
     and in 2 families72 and86 per cent,respectivelr'. the entu'tinrnount
     usedby the family.
      Number of children employed.
        Of the 148 children 14 to 17 years of age, inclusive, in the :,166
     families included in the study, 45 had been regrlarly ernployed at
     some time during the father's unemploynent. At the time cf tire
     agent'svisit, however, only 32 children x'ere rvorking. In aticlition
     to the 45 children-in 41 families-n'ho rrere regularlr employeci,
     there were 42 children-in 34 families-rvho made some contribulion
     toward the family's support by working after sehool,on Saturcral-,
     or during vacations.
       Twenty-two of the 45 children who had worked on regular permits
     during the father's unemployment left school to go to worli during
     the unemployment period, 21 started to v-ork before the father losi
     his job, and for 2 it was not reported whether the children nent
     to work before or after that time. rn addition io these there .*.ei.e
     4 children who rvorked before the father's unemployment but not
     after, making a total of .1gchildren who had been emploved ai s.me
    Ages of working children.
      of the 21 children who went to work before the father's unempl;y-
    ment, 17 were boys and 4 rvere girls. Three of these nere 15, g
    were 16, and 10 were 17 years of age when they left schoolanclbegan
    working. Apparently it was easier for girls to find work clurins ihe
    q0 "Cbild Laborin an Unemployment Perioi', and.'CLild
                                                            Laborin Springfleld,,'pp. 1l5t 120.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        58                   uNElrPLoYrlENT AND cHrLIl WELFARE.

        unemployrncnt period than it was for boys, since only-S of Llne 22
        who rtaited to ivork aftcr the father lost his job rvere boys and 14
        were girls. A larger proportion of these children rn'ereof the lowest
                                                             'lvho rvent to work
        ug.-tO were 15 years of ug., ut against 3 of those
        *Ihilu th" father ivas employed; 8 rn.ere16 and 4 wete 17 years old.
           The following list shon's the ages of the troys and girls_ who began
        work before an? of those who went to work after the father's unem/'
        ployment (for tx,o l7-year-old boys tlie time of beginning work rvas
        not reported):                                  Began s'ork     Began work
              Ages of                                  befoie frthor's during fathcr's
             chilfuen.                                ucmplo)men t. unemPlolment.



                  1 5 -- - - -                                                      5
                  1 6 -- - - -                                    I
                                                                  3                 4       p
          Duing the time the fathers were out of rvork 47 children passed
                                                      'went to rvork'
        their foriteenth birthdays; only one of these
        Grades completed by children who went to work.
          A comparisonof the gradescompletedby the children who rvorked
        before the father's une-ployrn"ot begun and those who left school
        and went, to rvork subsequently is of interest in this connection.
        The grade completed bi' fhe 21 children rvho N-ent to rvork before
        the father's unemployrnentis shorvnin tho follon-inglist:
              School grade                                                Nrmber of
              ";;;pi;fed-                                                  children^'-
                   Total.-                                            -."-"'       2L

              Fourth.                                                               1
              Eishth-                                                              ll
              First year high school.                                                4
              Not reported-.                                                          I   w
           The gradescompletedby the 22 children who left school and went
        tro worl for the first time during the father's unemployment are
        listed below:
                                                                          Ntrmber of
              school grade
              "i""i"t?tiOl                                                 chitdren.      tt:
                         Total--..                                                 22


              First year high school-        ..
                                           ....l                                     1
              Second year high school- -
              Not rePorted.                                                          5    or.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                               TTIE FAMILIES OIT TI{D TI\trXTPLOYED.                   59

         The high educrrtionalrequirementsfor employment certificatesin
       the States in rvhich these two cities are located are reflected in the
       rrboyefigures on the gradescompleted.
         Thc length of tirne the 45 children rvho rr.olked during the father's
       unemplolnnenthad been out of sr:hoolis sho*'n in the follorving list:
          :Tine    since leaying school.                                  children.-
                     Total                                               ._   4i)

           Lessthan 6 months--- - - -                                     -
           G-11months.                                                        t0
           12-17months-                                                           D
           18-23 months-                                                      11
           24-29 months-                                                       1
           36 months and over-                                                 D
           Time not reported-- - - -.                                          8
        The occupations of the 4b children n'ho had been regularly em-
      ployed at some time during the father's u.employment aie shorvnin
      the list below:
           Occupation.                                          BoIS.    Cirls.
                Total                                              2r-        18
           Factory worker.                                         t1         7
           Clericalworker-..-. - -. - -.                            I         3
           Errand boy- - -
           Telephone operator                                                 ;
           C l e r ki n s t o r e- . . . - - . . .
                                 .                                  I         1
           Ilachinist's apprentice. - - -
           Apprentice in garage-                                    I
           Telegraphmessenger.---.                                  i
           Laundrv operative -
           Sewing in store
           Printing.-----.                                          1
           Not reported-.                                           B
          x'our of the 45 children rrho u'orked during the father's unemploy-
 ,e   hrent earned lcss than $5 a week; 15 r'eceivedbetween $5 and $1b;
      17 between 910 ancl $15; and 5 earnecl 915 or over. For4 children
      the wage was not repolted. The children earning less than g5 a
      \l-eek were 2 boys of 15 and 16 years and 2 girls of the same ages.
               majority of the 42 children *-orking during vacation oi after
      school worked for short periods or on an ayerage of about one clay a
      rveek and the amounts earned were necessarilv sma1l. seventeen sold
      papers; their earnings were reported as from 25 cents to $4.50 a week.
      The other 25 children rvorked in facto'ies, on truck farms. in stores.
      or in private families as domestic servants or nurse girls.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
        60                   uNEx[PLoY]tllNT          AND oHILD IMELIARE.

          'Ihe {acts in regarrl to the employment of c}riltlren rre of special sig-
        nificancein relation to the inclustrial conditions that prevailed during
        the unemploj,nent periocl. The question arises as to whether the
        children may not have been given work that was neededby adult
        men and $'omen tvho rvereunable to secureemployment'
                                         SAVINGS EXHAUSTED.I'

           The previous econornic  status of the farniliesincluded in the stucly,
        as weli as thc charactel'of the fathels as \-orkmen atternpting to pro-
        vide not only for the present but for the future needsof their u-ives
        ancl children, is indictrted by the fact that 43 per cent hacl accurnu-
        latecl savingsrvhich helped to tide them over the tirne of unemploy-
        ment. i\rnong the farnilies giving comploteinformation iu legarcl to
        the sourcesof Laintenance during unemployment, and x'}io lepc,rted
        the use of savings,46 per cent had suppliecltri.o-fiJt'hs more of their
        liring by thi,* ^"ntr.. The    majority of the families ha,tl cxhausted
        their:sai-ings before the tinre of the inquiry. The effect upl)n the
        farnilies of Ioss of savingscombinedl.ith the acquisition of a load of
        debts or ri.ith the necessityof seekingcharitable aid is obvious.
        Amount of savings.
          A total of $51,635 savings           reportedas having beenspent by
        158families   n-hile the father rvasunemployed' In Racine 97 families
        hacl userlup sarings amounting to $32,322,and in Springfield,where
        thc loss of ii-olk had beenlessserious,61 families had spent a total of
        $19,313of savings. The averageamount of savingsused per famiiy
        in Racine l'as $333 and in Springfield $316'
           The amount of savingsthat rvereused up rvhile the father was out
        of rvork priol to the time of the agents'visits to the families is
        shoivnin the follorving list, for the two cities combined:
                    spent r*emploruent.
               savirss durins                                         T;ifr1":U:11#S
                       Totai ntrmbel of families reporting savings.             158

               l,essthan$100.----.--,"                                      "   n
               $100,lessthan $200---  -
               $200,icssthan $300-..                                            22
                    iesstiran $40tJ...
               $i300,                 -                                         2I
               $400.lessthan $500.                                              1l
               $500,lessthan $600..,                                             9
               $600,lessthan $700.. --.                                          7
                                                                                 8      li
               $700,Iessthan $800--.
               $800,lessthan $900- -.
                                    -.                                           2      $
               $1,000, than $1,100.                                              6      o]
               51,200,lessthan $1,300.                                           2      tl
               $2,000,and over. - -                                                 D
               Amount not reported--                                            26
          It See'Itble I (p.31), aDd Appendix A, Table 19.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                     ?TIE FAMILII]S OF' THE UNEI[PLOY!]I].                6T

     Charitable aid in relation fo*mrings.
       The information regaidffihe          relation between savings and
     charitable aid furnishes an especially significant indication of the
     straits into "rvhichunemployment forced these families, and of the
     character of the families. fn Racine 49 of the 141 families that hacl
     rcceived aid had been tided over a part cif thc time by sarings
     reported as ranging from $45 to more than 92,000. In Springfield
     18 of the 50 familieSgiven aid had used savings amounting to from
     $30 to $800. The effect of the longer and more general unemploy-
     ment problem in the former city is here evidcnt.
       One of the most dishearteningfacts brought out in the study is
     that 42 per cent, of the 158 families reporting savings at, the time
     the father ll'as throrvn out, of u.-ork harl been compelleclto -"eck
     charitable aid. ,\nd in this connection it rriust bc rememberedthat
     the families l-ere still suffering from unelnpiorment. ancl manv of
     thosewho had not asked for relief might have to appl.vfor it before
     the father rvas again regularly at rvork.
     Loss of homes.
       The agents making the study reported that many of the families
     who had bought their homesduring the time of the post-rvarindustrial
     prosperit; or eyen earlier, making monthly par ments on the interest
     and principal of the mortgage,were now facing thc loss of the homes
     and of the money invested. That the mortgagcs had not alrcadv
     been foreclosedappeared to be due, in some case,q, the fact tliat
     there rvas no market for real estate duling the timc of depression,
     and the high pricesfor which the houseshad been sold to the orvners
     made it more desirableto let the salesstand than to foreclose, even
     though the payments lapsed for s,lme months. But at the time of
     the study a considerablennmber of families l.erc daily erpecting
     that the loss of the home rvould be aclclecl their other haldships,
     and that the money they had already prrid in rvoulclbe forfeited.
     Families who had used up their savings.
       Stories of indirridual families rrill give a clearericlen, thc serious-
     nessof the loss of savings than can be gainetl from statistical data.
        One famiiy had economizedand saved for )'eals, denying them-
     selvesmany of the comforts and ali of the luxuries of life. They
     had never gone to movies or spent money for any kind of recreation.
     I\4ren the father lost his job a year ago, the mother said that the
     only thing left to cut dorvn on was food, and this has bcen done to
     the limit. The family used to take 2 or 3 cluarts of milk a day, but
     now they get 1 quart c.rfwhole milk and 1 of skim milk. This has to
     sufficefor the four children, whose agesare 1, 6, 7, and g years.

Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university
        62             uNEl\{pLoyMENT    Al{D cHILD   \\'ELFARE.

           The father was a coremaker at Hhgiqplement factory. Though
        he had been employed steadily, he fiiifl*it impossibleto get ahead,
        for all the money saved n as paid out-in doctor's bills for a crippled
        daughter. Three years ago the {amilr' decided to buy a house "on
        contract." They chose one in a respectableresidential neighbor-
        hood, a two-story 7-room flame horise,t'ith inside toilet and electric
                                                                 had paid $1,260
        Iights. In addition to the inititil prryment thc famil-l'-
        in monthly installments u.hen the depressioncamc. Nou' they feel
        they can not continue to pay the $35 a month, nor afiord the upkeep
        of solarge a house,so they are offeringit for saleor in trade for another
        on which the payments will be lower.
           The father u'orked irregularl;- at his old job for trvo months dur-
        ing the past \-earr and also four rveeksfor the city. His earnings
        and the board paid by his brother, who lives with them, make a
        cashincome of $460for the year. The famil1' owes$100fnr groceries
        at a local store and $112 to the commissary run by the father's
        former employers. The relief associatiou    has furnished $26 wortii of
        coal and groceries,and the church htis given money for fuel, clothing,
        and food. The father says that the famil5rcould not have managed
        at all without this assistance. All irnurance policies have been
        dropped, becausethe payments could not be kept up.
          The father of an exceptionaliy industrious and ambitious Ukranian          I
        family is a pleasant appearing man of about 50 years, a blacksmith           I
        by trade, capable of earniug an aYerageof $175 per month. The                (
        mother, 40 years old, has been laid up for five months with a sore           C
        knee. The doctor says the cartilage is loose. She is in such pain            t
        that she can not sleep. The father-and the children have been doing          t
        the housework,and a neighbor comesin to bake bread.                          +
          There are five children, the oldest of v-hom, a girl of 16 years, is
        in Chicagotaking nurse'straining. The others are 4,7,11, and 14              p
        years of age.                                                                $
          ffis fsmily is buying the house in rvhich it is living. This is a          fr
        two-story frame building, which the famil5- remodeled,painted out-           &
        side and in, papered, and wired for electricitl- just before the father      tl
        lost his employment. The parlor, shut off for the winter, had been          'el
        newly furnished, but the rest of the furniture was old, though in            ir
        good condition. The living room \vas'crol-ded witli furniture,               t(
        includi"g a bed in the corner. It was overheated by a small, rusty           rl
        coal stove. The washing was hung on the chairs to dry.                       sl
          The mother says that during the first years of their married life          fa
        they despaired of ever getting ahead. Though the fatherrvas mak-
        ing fairly good wages, their expensesincreased as the children came
        and they could do no more than break even at the errd of the year.          hr
        The mother planned carefully and bought for cash' trading v{ere             TT:
        she could get the most for her money. A,fter the last child was             AI

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                      THIi) FAI,TII.IES   OF THE   UNEMPLOYED.              63
        born, the mother decicledto help out, ancl for two vears she lr-orked
        in a cracker factorv. rn this way they managedto save s1,500dur-
        ing the two years, and this thev invested in the stock of a municipal-
        servicecorporation. The following year thev sterteclbufing a hoirse,
        bo'rowing $500 from the bank for the initial payment. ihe place
        was in bad condition, and the father used all his surprus,even going
        into debt, to have it repaired. The consequence     o'u. th"t wtren ttre
        father lost his job 13 months ago he had rrothing on hand. rn order
        not to have to seIL stock, he applied to the citSrand to the relief
        association for a loan until work started up again. The loan r,vas
        refused,and he was advised to seil his stock. This he did, and after
        pa)nng $500 to the bank, his 1920 taxes, and the various bills for
        repairshe had $435 of his g1,500investment left for living expenses.
        This was used for food only. The father has ear'ecl onlv $g8.12
        since he lost his job, and the secondfloor, which rented flr $25 a
       month, has been vacant for five months. when the savings were
       gone, they rvere unable to get credit and the-v had to ask f"or help
       from the relief association. The mother wept at the thought that
       the earnings of those two hard years were gonewith nothinglo show
       for them.
          The mother has cut down experlsesas much as possible. she
       takes 1 quart of dk        day instead of 2, though the children beg for
       milk on their oatmeal. She gets no meab eicept the B po,rnd, u
       week with the cornmissary orders. Thev live chiefly on bread,
       cofree,potatoes, and cereals. The most urgent rreed at present is
       clothjng-the children's underrvear is thin atrd .,vo"n, ancl ihe oldest
       boy has no waists for school. The teachersare urging the mother
       to send the youngest boy to school,but he has nothing to wear but
       thin cotton suits.
          The situation seemsto be getting more difficult eyery day. The
      parents gaye up insurance policies the premiums of rvhich came to
      $5 a month, and the surre'der value of these 'r,as applied on the
      future paJ,'ments remaini'g policies. They are five months in
      arrears for payme'ts o' the house, $1b0 interest is due, a'cl also .
      the 1921 taxes of $105.93. Altogether ther- owe $BBg.Zb. The
    ' electricity has been cut ofi, because
                                               of a $5.30 bill. The daughter
      in chicago is badl-u- leed of cl.thing, but tire mother has nolhing
      to sendher. The mother refuses,ho'ever, to allow the girl to <trof
      the nurse's trai.ing course and go to v-ork, since in one-more year
      she will be able to earn at least g2s a rveek. Both the mother ancl
      father are rrer)- proud of her.
       one father came from Armenia io America 11 years ago, full of ,
     hope that he rvoulclmake money and soon be abie to seid for his
     wife and baby, rvhomhe had left behind. He was a commonlaborer,
     and becausehe was willing and industrious he easily found work.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        64              LINENTPLoYI\IIINT UHILD wl'lLl'A-RE'

       He $-orkedharcl anclsteaclilv,lir-ingas cheaply as possibie,        antl meas-
       uring his income not by his earnings but by rvhat he was          able to save.
       Aftei he had been in Anerica only a feu' montlis he received the
       newsof the birth of his secondchild. Be{orelong ihere cameIumoIS
       of Armenian massacres,       and rvord of the desperateneed of his orvrt
       family and of other relatives. He seni them as much money as
       porribl", ancl still continued to lay asiric rt,small amount monthl-v
       *ith *.hi.h to bring his family over. By January 1, 1920,the father
       had rnanagedto save $1,950' so he quit his job &nd rvent back to
       Armenia,. He found his friends trnd relatives on the point of starva-
        tion, so he kept only just enough of his moneY to bring to Arnerica'
     * himself, his rvi{e, uo.l-orr" chilcl, and gaYe a.wa}-     the lest. I.Ic could
        not affortl to bring  the secontlcliilcl, -.ole{t her $'ith his uncle. \{hen
        the famih, landed at, Ellis Islancl ther- had just $100 left, rr-hichwas
        spent for railroad fare to the city $-hel'e had been emplol'ecl. The
        father, however,rvas     not r.orriecl, for he $-as confitlent he I'ould get
        his old job baci. Whcn thev arriyecl there'the factory rvhere he
        had formeriy worked had been shut dorvn, and there was no tt'ork
        rvhatever to be found. His immediate need of \\'ork and money
        was the more pressing,becausehis wife gave birth to their third child
        two days after they reachedthe city'
            The father has iralked the streets in vain to find worh and has

         calied daily 36 the employment ofrce, yet in the year sincehis return
         to America he has eainerl only $142.80. He was not known in the                     I

         neighborhood, was able to obtain crerlit onlv to the extent of $25.
                          so                                                             :
         \fh1n this was exhausted he turned to his "partner," from rrhom                 I

         he has borrorveda little at a time until he now owes $500, and this             I
         Iriend can lend hirn no more.
            The familv is living in one of a low of small fi'ame housesbuilt             t
         flush with tLe siclewalk, and rrith narrou- passages          bcLu'eenthem.     I
         The interior    contains onlv the most necessaryarticles of furniture,
                               clean. They live yeIJ/ meagerlY,using very little         (
         but it is spotLessly
         meat, no    ?ruit, no cakes, ancl they are buyi'g no milk, though the
         mother realizesthat she should have it, for the baby. She h:rs had
         no ne\s clothes sinee she left Armenia. The mothel demandsvery '
         Iittle-savs she only $,a,ntsa crust of bread and that just to be safe
         in America is heaven.                                                           f
            A Po1ishfarnily after 10 years of hard rvork and strict economy
         has managed to pay off the mortgage on a home. _Although the
          neighbolhood is not very clesirable,the house is rvell buili and is
          located on a good-sized    corner lot, netrtlS'fenced     in. The furnace,
          electric lights, and  gas range rvith rvhich i,he house is equipperi, as
          well as the inside toilet, were added by the family and have also
          been paid for, in spite of the fact that there are six cirildren. The
          oldest boy, 19 years of age,has beenin the Navy for three years and

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                           rEE    FAMILIES       OTTTTTE UNEMPLOYED.    65
      has not given much help financially. The other five children range
      from 4 to 16 years.
         Tfhen the father was iaid ofr over ].1 months aEo the family was
      free from debt and had a small savings account of-a hundred dollars
      or so. He has worked very little since then-one week for the city
      and two days a week for a couple of months weeding onions on a
      farm. The mother, well accustomed planning carefully and living
      cheaply,made what money they had last as long as possible. '[\'lien
      it was gone she obtained credit at the local stores to the extent of
      about 945, when she was told she could not have more. She then
      was obliged to apply for charity. The relief society sent groceries
      and fuel worth $33.76, and the ll,ed Cross helpeclfor two months.
      However, the assistance  gir-enwas not adequate,and neither organi-
      zation rvanted to help them becauseihey orvnedtheir house. ',Can
      I eat the house?" said the mother sarcastically. " People v'ho rent,
      are better off." She says no one wants to rent the upstairs rooms
      because family has so many children. The mother is very birter
      about present conditions. The family is behind on insurance pay-
      ments to the extent of $55.73.

        A Bohemian family, father 45 years old and mother 48, by years
     of economizing had managed to raise a family of eight children-
     the oldest 21 and the youngest I year of age-and in addition to save
     enough to buy a house. At the time the father was laid ofi in
     August, 1920,the housewas clear of debt, and the family had $1,000
     in the bank. The three eldest children had worked and had done
     their share toward putting the family on its feet. The father and
     the oldest two boys all lost their jobs about,the same time. One of
     the boys was on a strike and received$8 a week strike benefit from
     the union. During the past 17 months the father has worked aborit
     6 weeks, earning a total of $103. The lS-year-old daughter is the
     only one who has had steady lvork, and she has turned every cent
     of her $70 a month over to the family.
       At the time of the agent's visit the father had just drawn the last
     of the savingsfrom the bank. The family has lived as economically
     as possible,but they have come to the end of their resources,   and the
     father feels that the only thing left to do is to sell the house. He is
     very unhappy about it, but it seemshis only alternative.
                                   THE BURDDN OF DEBT.l3

     Extent and forms of indebtedness.
        Of the 366 families 83 per cent (308) had incurred debts because
     of the father's loss of work, or were unable to continue payments for
     which they had obligated themselves rrhile the father was working.
      $Seo Table I (p. 31) and Appendix A, Table 19.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       66                   uNExIpk)\tlrENT   ,\ND LTIrILD 1\:!ir,l'ARri.

       In Racine the proportion rvashigher than in Springfield-9l per cent
       as against69 per cent. The lalgest number of families-240, or 66 per
       cent of the total visited-u'ere in debt for food supplies. The next
       largest proportion (43 per cent) were in arrears with rent or the
       periodic pa;rments on their homes. IIedical attendance had bur-
       dened with debt over a third of the families, and almost an equal
       number had been obliged to borrdrv money. The details as to the
       kinds of debt follow. The different groups include many of the same
       families. since four-fifths of the 303 families had debts of more than
       one kind.
                                                                            Per cent of 3C6
                                                                            families reDortins
                                                                       Num- debts incuired loi
            Kind of debt.                                              ber.    each object.
            Loans.-                                                   - -. 117        32
            Food.--                                                   .-.240          66
            Rent.--                                                         83        23
            Paymentson house,tr\es. interest                                75        Z0
            l{edical ettendance-                                 .. . -. - 127        35
            Fuel, gas,light---
            Insurancepremiums.--                                            55        15
            Furniture--- -                                                  33         I
            Repairs on horxe--                                              17         5
            Funeral expenses-                                                7         2
            \Ierchandise.                                                    5         I
            Other items -                                                   16         4
         A total of $81,629in debts rvas reported for the 303 families-an
                                     'I'wo hundred and ten families
       averageof $269per family.                                    in Racine
       had debts amounting to $70,423,or an ayerageof $335 per family,
       and 93 families in Springfield owed $11,206, an ayerageof $120per
         The amounts of indebtedness     are shown in the following list:
                                                                    Number of families
            ,{momt   oi debt.                                         reporting debts.
                     Total-.                                                 -.... 303
            Lessthan$100..-                                                      ..   85
            $100,lessthan $200..-                                                     69
            $200,lessihan $300-.--                                                    49
            $300,lessthan $400.--                                                     29
            $400,lessthan $500--.                                                     2L
            $500,lessthan 5600--.                                                     16
            $600,lessthan $700-..                                                      3
            5700,lessthan 3800..-                                                      8
            $800,lessthan $9C0-.-                                                      3
            $900,lessthan $1,000-                                                      3
            $1,000,lessthan $2,000                                                     8
            $2,000and o\rer-" -                                                        2
            -\mount not reported-                                                      7
       Proportion of maintenance secured tbrough credit or loans.
         tr'rom only 106 of the families reporting the debts incurred was it
       possibleto securetrdequate information on the proportion of the total

Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university
                          TII]'    }-A}IILIES   OF THE   UNEI{PLOYDD,                67

     family resources during the unemployrnent of the {ather rvhich the
     debts represented. tr'or thesefamilies the figures are as follow-s:
                                                                        Nmher of
              Pcr cent oftotal family                                    lnrnilies
          resolucos repre,sentedby ttebts.                              repcrLing.
                  Total--.-.                                             -".10fi

                 t                                                             ,
          1 5 t o 3 9 - .- - - .                                               3S
          40to69------.                                                        34
          70 and over..-                                                         t
        More than two-fifths of thesefamilies derived over 40 per cent of
     their maintenance through credit or loans, nearly a tenth of the
     families had to incur debts for 70 per cent or more of their entire
     living expenses.
        The fathers in all the 303 families reporting thnt they had gone
     into debt in <.'rder provide the family's livelihood and also in the
     remaining 63 families not reporting debts, were still out of rcgular
     employment, and so long as this condition continued, and steady
     income through u'ageswas cut off, the burden'of debt r.vouldkeep
     on piling up.
     The cost of eash loans.
        A number of the families visited had secured loans for small
     amounts from a compa,nyharing branches in yarious parts of the
     country. Its method of lending was yery attractive, in that money
     could be securedquite readily, and the borrower, in dire need of the
     funds, did not figure on the total cost in interest and penalties. On
     its face, the plan seemedto iend money at 6 per cent interest. The
     usual a,mount borrowed was 9100, and separate loans v-ere made
     for each $100. To secure a loan two guarantors, or "comakerstt
     had to sign the note and they became equally iiable rvith the bor-
     rower for repaSrment. Men who had securedloans statecl that they
     sometimeshad to wait as long as tu'o weeks for an answer as to
     rvhetherthe loan was to be granted.
        The borrower was given $94 for everv $100 for which a n,;te rvas
     given-that is, 6 per cent interest for a year \yas deducted at once,
     and borrowers were told they were getting the nonev at 6 per cent.
     Beginning with the Saturday a^fterthe loan rvasrntide, rhe borrower
     was required to make weekly pavments of $2 for ever.y 9100 bor-
     rowed. The payments thus extended orrer a period of 50 weeks.
     If any payrrent due was not made by the time the office closed at
     noon on Saturday, a fine of 5 cents on everv doilar due rvas added,
     and an additional 5 cents was added for each doilar for every r,veek
     it remained unpaid. An additional charge of 50 cents rvas made in
     casethe borrower lost the little coupon book in which pay'mentsrvere
     receipted. Usually loans were not allorved to rrn more than two
     weokswithout payment. By this plan the borrower at no time had

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       68             UNEMPI,OYMENT     AND CHII,D WELFARE,

       the use of the {ull $100. He had the use of the $94 for only one week
       or less,and then the loan rvasreduced at the rate of $2 a week, until
       at tho end of the forty-ninth week the borrower had the use of only
       $2, although he had paid in advance6 per cent interest on $100for a
          It is obvious that this method of securing morey to tide over
       emergenciesbecame a serious drain on the weekl5rresourcesof the
       family during a time when the income was yery uncertain. ft was
       used, apparentlv, not to help out on the current living expenses   of
       the family, but to satisfv requirementsfor the outlay of a consider-
       able sum that had to be met somehowat once,even though the con-
       tinuing payments on the loan meant the depletion of the already
       Families who had mortgaged the future.
         A ferv examplesof families who had becomeheavily burdened by
       debts will serveto illustrate the situation in rvhich a large proportion
       of families found themselvesafter the father had been out of work
       for a few months.

          An Italian family consisting of father, mother, and four children
       ranging from 2 to 10 years of age,is heavily in debt. The father is
       42 years old, and has been in the United States 10 years. He has
       recentlS' passed the examination for his citizenship papers but can
       not, afford the $4 necessaryto obtain them. He is a laborer and a
       steady worker and eager to get ahead. In 1920 he earned in the
       neighborhood of $2,000. Three yeals ago he began buying a six-
       room house on "Iand contract"-the monthly payment of $20
       covering interest on tho mortgage and a small payment on the
       principal. The house is comfortablyfurnished, having a good dining-
       room set and a victrola and a leather davenport in the parlor.
          The family had not been able to save, becausethe house was old
       and in need of repairs, they neededfur,niture, and the poor health
       of the mother had necessitatedlarge expenditures for doctors and
       medicine. As a result, the father rvas utterly unprepared for the
       Iong period of unemployment which carneupon him without warning
       in October, 1920. The family was favorably known in the neigh-
       borhood, so obtained credit and struggled along for over a year
       without asking public aid. The father's total earnings during 14
       months were $28, which he made at work for the city. To add to
       their difficulties the mother had to undergo a serious operation, the
       bills for which are still unpaid. Also, the father's brother died, and
       the father had to share in the funeral exp€nses. Since credit was
       cut off in November, 192t, the family has been receiving one grocery
       order a week from the city commissary, and also was given a Christt
       mas basket and some clothing by the relief association.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                             THE        ITA}TILIES         O1.' TTI]J U\}.]]IPL(JYI'T'}.            69

         The mother has cut dorrr living e\penses to tlie iirnit. She takes
      Iess milk, antl no rneat. fruit, or sl.eets. llhe mcals are practically
      all alike-bread, coffee, and spaghetti, or bread, coffcc, and beans.
      The ciriidren's outside clotliing is holding out pretty rr-eIl, but their
      underrvcrr, rvhich rras cheap to begin with, is torn. thin, and much
      patched. The da,v berfore the agent's visit a large amount of plaster
      ha,ri fallen from the dining-room ceiling, and the fathel has managed
      to buv "on trr.r-.t" the materials to repair it. The rooms need re-
      papering badly.     lire pavments on tire house are scyen months in
      &rrears, and tlie fatirer fears he rvill lose it.
           The familv no\{ oryes:
               Grocedes--.. -  -                                                           $400
               S h o e s--. . . . . .                                                        10
               Ciothing-..-                                                                  80
               D o c t o r ' s i l l -- . . - - -- - -
                             b                                                              TI4
               Ilospital bill- - -. -. - - - - - -                                           28
               Repairs to house-                                                            155
               LIncIe's     funeral.- - - -.. -                                              ll1)
               Pay'ments house-. -
                               on                    -..                                    I40
               Cash borrorred

                         Total----                                                         1.152
      To this must be added what thev orvethe city comrnissary.
         Both the mother ancl father arc nearly frantic rvith rvorry. The
      mother iras a gleat deal to do at home, ylt .hu has been waliring the
      streetslooking for l'ork. she broke dorvn and cried orer the situa-
      tion. The fatirer ligures tliat er-enif rvork begins ar onceit n'ill take
      him at least 10 years to get,out of debt. He dreadsthe time when he
      begins earning again, for. he rl.ill be lvorking for less pay, eyery one
      of his creditors will rvant to be paid im:nediately, and his fsrnily
      must live.
         ,\ family consisting of father, mother, and five children, ranging in
      age from 9 months to g years, occupiesfour small rooms on the
      secondfloor of a three-story frame building, above two stores. The
      halls are dingy and dirty, and the air vile with stale tobacco smoke
      and the odor from the toilets at,the head of the stairs. One bedroom
      w-hich opens off the diniag-room has no v-indow, and is just large
      enoughfor a double bed. The father, mother, and t*,o children sleep
      here. The rooms lvei'e or.cierlybut, not very clean. The furniture
      \\rasworn and shabb5r.
         The mother says she never had been in such neecl. They had
      never been able to save becausethey had so many children to feed
      and clothe, but, they had aln'aysbeen able to pay cashfor everything.
      The mother has a great fear of clebt, ancl of acceptingcharity. The
      father has been out of work for 10 months now, but has been caled
      back to his old job occasionally for a few weeks at, a time, so that he

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       70             uNEMpLoyl\[ENT    AND cFITLD wELFA-RE.

       has managed to earn about 9200. Except rvhen he had temporary
       work there was nothing to do but go in debt, for thc children had to
       eat,. The family owes 9300 for groceries,$15 for milk, $8 for gas,
       $70 borrowed {rom friends, 918 on a baby carriage which they bought
       just' before the father lost his job, and $33.80to the city commissary.
       In addition, they orve$80 for rent, and the landlord is becomingr,'ery
       disagreeable. "Landlord want to kick us out," tho mother says.
       "My man say 'You get me job, I pay rent.' I don't know u'hat he
       going do."
          The mother has always been economicalbul, nolr,-    has not even the
       necessities. She used to get 2 quarts of milk a day, norv gets only
       1. Shesaid she did not realizethey could get along on so little. The
       clothing rvas old and rvorn. The aid society has given $93 worth of
       groceries and milk and also considerable old clothing. IVhen the
       mother feeis badly about, accepting charity, the father, ryho came
       from Ital-v* 17 r-ears ago and took out his naturalization papers a,s
       soon as possible, tells her, " We good citizens. We help America.
       Norv Arnerica must help us."
          The father strained his back ryhiie rvorking last fall and rvas in a
       hospital in Chicagofor a number of weeksfor examination and treat-         i
       ment. He is better, but his back is still not very strong. The mother
       says he refuses to go to the aid society for their weekly grocery order    I
       and also refuses to care for the children while she does so. "IIy
       man no like kids-no like bother when they cry." Consequently,
       the 9-year-old girl is kept home half a day every w-eekwhile the
       mother goes after the groceries.
          A Polish father, a machinist 36 years of age,has been in the llnited    I
       States 20 years and was progressiveenough to take out his naturaliza-     n
       tion papers. His wife, an American-born woman, is 33 years old,           t
       and they have 5 children, 2 boys and 3 girls, ranging in age from 7       e
       months to 13 yea,rs. 'Ihey iive in a pretty little bungalow, most         c
       atiractive from the outside, shrubs around the house, a corner lot.       n
       The inside of the house presents a great contrast. Several of the         h
       rooms have been shut off for the winter. There are no r"ugson the         c
       floor, and the furniture is much battered and \yorn.                      h
          The father has been out of rvork for 16 months, with only one          t(
       month's work on a farm and four weeks' work for the city to help out      $r
       during that time. The total earningswere $85. The family has been
       buying the house. This has taken every cent over and above l'hat
       they neededjust to live on, so they had no savings to fall back on
       when the father lost his job. The last child u'as born after the
       father rvas laid off, rvhich meant an added expense,and two of the
       children have beeir ill enough to need a doctor. The famil-v is norv
       so deeply in debt, that the father doubts if he ever can get paid up
       again. AJter exhausting their credit with the local grocers and           ke

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                          THE FAMIIJES      OT' TEE   UNEMPIOYED.                77
      borrowing all thev courd from friends they
                                                 turned to the commissary
      run by the father's fgrmg emproyers,where
                                                   they have iluuo urro*"a
      to run up a large bill. The debts are &s follows:

       rn addition, there are &rrears for insurance on
                                                           the house and the
       father's life insurance,but the father can not ten just
                                                                   how much is
       due on them. The family has also had charitable
                                                               aid. ihe retief
       association has given groceries, milk, fuel, and clothing
       to $133.
          The mother now takes 2 quarts of milk daily instead
                                                                    of B. 1&ey
      are living on charity entirely_ at present. ?hey
                                                             have-meat only
      ''hen.the f-athergets-an odd job u.,d th.y can pay
                                                             cash for it. The
      electricitv has been shut off becausethe f;mily;"ir
      several 0f the rooms have been crosed to savl fuel.""t "n""Jit, uod
                                                               et ine tinoe ot
      the visit the father rvas neatly dressed,but the .n'a.."
                                                                  *""" praying
     around with scarcely any clothing on.
         The father of a family jT four children, 7,12,
                                                          lB, and 15 yeare of
     age,earned $2r a week as a laborer in a Lrickyu"a,'n"Ti"1te
                of his-unemplolanent he has earned.o"iy
     To"tl:                                               miOS. O*irrg thi"
     time the family income has'beensuppremented       by fia2."t"a uy tn"
     eldest boy a-ndby $41 receivedfrom the insurai";
                                                                         as tho
     cashvalue of a p-olicyon u'hich pa;,ments hud bu." "";;;;;
                                                           m"a" r""llo years,
    representing a loss
                            .ot mlO Do"iog the summer the mother had
    heiped the situation by taking the th"reeyounger children
                                                                 -- with her to
    connecticut, x'here she was able to         th"ii r,rppori. inu'ru-ily
    lives in a house owned.bythe brick;,a1d compa,ny
                                                          and are compelled
    to truy groceries,except bread, at the company
                                                           store. They owe
    t58.10 for rent and food.
        A. Hungarian family is living in a small one_story
        ^r 'urr5arra!   1a'uy rs 'v-tng rn    small                house, with
   garden space in the rear.          The louse is very damp_irost
                                                        damp-frosL on walls,
   doors, and floors, and the room supposed to be a kitchen
                                                            i, d;;;
            The,family-was obliged^to move here becauso
      ::u.                                                  unable to
                                        which J""t"i"itl'g"r,
      I l*.::l:^lfu) ir*-i1"*il;;J;## n"J#"##:,r3ll
   il"i"::lg:;i, gas, and an outside toilet.
          lights, no

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       72              UNEMPI,OYMENT    AND CIIILD   WELFAB'E.

           The parents have been in the llnited states 18 years. There are               t,

       five childrerr-two boys of 7 and 8 years and three girls of 10,-12,and            lt

       16. The father, u -old"", was laid ofi 14 months ago' Ho had but                  d
       $250saved and this was soonused up. He picked up what' odd                        h
       he could-painted three houses in return        for three months' rent,
       worked for ihe city-in f act did anything that would help the family          nt
       along. Since November, or for the last' two months, he has been               tl
       .*o"iing for $4 a dav five days a week, so the family is getting along        w
       better it present. Shortly after the father beganhis pre-sent he  job         ol
       cut his finger to the bone rvhile splitting wood and lost   three weeks'
       work. The mother dressedthe finger to avoid a doctor's bill' The              el
                                                                       'w'asem-      rt
        oldest girl works n'hen she can find anything to d9' She
        ployedln an ice cream parlor for several months, but was laid ofi           m
       iuri J,tty and could not find another job until November, when she           T1
        went out to do houservorkat $4 a rveek.                                     ra
           The mother has had difficulty in getting credit in the neighborhood.     hr
        "Butcher no want' give me meat. On Saturday give only 1 pound-              si:
        not enough for a big family." The landlord of their former house,           hc
        she said,tid not *unt th"- becauseof their race, and told them to           TI
        get,out. I coal man near by let the mother have a ton of coal' The          lie
        ilother had a small garden last, year. " Lady from associationsee           rh
        garden,say 'Got much fine garden-lots to eet.' But it is only green
        itoe-tfrui give me no bread or lard. I can't,eat only that with my          l,tI
        big family." The mother is in wretched health. Seven years ago              5l
        ,h-" rr"d io go out $'ashingevely day; now s:be scarcelyable to do
                                                          is                       TT
        her orvn horisework-has io rvash one day and hang out, the clothes         ch
         the next. The seconddaughter rvas ill and required the servicesof         in(
         a city nurse for two rveeks.                                              s0l
            The family has had charitable aid to the extent of $101.49and the      inr
         debtsamountto $187.60:                                                    fur
             I\feat and groceries                                   $93.00         nel
             B r e a d - . . .-                                      16.00         l-i
             Coal- - -                                                8. 75        pia
             clothes'                                                 5' oo
                                                                      6' 85
             Rent (former homc) .                                    45' 00        Pr(
             Dentist----                                              5'5o         itr
             Doctor.                                                  7' 50        lap
          An Armenian father came to America in 1909,worked hard, and
        saved about $3,000 so that he might bring his wiJe and child from
        Arrnenia. Iryhen he went after them in october, 1919, he found his
        wife and child and a few relatives the only survivors of a large family.
        He gave all the money he could to assist his relatives. Then he and
        his wife antl child came to America, bringing with them his sister's
                                                             'Ihe father began
        child. a girl of about 14 years, who is paralyzed.
        work at an implement factory as soon as he got back and was kept

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                      TITI] I'A}III,IES   O}' TI{E   I,I'NEMPLOYED.        73
     on lrntil 6 montlis ago. $hat little money he mighl, have been able
     to -q:rvr: spent in doctors' bills for his niece, taking her first to one
     d.ctor and then to another. tr'inally he asked the relief society to
     iielp him, and they are trying to get the girl into a hospital.
        The family lives on the second floor of a t.wo-story hoo." in bad
     repair, in a neighborhood of factories and railroads. ihe entrance to
     the-roomsis by a very dark halr and stairway. The home is fairly
     weii furnished, though not orderly. A second child is now e year
        since the father $'as laid off he has worked a week for the city and
      about a month ancl a half in another citv, where he repaired oriental
     rugs. He earned a total of $282. FIe"says that thev can live on
     much less food than Americans, and get along with canned goods.
     They buy less 'rilk and just half as much meJ as formerly. They
     ran up a $156 grocery bill, and then crrdit was cut off. They
     have borrowed $825 from relatives, owe $85 on furniture,
                                                                     $g6 for
     six months' rent, and $35 to his former employer_". The father has
     !1d to drop his insurance. Rerativesin Armenia beg him for money.
     The father has told them that he is hard up, but t-h.y          not be-
     lieve him. IIe hopes to be able to bo*ow a fer,r- "u' to send

      - -During tire past 10 months an rtalian fatrrer has earned $192 by
      lrrbor on the city sc\\,ers,and the only additional income has been
      Sl00 paid as damages when he was run over by an automobile.
      This last s.m met the ''ent for five months. since there are five
      childrer,-although the mother is but 28 years old-debts have been
      incurrecifor food, rent, and medical care. In an attempt to meet
      sorneof thc payments due, the father borrowed $200 on ptun which
      in-rolvesliigh interest and had the un-happy resuli of iosing him
      further work from the city government. Th; family is now in debt
     nearly $1,100. rtr4rile the father was steadily uo.oiog $80 a rveek
     as a metal worlier, ihev bought furniture, ciothing, ind a player_
     piano on the installment plan, meeting the paymen*G     regularly until
     lie lost his job. of the total debt, gobo is ror the pianJ which will
     probab\' be taken away from them soon; the sum already paid on
     it will be forfeited. TWenty-five dollars have been lost through the
     lapsing of insurance payments. The home is squalid, the children
     are badly in need of clothes, and it is appar6nt drat they have
    altogether too little to eat.
        A painter who was forced to stop work last August because read
    poisoning, bought a horse and wagon and tried t-o make a living for
    his-farrrily by peddling fruits and vegetables. This venture \vas an
    unf_orfunate   one, because customersfailed to pay their bills; and
    in october, because was unable to meet the payme'ts due on the
    horse anclw&gon,h-elost the money ($125) ,rt."uay paid on them.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
          14                   UNEMPLOYMENT              AND     CITILD    WELT'ARE.

             In the past four months the family-consisting of the,parents,                                   !

          seven children ranging in age from 2 to 14 years, and a grandfather-
          have subsisted orr what the father has earned at a few scattering
        - jobs, the $5 a week which the grandfather pays for room and board,
          and' the total of $48 which the mother has earned at crocheting
          bags. Friends have given someclothes,and are supplyirg the family
          daily with skimmed milk. Although there are seven children, most
          of them at ages wiren "whole milk is indispensable for health and
          growth, this is practically all the milk the family is norv getting.
          For two weeks th" futh"r has been peddling fruit, clearing about $2
          a day. The parents have fallen behind with their insurance and are
          heavily in aebt for rent, groceries, and medical attendance. Be-
          sidesthe fathers's illness,he and trvo of the boys had the "flu," and
           the 5-year-otdboy was severelyburned. The mother expects soon
           to get temporary work nursing a friend, during which time the eldest
           daughter, *ho i. 14 and attending the afternoon session the high
           school, will presumably have to stay out of school to care for the
           smaller children.
                   Drr.rrr,nn Tenln C.-D ebts                         of
                                             i'ncuned or unpaid because utumployment'l

                                                               Imount   of debts for-

          Sched of unem resoruces
           ule   DloY-
          nm-    ineirt  ulem-                                                          Renrin
           ber. montbs)   ploy'                                                         alTcars.

               3        16     857.24               $157.26
               8        l6                            65.00
              17        lb       35.61                38.11
                         n       41.60               172. 00
               26        14      7r.44               219,55
               n         15      97.63                50.00
               39        13      63.00               tDt. rl
               40           8    E3.&1               202.57
               42        77      E{.U                 4){).95
               43        1 a
                                 50.46               200.00
               49        IJ      60.34               237.69
               50           8    60.03                54.13
               51           8    30.91                r0. 00
               55        16      46.3t               137.00
               56        14      44.11               379.57
               58        15      E1. 09               25.00
               59        10      60. 5.1             r$7.31
               60        10      54.19                69.00
               62        15      52.00                13.37
               63        2I      49.35                43.43
               64        13      69. 56                 6.73
               68        13      n.92                   5.00
               69           I    49.70               222.2tr
               71           8   120.36               150.00
                         12     236.03               222.59
               78                79.33                14.00,
                         16      44. 96               66.22
               84        14     103.28                72.93
               65           8    4,l..44              69.93
               E6        1E      66. 85           '--i56:io
               88           6    67. E0
               89        16      43,8E                71. &3
               90           3    72. 84               E3,00
               91           E   106.03
            r Includes cnlJ the 104Ienilies reporting debts and averag€ monthfy incomo during memplolmont.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                     TIIE         FAMILIES               OF TIIE           UNEIIPLOYED.

     Dnr.rrr,ro T.c.srp c.-Debts incuned or unpa'id becatue u,employment-corttinued.

                                                                                      Amount o{ debts f0r-

                                                                Gro                      dertists,
                                                               cerics         Fuel
                                                                               and         mid-
                                                                and                       wlves,
                                                               meat.         light.

         94              I               5
                               $ 6 2 . 81 . . . . . . .
         96             16       8 3 . o r. . . . . . . . . .
        102             15       e4.63l$1,000.00
        103             13       m.98 | 180.         00
        109             11       63.39  |      J5.00
        111             12              9
                                 4 2 . 91 . . . . . .
        Lt2                      {0.06I        80.   0u
       118              lo      3 5 . 1 6| 3 0 0 . 0 0
       125              17      69. 25 | 2.50.00
       1                        37.75 ........-
       t27               8                6
                                9 0 . 31 . . . . . - . . . .
       136              l3     n 5 .. 1 5 . . . . . . . - .
       137              t3      97.57
                                97.97 400.00
       139               6     r52.50 325.00
       140                     1 2 6 . 0 .5_ . . . . . . . .
       I45             10       35.11   I      20.00
       I4t'            l4               6
                                2 0 . 31 . . . . . . . _ . -
       152             13       51.38 .....-___.
       153             14       3 0 . 2 l9 - . . . . . . . .
       162              .1      3 6 . 5 l7 _ . . . . . . . _
       165             10       4 8 . %1 . . - - . -
       168             It      148.56 r,400.00
                        I       41.51 ....."...
      179              13       83.48.....-.-.
      180              l3       3 7 . 4 l8- - . - - . _ . .
      1E4              12           4
      185              II       85.28I           20.00
      187              15       59.14 ..........
      188              It      82.$7 .........
      189              t2      65.25 120.00
      190              13     '23.m |   20.m
      191                       73.09 |        3J0.00
      rot           9          56.33 100.00
      r93          72          53.84 500.00
      196          ID          83.40 200.00
      198          16          6 2 . 5 l1 . . . . . . . . -
      100          l0          33.i0 | 200.00
      YJJ          ID          56.98 100.00
      mr)          15         136.62..-..-...
      m2 l         l3         40.28I 150.           00
      203|         t7         70.91I 500.00
      205I         10         79.63    |      70.00
      208|         17         6 0 . 8 r|      35.00
      ml          13          157.34|         150.00
      210|         8           25.?3|  75.00
      212|        16                7
                  L2          44.59 ..._..-...
      2r9 |       16          54. 11 | 295.00
                  I9          65. {6 | 235.00
                  13          60.88......-...
                  13          56.07 |      25.00
                  l5         1 1 9 . 7 1| 1 r 0 . 0 0
                  16              2
                             1 0 9 .9 1 " . . -
      86 l
      LZ7 |
                   9          67.28 ...---
                             168.47| 250.00
      2&l         19          5 3 . 7 l0 . . - . . - - . .
       el                              9
                              8 6 . 01 . . . . . . . . . .
                    7         41.10._.-.--..
      ria   I      10         58.14 i 300.00
      2581         t7        11&0r | 205.00
      82 l         T2         9 r . 3 0- - . - . . . . - .
      306I         10                 3
      307|          8         5 8 . 2 4 .- . . . . . - . -
      300 |
      a rr I
                n. r,
                               n.r. l-----...-.
                             1 0 0 . 21 . . . . . . . . . .
                             4 6 . 5 l3. - - . - . . . - .

                                     1.                       '13: - . . . . 1::.:::.
                                                                  ffi l.:::.....i.. . . .
                                                               2 5o. oi . _ . .
      359|        l5                                          100.00 .-..-.--l--.......
      361I         7          6 2 . 7 0- . . . . _ - - - .
                                      l                       3 0 0 . 0l0 - . . . . . . . 1 2 5 . 0 0

Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university
         76             uNol\tPt-oYllt'l\t   AND (rHILl) \\'llt,l"Altri.

         Credit for food supplies.
             In order to secureinformation concerningthe extent to vdich it
         rvaspossiblefor families to get food supplieson credit, and especiall,v
         in regard to the comparative prevalence of such debts cluring tlie
         period of unemployment and the period preceding, neigirborliood
         grocerswere intervierved. The stores from which information
         sought were those patronized by the farnilies of unernployed men
         inclucledin this study. The results of theseintervieu's are set foltli
             1. This store is located in a good residenceneighborhood,where
         most of the families own their own homes. 11, rr grocery stol'eu'ith
         a   rather large stock of perishable vegetablesancl fruits, no meats
         except smohedmeats and thesein a very smail quantity. Not many
         of the customersryho trade at this store pay cash. The grocer sairl
         that most customels ran a biII for from turo ll-eeitsto a month and
          then paicl rvhen the father receivedhis pay. At the present time he
         has :-00families on his books-100 0f these are families in wliich the
          father has been unemploved for more thal 1 vear" He has liad to
          refuse credit to 12 families from s-hicir he ncver rrxpectsto receive
         what is due him. The total amount due fi'om 100 families ilr ir.hich
          the father is unemployedis approximately $6,OO0-amountsvarying
         from $25 to $200. Most of the fathers the grocer thinks are honegt
          and will pay rvhen thev are again emploS''ed. Sornervho havc hacl
          temporary work for a while have paid a small proportion o{ rvh&t they
          owe and then contintre buy on credit'
              2. A double-store  building-one side useclfor dry goods' the other
          for groceries,bakerv goods, and smoked meats. The amount of
          credit given to a family dependsupon circumstanccs       nnclthe farnily's
          reputation and the length of time they have beeir truding rvith him.
          The grocer $.atchesthe purchases     prettv closelv but finclsmost of the
          families bu.ying rln credit choosing wisely nncl letiucing their pur-
          r:hases the minimurn" He has about $ri,000on his books,I'epl'e-
          senting 200 farnilies with bills varying from $25 to $250.           year'
          has been a terrible one. He did rrot have the heart to refuse credit,
          and bit by bit he used up all his reservefunds just keeping things
          going. All his lile's earningshave gone,tr{r. X. says. IIe feels that
          fully one-half of this will never be paid' for already tliose owing-tire
          largest amountsare moving-some to other neighborlioods         and others
          out of town. Many of the families      owing bills ale ashamedto come
           to his store, so go elservhere when they have a little cash-which he
          feels  is unfair. Thosecustomers whom he had had to refusefurther
          credit are getting deeperin debt at the city commissaryevery day,
           and since this rvill be deductedfrom the man's pa)r eYery u'eek it, of
           course,will be paid ofI first. Bills to the local merchantsu'ill be paid
          last, if at all. He feeis that the cit5' commissary,rvhile a blessingto
           the poor families,has made it hard for the merchants,for it has taken

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                       TEE FAMILIES C'II THE ITNEMPLOVED.                 11

        away the cash trade that used to be given thern by the public and
        private relief agencies.
          3. Small butcher shopand delicatessen. Theproprietorisnotgiving
        much credit this winter. He is carrying about 15 or 16 families well
        known to him, to an amount of about $300, but his trade is chiefly
        cash. Said he learned his lesson last year. At one time lie had
        $4,000on his books and had to borrovj money at the bank to tide
       him over. The greatest part of that has been paid now, but it came
       in slowly. He felt this year would be worse than last. He thinks
       that the people did not properly appreciate being ', carried,,' and
       says that he noticed no difference in their buying, .n'hendoing so for
       credit or for cash. The majority refusedsoup bonesand the cheapel
       cuts of meats and ordered steaks and chops. He seemsto feei that
       the men won't look for rvork very seriouslywhile they are able to get
       meat and grocerieson credit.
          4. Medium sizedwell-equippedand'w-ell-stocked     store. Fruit and
       green vegetables upon display. The grocer also carries brooms and
       other household utensils. Most properous appearing store of anv
       that agent has visited. Has been in business    here sinceApril, lgzt,
       and is carrying on his books some of the people that the former
       owner had. He tries not to close any accounts unless the family
       makes no effort to pay. Many of his credil, customershad been in
       the habit of charging their groceries ancl then paying the bill weekly
       or monthly. Now, however, some of them have not been able to
       keep the bill paid up. Some of his customers r,vouldhave been
      getting aid from the relief societv if he had not extendedthcir credit.
      This grocer thinks that for the most part people are buving very
      economically. several customelscame during the interview ancl the
      agent noticed that all but one charged their purchases.
         5. Family of owner lives in the rear of the store. X'airly rvell-
      stocked shelves,mostly canned goods ali,hough there were apples
      and oranges and cabbages in the window display. The grocer
      carries no meat except a little cooked meat. Not much bread is
      sold,because   most families are now'making their own breacl. Average
      about 12 quarts of milk per day and other sales consist rnostly of
      bread and potatoes. The grocer has 10 or 15 families on his boolis.
      Most of these are also getting groceriesat the city commissaryand
      thereforegive very little trade to the store. The iargest bill on the
      books at time of the interview was $41.36. Other accounts run
      between$5 and $10 apiece. The grocer admitted that it was better
      for the families to bu5rfrom the commissarybecausethey could get
      things cheaper. X'amilies r,yhomgrocer is carrying pay a little ealh
      week. They buy only what is absolutely necessary.
         6. The store has a small line of goods,mostly canned vegetables;
      shelves about half empty. Owner can not replenishthe stock because
      he can not collect bills due him. He had about $700 on his books at

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        78                       AND crrrlD lvELFAl'E.

       time of visit. He has no limit set for credit bul allt-'lvs     families to
       get according to what he thinks they are gooci for'         At prp"senthas
       iS or 16 families on his books. So far thinks he has lost only about
       $100 in bad bills. Ferv people have moved away v'ithout paying'
          7. Rather small grocery store on businessstreet and car line' It
       carries staple and fancy groceries,    flour, feed, lime, and cement. The
       manager ruid hu knew all of his families and in the last year had not
       taken on any new families for credit. He calries about 100 families
       on credit. At the end of the year 1919 these 100 families owed bills
       amounting to $1,200. Thesesame 100families at the end of the year
       1920 owed $1,700 and at the end of 1921 orved $3,300. Most of
       these families own their homes, and the manager said he knew he
       would get all of the money. In the three years he had been running
       this store he had lost only $250by peoplemoving a'!vay.
          8. A fair-sized., at'tractive looking store, oarrlr-ing a good line of
       fruit, fresh vegetables,   etc., in addition to staplesand dairy products.
       This store has extended credit to 90 or 100 families, to a total of
       $6,000. Can not make ends meet, so have had to re{use further
       credit in most cases,though they hate to do it. They feel that
       fully one-half of this is "bad clebts," not so much that the families'
       intentions are not good, but that they are so deeply in debt that
       they never will get out. Since the comissary accounts must of
       necessity paid first, the merchantsma.yneyer receivetheir money.
       The prospect looks even more discouragingbecausewhen the men
       do go back to rvork it will be at less pay and possibly {or shorter
       hours. One customer lost his house last week and left town sud-
                                'Ihe amount of credit depends upon circum-
        denly, owing $290.
       stante. They have been lenient with old patrons who paid regulariy
        and someof these families have rtur bills as high as $250 or $300'
       To other families not so well nor so favorably knorvn they have
       limited the amount to $25 or $30. Most of the families buy econom-
       ically, but occasionallya man or woman orders extravagantly.
           The quantity of milk sold remains about the same but there has
       been a perceptible drop in the demands for butter' Very little
       fruit or sweet stuff is purchased now. Mr. A carries less than one-
        third as many boxes of cookies and cakes as tormerly. Aside from
        depriving themselves of fruit, sweets, and butter' the grocer does
       not feel-that the families have been lowering their standards of
       Iioiog the past year.
           9.       store is a combination meat market and grocery with
       bakery    goods, candy, and smoking supplies on the side. It has
       much-lessstock on hand now than before, becausethere is much less
        demand. Tho owners are now carrying on their books 50 families
       whosefathers are out of work, and have been for the iast year and a
        half. The total amount due from these families is about $5,000,

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                            IIIE    FAMILIES         O!' THE      TTNEMPLOYED.   79
       the amounts valying from 910 to $200. The grocel interviel'ed
       feelsthey rvill be r-erv lucky if one-half of rvhat is owed them is paid.
      \Iany families have moved arva;i from the clistrict, some out of the
       city, and from these they expect nothing. Some people come in
      rvith a good story that the husband has a job and they rvill pay tire
       first pay day; they are given credit for a couple of weeks and then
       are neyer seen again. OnIy necessities life are given on credit
      by these grocers. Bakerv goods are a serious problem. Xlany of
      those to whom credit is given have been refused credit at bakeries.
      The grocersdiscouragecharging bread and cakes,but ar.every rvill-
      ing to give flour on creclit to those rvho l'il1 use it.
          10. The store is located in the "Flats," a district l'here people
      of the poorer class live-man5r sf tyhom are renters. 'Ihe store is
      a combination meat market, grocery, and bakery; and car.ries       candy,
      tobacco,and some dry goods. Previous to this time the grocer has
      kept a very large stocli on hand, but at the present time all the stock
      .yhich he owns is on the shelves. The grocer is at present carrying
      25 families x'hosefathers are unemployed,and in most caseshe has
      been carrying them for more than a year. 'Ihe total amount owed
      by these farnilies up to date is $1,501, the smallest amount being
      $10 and the greatestamount $160. In addition to these25 families,
      the grocer has been forced to refuse credit to 10 other farnilies, the
      total amount due from them being more than $800, wiiich amount
      the grocer says he neyer expects to receive. He still has some
      families, possibly 10 or 15, rvho run bills and pay every two ryeeks.
      These,together with the ferv u'ho pay cash, help him to continue in
      business. IIis businesshas fallen ofi 50 per cent duri-ng the year.
     Assistancegiven the families.
        The families selectedfor visiting represented, as nearly as possible,
     & cross section of families of unemployed men in the two cities.
     The data in regard to the aid given thesefamilies by public or privaie
     relief agenciesshould, therefore,be of specialsignificance, showing
     the degree to which families of working men are likely to neecl such
     assistance  when the misfortune of unemploS,':nent    overtakes them.
     Of the 366 families, 191---over half-had receiyed charitable aid
     during the father's unemployuent, some of which, ho'rvever,was
     rery small in amount. In Racine three-fifths of all the families
     received such assistancelin Springfield the proportion was lower
     but still over one-third. It has been pointed out that the period of
     seriousunemployment had been of considerablylonger duration in
     the former city, uhich undoubtedly accountsfor the greater propor-
     tion of families seekins aid.
      u See Teble I (p,31), aud Appendir   A, Tabies 2&31, inclsiye.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        80                 UNEMPLUVM.!)NT ANIT ()HU.I' WEL}'ARIT.

        Interval between loss of work and application for aid.
           The following list shows,for each city, the time that elapsedafter
        the father lost his regular x.ork before the families applied for assist-
             rnterval beforeappricationior aid.                         "fnllt"jo1ttu'
                    Total-..--                                111                 50

             Less than I month                                   6                 o
             1-2 months-                                        33                 I
             3-5 months.                                        42                 6
             6-8 months.                                        i9                 5
             9-11 months-                                       I2                 a

             12 months and over-                                 6
             Not reported..                                     23               ;;
          In terms of percentages, is seen that of the 1-10
                                      it                        families in the
        two cities for rvhom the interval before the application for aid was
        reported 8 per cent applied for charitable aid v-ithin less than a
        month cf the time rvhen the father became unemployed. Trventy-
        six per cent appliecl'within 1 or 2 months; 34 per cent l'ithin 3 to 5
        monthsl 17 per cent within 6 to 8 months: 10 per cent rvithin 9 to 11
        months, and 4 per cent when the father had been unemploveda year
        or longer. Thus, more than tn'o-thircls of the families who rvere
        aided harl been untrble to maintain themselr-es neans of their
        other resourcesfor as long rls h,ilf a )'ear after the rcgular employ-
        ment of the fr'lther ceased. Since orer one-hllf of all the families
        receir-ed aid, this means that approximateh one-third of all the
        families visited in the trvo cities lrere forced to seek charitabie aid
        within six months of losing their regular incomes. It is probable
        that a famil-v-v'ould neither apply for, nor be granted, charitable aid
        from pubiic or prir-ate agenciesuntil all other resourceshad been
        exha,usted. This supposition is borne out b). data presentedear"lier
        in this report in regard tti loans and debts, and especiallydebts for
        food. There is, of c.rulsc,to bc taken into accouni the important
        but less readily demonstratecl   factor of the deprivation e,nriured b1.
        many families rvho do not applv for aid.
        Duration of aid.
          The length of time over l'irjt:h charitable aid to these families
        extendedis shown belou':
                                                                Number of families repori,-
              Duration of aid.                                    ing duration of aid.
                     Total.-...                                                 141

              2 weeks, lessthan 1 month.                                           5
              1-2 months-.
              3-5 months                                                          2l
              6-8 months-                                                         2I
              9-11 months-                                                        62
              12 monthsand oi er.                                                 15

Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university
                      THN FANTILIES OF THD UNEIVIPLOYED.                 81
       Aid extending over periods of six months or more had been given 70
       per cent of the families. More than one-third of the families hacl
       beengiven aid amounting to 9100 or more.
                                     C H A R TI A .

              I4O EA}"TILIES

               U n d e rI a - 2 3-5 6-8  9 - 1 1 l2months
               month months months monthsmonthsand over
      Aid to families of skilled and unskilled workers.
        Bearing in mind the extremity represented by application for
      assistance, especiallyon the part of families that have always been
      self-sustaining, it is surprising to find that almost three-fourths of
      the men in the families receiving charitable aid had been skiiled
      workers, and only one-fourth had been employed at unskilled labor.
      Looking at these facts from another angle, it is found that 50 per
      cent of the families of skilled workers visited had received charitable
      aid, and 58 per cent of the families of the men who had done work
      classed as unskilled. The similarity of these percentages indicates

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      82                   UNE\[pLoyMEt(T aND crrrLD IvELFARE.

      the stress in u.hich the families of higher- as well as of lower-grade
      workers had found themselves    when employment ceased.
         The information regarding iength of time between loss of work
      and application for charitable aid shou'edpractically the samesitua-
      tion in the cases skilled and of unskilled rvorkers.
      Relation of aid received to total resources.
         tr'or only 65 families in the two cities was it possible to secure
      apparently adequatedata regarding the relation betweenthe amount
      of charitable aid and their total resources. The findings, expressed
      in percentages)  rvereas follows:
           Relation of charitable aid                                  Number of
              to total resources.                                       famllies.
                   Total                                                       OD

           Lessthan5percr.nt-.-.                                   ........;
           5 - 9 p e r c e n t . .- - . . . -                                  12
           10-14per cent...                                                    f3
           15-19per cenl - -.                                                   8
           20-24percenl.-.                                                      5
           25-29 per cent. - -                                                  2
           3G-39 ercert- --                           - -:. -...                1
           65percent-                                                           1
      tr'or half these families charitable aid formed more than a tenth of
      their total resourcesduring the entire unemployment period. This
      implies, of course, that during e part of the period considerably
      greater proportions of their maintenancewere receiyed from public
      or private relief agencies. A later section of this report discusses
      charitable aid from the point of approachof the relief agencyand the
      general relief problem resulting from rvidespread unemplo5rment.
      The present analysis based on two representativegroups of families
      afrected by unemplo;rment is the more valuable as showing the effect
      of loss of lvork on families previously having an income adequate to
      maintain a good standard of living.
         Illustrations of families that had been compelledto seekcharitable
      aicl are included among those given in the preceding sections. When
      the man could not find rvork, the usual steps in lsa"ghingthe stageof
      dependencywere: First, the use of savings or the employment of
      mother or children when it was possible them to get work; second,
      securingloans or credit; third, applying for charitable aid when aid
      from relatives and other resources   had been exhausted.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                 ]IT{E      FAMILIES                        OF TI{E         UNEMPLO}IED.                                                83
                                                     i{E!QNE€NOQ€@lQ6*r€rd'd-                                j?c           =oooo-roNNNs
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Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university
       84                                   UNEMPLOYMENT                             AND OHILD WELtr.T\RD'

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Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown universify
                          THE        }'AMILIES   OF           UNI'MPLOYED.                      85
      Extent of illness.
         It is obviousl]' i*Oo..tble to attempt to relate unemployrnent,    of
      the breadrrinner and illness in the families as causeand efiect, defi-
      nite as the correlation may seemto be in certain cases,    since there is
      no basis for a comparisonof the prevalenceof illness in the families
      of unemployed men with its extent among families in the general
      population. It is, horvever,important to call attention to the very
      considerableproportion of families in which sicknessor accidents
      were added to the misfortunes incident to the father's being out of
      work. Often the incapacity of the father prevented him from earn-
      ing something at temporary work or the illness or disability of ;phe
      mother made it difficult for her to give her farnily the necessarycare.
         It is, moreover, evident that farniiies that v-ere using up their
      savings or were dependent Iargely on food secured through credit, or
      were being supplied u'ith necessities charitable agencies,would
      frequently deprive themselves of food recluired to maintain health
      anci strength. Insu{ficient clothing and iack of fuel, together with
      the inevitablc lowering of sanitary standards through crowding
      togethel in oider ro kecp \yarm, to economizoon rent, or to add to
      the incorne b.-;letting rooms can not fail to aflect the heaith of the
      nrembcrs tif tire family-.
         In neally a fourth of the 366 families the mother had given birth
      to a child or \l'as expecting confnement cluring the time the father
      rvas ulempioyed. Coming at a time u'hen the famiiy u'as deprived
      of ordinary cornfortsor was actually sufleriig lor rvant of proper food,
      this meant undue worry and hardship for the mother, with greater
      probability of ill health for both mother and child. Illness or dis-
      abilities, including pregnancy ol confinernent, during the time of
      unemployment were reported by 231 families-63 per cent of the
      entire number. These families included 852 children-almost two-
      thirds of the entire number of children.
         The follolring list gives the number of families in which the
      various membersr.ere ill:
                                                                                Number of familios
           Membcrs of fBmiUcs 1I1.                                               reporting illness.
                  Totrl-----                                                 -...--..231

           trlother.-.-....                                              -,.-.-..       n
           F a t h e r-. . . . . . .                                                    12
           One or more children. -..                                                    58
           Iiother and father.---                                                       10
           I{other and one or mote children. -.                                         64
           Father anclone or mole children- - - - - -                                   11
           Mother, father, and one or mole children- - - - -.                           24
      The seriousness the situation i.. eridenced by the fact that three-
      fourths of thesefamilies reportecl()neor both parents ill, while only

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
          86                          U}TEMPLOYMENT                      A.ITD CEILD           WELFASE.

          68 per cent of them reported illness among the children. Under
          ordinary circumstances it would be expected ihat more families
          rvould report illnesses among the children than among the parents,
          especially since severalcontagiousdiseaseshad been epidemic among
          children in one of the cities studied.
         Debts for medical care.
           Doctors' bills and hospital care comprised a very considerable
         part of the burden of debts which would continue to oppressthese
         families iong after the father resumed work' Judging from the con-
         ditions reported by the families, m&ny were going without needed
         medical attention. Others were receiving medical aid through the
         conpanies that had employed the men, from free c,linics or dispen-
         saries,charitable societies,or the city poor department. The longer
         duration of unemploy'ment in Racine is reflected in the information
         given by the families regarding doctors' bills, and debts for confine-
         ment expenses,   and hospit'al care. Although a larger proportion of
         the Springfield families reported illnesses during the father's unem-
         ployment, many of thesetr-ereapparently not of so seriousa nature,
         or elsethe families stili had sufficientfunds to pay the biils. A total
         of 128 families-more than a third of all the families visited-said
         that they had outstanding debts for medical service. The amounts
         of these debts were given by 76 of the 85 Racine families, and by
         32 of the 43 families in Springfield. More than a fourth had debts
         amouating to $50 or mote for the servicesof doctors, dentists, mid-
         w'ives, and hospitals.
                                                                                                          of families
                  Amount of dcbr.                                                                         reportmg.
                            T o t a l -- . - .                                                            _..- 108

                 Lessthan$50....                                                                                  7u
                 $ 5 0 l, e s s h a nS I O O - - . - - . . . .. .. . . . - . - - - . . . - -
                              t                            -                                                      16
               '                                                                                                   8
                 $100,lessthan $200.----
                 $200and olcr- - .                                                                                 6

         The amounts reported by the families in the last group were $200,
          fi2l0, $272, fi275, fi437,and $500. Only 1 of the Springfieldfamilies
         reported outstanding debl,sof $100 or more, rvhile 13 of the Racine
         families had the larger amounts.
             Seven of the Racine families were il debt to unclertakers. The
         six who stated the amounts of this indebtednessorvcd from $22 to
         $85 for funeral expenses. The aggregateindebtednessbecauseof
         ilLness death was $5,772.50 a total of 108families.
                  or                     for
         Unemploymentarnong families given nursing service.
           It rvas not possible to secure general information regarding the
         prevalence of unemployment among the families rvho were receiving
         medica.lor nursing care in the two cities. Certa,indata were, however,

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                      TTIE FI\I{ILIES   OF THII   UNEMPLOYED.               87
      secured from the Visiting Nurses'Issociation of Springfield concerning
      70 families unclel its care in February, 1922,in which the father was
      unemployed. Thesefigures are of specialinterest in connectionwith
      infant $'elfare.
         In 53 of the 70 families there was a newborn baby or the mother
      rras expecting confinement. As has been pointed out elsewhere          in
      this report, this situation adds to the handicap of the loss of the
      father's earningsand the need of relieving the mother of some of her
      householdduties, and interfereswith her efiorts to increase family
      income  through her orvnearnings. It meansin every casesomeadded
      burden of expense,even though the nursing serviceis provided free.
      Of ihe babiesborn in the city during the entire unemploymentperiod,
      many who did not come to the attention of the visiting nursesmust
      bave been handicapped,even before birth, by the hardshipsincident
      upon the loss of a steady family ilcome.
         In these 70 families reported b)' the Visiting Nurses' Association
      there were 188 children, of rvhom more than half rvere ulder 3 years
      of age, a fifth n'ere betw'een3 and 6 years, and only 3 \r'ere of possible
      l-orking age. T\'o of the 70 families had no children, and in 23
      iamilies there was only 1 child. A total of 34 families had 2' 3, or
      4 children. In 8 families there were 5 children, 2 families had 7,
      and in 1 family there were 11.
         Almost half of the 70 families had received assistance  from a public
      or private relief agency or other organization. The leading relief
      sociei,yin the city had given aid to 17 families rvho had not been
      helped by any other agency, and to 10 others rvho had received
      assistance  from the city poor department, children's aid or protective
      societies, churches, dispensaries,and other organizations. The city
      poor department was the only agency helping 2 families, and rvas
      one of the agenciesaiding 11 other families'
         The foregoing facts are not given as representing a complete report
      on the prevalence of unempioyment among families given nursing
      care by this organization. Tho in-formation is necessarilyincomplete,
      becauseit relates only to the families that the nurses on the stafi of
      the association had visited recently, and about which they rvere,
      therefore, ilformed at the time of the inguiry.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        88                           uNEl,rPLoYlrIlNl'                      AND cHrLD wlrr-FARE.

        Dnr-err,no Teet.r,; E.--,rcmilies reporting illtuss dtLri'ngthe period of thefather's mum'

                                         Ave            metrr or
                                         mon            mother. Num
                    Duration ol         resource                         ber Age ofeach
         ule          mem-               during                           of   child                        Illness reported by family
         No.        ployment.             unem-                         chil- (years).
                                          ploy-                         dren.

                  16 mos. 4 das                                              4    1 , 3 , 5 , 7 . Child 5 vears. tl'nhoid. serlet fever,
                                                                                          meesles; cNld? years, diphlheria,
                                                                                          scsrlet fcver.
             r0 8 mos. 5 das--.                                              4        Child 6 vears. Dneumonb.
             12 12mos. 23das. .                                              5        Mother !ick: thild 7 vears alwevs bas
                                                                                          other                child vears.
                                                                                          heen weali; child 8 years, sorc tbroat .     sore ltrrOali.
            t 8 14mos. 29 das..                                5                      Father, rhematism; ; motner, connn&
                                                                                          ment: child 6 vean pleuiiy, pneu-
                                                                                          ment; chjld
                                                                                          monia: chilal 8 y€rs, serlet fever.
            1 9 7 m o s . 2 0d a s . .       n' r.                                    Fatber. oain in side; child 4 ymrs, fever
                                                                                      -tatber. Daln side; chlld ymrs, leYer
                                                                                           105'.'6loodrumine out of moutb.
            ,1   20 mos. 2 das- - $41.60                                                  other, operelion; mother, ilI "ioside
                                                                                      Frthei. omration: mother. ill " inside
                                                                                          and in liead"; child 4 years, stomach
                 i4 mos. I tlay..            n. r.                                    lfother, tumor, sick for a long time,
                                                                                          died ir ADriI.1921.-and
            27 l0 mc. 5 das. -              54.n                                      Children 6                     8 years, scarlet fever,
                                                                                          c i t v n u r s e s , 6s e c k s ( n o d ( t o r ) .
            3 I 14 mos. 19 das. .                                                     Child I vears: tonsils removed: ctiild l0
                                                                                          )*cars,'diphtheria, tonsils rcmored;
                                                                                          ihild 12 years, s'eakly, tosils re
            32 13mos. 26 das.                                                         IIother, rromb trouble; child 6 years,
            12   1 4m o s . I d a s - -                                               Father. cut his hand: mother, stomach
                                                                                          trouble; child 12 ycars, bad cough
                                                                                          and colds.
            34 l1 mos. 10ds- -               n. r.             ,5                     Child 6 vears. mumDs: childrcn 4. s. ond
                                                                                           I I yeais, scarlct fevor (no doctor).
            36 15mos. 24 das. .              n. r.             3                      Fath-er, id hcpital (ilkiess not given);
                                                                                          mother. oleurisv.
                 12mos. I das. - -           n. r.             3                      Father. ki'dncv irouble: mother con-
                                                                                          fireuient; child 5 years, scarler fever.
            38 l 3 m 6 . 2 8 d a s --        tr.r.             2                      f,Iother, con-0xemeni;                  chiid I I months,
                                                                                          i l l : . c h i l d 7 . y e a r s . d i s e a s e dl o n s i l s ,
            39 1 3m o s . 5 d e s .- -      r3.00              3                      Ifcther. nerrous breakdown: cNld 3
                                                                                          l'ears. dirhtheda.
            10 8 mos. 5 das- - .            E3.E,l             3                      ltbther, pri,gnant; child 5 years. hurt
                                         I                                                   hearl.
            41 1 1 m o s . 1 0 a s - . 1 n . r .
                               d                                                      l{other, eonfinement; child 4 years,
                                         I 50.46                                          scarler fever and diseased tonsils.
            43 l / m o s . o G S - . . 1                       2                      lfother, influenza t$'ic, ill now (stom-
                                         i                                                ach. tlroat, nose, and head).
            u 1 2m G . 2 6 d a s . l                           7                      IIothi:r, conflnemeirt (baby died); child
                                         I                                                4 years, colds.
            50 8 m o s . 2 d a s . - . 1 60.63                                        )Iorher, opention: ehild i years, chills
                                         I                                                and lever: cjildren 6 aid g vears,
                                                                                          searlet fever: s-holc family hai had
                 19mos. 8 das-             268.09                                     Falher, rheumtism:                       mother, opera-
                                                                                          rion. died Jue. 1921.
            53 1 7n ] o s . 3 d a s .        n. r.                                    Child 4 vears, Dnemonia.
            m 14 mos. 8 das.                                                          .Father.blood boisonina: mother, "sick
                                                                                          in.ide"; children 6 atd 8 years, ton-
            58 15 mos. 5 das.               81.C9                                     ]fother. confinement: all the children
                                                                                          had scarlel {eYef and diphthcria;
                                                                                          ctdld, age n. r., died; cbild E years,
            59 16 mos- I das-               60. il              2 2 , 7 . - . .. . . Falher, stomach trouble; child 7 years,
                                                                                          scarlet fever. tonsillitis.
            60 10 mos. 5 das-               54. 19                 2 , 4 , 5... . . . Father, tubeicular; mother, scarlet
                                                                                           fever and diphtheria; child 4 years,
                                                                                        scarlet feYer a;d dibhtheria.
            62 1 5 m o s .1 1 d N .         52.00                  7 , 2 , 3 .... - . Father and mother and ail chilfuen had
                                                                                           ''it{h''; mother, contrlement; child
                                                                                           1 year, boils, udemowished.
                 21m6.9dras.-               49.35                  1 3 , 1 6 - . . . .Fsther, jnfluenza snd rhematism;
                                                                                          mother. stomach lrouble. swollen
                                                                                          fmt; cbild 13 years, undemourished.
            64| 13mos.5das..J 69.56 ....-.1.-....1 212,1-..
                                                   1                                  Children 2 anal 4 years, scarlet fever.
         r Includcs only a parlial lisl of tbe lamilies reporliJlg illness.
         r N. r. cimitrei not roport€d.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                            TI{E      FAMILIT]S       OF TTTE UNEMPLOYED.                                                  89
      Dnreu,nr T.rsr,s E.-.Fa nilies re])orti.rlqi,lln,ess.durinrl period of thz
                                     pLoynant-JCotrtinued.                      fathef s wlenx-

                                                           ment of
                                                           mother.   Num
      Sctled-             Duation oI                                  b e r Agc ofeach
       ule                  unem-                                      ol     child                      lilness ropr)ried by family.
       :\io.              ployment.         unem-                    chil-   (yars).
                                            ment.      i{41";*.      d.ren

                                               n.r.                                                Moth-c,r.eontrnement ; child 4 Tears. ill:
                    i                                                              ,1, ti, 8,          cItrld 4 mon{hs, mdernourished. sick
                                                                                   10 , 1 2 ,          srncs. born; all children pale'and
           o 7 l a m o s . 1 0 d a s . . tr. r.                           :J 7 , 9 , 1 1 _ . .     Fathe_r.rheumar isD: mother, oDeration
           69 I 8 mos.22da,s $.i0.--        m              |/           3      2,1,5..-.           llother, oDeration.
           ? 4 l 1 8 m o s . 7 d a s - -120.36                          3      5, t4, 17..         Ilot her; overwork after oDeration.
           78 | 14mos. 19das. .          79.33             7            t      5 mm.,2,            Mother, coD-fi_nement:    cbildren t0, 7, s,
                                                                                                       z years, au mumps; cbild 2 years,
                                                                                10.                   eczema.
           79 1 6 m o s - . . . . - . -      14.96                             10mos.,2,           Fathcr, bad cold; mother. Door ttrth.
                                                                                tt,                   pre,gnanr duing rpemploiment, bai
                                                                                                      !1d,,!wo^ operationjs;-_chil&en; 10
           8? 15mo-q.15das -                 84.05                                                -minths, 2, 6 years, bad colds.
                                                                                                   Irtnel', stomacb opeTation, rupfure;
                                                                                                      notner. operation, diphtheria,
                                                                                                      rnq slcEness-
                        13mos. 21 das - -   10ts.2S                                               Mother, - eoo.0nement, heeri trouble
                                                                                                      ano_. rneumatrsm; child l2 yesrs,
                                                                                                      nearu trOuble-
           E7 1 0 m o s , 2 5 a s . .
                            d                                                                     ]Iotber, con qnement (baby died).
           88 5 mos. 2i das -.               67.60                                                rt9i!ll:,o-c-!9s operarion; ahild L vear,
                        3 mos. 3 das -.                                                               convulslons,
           90                                72.84                                                Fatbel..ppq colds;.mother. miscarriage
                        I mc.29 das-.                                                                 BU CnU(Uen.eolds-
           95                                                                                     Father, in-fla_mmatory rheumatism:
                                                                                                      mornel, hdney trouble; child ll
                                                                                                      years, leakage
                                                                                                     whooDtns coush_ -of hearl; all children,
       100 13mos. t6 d3s.                                                                        llother, -pie?aiure       birth, operation
                                                                                                     ,-EJ9t.S+rd z. ye,ars,.tonsils removed;
                    i5 mos. 1 day. .                                                                 au children, bad colds.
                                             94.63                            5 , 6 , E ,9 . .   l{ot}er..rhedmalis.m; child 5
                                                                                                     Tnoopmg cough.                    1es,
                    13nos.10das -            n. r.                            8 mos., 2,         lfother, con-0neilent; child 12 v%rs.
                                                                                6, to, 12.           drseased tonsils, tfuearened with -
                                                                                                     luberculosis; cblild Z y$rs, abscess
                                                                                                        l$l{gq z vorsind s monthsl
       106 16mos. .las.
                17 .                                                                             Chiid 6 years,sbooping cough; child
                I                                                                                 1JSaJ!,p-nEgmonia; whoopiig bough,
       1 0 8 1 6 m o s . 2 5 d a s . . n. r.                                                      aEo Dad cold.
                                                                      2                          MotherlL^nervousness; child 10 y%rs,
            |                                                                                     (uDntnena-
       1 1 2 l a m 6 . 2 a d a s . . {o.06                                                       Mother, rheu-Dlatism, goiter, newous-
            I                                                                                     nss.
       118 la mos.28       tlas..     &. ro                                                      Motber-, con_flnemeni;
            I                                                                                                           _child 5 yers.
                                                                                                  191:-ou-s:.rund,own: cbiidren 5, A, r
       tzo i t.i mos.s ttas-.          n. r.
       1 2 1I 1 5m o s . 3d a s -.     n. r.
       122 | 6 mos. i5 da-s.-
       123 I ll mc. Ai das. -                n. r.

       129 8 mos. 19 das -
       135 12mos. 2i das_.                                                    I0, t2,
       r42 16 mos. 6 das - .                                                  I,t
                                                                      *,'o,flo'.- . 1 C h i l d l 0 y e a r s , s c a r l e t f e vg6raii":d'ioi
                                                                      I i
                                                                                q                                                  erinhosDital.

       143          13mos.22das..           n. r.                     3 t.3,6._._.1
                                                                                   I ":iX:tinpemenr,
                                                                                                                     has citydoctsr
       115 9 mos. 19 das.                   45.11
                                                                          ]                      \"Jf3l;ft!Lx*,
                                                                      3 I 6 mo-s., 3, i Father, has mastoid. trouble.
       $        13mos. 19das.               n. r.                     6 J 9 mos., 2. , Father, rheumatism: mother, con.6ns
                                                                        1 7, S, 13, I ment.
      150 13mos. 22 das.                    D.t       t/             ,lr,i    ..l.11rgiJ"Tf,er   lroubre, bevo
      152 12mos.20das.                      5?,73                    3 2'1t'13"'l
                                                                       I          "3l"tih:*l+*l,fr:,"".T1d,F".y^*::'

Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university
        90                            UNEMPLOYMENT                       AND                CHILD              WELI'A.RE'

        Durarr,pr T.rnr,n ll.--Fomilies reportittg illness.during the period of thefother's u'ncm'

                 I                                         Employ."
                                            AYerago        menf, ot
        Sched-       Duration of
                                            montNl         mother.    \u-'l ,1,e"ot"u"t
                                                                       DEJ          i
         ule i         lmern-                   duing                   orl                child                       Iliness rcportcd hv tsmill'
         tn' I       ployrncnt.                 unem- Awaj            :'". ]
                                                                      .hil-        1     (years).
                                                plot'.-               dren.        I            I
                                                mentr- from

          t;o s mos. oas..
                   zr                             n, r,                                                                 r, preglant: thild 3.-Years, Ptt
             ]                                                                                                          eve out: whole lail]'quaran-
                                                                                                                        I for scarlet ferer.
                                                                                                           i tined for scarlet fever.
          161 6 mos. 2l das. -                    n .r .                      6        l , 9 . J l . 1 3 , I C h i l d r e n 1 7a n d 1 l e a r s , i n f l u e n z a .
                                                                                           15, 17. I
                                                                                           15. 17
          16,1 12 m6. 20 tLBS-                                                         4, l17, 13, I Child 16 years, operation.
                                                                                          1D. lO.
          169 1 4 m c . l 6 a i s -               n. r.                       2        e,s-].....-l          Child 9 vean, Thooping cough; child

          173 15 m6. I das- .                     n .r .                      3
          17,1 15 mG. E das. -                    ll. r,                      2        3 : i l . - . . . . . . 1 i i o t t ' " i , " o n e r i i i " nc h i l d 4 5 e r r s ,s r i h -
                                                                                                               I n o m a l a n d r ' f i 1 s " : c h i ly e s B ' t o n -
                                                                                                              sils and ad
          179 12mos. 16das-.                    $.r3.4c                       .l       8 m6.          4,     Mother, con
          180 i 2 m c . ? { d a s - - l :17.
                                           48                                          I mos., 7,            ]Iother, confinement: child 7 ]'ears, ton-
                                        I                                                8.                     sils aird adenoids removed.
          182 13m6. 19das.-l                      n. r.                       2        tt lA

           18ti 1 . ! m s . 3d a s . . l          n. r.                                           .
                                                                                       4 , 9 , 7 4- - .
                                                                              3 7 0 1n                                                               mother,          general
           187 1 5 6 - - - - .- - . . i
                    m                            i2.14

           190       t2 mos.21das..l 123.N                                    3        l, 3, 6, 9 .              other. rheumatism: child 6 -Yeax,
                                   l                                                      1 1 ,1 3 ,1 t          diphtheria; child I years, scarlet lever
           194 12mos. das.-j
                    24                            n. r,                                4 , 7, 1 2 ,7 1

           195 e m o s . . . . - - . . . . 1 . r .
                                           n                                  4        I mc., 7,
                        2 d
           196 1 1 m o s . E a s . . l 76. 80                                 6        2,3,8,8,9,
           19E       ro -*.......-,1
                                  n. r,                                                1 . 5 , 6 . .. .

                      ro      -l
           203 tz mos. das. 70. 94                                              3,5,8.....
           205 1 0 m c 1 0 d a s . . i79.63
                       .                                                      5 I mos.,3,
           2W 12        .
                mm.23das. j 157.34                                            6 7,4,5,7,9,
           212 1 6 m 6 . 2 d a s - -              ifi.77                      1 7 . _ . - - - - - -tr(other, general health not good, com'
                                                                                                                 Dlieaiion following infl uenza.
           213 13 mG. 2 d3s- .                    n. r.                                4 , 7 , 1 1 ,t 4       Fdther. srinpe; mbther, sore l:nee;
                                                                                                                 child' lfveers. searlet fevor.
                     17mos. 18das- -              n.r.                        3        5,6,8.-.-              Mother. oneration; child 5 yean, ton-
                                                                                                                 sils aid ;denoids removed, epi.leptic;
                                                                                                                 child 6 y6aN, mumps.
           2t6 15 mrE. 3 das. .                   n,r.                         5       6, 10, 13,             lfother, not very srrong' op€n sore on
                                                                                         14, 16.                 anllo resulting from opemttoD 2 yean
           2t7 1 2 m 6 . 1 5 d a s - .            49.49                       3         5m06.,4,6.            Children. 4 and 6 Years, scarlei fever.
           2 1 3 7 mff. m das- -                   n.r.                                 1, 4, 7, r0,          child 4'vears. diphtheria and pneu'
                                                                                           12.                   monie: ebild 1 vear, brokcn leg'
           2m i9 mo6. 6 das- -                    65.4{                        5        1, i , 1 2 , 1 4 ,    Fsther. iee brokin and foot crushed,
                                                                                                                 run irvei by auto; mother, con-dne-
                     1 3m G . 5 d a s - .                                               3, 5, I, 13..         Chilal 13 years, tuberqilosis of bone, leg
                                                                                                                 in a crist; ail children, scarlet fever
                                                                                                                 antl diphtheria.
           ya        15 mos. 5 des. -              n. r.    l/                 5        1,4,9,77,             Child 4 tears, rheumatism.
           TA 15mos. 12ds. -
           y30 16mos. 1l dls- -
                                                  n. r.
                                                            /                  2        8 , 1 0 . . - . . - Child 8 veers. diPhtheria.
                                                                                        1 , 5 , 7 , 1 0 - . Fatber.'oDer8tio-n for rupture; child I
                                                                                                              veer-' dibhtheria and mumps,
                     15mm. 23 das. .                29
                                                 109.       /                  6        5 , 8 , 1 0 , 1 1 , Mathei, cblds and backscbe; chiltlren
                                                                                           13, 14.            l1 and l3 vears. diDhtheria.
              2                                    n. r.    /                  2                            Child 2 yeari, intantile paralysis: chi]d,
                                                                                                             aee n. r. died, stomach troirble.
                     6 mos. 17 das. .                       /                           2 , 6 , 9 , 7 2 - Motber, "run dmn"; chiltl I Yssrs,
                     1 yr. 4 mos. 1 da                      t/                 6        3, 7, 8, rO, Father,^ rheumatism; mother, miscsr-
                                                                                           t2,13.             rirg6, nervousDess,

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                       TITE FAMIIIES            OT TITE            UNEI,IPLOI'}iD.                                                     91
       Dntalr,no T,rnr,n li.-Fomtlies repmting illtressduring the periodof thefuther'sunem.

                                                     meit rif
                                       lmonthlj                 Nm
                                                     mottrer.           Aso olcach
                                       ire,soucer                bcr
                                       I oulng                    of      cruto                       Illncss reported by family
                                                                chil-    (years).
                                       I uSem-
                                       I ploy-                  dren.
                                       I mem.

                9 mos.9 tlas..                                     4    4 , 8 , 1 0 ,i 2 . tr'ather, nervous indigesticrn'r etracks" ;
                                                                                              molher, two operations; chiid 1t
                                                                                              vears. tnemolue .
         214 10ms.10 das-                  n. r.                                           Fd-rllcr,              accident: molher, con-
                                                                                              f,nFment;.hjld I vpar, grinpe.
         246 1 y r . 7 m s . 1 2         $53.70                                            Jtofher, brcakdown'on acCouiL of hard
               oas.                                                                           lYork and worrY.
         252 6 mm, 23 das..               11.10                                            Father, breakdoilrr; mothcr, nt'rvous,
                                                                                              o D p r a r i n oc h i l d 9 .-, ' c a r s . -l r L r a i i o n .
           4 l0 mos.20 das-                n. r.                                            Mn;lr^r^nFofi^n

             I Xr. 1 mo. 27               3+.09                                             ('hild 14 ]'c:rrs, jnfecred ronsils; cLild
               das.                                                                            12 vears. heart tronble.
         262 I ]'r. 4 mos. 6                                                                Fath-er, biood poisoning; mother, con-
                   0s.                                                                        fnemcnl; child 3 ycars, eye and face
                                                                                              eul: .hild 1 r'car. htnd crushed.
         253    2 Xrs. I mo. 6                                                              Child 2 years,3pinal trouble.
           1    1 vr. 4 mos. 6             n. r,                                              l{other, con-finement; child 2 years,
                   das.                                                                          ronslulus.
         2t)5   1 -vr. n. r. m6.                                                              Mothcr, neryous trouble: child ? ycars,
                  -      GS.                                                                     ptomaine poisoning; child g years,
                                                                                                 stomach trouble.
                8 mos. I d8s. -                                                               llother, $'orn out; child 8 vears, eye
                                                                                                 trouble; children l0 and'12 J-ears,
                1 yr. 10das-..                                                                Child 5 years, tonsillectomy and colds;
                                                                                                 child 5 yeafs, colds.        "
                1Xr.7mc.6                                                                     lIother, "nrn dorvn": c1iik1 12 years,
                   GS.                                                                           anaemic; child 13 ycars, gland opera-
         n3     8 mos.I das..             46. 14                                              lfother, grippe end general breakdoml.
         n4     6 mos. 23 tlBS. .          n. r.                                              IIother, ear trouble; children 4 and 5
                                                                                                  tears, eirr lruuhle: clfld 4 years,
                                                                                                 icelh inJffred; c[ild 5 ]'cars, ion-sil:
         n7     4mos.-..-.---              n. r.                   2    2 1 d a s . ,2        \Iother,                    child 2 years,
                                                                                                 pneumonia and convulsions.
         n8     1 Ir. 1 mo. 29            85.93                         1 , 4 , 5 , 8 - . . trI-other, pregnanti chitdren 1, 5, 8
                  oas.                                                                           Tears.crucken Dox.
         288    1,yt. 2 mos.               n. r.                   7    4,7, 8, 12, A[ chililren hed                   uenza.
                  oas.                                                      13,16, 1?
                I mos. 19 das- -                                   2    t , 1 2 . - - - - - - Motler, gippe; child 12 -rears, tonsil-
         n5     6 mos. 13 das. .                                   7    2 , 5 , 7 , I , Father and chilthen I aDd 10 years,
                                                                            10,12,1.1 influenza; child 5 -vears, burned arni
         300 1 yr. I mo. 15                                             5 , 7 , 9 , t 2 , llother, 6pcration for cancer.
               oas.                                                         15,17.
         301 1 yr.3 mos. l8                                             1 0 , 1 5 . . . . . -Mother, ill; child l5 -ysrs, itr hospitel.
         310 1 ] ' r . 2 m G . -                                        7, 9, 12, 14       Tather, rheumatism (can not work
                oas.                                                                          regularl-y); child 1-1years, operation
                                                                                              on trcao.
         313 6 m o s . 2 0 d a s - .       n.r                          a t2,L3, 1a Ctrild l2 r'e'rr.. hrs beou ili. in opcn-air
                                                                           16.             _sciool h,^\: chiid Ij 1,:rr:. nor weII.
         316 8 m o s . 2 3 d a s - .                                        5 , 8 , 1 , ^"a1nel, penllmon3.
         324 1 ]'r. 1 mo. 18                                                9, 10,   13 flothcr. neuritis: child 6 r'errs, cold:
               oas.                                                                           chjldren 9 and l:t vears, ronsils and
                                                                                              adenoids remor.ed.-
         32b 1 1n. 2 mos. 21                                            3 , 5 , 7 , 91 0 . Mother, run downbecanse of overworki
                   oas-                                                                       ctuld 7 years, lonsrtjr:rs: chr.ldI ) cars,
                                                                                              tuberculosis of the hip.
         33r                              46. 53                                           Child 3 vears. nneumonia.
                6 mos. 28 das - .                                                          Lrulo / vejrs. rntstnal TrouDle.
                                          78.28                                                                    t,
                                                                                           M ot\er,. con-Oncmen pregnanr lgain;
               cas.                                                                           cro10 I veal. mumDs.
         335 9 m o s . 2 5 d a s . .      50.86                                                                    rvilh tuberculosis;
                                                                                                      threatened lvith tuberculmis;
                                                                                           lfothcr, threatcned
                                                                                              child 7 ycars, diphrheria and cold;
                                                                                              crulo rD Years.coLd.
                                                                                              cru10 lb Ye3rs.
         336 9mG. 25 das.-.              101.69                                              rild 4 years, pnemonia: child 6 years
                                                                                           Child 4 vears. nri
                                                                                              tonsils reno\rcd, kidney I rolr hle.
                                                                                              tonsili rrmor er.l,ldd[er trouble.
                I0 mos.25das-              n. r,                                           Motf er: heart-troubie_: chil4 _11 years,
                                                                                               p;i. .;il;          d;""i;i"it: i't'iiaii j-iiii
                                                                                               iesults of beirg struck by auto.-

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
         92                           UNEX{PLOY}II{NT                   :\ND     OHILD               WEL}-ARE.

         Drrerr,no T.c.sr,r D.-.Fantilies repttrting illness during the period of thefather's unem-

                                                                                                            Illness rcported b:r family.

                                          i #:}' ' l.frum I

                                          i     o...      /
                                                                                                   do\T."; children 6 and 9 relN. ton.
                                                                                              I    sils removc,l: cliild 16 veirs thfesl-
                                                                                              I    e n e d r v i L ht . u b e r c u l o s i s . -
                 1y.ear,5mos. l 106.20                                      2das.,2,1,I           Mother, conrinement: child 4 vears.                  -diphl
                   oas.                                                       d, 7: 10.            r onsitliiisi child 7 tears, nasai
                                I                                                        I         inerra.
                 I yr. 2 rnos.o I                                           2. {,6, 8, I          Futher. slrained back: child 2 vears.
                   (tas.                                                      I l,13, 15,          pneuinonia; child 13 vears. criioled           '.hiii
                                ]                                              1';.                iro:n infantile parallsis;                              l5
                                l                                                                  ygars,.appendieiiis; cirild 16 years,
                                          I                                              I
                                                                            ,1,6, 8, 11, I
                                                                                                   DUndln one eYe.
           351 1 v r . 1 m o s . 6 l                                                              Fatber, rLlcers       oithe stomach; moLher,


                 1 yr. 6 mos.

                                     'i                                     2, 4, 6, 9,
                                                                              1 3 ,1 5 .
                                                                                                     rrou Dle.
                                                                                                  Falhpr, frippc; mother, abscessuder
                                                                                                     a r n r , g r i r , p e :c h i l r l r e n 2 , + , 6 , 8 , 1 3
                                                                                                     fcars, glippe; child 18 years, pncu-
                                          l                                                   i      monla.
           358   2]TS.3das                      65.76                   3   J,;,\..-..1           . V o l h e r ," n o t s t r o n g " : . c h i l d 4 y c a r s ,
                                                                                              I      DOlls.tonsus remoled.
           361   7 mos,12das-                   62.70         ......1   2   .1,;.... . .. .       Child 4 yoars,diphthcria: cbild i 1 mrs,
                                                                                                     nelrf, tTouble.
           365   L y r . 2 m o s .1 6         2C5.03          li        2   9, 1;-.. -...         Fathcr, lnatariq; mother, Bright's d.is-
                   os.                                        1""'                                   case (diedt: child 1i vears. nervous-
                                                                                                     nessdnd leakase ofhearl.
                 2 yrs. m das--                                             I,7----.---1          F a t h e r , e f f e c t so i b e i n g g a s s e d n r v a r :
                                                              inl                          ]         mother, weak and rieivous; child 1

                 I r [ o . 2 9d a s . .         n.r
                                                              tl                           I
                                                                                                     year, undernourished: child 7 t'ears.
                                                                                                     irndernourished and needs slasses.

                                                              il            4, 10-.-. --.I        \{otber, confinernent (child died).

         Families handicappedby illness.
           The many factors interrelated with illness in the families of un-
         employed men-whether as cause, efiect, or merely occurring coin-
         cidently-are best shown in illustrations such as the following.
          The father of five children, ranging in age from L to 11 years, was
        born in England 35 years ago, has been in America 19 years and has
        taken out his citizenship papers. The mother is American born.
        They live in a respectable residential sectionof the city. The house
        needspainiing, but, otheru'iseis in good repair; it has furnace heat
        and gas. It is well furnished. There is a yard of good size in the
          The father was a machinist in a shoe factory and earnod about
        $140 a month. In June, 1921, he injured his hand with a needle;
        blood poisoning set in, and when he was well seyeralw'eelis  later he
        could not get work. Since then he has earned only $30 at irregular
        work. Besidesthe father's accident the family has had a great deal
        of illness and misfortune. Last September the 3-year-old giri lost
        the sight of one eye as the result of a fa1l. The rvhole family has
        just come out of six weeks' quarantinc for scarlet fever. The father
        had temporary work at the time the children rvere taken ill and had

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                       THII   FAXITLIES   OI' T.HIj   UNIIMIJL()Y!]D.        93

       to give up his job. The mother is pregnant aud expectsconfinement
      iu tr'ebruary, and is feeling so miserable that she has to spend most
      of her time in bed. The mother sa,yseyerJrtime the cirildren go out
       they contract coids, and she attributes this to undernourishment.
      They have never had much sickness the family before.
         The mother would like to give the children milk but can not afrord
      it. She used to buy 2 quarts daily but nou'buys none, and the chil-
      clrenare not given milk at schooi. The family has eaten more bread
      rrnd sirup the iast six months than ever before-to make up for the
      lack of other things. The mother saysthev have had no new clcthes,
      but that shc has done her best to make over evervthing in the house.
      Sire has eyen talien her last petticoat to make a dressfor the riltlest
      girl: she does noi need it, as she spendsmost of her time iri beti.
      The famiiy is deepll. in debt. They o11.e    gne doctor a bill of $60,
      and the specialisl, l-ho operated cn the little girl's eye, $150; also
      $80 to a grocer, and a large amount to the citr- for rent ald groceries.
      They have had to drop all their insuraneepolicies-$1,500 for the
      father, $350 for the mother, and small iniiustrial policies costing 10
      cents a month for the children.
          A young Irish couplehas been unable to keerp thc par-meutson
      the insurance policies rvh.ichboth irr'utl   been crili'-r-ing,    this has
      meant the loss of a large part of the $l.i1.4-1 rlreadr: paid in. During
      the year's unemplovment of the father, ther. haye also gone into
      debt for food and medical attenclanceto ihe amount of $E8. The
      father has secured temporarv jobs a.mountinE1,r)something over
      two months' time, and the rno+"her six month-q
                                             for              seu-ed the alter-
      ation room of a department store, earning $15 rveekly.' Thc two
      little girls of 5 and 3 years were left in the care of the father whcn he
      rvas at, home, and at other times wil,h a, ncigh"iior'. iho mother is
      not norv rvorking, and the 912 a week lvhich the father is eaming .
      at citl- rvork representsthe entire income. The elcierchild has had
      her tonsils removed during the year, and both children ha,vesufiered
      much with colds. i{ot able to afiord coal to heat ail of their four-
      room apartrnent, the famil-l'is living in the kitchen and one bcdroom.
      Thc children are drinking large quantities of tea, bccausethe par.cnts
      cirn.not aflord to bu1' rnilk.
        In a Slavic family consistingof a father, two sons of 10 and 16,
      and two daughtersof 14 and 18 years, the mother died nine months
      ago, after a lingering illness. The father is a blacksmiih's helper
      and had been a steady worker, the mother had been economical,
      and the familv had managed to save $1,200by the time the father
      Iost his jcb. During the 14 months he has been out of work he has
      earnedjust $88.90. The 16-vear-old   boy earned$30 on a farm last
      summer, the oldest,girl rvorked two weeks making about $7.50 a

Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university
       94             UNEMpLoyM.ENT     AND ctHILD wELTARE.

       week, and the rent of the secondfloor had brought them $180,mak-
       ing a total of $313 since the period of unemployment began. The
       doctor came eyery day during the last two or three months of the
       mother's illness, charging $3 a visit. This bill has al1 been paid
       except g15 or g20, and also the funeral expenses,vrhich came to
       $500. Thes: bills, plus expenditures for food and clothing, have
       eaten up eve^y cent of their savings.
          The 1S-year-old daughterhas beenkeepinghousesinceher mother's
       death. Just trr-o weeks before the agent's visit she had obtained
       rvork in a shirt iactory, to earn money enough for clothes for her-
       self. The house seemedbeautifully kept, but the father thought
       it rvas too hard for her to work and to keep house too.
          The 16-year-old boy has finished the eiglith grade and is now
       going to a businesscollege. It means a real sacrificefor the familv,
       for it costs $150 a year, but l,he father wili not let him stop. I{e
       says that if the boy has an education he can get a job anywhere,
       and he will be able to help him-the father-in later )-ears;but if he
       doesn't get an education he wiil never be able to get along in life.
       The father is very much interested in helping his chiiclren to get
        ahead and become respected citizens. The rent from the second
       floor is being usedfor the bov's schooling.
           A team driver lost his place in tlie late summer of 1921becauseof
        lack of work. There are seyen children in the family, about tx'o
        years apart, the youngest a child not a month old and the oldest
        13 years of age. The father is rapidly losing his eyesight. The
        city had given him employ'ment for three weeks, and then laid him
        ofr becausehe could not seewell enough to perform even the unskilled
        job of a laborer. This family of nine is living in four undesirable
        rooms, almost unfurnished; ra,gswere stufied in the broken rvindows.
          Living in an apartment of four rooms on the first floor of a two-
        story frame house is a family of eight. The father is a native-born
        American, 31 years of age, the mother a fraillookilg woman of 30,
        a Hollander'. Of the sk children the youngest are twin girls 3
        months old and the oidest is a boy of 7. The houseis in a fairly good
        residence. neighborhood, and is comfortably furnished. A iarge
        basket of clothes stands ready to be ironed. The home and the
        babies are kept spotlesslyclean, for the mother says "I just have to
        have things clean even though it takes all my strength."
          IVhen worki:rg the father earned about, $130 a month as a core
        maker, but becausehis family was large he could save very little.
        Consequently,less than a month after he lost his job he was forced
        to ask aid from the relief society. He has now been out of steady
        work about a year, during which time he has rvorked very irregularly
        on a bridgo that is under construction. He has a horror of debt, so

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                       l'HD   I'AMILIES   OTT TIIE   LTNEMPLOYED.           95
       with the exceptionof a $57 grocery bill, u-hich the famil.vwas obliged
       to run last summer v.hen he could find nothing whatever to dofhe
       has paid cash for everything, going without rvhenever there is no
       money on hand. The mother says they live on bread, jam, and
       potatoes most of the Cme. The children often go to their grand-
       mother''sacrossthe street, becausethere is nothing in the house to
       eat. The mother is grateful for the help already given. X'or trvo
       months after the trvins rvere born a class of young giris at the churcir
       sent 2 quarts of milk a day, but now the family is taking only a
       pint or two and the mother adds hot water to make it enough fol
       the children's oatmeal.
         The mother's pregnancy iras complicated the situation, for during
       the months v'hen she specially need.ed   good food, rest, and {reeclom
      from v'orry she was forced to rvork rerS htrrd under a sever.e   lrer\-ous
      strain and'w-ithlittle to eat. Just prior to her conflnementin october
      she broke do*n completelv from undernourishmentand rvorrv, a.d
      after the tv-ins *ere born she u'as weak and nervous and generaily
      wretched. The other grandmother has taken the 4-year-old girl
      home with her to Michigan because the mother is not well enouEh
      to care for so many children.
         Th9 family had paid $50 on a lot they were buying, but were
      forced to sell for $20 becausethey were unable to keep up the pay-
      ments. The father has also had to give up his membership and
      insurance in a lodge to rvhich he had belonged silce he *u, u bo5,.
      The grocery bill and a doctor's bill of between $25 and $100 are
      worrying the family considerablv.
         rn anotherfamily the father had tried to do city work for trvo weeks
      but had broken down becausehe was not used to outdoor labor.
      There were three children-l, b, and 8 years of age. The pregnant
      mother had to stop her work, and the family was at the end of its
      resourcesw'hen the S-year-old son was run oyer by an automobile.
      The owner of the car ofiered to pay the parents $12b to settle the
      caseout of court and thereby relieve himselJof all further responsi-
      bility in the matter. I'he pareuts were more tiran willing to accept
      the money. The boy's front teeth were knocked out, and two teeih
      had been driven into his jaw, causing great pain. His collar bone
      also was broken. He was attended by the family doctor because        he
      was "cheaper than dowrr-tow-n   doctors." He chargedoniy $1b, and
      the mother explained that they were ((9110 clear', on the boy,s
      accident. The $110was usedimmediately for family livirg expenses.
      The injured boy was unable to eat solid food on account of the
      condition of his mouth. His mother said he cried from hunger, but
      sho could afrord to buy him very little of the two things that he could
      eat with any degree of comfort-milk and eggs; he finally had to

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        96             uNEMPr,oYtrDNl'AND      (IHILD wELFARE.

        oat food that hurt his mouth. He has "picked up a little," but the
        school has sent home word that he is still 10 pounds under weight.
        The "g110 clear" tided the family over & few weeksuntil the father
        began to get a little money from odd jobs.
           In order that her children might look as well in school and at work
        as the other children of the neighborhood,one mother has not hesi-
        tated to adri to her other heavy tasks the rnaking of clothing for ail
        seven of ihem, even their stockings, and hats for the girls. There
        were five girls, 7, t, 13, 16, and 17 years of age, and two boys, 4 and
        12 years of age. An uncle lives with the family as a boarder' The
        eldestgirl is rr'olliilg, and the secondhelps an aunt most of the time
        rvhenshe is not irr school,so the mother does all the work necessary
        in n irousehold 10 persons. Her burdel.s\Yere
                        of                                 still further increased
        rvhen the children rii had the influenza during the first winter after
        the father lost his steady employment. Perhapsthe family epidemic
        of in{luenze n-.a}-be partly accounted for by the fact that during
        that rvinter less thari a ton of coal was used, oil stot'es serviag, on
        occasion,to heat their eight-room home. They had been making
        pavrnents on this house for fi.ve years, but after the father losl his
        work it becam.e   r-ery difficult to meet taxes and interest. Last year
        tb.euncle helped, but this year the mother feels there w-ill be no way
        of meeting the $S8 tax bill which v'ill fall due in a few days.
           ,l Russian-Polish   family has beenlivirrg in the samehousefor seven
        yeaxs. They have been buying it by monthiy payments which
        incrlr:de interest and a small amount of the principal. They occupy
        the lower part of the house and receive $18 a month for the second
        floor. The father, a man of 37 years, can speak English but cart
        not, read. ,\lthough he has been in the tinited States since he was
        21 and bris lived in this city for the last 12 years hc has never applied
        for citizenship papers. IIe and his rvi-fehave been industrious and
        thrifty, for in addition to the pavments on the house they had saved
        $1,000,although there are six children from 1 to 12 years of age.
           The rvorks il l-hich the father was ernployed as a molder were
        shut down a little oyer & year ago. With their savings, the rent
        the family receivedfrom their tenants, and the father's earnings at
        temporary work (tho'ughthis has amounted to less than $300 in the
        year), it rvould seem as if the condition of this famil;r shouid not
        have been desperate. But the mother was ill and had to have an
        operation, and during the riile months of her illness all of the $1,000
        was absorbed paying the hospital and doctor"s druggists,leaving
                        in                                  and
         a bill of $38 still unpaid. So the family, almost wholly deprived of
         the mother's serricesand cale, beganto acquiredebts-for pa5zments
         orr the house, in-.ulance, food, gas, a cash ioan of $150, and the
        rneCicrrlattendance rnentioned-until they now owe $474.32, and
         their savingsof years are gone.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
          The preceding discussionlb of the charitable aid Eiven the famiries
        selected visiting shows that over one-halfof them had beenforced
        to apply for assistance from public or private relief agencies. More
        than two-thirds of those rvho askedfoi aid did so within half a year
       after the father x'as thrown out of work; more than a third of tlem
       reachedthis extremitv rvithin three months. rt is believed that the
       information securedfrom the families visited in the two cities pr.e-
       sents a much mole iust picture of the relation between oo"trrpioy_
       ment and dependency upon relief than can be formecl throuE6 the
       records of relief societies since these relate onlv to g"o.[. of
       dependents. rt was, however, deemed of interest io this- stuhy to
       secureinforrnation concerningthe relief problem, through stu,ily of
       the casesdealt u,'ith by public and p'ivate relief ageicies, tlose
       especially rvhich unemployment rvasgiven as the r.eisonfor need-
      ing aid.
          The main relief agenciesin Racine were the central Association,
      a privately supported oiganization cooperating with the public
      rrgencies and the city poor department. There was also a county
      poor agent,-rvhogave aid to families having no legal residencein the
      county, and also to transients. Because of the unusual need, in
      -\pril, 1921,the city appropriated $50,000for the reiief of the fami-
      lies of the
                   .unemployed. This aid rvas given through the existing
      relief agencies'
                              TrrE cITy coMl\rISsARy.
         The city commissaryrvas establishedin octcber, 1921. The fund
       for the commissarvwas tahen from the unexpendedbalance of the
      $50.000appropriated in April. $20,000being added to this amount
      in January, 1922. one large manufact'ring concern had been
      helping their former employees who neecletf assistance, through
      crranting them grocery orders as ]oans. Tliis company
                                                               donated the
      useof quarters for the city cornmissary, and provided lighi and heat.
      In turn, they were allowed thc rise of the city commi.rTu"y for their
      families, reimbursing the city fund rnonthl;,.
         Ilg suppliesrveregiven in the form of loans, except that in cases
      in which repayment seemedimpossiblefree aid mighi be given. To
      apply for credit,at the commissarS' unemployedLan hid to come
      to the office of the central Associationor of thl city superintendent
      of the poor. unless the family was already known, trr6 application
       t5 Seepp. 79 to 8{

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        98                      UNEMPIIIYMENT         Al\D cHILD   wELI'ARD'

       rvas investigated. \\4ren it hatl been approved, the father signed rr,
       promissorynote to repay the debt at_therate of $3 eachpay day after
       L" ,."*.d empio;,ment. He rvas then given an order on the com-
       missary, and checkedthe articleshe desirecl a list of staple articles
       of food and.householcl  suppiies. The provisionsoould not be secu'ed
       until the follorving day, since a copy of the order had to be sent to
       the city comptrJler, .rvho fonvalded it to the ccmmissary' The
       ageoci". receivedfrom the cit-Vcornptroller monthlY statementsfor
       eich of the famiiies to $,hom they had given orders so that a family
       could at any time find out the amount of its debt. A ledger account
       for each familS' rvas kept at the offlce of the city comptroller'
          Only one <.rr6ercoulJ be securedby n,family i. a week. Thc list
       from v'hic1i  selection was macle specified the follo$'ing items, rvitir
       iimitations as to quantities:
                                                        2 pounclsorrrons.
        { bushel potatocs.
        2 poundsbutteri-ne.                             3 pouncls carrots.
        2 pounds lard.                                  3 pountls rutabagas.
          pound peanut butter'                          3 pounds cabbage.
          pound coffee.                                 2 pounds oatmeal.
           pound cocoa.                                 2 pounds cornmeai.
           pound rice.                                  2 cakes yeast.
           pound beans.                                 { pound barley.
        1 pound spaghetti.                              I sack rvheat flour.
        3 pounds sugar.                                 ] sack rye flour.
        3 pounds boiling beef.                          I pound prunes.
        1 pound salt pork.                              1 pound dried apples.
        1 can sirup.                                    I pound jelly.
        1 pound cheese.                                 I package pepper.
        1 dozen eggs.                                   5 pountls salt.
        I can tomatoes.                                 1 can mazola.
        1 can pcas.                                      1 package Poetum.
         2 cans condensed milk.                          I pound tea.
         1 can evaporatcd milk.                          1 pound crackers.
         Vinegar.                                        Oranges.

          Soap and other suppliesfor washing also could be ordered'
          An important item was the issuing of books of milk tickets as a
        part of the ordersfor provisions. fhs sommissarylist did not specify
        ihe number of such books that could be secured. Each book con-
        tained a dollar's worth of tickets for 11 quarts of milk'
          The following list shows the amount, of credit given families of
        unemployed men ttrrough the city commissary during the first three
        months of its operation:
               -\mount of loans to                                        Number of families
                 January 21, 1922                                         aided in 3 montbs.

                         Total - -                                                      308

               L e s Bh a n $ 5 . . . . . . - . - .
                       t                                                                 40
               $ 5 ,l e s s h a n $ 1 0 - . . . .
                                            -..-'                                        39
               $1b,lessthan $15-

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                 UNE},IPLOYMENT                    AND       TIII]     POLIEF         PROBLD}T IN RACINE.          99
              Amount of loans to                                                              Number of families
               January 21, 1922.                                                              aidod in 3 months.
              $15, lessthan 920-- - "                                                                        34
              g 2 0 l e s s f r a n S O - - - . - --.-:- - . . . - . - . - . : . - . . .
                            t       g                                                                        Ss
              930,lessthan $40-...- -                                                                        33
              $40,lessthan $ir0-.-                                                                           21
              $ 5 0 ,l e s s t h a n $ 6 0 - . - - - -                                                       11
              $60,lessthan $70. - - -     -.                                                                  6
              $70,lessthan $8C).. -        -..                                                                2
      The total amount of the credit or aid given during the three months
      was $6,282.63,          $20.40per family'.
                            RELIEF WORK AND LOANS BY FACTORIES.

         One of the largest concerns in Racine-an implement works-
       employed in normal times betrveen4,000 and 5,000 men. Early in
       January, 1922,it had only about 700 men working.
         Previous to the establishmentof the city commissary this com-
       pany gaye their former employeesorders on local grocers. These
      were in the form of loans, the men signing a promissory note to
      repay the amount at the rate of $3 each pay day rvhen they had
      regular employment. It was stated that if the company found that
      a man could not pay back at this rate, he rvould be allowed to pay
      according to his ability. The only requirement for eligibility to these
      loans rvas that the man must have been a former employeein good
      standing. In all excepi emergencycases,inyestigation was made
      before the loan was granted. With the establishment of the city
      commissary, arrangements were made to give orders on the com-
      missary for groceries,coal, and underwear, on promissory notes as
      before. Books of milk tickets were also issued. Each month the
      company reimbursed the city for the cost of the articles rvithdrawn.
      This company collected food prices for each month, and made up
      budgets, estimated according to the prevailing prices for the month,
      on which they basedtheir relief work. Information as to the quanti-
      ties of food and household supplies needed was obtained from the
      families of the employees.'6 N{edicalcare was given to families by
      the company doctor. A small number of men had been placed at
      outside work through the factory's employment office. During the
      year 192i, about 300 families of formor employeeswere aided with
      credit,for groceriesand other necessalies.
         Another large manufacturing plant, granted similar loans to men
      who had been in the empioy of the company for at least six months,
      and who had not quit of their own accord or been discharged. The
      procedure here was for the man to apply to the welfare worker for
      each order, signing an agreementwith the company to repay the loan
      at the rate of $3 eachpay day when he should be taken back to work
      permanently. Groceries and fuel were obtained in this manner. A
       16geo details of budget, p. 37.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       100                 UNEMPLOYMENT             AND CHILD WELFAR,E.

       grocery order for a certain amount would be given, io be filled by
       grocels rvith whom the company had made agreementsfor trade.
       The needsof eachfamily were considered granting the orders, the
       famill: heing permittecl to select the food. The welfare worker
       chechedup on the itcms as the bills came in from the stores,and she
       frequentlv taught the families how to buy and cook economically.
       This compa,nydid a great deal for their families at, Christmas time,
       sending them food, toys, and Christmas trees. OId clothing was
       collected and given to those who neededit. The families who
       received loans from the companv were not supposedto receive aid
       from thc public or private relief agencies. tlp to the middle of
       January, 1922163 families of former employeeshad been aided by
       loans,'and 52 had been given clothing.
                                     THE CITY POOR OFFICE.

          The city superintendentof the poor reported 17  that there had been
       four times as much need for city aid during the year 1921-the
       unemployment period-as there had been in the preceding year.
       In i920 a total of 84 caseswere recordedon the city's books, as
       against 336 for the year 1921. The 1920casesincluded 120 adults
       and 146 children; in 1921 the numbers \rrere 622 adults and 963
       children. It was impossible to securefigures in regard to the number
       of families aided in each of these years but the comparative number
       of children reported rvould seem to indicate that approximately six
       times as many families with children were given aid during the
       unemployment year as during the precedingyear.
          The office of the superintendent of the poor formerly gaye grocery
       orders on local stores,but after the establishmentof the city com-
       missary all orders were filled through it. In 1921 the expenditures
       for groceries totaled $17,303.21as compared with fi2,952.25 the for
       preceding vear; the rent item ($5,792.60)w-asalmost six times as
       large as for 1920. Other expenditureswere: Fuei, $2,169.141      shoes,
       $544.55; burials, $290.50; caring for sick in homes, ffa57.78;'  caring
       for sick in hospitais,$1,385.65;miscellaneous,    $392.77. The total
       expendedfor aid during the year was fi28,472.50,   exclusiveof salaries
       and other expenses of conducting the office. The monthly totals
       show a definite increase as the unemployment period continued,
       ranging from $787.60in Januar)- to more than $3,000 in IVIay and
       June,.therebeing a slight decrease the last two months of the year.
                                 THE PRIYATE RELIEF AGENCY.

         The largest private relie{ society in Racine rvas called ihe Central
       Association. In addition to a relief department this organiz.ation
        lTRacineJournal-Nelvs, December 31, 1921.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University

      doing work by the day), and a "Big'Sister" department r,.rhich
      rvorkedwith girls. At, the time tiiis study was made the staff of the
      relief or "family dep:rrtment" included in addition to the superin-
      tendent rvho w-asin charge of all branches of the rvork of the asso-
      ciation, a visiting housekeeper who also passedupon the recommen-
      dations of the visitors in regard to aid to be given; one visitor who
      did all the investigation and supervision 'work with families other
      than unemployrnent cases; three visitors-two paid and one full-
      time volunteer-who devoted all their time to l'ork u'ith unemploy-
      ment cases;and an office staff consisting of one interviewer, one file
      clerk, and one bookkeeper.
      Belief to families of unemployed men.
         On January 27, 1921,the Central Associationwas allotted a special
      fund of $25,651.07    from the community "war chest." This fund
      was disbursed during the four rnonth! from February to X{av,
         When relief was applied for, if unemployrrent was not a factor in
      the situation, the family was given aid from 'r,heregular fund of the
      association. When unemploSzment      rvas the occasionfor the need,
      the aid was given from the special city fund, through orders on thc
      city commiss&ry,a promissory note for the amount treing signed by
      the applicant. Previous to the establishmentof the cornmissaryin
      October, 1921, books of milk tickets were given out as reiief, and
      "unemployment" families. rvheneverpossibie,were given orders on
      the grocerwho had already allorvedthern credii but refusedto extend
      it further. The associationdid not grant grccery orders to families
      until their credit 'wasentirely exhausted,aithough it might help rvith
      fuel and clothing.
         When an order for coal was allol'ed a family, a promissory note
      was signedby the applicant. The association     had paid rent in a few
      extreme cases, but refrained from doing so as much as possible.
      Rents paid by it were always in advance. Occasionallya landiord
      w&san applicant for aid, and the association  aided him by paying the
      rent,for his tenant. The associationreported that it, had given out
      at least 1,000 new garments, 5,000 articles of old clothing during
      1921,and 200 layettes. It had also issuedorCerson locai shoestores
      for 114pairs of shoesv'hich were dontrtedb-v a shoe-manufacturing
      company. Prescriptions \\:ere allorved to all sick people. If the
      family was one receiving commissary orders, the city doctor was
      called, the medicine or a.nything else ordered by the doctor was fur-
      nished to the family. Conflnement caseslr-eresometimes given free
      care by the city health department
         Between the latter part of October, 1921, t'hen the commissary
      was established,and January 7, L922,852 commissarv orders s-ere

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        r02                  UNE1VIPLOYMENT              AND     CI{ILD    WEI.FARE.

        issued by tire associationto 352 persons. About 20 of these rvere
        single men tc whom meal tickets were issued; the remainder repre-
        sented families of unemployed men. It rvas estimated that about,
        75 per cent of the men applying for aid becauseof unemployment,
        lrere totally unemployed; 25 per cent were partially employed,earn-
        ing from $12 to 915 a week, which was noL enough to support their
        families. Frequently the families of men who had some work man-
        aged to buy food, and the association furnished them with clothing
        and other necessities. Xfany of the men had earned 50 cents now
        and then, with which they had paid their gas and light bills. About
        a fourth of the families had their gas and light shut off becauseof
        nonpayrnent, and many families were burning kerosene for lighting
        because  they could get this on their commissaryorders.
        Increase in the relief problem.
          The annual report of the Central Associationfor the year November
        1, 1920, to ){ovember t, !921, states tirat the society aided 2,027
        families during the year, L,642 of rvhom came to their attent'ion
        because the widespreadunemployment. Thus, the reiief problem
        dealt with by this society rvas increasedto over five times its usual
          The total amount of relief given through the association during
        the year was $30,938.36,     lvhich inciuded the $25,651.07 from the
        " war chest, fund, ivhich was used, as noted above, during the period
        extendingfrom the lst of n'ebruary through the month of \[ay, 1922.
        A comparison of the amount expended for relief during this year of
        seriousindustrial depression,  with the amountsfor the four preceding
        years is showrr by the follorving figures:
               July 1, 1916, June 30, 1917.
                           to                                                                  $718.41.
               Juiy 1, 1917, June 30, 1918.
                           to                                                                 1,450.
               July 1, 1918, June 30, 1919.
                           to                                                                 2,125.60         c
               JuIy 1, 1919, June 30, 1920
                           to                                                                 2,917.77         t
               Nov. 1, 1920, Oct. 31, 1921.. .
                            to                                                         .. le 30,938,36
          Comparative data in regard to the number of families aided were                                      f,
        securedfor four years, as follor,vs:
               July 1, 1917,to June 30, 1918"                                                       391        c
               July 1, 1918,to June 30, 1919.                                                       387
               Nor'. l, 1919,to Oct. 31, I92O.- -                                                   441        a
               Nov. 1, L920, Oct. 31, 1921- -
                             to               -                                                 . 2,027

           The above figures shorv that five times as many families were given
        aid during the unemplo;rment period as the average during the pre-
        ceding ye&rs, and that the averageamount of relief for each family
        during the unemployment period was about three times as much as
        in precedingyears.
         lE Change itr trscal year. Amount of relief given frorn July 1, 1920,to Oct, 31, 1920, was f610.53.
         le heiudes $25,651.07from
                                    "war chest."

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University

         The November, 1g21, records of the private relief agency
      examined and a crosssectionstudy was made of all the ttimilils
      applied for aid apparently becauseof the father's unemplovment.
      lho totfll nurnber of such families applying during the monih
         The 179 fathers had been employed in 32 different establishnrenrs.
      mainly foundries or factories *hu"" farm implements,
      plies, automobiles,or rubber products l-ere made.
      Duration of unemployment before.applymg for aid.
        x{ore than three-fourths of the families (1Bg) rvere
                                                                new to the
     aflency and had. applied for aid for the first time during
                                                                 this unern-
     ploynrent period. of these, E4 per cent appiied for cilaritable
     within three rnonths of trre time lhe father ''as thro*n
                                                               out of work.
     of the total 17g families, one-seventhrequired assistance
                                                                   within a
     month of the time rvhen the fathe. lost his job. The foilowing
     shorvstiresefacts iir more detail for the families for rvhorr
                                                                   tt n ti-n
     rvasreportcd, accordingto ''hether the famil-v applied for
                                                                 aicl for the
     first tirne during this unernploymentperiod         pr"oio,r.ty kro*_
     to the society:                              ";;;
                                                                New cases Old cases
          P0riod lrefilro afl'licf,tioil   for aid.
                                                                '"""",,j]'s rTilYinc
                                                                       116          9.1
         Lessthan I mon1h.
                                                                        t2           E
         l-3 months-
                                                                        5I          10
         4-5 months.
                                                                        2S           J
         6 months and or-er.

    Nativity and residence of fathers.
     The greatest contrast appearsbetween the nativi
                                                 ivity of the fathers
    of this gloup and thrnt of the .rvhite males 2l years of
                                                             age and over in
    the.generalpopulati,l of trre city. of the former, zs-p".-"ur1
    naf,lve and 72 per ccnt foreign born; the corresponding
    for the generalpopuiation w-ere and 44-
       only 5 per cent of the 179fathers were knou-n to have rived
     .                                                               in the
    city during their entire lives, another 5 per cent had iived
                                                                  there for
    20 yerr.rs longer. None of the families had corneto the
             or                                                city within
    & year, but more tharr half had been residentsfor less than l0 years.
         Length of father,s residence in city.
                                                           Per cent distribution.


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        LA4                       UNEMPLOYMENT                AND    CHII,D   WELFARE.

        Children in families given aid.
          In 176 of thesefamilies there were 595 children under 18 years of
        age.'o The following list gives the number of children in eachfamily:
                                                                                       Number of families
                Number of chiltlren in fBmily.                                             reporting.
                                                                                                      I /t)
                3 -- - - - . . . - . - .                                                               46



           There were more families with three children than with any other
        mrmber, and the families with one, two, or three children formed 59
        per cent of the total-
           About one-tenth of the children were under 1 year of age. These
        families showed a preponderance of children under 7 years of age-
        56 per cent as comparedwith the 45 per cent in the generalpopula-
        tion. The percentagesof children from 14 to 17 years of age in-
        clusive were 9 in the group applying to the associationand 10 in the
        general population.
                                                                                     Nmber of childretr iu
                Ages of children.                                                     iamilios reporting,
                          Total.....                                                                  595

                U n d e r1 y e a r - - . . - . --.. .                                                  59
                1-6 years-                                                                            271
                7 - 1 31 ' e a r s . . . . .                                                          zTL
                14-15years"                                                                            36
                16-17 years-
                Not reported.-                                                                            3

        Employment of children.
          Onl5r40 families had children 14 years of age or oYer. Of the 51
        children of working age, only 13, in the same number of families,
        were working during the time aid was given. Thus, in more than
        two-thirds of these families, children who might have been em-
        ployed were presumably unable to find work or were not eligible for
        *oiki.rg permits because they had not completed the required
         Illness in the families.
            Of the 179 families, 106 (S9 per cent) were reported as having
         had some seriousillness during the period of the father's unemploy-
         ment. The details in regard to the members of the families who
         were ill are as follolt's:
              I'orli .oor,r*uin,                 *oo ai""ni ilte         *ur"  .up".iJ]-
                                           "ornuo,               "u-ilo.eo ""t

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                UNDMPLOYMENT             AND THE RELTEF PROBLEM IN B.ACINE.                          105

                 or        havins
            Membors ramilies     illness.                                         "T"HTlilXH:*
                Total.-.--                                                           -....-.. fOO
            Mother. - -
            Father-... -. -                                                                    10
            One or more children- -.. -                                                        lT
            tr{otherand father.---                                                              6
            Mother and one or more children...                                                 lz
            Father and one or more children. -.. -. -                                           z
            Mother, father, and one ol mole children- -. - - _                                  4
       In 63 famiiies, or more than a third of the entire group, tho mother
     vraspregnant or confined during the time the father was unemployed.
     This disability of the mother, added to her special need for medical
     seryiceand other assistance,   was undoubtedly the real occasionfor
     the application for aid in a considerableproportion of these families.

              .       FBEE MILK TO SCHOOLCHILDREN.
        In the latter part of 1921, the Women's Civic League raised a
     special fund for furnishing milk to school children. Each school
     sent weekly reports to the milk committee of the league, noting the
     improvements that appeared to have followed the supplying of
     milk in the case of each child. The children received the milk free
     or were charged a nominal sum. The teachers decided which
     children should have the milk free. It was reported that some
     children who had been pa;ring and were no longer ablo to do so,
     frequently discontinued drinking milk because they were too proud
     to say that they could not afford to buy it. The following list
     shows that 2,131 children in 14 schools of the city (including one
     parochial school) were served miik during the week of January 16,
     1922,of whom at least 742 (35 per cent) receivedit free.
            schoor.                                                                    t-T*iffitril"i1.J*
                   Total-...                                              - . 2t 742      2rl. 106

             1-.                                                                70             90
            2                                                                  r22            113
            J                                                                  106            104
                                                                                27            108
            D                                                                   32             g4
            6                                                                   15
                                                                                60        '.'.ii;
           10.                                                                             22 251
           tl-.                                                                 16            28
           12                                                                  r27            87
                                                                                85            6l
           14.                                                                  22            oi)

     21Total not complete because data not reported from School No. 8.
     t: The principal and tho teachers paid for some of these childro!.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        106                        LTNE}TPLOY}IENT   AND   C}IILD   WELFAR,E.

          On January !, 1922, it was necessaryto raise the price from 2
        cents to 3 cents a day for each child; that same week 287 chiidren
        discontinued taking it. During the v-eek January 16 to 20, 23,104
        half-pints of milk'vt'ere served to the school children of the city.
                          CHILDREN         BROUGHT TO THE DAY NURSDRY.

          On January 15, !922, the day nursery conducted by the Central
        Association\\'as caring for 22 children from eight families in rvhich
        the mother rvas.working. Thesorepresentedabout half of the total
        number of children in the day nursery at that time. The attend-
        ance at the nursery rras not constant, becausethe mothers were
        doing ri'ork by tiie day which was not at all regular. In seven of
        these eight families the mother had not, rvorked prior to the unem-
        ployment of the father.. The nursery had previously cared for the
                   of five other farnilies in which the father lvas unemployed.
        Th'e reasonsgiven for no longer bringing the children to the numery
        were that the father had secured.$ork and the mother stayed home,
        the mother lost her u'ork and lvas not able to obtain any other, and
        in one case the mother died and the children rvere placed in an
          The small number of children brought to the day nursery is
        largely explained by the scarcity of employment forwomen, and
        also by the fact that the unemployed fathers often cared for the
        children at, home during the mother's absence. The only day
        nursery in the city v'as inaccessible many families. One working
        mother     walked three miles to place her children in the nursery.
        The largest numbers of children under c&re were reported for l{ay
        and June, 1920, early in the unemployment period, and again for
        August, September, and October, 1921- The total familics and
        children cared for monthly at this nursery from ,\plil, 1920, to
        January, 1922, are shorvnin bhefollowing iist:
              Year and month.                                                   Families.   Childen.
                   An l
                  ^ P rrri r . .   -

                  May-..-----                                                        21      51
                  J u n e - .- -                                                     24      62
                  July-.- -                                                          27      46
                  fruF,uJr..----                                                     20      49
                 September. --                                                       2t      45
                 October-----                                                        18      4l
                 November--                                                         ('n)     (*)

                 December-                                                           19      41,
                 Jamrary.                                                            20      39
                 February- -                                                         2L      45
                 Ifarch.......                                                       18      44

          2. Nuaber not reported.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
             UNE]\fPLOYMENT AND THn RELInF PnoBLol\T IN nAcINE.                     10?
           Year and month.                                        lamilies.   children.
               April-..                                     .----..- 19       44
               r\ray........._.::::::::::::::.:::::::::..            le       42
               June...                                      --.-.-.- zr       46
               July----                                              t9       52
               August.-_---                                          20       55
               September_...                                         2g       70
               October-....                                          2-o      bg
               November..                                            22       b2
               December..                                            1b       47


        Unemployment \Masa factor in increasilg the number of mothers
      applying for and receiving pensions through the juvenile court,
      which administered this aid in Racine. fn August, 1g20,there were
      85 widows receivingpensionslon December14, 1g21, the number
      had increasedto 132. The court reported for the year ending Sep-
      tember 30, 1921,that 136 families,with a total of SSZchildren,had
      been aided during the year, the sum expended for this purpose
        Thirty-seven of the women granted pensionsduring the year had
      been widowed for five or more years and had been able to support
      themselvesup to the time of applying for aid.
        Not only did mothers rn'howere employed outside of the home
      becomedependent through unemploynent, but those rvho r,vere   sup-
      porting themselves by taking roomers and boarders were deprived
      of this source of ilcome becausethe roomers left or were unable to
      pay their rent.
        The following are stories illustrative of the casesof mothers to
      whom pensions were granted in 1g21 becausetheir meansof livinE
      were cut off through the general unemplo5nnent:
         Mother with three children. The father had been dead five years.
      Up to the time of application for a pension ilr tr'ebruary, 1921, the
      mother had been able to support herself and the children. She
      owned her home, but it carried a g1,200mortgage. She had plevi-
      ously been able to rent rooms, but becauseof the unemplovment
      situation in the city, she had not for some time been abie to get
      tenants. The only income she had at the time of application rvas
      rent from the downstairs flat. She was granted a pension of $20
      a month.
         A mother with two children-aged Z and b years-whose husband
      had been dead four years, applied for a pension in October, 1921.
      She had supported herself by working outside of the home and by
      renting the upper flat of the housewhich she owned. She hnd been
      "laid ofr" for some time previous to the application for aid, and.the

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        108           UNEMPI,(JYMENT   AND   T]IIILD   WELFAR,E.

        tenants in thdupper flat had not been able to pay any rent for five
        months because -un was out of work. A pensionof $12 a month
        was granted.
          A mother with three children, who had been earnilg from $18 to
        $22 a week, had been out of work for some time. she was buying
        her property, had paid $a,oo0on it, but still owed $1,100' She was
        given a pension of $20 a month.

          Another mother had supported herself and one child by keeping
        boarders for the six years since h"r husband's death. Becauseof
        unemployrnent the boarders had left, and shc had not been able
        to get others or to fincl outsidework for herself. The pensiongranted
        was $15.
           No matter horv many children a rnother had, or rvhat the hard-
        ships of her situation, the maximum pension she could receive in
        Racinewas $40,so the grants were ittadecluate lnany cases' Before
        the uneurplo5rment  period, supplementary aid to mothers receivirg
        pelsions hud b."o given only in exceptional casesby the private
        relief society. Such aid had usually consisted only of clothing.
        since the unemployment period began, far greater demand for
        supplementary aid in these caseshad been made, and orders for
        groceries as well as clothing had been granted to a much greater
        lxtent than formerly. The small amount of the grant that could
        be made undoubtedly explains why many of the mothers worked
        when they could secureemployment, instead of applying for mothers'

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        An earliel section o{ this repolt includes irrforrualion regaldirrg
      the plans for city employment that rvere put into operation in
      Springfield in August, 1922. Applications for the emergencyrvork
      furnished by the city street antl park departments \\reremade to
      the special employment offlce designated for the purpose by the
      mayor. The private relief society cooperatedin this enterprise and
      made the investigations for the employment office, r.isiting the
      homes of all the men applying for work, and verifying statements in
      regard to dependents, resources of the famil5', and other items
      neededin determining whether the applicants should be given city
      work Since it was necessarv give preferenceto those who stood
      in the most imrnediate need, the work 'was limited to men with
      dependent children or rvith more than one adult dependent upon
        During the first six and a half months of the operation of the
      specialernploymentofiice, 1,017men were given citv work. Of these,
      663 were men t'ith dependentchildren. This last group was thought
      to constit'uteone of special interest in a study of the nature of the
      unemploymenL problem. The facts secured from records of the
      investigating office concerningthe 663 fathers of dependentr:hildren
      form the basis for the discussionthirt follorvs.
                         THE FATHER'SPBEYIOUSEMPLOYMENT.
      Interval between loss of employment and application for city work.
        Almost one-fifth of the 663 men had annlied for citv work within
      a month after becoming unemploy.d, utd' nearly hali within three
      months. It is evident, however, that some of the longer intervals
      shownin the following list may be accountedfor by the fact that the
      offi.cewas not opened until August 1, 1921, when unemployment
      had been seriousfor somemonths.
            Duration of uemolovment before                    Per cent
                 applying for citi work.                    distribution.

            Less than I month                                       I
            I month-.                                                   16
            2 monthe-                                                   L2
            3 months-                                                    I
            4 montbs-                                                    8
            5 months-                                                    5
            6-11 monthe.                                                25
            12-17months-                                                 6
       r See Appendlx A, Tables 47 and 48.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        110                       IrI\IIIMPLOYIIENT                  AliD       CHTLD WET,FARE,

        Weekly rvages.
          The weekly rates of wagesthese men had received in their previous
        emplo;rment were reported as follows:
                                                                                                     Per cent
               Former regular weekly wages.                                                       disiribution,
                         Total- -                                                                          100
               $ 1 0 ,I r , sts r n S l i . . - - - .
                                h                                                                            :
               $ 1 5 l, e s s n r o S U O - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . - -                   11
               $20,lessthan $2o.....                                                                        29
               $ 2 i , l c s st h a n $ 3 0 . . . . . .                                                     28
               $ 3 0 ,l e s st h a n $ 3 5 . - - - - -                                                      16
               $35and o\rcr- - - -. -. -. -
                                     -                                                                      1-1
          The above figures show that considerably more tlian hai{ the men
        with dependent children who were giyen city l'ork had receired in
        their regular emploJrmenta weekly wage of 925 or over. It is,
        therefore, of interest to find that two-fifths of the men preriously
        receiying such \yagesremained unemploved for six months or more
        before applying for city work, as against one-fifth of the men rvho
        had earnedlessthan $25. More than half the men in the lou-errrage
        group sought city employment rvithin three months of being throrrn
        out of work.
          tr'or 628 of the men the last regular occupation \vas entered on the
        records. Thirty-three per cent had been in occupationsclassified    as
        skilled, 19 per cent $-ere semiskilled workers, and 44 per cent rvere
        laborers. The remaining 4 per cent included retail dealers,clerks,
        servants,milroad employees,    and others.
                                                                                                     Number of
               Previorls mcupation                                                                   rep0nrng.
                         Total.                                                                            628
               Laborer.                                                                                    27it
               trIachinist-.                                                                                89
               Chauffeur. -.
               Filer, grinder. pol isher-- -
               (,larpenter--..-..-                                                                           t9
               Painter,.                                                                                    18
               Machine operative-                                                                           13
               Assembler--.   -                                                                             12
               Mechanic-                                                                                     I
               Toolmaker-.      -                                                                            g,
               Drop forger-.-                                                                                I
               trIason--                                                                                     8
               Ifolder-                                                                                      8
               Inspector.                                                                                    6
               Metal worker,                                                                                 6
               Tinsmilh-                                                                                     6
               Weaver-    -,                                                                                 6
               Fireman-                                                                                      5
               P u n c hp r e s s m a n . - . . - - - -                                                      5

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                        SPRINGFIELD.                  1 '1

                                                                         Number oI
             Previous occupetion.                                          fathers
             Tire maker.
             Woodworker. -
             Steam fitter- - -
             Billing and shipping clerli, _- _
             Box maker-                                                         I
             Clerk-. --,.
             Core aker.
                   m            ---:-. -.. ---                                  2
             Machinist's helper
             Rifle tester--,.

                                     socIAL DATA'
       Ages of fathers.
          The agesreported for these 663 men at the ti-" ,,t their
        .                                                                      applica-
       tions for city work shoned that gg per cent rif them $,erein
                                                                            thJ vigor-
       ous years of life, bet'-een 21 and 50. The largest n'mber (es
       cent) rverebet'*eenB0 and 40,26 per cent \yere-bet\yeen
                                                                          21 and B0,
       and 25 per cent between40 and b0. A further 10 per
                                                                     cent wlre be-
       tween 50 and 60 years of age, rvhile 14 men were 60
                                                                   r,earsof age or
       over, and 2 were under 21.
       Nativity and length of residenee in city.
          The foreign born formed a considerablyrarger proportion
                                                                                of the
       663 men than of the generalpopulation ur ihe crLy-Dz
                         lsv 6vu!r@r yulJurauruu of Lrte ciTt-5t p.. cent, in trre
                                                                    pOI         ln the
       unemployed group as against 86 per cent in tn" pop"fotio".         ".rrt Men
      born in rtaly constituted nearly half of those of i".iif"
                                                                          ri"ih rvho
      were given citv rvork. of the remainder no considerable
      came_from    any one countrv-19 countries being repres"rrtrd.
          only 52 of the 663 men were natives of the           o" the olher ha'd,
      only 1 per cent had been_inthe city for lessthan a year.
                                                                          A fotal of
      53 per ce't had beenresidenttherefor ressthan 10 y"ur.,
                                                                         25 per cent
      for from 10 to 1g years; and 22 per cent for 20 years
      Number and ages of children.                                    ";;.:
         rn trvo families the ages and the nunber of ch'drcn
                                                                           \yorc not
      reported. rn the .ther 661 families there rvere 1,776children
      18 years of age' Ifore than half of thesechildren \lrere
                                                                    under z years
      of age.       the generalpopulation of the city 48 p.'
               -rn                                                               chil-
      dren under 18 were under the age of Z years as compared    ""rri-oiihe
                                                                        rvith 51 per
      cent in the unemployed group- Almosi two-fifths of the

Provided by the Maternal and Chitd Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                      (]HILD   IVELFARE.
      112                    TTNEMPLOY.I\TUN'I' AND

      were of compulsoryschoolage. One-tenth had reachedthe
      legal working age. The age distribution of these children w&s as
      follows:                                              Numb€r ot
                                                                           lrnder 18
            Age ol child.
                                                                             r. //o
            l'ndcr .l year. - .                                                 l a.)
            1 year-
            2 I'ears
                                                                                l acr
            3 years                                                             1ro
            4 vears
            5 ,vears,
            6 vears-
            7 yearu.
            8 years-
            9 vears.
            10 year-s-
            I l. vears.
            l2 vears-
            I 3 vears.
            14 years-
            i5 years.
            16 years-
            17 years-
            Age not reported

         Nthough there were 1S2 chilclren 1'1to 17 ):earsof age,.inclusive'
                                                                       of the
       only 17 oJ them \vere *orking. This is a striking indication
       unemployment situation with respect to      children of working age'
       Under or,linury circumstancesa considerable prop-ortion of
       childrerrwould undoubtedll' have been compelled    to leave school and
       go to work when their fathers becameunemployed' Probabl)t many
       of tho* had been at rvork but could no longer secureit' The com-
       pensating factor here lvas, of course, that the unemplo.Y€d   children
       unde" 16 years of agehacl to rernain in or return to school'

         When the men applied {or city work, inquiry was madein regard to
       indebtedness. Two-thirds of the families were reported as having
       debts ranging from a few doliars to several hundred. The amounts
       are shown below:                                      Nuober of
             A4.ormt of indebtodnoss.
              No debts.-. - -.
              Under $10----
              $10,lessthan $25-- - ---
              $25,lessthan $50.-.-..
              g50,lessthan $75..-.--                                              71'
              $75,lessthan $100.----

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
         I''AMILIOS    T)I.' MEN   GIVEN O M E R G E N ( ! V   WORK   JN SPHIN(i}.I-ULI].         118

                                                                                    Number of
            Amount ol indebtedness.                                                 reporting.
           $100,  lessthan 9125.---.                                                         g5
           $125,lessthang150-....                                            .,......_ 15
           $150,lessthang175....-                                            _-...-___t7
           g175,lessthang200.-..--....-:-                                    ........-        8
           $ 2 0 0l,e s s h a n 9 2 2 5 - - - - .
                        t                                                    .... _.... 23
           $225,lessthang250-..-.                                            _ _ _ _ . _ - _ -1
           g250,lessthang300.....                                            ....._.-- b
           $300,lessthang350--.-.                                            -._._,_-- 9
           $350,lessthang400.-.-.                                            .___-.--- 1
           $400,lessthang450.....                                           .-..-_."._ b
           $450,lessthanS500..---                                            -..---.-.        2
           $ 5 o - .-._ . .-- .
                 o -                                                                        1
           $7oo---                                                                          1
           :\mount not reported..                                                           30
       Assistanceby public and private agencies.
         The data in regard to relief and other assistancegiren to the families
      of this gl'oup of unemployedrnet] indicate t,o some extent the status
      of the families, but the figuresobtainablc unfortunatelr..   relate to the
      perioclpreceding,as 'w'ellas during, this time of specialstress. ft i,",
      therefore,not possibleto relate this information directh- to unempior-
      ment conditions.
         Almost a fourth of the 663 families had been siven some form of
      assistance the prrvate family-relief agenc1., the citl' overseers of
               re bv the private family-relief
      the poor, visiting nurses, or other social aqencies or institutions. All
      bu[ / ot these 157 families had receivedcharitable aid. Almost half
      had been given assistance more than one agency,while 8 per cent
      were knourn to four or more agencies. One family r.vas        reported bv
      six agencies having been aided-the prirate-relief society,the over-
      seerof the poor, the \iisiting Nurses' Association,the Society for the
      Prevention of Crueltr-to Children, a church organizationgiving relief,
      and the State board of charities. There l-ere Z families each having
      one child in an institution-of thesechildren 2 $rerein a home for
      dependentchildren, 2 rverein the State hospital for epileptics, and
      1 was in a training school for delincluent children. In 79 {amilies
      the Visiting Nurses'Associationhad given assistance      during illnesses;
      all but 23 of thesefamilies were known also to other asencies.
                                                                                  Nmber of
           Number oI agencis aiditg each family.                                   famili€s

           5_                                                                               z
           o_                                                                               2
           7                                                                                I

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        It4           T]N}:MPI,OYNTIi:1{T   AND   CHII,D   WRT,FARE.

          Perhapsthe most significant fact in connectionwith this phase of
        bheprobiem is that, up to the time of applyirrgfor city work, three-
        fourths of the families of the 663 men with dependentchildren had
        not been known to social agencies,   either before unemployment or
        because it. The coroilary to this inthe caseof many families may
        be found in the precedingparagraphsrelating to debts.



Provided by the Maternal and Chitd Health Library, Georgetown University
                          CHILDREN    ELIGIBLE   FOR WORK.
          fn each of the two cities an effort was made
                                                              to deterrnine the
       efrectof the unsmproJmentsituatio' on the continuance
       and on the prevalenceof child labor. tr'or
                                                      *,i. potfo.u Jutu *...
       securcdfrom the olficesissuing-   employrnent certihcaies to children,
       and from the continuati'. sc,hoolsa"rtended                       ""hild."r,
                                                         by ;;;ki;;
       within the per,rnirages.
          L.nder the Tfisconsi' la', no child be.t*,eenthe
                                                                ages of 14 and
       17 years may be emproyedor permitted to work
                                                          ut otr-o: guiruur occu-
       pation other tha' agriculture or domestic service
                                                              urri"i h"'tru, ."_
       cured.a rvorking permit a.uthorizingthe ernployment. .fhe
      ing of a permit for work.is conthg"ent on trie
      tire eighth g*rde or scrro.l attendaice for nine years.                   of
                                                                   cirildren rr.ho
      hur-e- completed the period^of compursory f'rt-time
                                                                 education, but
      ll-h, ha-r-errot completed a-four-year high-schoolcor...e
                                                                    ooj-u." ,ro,
      attending.aregular day schoolflr at leist harf-ti*",
                                                                 -r.i-ait"rrd o
      continuatiorr scrhool, rvhere such schoorshave be"n'e.tnbiiJed,
      one+.if clay of eachschoolday until the end of
                                                       the term of tire school
      year in,rrfilh the.r-become16, and thereafter they must atturra
      a scirooleigiit liours a rveekuntil the end of
                                                     the ierm ir, *iri.r, trr"y
      become iE' rn cities where continuation schools
                                                               a.e maintainccl,
     children employed in clomesticservicemust arso
                                                          securervorking per-
     mits and attcnd the part-time schools.
         In l{assachusettsno child undcr' r6 years of
                                                       age, unrcssprrysicaily
     or mentally unableto attend schoor,    -iy ...u." a. emp.loyment
     iificate until he has compJeted slxthlracre                              cer-
                                                      and is to bJ employed
     for at ieast 6 hours a day. fe. law'applies
                                      This                to ali o""rputiorr.,
     spccialforms of permirs beirrgissuedto" *ork
     and on farms. All children be-tween ages
                                            the          ";                "roi..
                                                     of 14 ancrio 1,"u.. trr.r,
     excusedfrom fuI-time school attenclance    must attend a continuati<_rn
     school, wherever such a scrrooris estabrished,
                                                       for + hor,.s a week,
     and if they become u'employed tiiey must
                                                     attend for 20 hrurs a
     week, provided the schoolis in .e.sion for that
                                                        length of fi_;.
                     EFFECT ON CIIILD     LABOR IN RACINE.
       In Racine childlabor permits are issued at
                                                  the oflice of the con_
    tinuation school. This school has been in
                                                  operation for several
    years,and has had an opportunitv to enroll
                                                   all the children who
    leave the regular schoolsio enter"employment.
                                                       The most recent

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        116            UNEMPLOYMENT      AND   CIIILD   WELT'ARE.

        amendment to the 1aw requiring part-time school attendance of
        working children extendedits application to children under 18 years.
        But at the time of the study the law was not being enforcedin the
        caseof children who were 17 years of age before SeptemberI, 1921,
        so that the figures in regald to children who had left school to go to
        work may be considered as being fairly adequa,teonly for children
        under 17 years of age. The enrollment in the part-time school in-
        cluded children who had left the regular schools to go to work but
        who were unemployed, as well as those who were working. All-day
        classes were provided for unemployed children, many of whom,
        however, reentered the regular schools.
         Children enrolled in continuation school.
            It was obvious that the number of children reported in the records
         of this schooi as working at the time of the inquiry was larger than
         the number actually at work. The larv requires the employer to
         ret'urn the working permit of a child to the issuing officer within 24
         hours of the time that the child leaveshis employment. During the
         unemployment period this requirement was liberally construed be-
         causethe industries that were compelledto cut clo.wn    their force on
         accoun[ of slack work hoped to be able in a short time to reemploy
         those dischargedand for this reason held the permits, interpreting
         the situation to mean that there had been a temporary reduction of
         force rather than a permanent discharge. For the same reason the
        length of unemploy'mentfor the children could not be accurately
         a'scertained from the records of the school or the per.mit-issuing
           It was reported that there had been considerablecomplaint at
         the permit office during the unernployment period because of the
        school attendance requirements, some families claiming that they
        mea,ntlower wages and interfered with a boy or girl holding a job
        at a time when the father was out of work and it lras absolutely
        necessarythat the child should be allowed to work full time. The
        schoolsuperintendenthad made an effort to securereliable informa-
        tion in regard to the families of pupils whosenonattendance   had been
        attributed to lack of sufrcient income because the unemplo;rment
        of parents or of older brothers and sisters,and there had been a ten-
        dency toward leniency in such cases. To a certain extent the data
        secured from the continuation school relative to working children
        would be aflected by this, offsetting in some measure the figures in
        regard to children who were at work, which apparently included
        somewho had beenlaid off, but whosepermits had not beenreturned
        to the sehool.
           Another probableweak spot in the statistics on rvorking children is
        in connectionwith the number of girls who were employed at house-

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                         CIIILD      LABOR IN         AN    UNEMPLOYMENT                    PERIOD.                    117
       work. The theory was that they sho'id attend the continuation
       school,but it appears probable that they r.vcrenot all registerecr.
       especiallyif thev had not gone to work immediately after leaving the
         On December31, 1921,there were 242 children-3ss boys ancl BgZ
       girls-enrolled in the Racine continuation school. rt was knor,vnthat
       at least 130 of these children-67 boys and 68 girls-had reft the
       regular schoolsand gone to rvork after November 30, 1920: that is,
       during the period of seriousindustrial depression that city. The
       agesof the children were as follows:
                                                                                    Children enrolled durinE
               Ages Decembcr 31, 1921.                                               unemploluent leriod.
               Boys.                                                                                            67
                  14 years-                                                                                       "
                  15 years.                                                                                     21:.
                  16 years.                                                                                     33
                  17 years                                                                                      l0
              Girls.                                                                                            6:l
                    14 years-                                                                              i
                    15 years.                                                                             22
                    16 years.                                                                             37
                    17years2a-.----                                                              ....__-. ;j
       Time elapsed since leaving regular school.
         The length of time since leaving the regular school rvas reported
       for 54 per cent (a03) of the children. Ifore than two-fifths of these
       had lef t, schoolto go to work betweena year and a half and trvo yea's
       prior to the time of the inquiry. over one-fourth had left school
       within the past year-the period of most seriousunemployment.
                                                                                                       Per cenf,
              Time elapsed since leating school                                                     d istribution.

             Lessthah 6 months-
             G-11 onths-...-..
                 m                                                                                             l:l
             18-23months-                                                                                      4',/'
             24-35 months.
             36 months and over_                                                                                  3
      Decline in child labor.
         The accompanyinggraph, baseclon the number of rvorking chii-
      dren in the continuation school over a period of eight years, shox,s
      clearly the declinein child labor during the industrial deiression. rt
      also shows the earlier period of abnormal demand for labor, so thaN
      the acute industrial depressionreally meant-so far as chilc{ l:rb.r
      was concerned-a sudden drop to u'hat had been nonnal conclitions
      beforethe war activities producedthe great jncrcasein the number
      oI employedchildrerr.
       '6 rt bas been poi.nted out that the enrollment
                                                       oi boys and girls 1? ,"*rt        ,;";";*-pl"t"

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       118               UNEMPLOY\IENT                     AND     CHILD      \YELFARE.

          The follou,,ingflgures, comparing for certain dates the total enroll-
       ment in the school rrith the number of children enrolled in the school
       l-ho u'ere actuaily working, show the sharp decline in jobs available

            vil ONSIN-       OT
                  NUMBEFI-      OF I'OITS    AND   GIRLS    ENROLLED        IN \/OC:ITTONAL   SCHOOL
                             \JIIO   VEI'E   WOI1KING    ON JUNE    TIRST    OF EACTT YEAR

          Boye    N                                                                                    t
          Girls   I                                                                                    ir
       to children. It has been noted that children who had left the regular                           c
       schoolsto go to work were required to attend the continuation school                            3
       whether or not they were employed,unlessthey reenteredthe regular

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                          CIIILD        LABOR            IN   AN   UNEMPLOYMENT PERIOD.
             Date.                                                                 ',,i!1lTsi,'.llJ:i'#s:
             June, 1914-.--                                                          r'otat' Workiag.
             J u n e ,1^i 1 5 . - _ .
             rrr_^ 1 9                                                                 tuo
                                                                                       499    4ot)
             June, t9le.--. . --                                                       355       347
             June, rstz--.. . --                                                       510       475
            J u n e ,r o r 8 . . - - . - - -                                           708       609
            J u n e ,f O f O - - - -
            D e c e m b e 1 ,9 1 9 . - - ' '                                "-'-"-r'232       1'134
            June,1920.-                                                                   991   893
            D e c e m b e r , r g z o . . - - - - '- '                                    916   648
            J u n e ,1 9 2 L - . - . . - . " "                                 ""'     I'077    736
            December,                                                              - - 1' 269  326
                             192i. ."'-'
                                                                                          866  364
        The decrease the rurmber of new permits
                   in                           issuedduring 1g21, as
                     with thepreceding is ,ho*r in rhef"fr"*"i*""*.ry
                                                                                     1920,     7927.
                     Total permits issued
                                                                                      707      172
                                                                                       50       r3
                                                                                       ID       16
                                                                                      42        16
                                                                                      35        12
                                                                                      99        1<

                                                                                       5        1l
                                                                                     133         1
                                                                                     295       at
                                                                                      16       18
                                                                                      T4       18

                                 rotat of 891permirswereissued boys
       3::S,Tit"*                                                                           and 816 to
    H:j:T:' T l, :llt
                      dl.i Iearingscho to en *; rt f";;h" ;":il#.
                                       ol     ter
    T1,^"5 1,,9"":
          ::"::,"1",".' r"j      ii."I !il#'*r*; ffi iffJ::l"ilT:.
    fl:::j::: t*:.,1 Slicul roril;;il;Ji"*,;;-n#;;.b ;; T,[:H;
    l;#:::*"m|:":,li th"
    children remained in school.                    i;ffiffT:::
    Jobs secured by children during unemployment
       Becauseof the great scarcity of
                                        work for men the jobs secured by
    the children who w"_11tiil oi"";;;].;schoot
                                                        age are of special
    interest' 'The folrowing were reporred
                                              as the fir.; ,;;;p;tions of
    children who secured their fi"rt';";ki";
                                                permits after November
    30, 1920.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       120                 UNEMPLOYNTENT               AND   CHILD

                                                                       Children beginning \tork
             Occupation or Place of                                     trfter Nov.30, 192).
             employment reported.

                  Olerk and errantl boi- Ior stores-
                  Factorv workel -
                            and errantl lrol'
                  Newspapr'r and Printinq        ofTice
                   Oflice rvork---
                   Tailor shop.
                   Shoe-shiningor repairing sbop - - .
                   Working Jor fathor-plumbing or lairrrso-
                  Carpentershop- -. - -.
                  Contractor.- -
                  Dental-supPlY compan)--
                  Ice company-.
                  Not reported - -
                   Factory and laundrl' rvork - -
                   Housemaid (including I nursemaidl
                   Clerkn storP......-...
                   Stenographic or other o{iice
                                                'rork- ' -                                         8
                   Newspaperand Printing office -
                   )tillinery aPPrentice
                   Not reported-.

           It is, of course,impossibleto conjectureas to the probablemrmber
        of thesejobs that might have been acceptedby adults even with
        presumaLlylow rate-of pay, in order to     tide over the unemplol,-rnent
        ;;;i"J.    ri a time of such scarcity of work a,ndthe suffering enrailed
        irpon great number of families, if might well be seriouslJrurged
        an eYengreater proportion of children be     permitted to continue their
        schoolini and many of the jobs be given to men and lffomen
        had spent months in fruitless searchfor    work'

                         EFFECT ON CIIILD              LABOR IN SPRINGFIELD.'7

        Employment certificates.
          In Springfield several types of emplo)'ment certificates and permits
        are issued6y the school-atienda,nce  department: (1) Workirrg certifi-
        catesfor children  between 14 and 16 years of age working in spring-
        school. (2) working certificatesfor children of like agesresiding
        springfield but  rvorking in other towns. These children must, go tct
        th"               schooiin the town of employment. (3) Permits for
             "Jntinuation                                                 also'
        home work for children between 14 ancl 16 years of age; they,
        must attend the    continuation school. (4) Permits for work out of
          2?See Appcndix A' Tables 42-'16,inclusire'

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                     CHILD    LABON IN   AN   UNEMPLOYMENT        PERIOD.                t2r
      schoolhours for children of the sameages. (b) certificates to minors
      between 16 and 21 years of age whom the law requires to attend
      eveningschool; that is, illiterates and personswho have not had the
      schoolingnecessarv securinga regular work permit.
        A comparisonof the total number of certificatesand permits issued
      during the year which included the unemplo)-ment     period, with those
      issued during the preceding )rear, will be of interesi.
                                                            Children granted permits.
           TJ-pe of permit,                                            1920.     1921.
           To residentsemployed in Springfield-                 . _- 1, b95      946
           To residents of Springfield employed elsewhere                69       9t
           Home permits                                                  M        6g
           To nonresidents working in Springfield- -. _                3lg       202
     Child labor before and during the unemploymentperiod.
        The best information in regard to the childlabor situation was to be
     obtained from the records of the certificate issuing office rather than
     from those of the continuation school, which in springfield was of
     comparatively recent origin. The main interest would be in children
     between 14 and 16 years of age granted rvorking certificates,who
     resided in Springfield, whether or- not the5, rverJ employed there.
       chart \{II shows graphically the rise and decline of child labor,
     by months, accompanyingindustrial prosperity and depression.
       chart IX shorvs the variation in the number of children leaving
     school-to enter gmployment, during a period of seven years-lglb
     through 1921. This is basedon the number of first certificatesissued
     each year, so that the figures refer to the number of difierent children,
     and not to the number of certificates issued. The figures follow:
                                                                    Children granted
                                                                     permitsfor the
                                                                       first time.
          Year.                                                       Boys. cirls.
          1915--.----.-_.                                       -...757         119
          1916.-__---..._                                       _...404         279
          ISIT-.--.                                         ._.-.--.4bT         B0S
          1918----._-----                                        ...429         946
          1919-.-.-------                                        -..345         295
          1920-.-.-.-.-..                                        ..- Bb4        276
          1921---.------.                                        ... t1Z        llb
        While the decline in numbers of children employed in 1921 is
     undoubtedl5rmainly due to the industrial depressionthat followed
     the maximum attained during the war, when boys and girls could
     obtain employment very readily at abnormally high wages, the
     numberswere also aflected to someextent by the higher educational
     qualifications required for securing certificates. This new require-
     ment, whichv'ent into effect inAugust, 1g21,specifiedcompletion of
     all studies of the sixth grade, while the previous requirement rvas
     that the children m'st be able to read and write sufficiently well to
     qualify in the sixth grade in this respect.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       122                  UNEMPLOYMENT     AND CITILD WELT'AN,E.

                   ,,       {
                   o        \l
                   oo       t


             ts-.8.e        o
             zss            N
             trl   Et                 H
             t i';                    tg
             >.dE                     tn

             d?i            o
             =,FEI          o
        H qr.;'--
           I -eE
        %. .n 2-"
        E  F  !i'

             Ff;                 n
             ? _{r
             6 +:
             tn ;':
             @ k{                |-
             SX?                 o
              ILE                o tn

              (,n                6
              -a. 8                    E

                        L        u)

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                 CITILD LABON IN AN UNEMPLOYMENT         PERIOD.       129
      Children attending continuation school.
        The continuation school in Springfield started in September, 1g20,
      and had been in operation for less than two years at the time this
      study rvas made. children rvorking in springfield, rvhether resirling
     in the city or in other towns, had to go to the continuation schoolfour
     hours a week. Children temporarily out of emploSrment had to
     attend for 20 hours a week, unless they reentered the regular schools.
     The practice appeared to be to encouregethem to reenter the regular
     schools if the unemplo5rment was likely to be of any consideiable
        It was found that at the time of the study 86 children between
     14 and 16 years of age who had working certificates and were un-
     empioyed were attending the continuation school, rvhile 78 were
     back in the regular schools. From September,1g20, to June, 1g21,
     119 pupils returned to the regular schoolsu,hen they lost their jobs.
        A small number of "home-permit', children-12 boys and B
     girls-were attending thb continuation school at the time of tho
     study. A statement by the office of the schooi gave the follorring
     as the maih types of home-permitcases:,,(1) Girls'who have left
     school in order to help mothers who are not able, becauseof poor
     health, to do their work alone. (2) Girls rvho have left school to
     help with work at, home while their mothers are engagedin outside
     work. (3) Girls who live out at domestic service.,, Occasionally
     a boy rvas granted a permit to stay at home and help out in an
     emergency, or was given such a permit when he was employed in a
     private family where he made his home.
     Children securing work during the unemployment period.
        A total of 155 children betv'een 14 and 16 years of age secured
     their first working certi.ficatesduring the time of the most serious
     industrial depression-subsequent May l,Ig2t.
                                        to               Of thesechildren,
     t22 were working on February l, 1g22, and 33 were not emploved.
     The information securedfrom the certficates in rega,rd to the first
     jobs held by these children follows. As appeared to be the case in
     Racine, many of these jobs might have proved desirable for men or
     women who had been thrown out of their regular occupations.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        I24               UNEMPLoYMENT           AND oHILD wELFARll.

              First iobs of childrenx'hoseoriginal
              - -?rjtti"s -pu.-iii
                  ' -subGq'uent weresecurod                               Number  of
                               to Uay 1, 1921.                              children'
                       Total""'                                           -'--' 155

              Boys-.--                                                           67

                  Factoryworker-                                         .------ 1?
                       Packer-                                                  4
                       Doffer---.                                               3
                       Floor boy.                                               3
                       Stock boy-                                               3
                       Card cutter-                                             I
                       Machine operative-                                       I
                       tr{akingbands--                              .-.-----    I
                       Splittingyarn..--.                                       I
                  Messenger    and errand boy. - - .                              t7
                  Clerk in store-. - -. - -
                                   -..                                             o

                  Cash or floor boy in department store- -.
                  I\{attress maker- - -. -                                         1
                  Farm hand---                                                     I
                  Laundry operative, shaking clothes-
                  Helper in-
                       Auto repairshop.-.. - -.                                    I
                       \Iail room.                                                 1
                       trIilk house.-. -.                                          1
                       Tailor shop.                                                I
                       Upholstering department in department store. - -            I
                  Ilome permit (mother i11).- -. -. - -.                           1

              Girls--.                                                            88

                  Factoryoperative-                                    ---- -- 3,
                      Wrapping or packing candy- -. -                       13
                      Turning in or folding paper boxes.                     8
                      Dressftrgdolls- -. -                                   2
                      Inspector.                                             2
                      \Iachine operative.                                    2
                      Assembler-- -                                          1
                      Dofrer.--.----                             ...-.-.-.   1
                      Other-labeling, cutting, binding, sewing on buttons,
                         sorting, folding aprons-                           t0
                  Ilouseworkaway from home-------..                            17
                  Houseworkat home (on home permit)..                          12
                  In hospital diet kitchen-                                     2
                  Keeping books for father-.                                    I
                  Clerk in store-.- -
                  Millineryapprentice--                               --------  I
                  Typist and bookkeeper.                                        l-
                  Waitress -                                                    1

           The jobs wero not very steady, for the 155 children held 221
        different jobs during the nine months that followed. It must, of
        course,be borne in mind that the employment periodsof the children

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Librarv. Georgetown University
                        CHII,D LASOR IN AN UNEMPLOY\{ENT                 PERIOD.               125
       varied in length, ma,ny being of very short duration. On February
       I, L922, more than one-fifth of the children were unemployed. The
       following list shows the number of jobs held by each child:
                                                                                Number of
           Number of jobs tecued.                                                children.



       spRrNGnELq   -
                MAS5.EMpLOyMfNT CHTLDPIN
                         IN|TIAL    EMPLOYMENT   CTRTIFICATf,S IssUED EACN YEAR

         Bo/"     lNl                                                           Prcpored W
                                                                              John A. ParKcr;
         G,ils    I                                                          Altcndoncc  officer
                                                                               Public Schools
                                                                             Springlield, Moss.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        126              UNEMPLOYMENT            AND CHILD WELFARN.

       W'hy the children left school to go to work.
          rnquiry into the causes of the children's leaving school to go to
       work would undoubtedly have yielded important                  in regard
       to the need that existed for the added income"oid"rr"" from the
       children's earnings. Such an investigation would havc d.emanded       an
       intensive study of the economic condition. in the families of the
       children and of the other factors *iri"h influenced. the chiloren ro
      leave school to go to work. rt was not possibleto undertake such
       a study in connection with the general inquiry, becausedata of this
      character, in order to be satisfactory, would have to be secured.
      coincidentally with the child's first entering emplo5rment. However,
      the following facts in regard. to the families in which there were
      working children, which had come to the attention of agenciesgiving
      some form of assistance,furnished some indication of lhu
      in thesehomes.                                                "ooditiorr"
         At the time of the study, 262 children between 14 and 16 in spring-
      field had sometime been granted'employment certificates and had
      gone to work, but many of them had returned to schoolbecause         they
      had lost their jobs and were not able to secure others. The families
      of 74 (over one-fourth) of thesechildren had at some time been aided
      by a reiief society or by the visiting nurses, or emploJzment   had been
      secured for some member of the family through the city or state
      employment offices. The number of famirie,                eacf, of these
      kinds of assistancewere as follows:
            Aid from relief society-        --...--.:                 46
            Nursing service.
            State employment---office jobs.. _                        12
          Thd prop.rtion of families            such assistancewas practicaily
        -                             1ege_iving
       the same for those having children-who left schooi to gi io wo"k
       before the fathers lost their work as for those whose cf,ildren
       school after that misfortune, the percentages being 26 and 2g, re_
       spectively. The families of onry iz of tn" childrei were aided
       these agencies after May 1, tgZt, the beginning of the period
       serious unemploSrment. of the 155 children wh-o ."".,.ud working
      permits after May 7, lg2r, only 45 beronged to families that
      g""1-!""1 given aid, as far as the reports shiwed, and only g of these
      families had been aided during tho unemplo5rment periJd.
      Unemployment of children.
          The general uner"ployment situation is reflected in the work his-
      tories of the children, as well as in the data concerning the fathers
      families. On tr'ebruary 1, 1g22, a total of 10g chiTdren,between
      14 and 16, who had at some time been granted employment certifi_
      cates had lost their jobs and were unemployed. rt may be assumed

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                       CEILD LABOR IN AN UNEMPLOYMENT                           PERIOD.                    127
       that a considerableproportion of these children would not attempt
      to go back to work, at least during the period when work was hard to
      find, for 73 children had already returned to the regular schoors
      after they.lost their jobs; the other 86 were reported as ittending the
      continuation school. Almost a fourth of tle children who lyere
      unemployed had held three jobs or more, as shown in the following
            Number held.
                 or                                         "ffi"J":d""iifuf"T:
                  Total-.                                                         -.-....--.109
             1.---..                                                                  ..--_ 5S
             2''""                                                                          24
             3''""                                                                          Lz
             4-""'                                                                          18
             8_ ....
               .                                                                                       r
             10"--'                                                                                    r
     _ The Jength of time that had elapsed since the children lost their
     last jobs was reported as follows:
             Time since losins
                                                                        Nuqber of chiltlren unem-
                 lsst job.                                               ployed Feb. 7, 7922.28
              Leesthan 1 month.
             I month
             2 months-
             3 monthe-
             4 months
             5 monthe
             6 months-
             7 monthe
             8 months-
             9 montbs-                                                                         /
             l0 months
             11 months.
             12 months.
             13 months.
             14 months
             15 months-
             16 months
          -- 17 months
             18 montbs
             19 months-
            20 montbs.                                                                         f

            Not reported                                                                      D

        The individual caseitems given in Detailed rables tr'and G afford
     information regarding- the occupation, periods of employment, and
     length of time not working for children under 16 who .i"rr""d permits
     for the first time during the serious industrial depression and for
     those who had permits secured.earlier.
      4 seyonty-thr€o wero attending a regurar
                                               schoorand 36tho continuation scboor.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        128                           UNEMPLOYMENT                   AND      CHILD     WELFARE.

        Dnterr,Bo Tear,n F.-8prtngfi,eld: Chitdren 14 anil 15 uemsof aoe to whom.employ-
         n.Lent urttfiicates had been issued since -l[ay 7, 1921,who uer1 u"rwrnployed
               1 1oac

                                     of time
                                      srnce                                                                               Interval
        Age.          Grade           child
                                                              Jobs held.                       .Length of-                between
                    completed.        tust                                                   [tme ln €ch                leaving last
                                     wcnr ro                                                      job.                    j oD and
                                      work                                                                              Feb. l, 1922.r

                                                                                       3 m o n t b s - - . . . - - - . . - -Under lmonth.
                                                                                       1 week.
              l5   Seventh. - . -                                                      I month-........... -                     DO.
                                                                                       2 months.
          14       Sixth-......                                                        Imonth1week..--.                          Do.
                                                                                       2 months 2 weeks.
                   Seventh--.-                                                         2 months I week .- - .                    Do.
                                                                                       2 morths.
                                                                                       1month2weeks--_.                          Do,
                                                                                       2 months 2 weeks. ..                      Do.
                                                                                       3 months 3 weeks...                       DO.
                                                                                       3 months 3 weeks. - -                     Do.
                                                                                       3 months 2 g'eeks. - -                    Do,
                                                                                       2 m o n t h s . - . . . . - - - . - - l month.
                                                                                                                             Underl month.

          l4                                                                           2 m o n t h s - - - - - - - - - - . .3 months.
                                                                                       1 month 2 weeks.
                                                                                       5 m o n t h s . - . . . . . . - - - . 3 months.
                                                                                       3 days.
                                                                                       2months----.-.-----                  Underl month.
                                                                                       2 months.
                                                                                       2 m o n t h s l w e e k . - . - 4 months
                                                                                       l month 2weeks...-                 Do.

         l5                                I                                                                         1mon1h.
                                           .{                                                                        4 months.
                                           1                                                                             Do.
         l4                               l5
         I4                                                                                                          15 months.
                                           3                                                                         Underlmonth.
         t5                               2                                            1month 3 weeks-- - -
                                                                                      4 months.
         t5                               4                                            1week...---------.-                     Do.
                                                                                       l month 1 v'eek.
                                                                                      2 months.
                                                                                      3\Yeeks--..-------.-                     Do.
                                                                                      2 weeks.
                                                                                      2 motrths 2 weeks.
        to                                6                                           2 months 2 weeks. - - 4 rnonths.
        14                                5                                           1 month 3 weeks.. - . 3 morths.
        l4                               t8                                           3 months 1 week.- - - l month.
                                                                                      1 month 1 week.
        15                                8                                           I w e e k . . . . . - - . . . - - - . Underlmonth.
                                                                                      3 weeks.
                                                                                      3 monlhs 1 week.
                                                                                      3 months 1 week.
                                                                                      7 months 2 x'eeks- . .                   Do.
                                                                                      2 months 1rveek.. -.                     Do.
                                                Millinery apprentice- . -.- -... --   2 months.

                                     enrolled in either the continuation schoolor the regular rchool duhg fircir periods
         I Lessitra-nI month^

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                             CHILD LABOR IN AN U\iEMPLOYMENT            PI]RIOD.                        129
        Drrerren Tenrr G.-8p"ing,fuld:
                                           9-hildren and Is yearsof ageto whomemplognrcnt
         eilzfiicoushadbeen'isstud tnr to )foy I , I92I , who werbuneipl6yed Februarui , r g2g.

                               oI f,lme
                               sincs                                                        Interval
                  Grade        chilcl                                  Length of            between
        Age.                                  Jobs hold.             time in each
                completed.     Arst                                                       leaving last
                              went tro                                   job.               job atrd
                               work                                                       Feb. 1,'1922.

                                                                     3 w e e k s - - - - . Less thtn      1
                                                                     3 days.
                                                                     2 weeks.
                                                                     3 months 2 4 months.
                                                                     3 weeks.
                                                                     I moDth 2
                                                                     1 \reek.
                                                                     8 months 1 Less tttan
                                                                        week.                month.
                                                                     2 weeks.
                                                                     5 months 3
                                                                     3 months 2
                                     t7                              2 w e e k s . - - . - 5 months.
                                                                     2 months.
                                      I                              3 months 2                Do.
                                     to                              9 months 3 7 months.
                                     m                               1 rnonth 1 8 months.
                                                                     7 months.
                                     18                             2 months 1 9 months.
                                                                    7 months.
         t5                          l6                             6 months 3                Do.
         lo                          n                              l week--...               Do.
                                                                    3 lveeks.
                                                                    2 months.
                                                                    3 days.
                                                                    2 w e e k s - - - - . 10 months.
                                                                    1 montb 1
                                                                    5 months.
        l5                                                          1 month 1 12 months.
                                                                    4 months 2
                                                                    1 month- - -. -           Do.
                                                                    1 month 3
               Ninth                l9                              I w e e k - - . - - l7 months.
                                                                    1 month 2
                                    t4                              2 months 2 12 months.
                                    16                              3 months 3                Do.
        l5                          m                               8 months- - -             Do.
        l5                          22                               2 w e e k s - - . - . 13 months.
                                                                    .tr months 3
                                                                    1 week.
                                                                    3 months 2
                                                                    3 w e e k s .. . . .       Do.
                                                                    3 months 2
                                                                    l month.
                                                                    I week.
                                                                    2 months 3              Do.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       r30                    UNEMPI,OYMINT                              AIID            CIIILD           WI]LFAR.E.

       Drrerr,rn Tlnrr G.-Sprtngfwld: L'hild.ren and l5 yearsof ageto u'hamemploymznt
        cyltfallps hadbeenis&ud jrior to Mag 1,1921, wh6 were'uitmployed Fcbrairy I,

                Grade                                                                                                       Length of      between
      Age'    eompleted.                                             ,Iobs beld.                                          time in €ch    leaYing last
                                                                                                                              job.         iob and
                                                                                                                                         Edb.1, r,n.

             Fourth-----             Assemblinggamer                                                      .-....1    2 m o n t b s . - . - 14 months.
             Eightb. . ....          Floorbov,-factorv                                                  -.--.--l     1month.....               Do.
                                     Packins,factorv.-                                                  .-.....1     lmonlh.
                                     A s s e m l i l i n gf a c l o r y . . . . . . - . . . - - . - - . . - . . - - . .
                                                                                                                     2 months 2
                                     Assembling-                                                                     1 month 3
                                                                                                                     2 weeks,
                                     T e l e g r a p h e s s m g e r .- . - . - . - . - . . - - . - - - - - . . 1 month 1
                                     Cementing, factory                                                              5 months 3
                                     Assemblins. factorv-.. - - - - - -. - - - - __- - - -                           1week.
                                     D o f f e r , u g - 6 o m p a r i y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - 1 month 1
                                                 f ns
                                     A s s e m b l ia c t,o r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . .
        IO                                                                                           "ruilj},                               Do,
        15                                                                                                                                  Do.
        l5                                                                                                                                  Do.
                                     T e l e g r 3 pm - e s s e n g-e.r... - . - - - . . . - . . . . . . . 1 r m o n t h I
        t5                           Assembling......                                                        1 month 2                      Do.
       to                            lLi rsgF t l h o p w o r t . .                                   . - . . . . . 1 w e e k . . . . . .15 montbs.
                                            n [ l a c t o r vw o r k -- . - - - - . - . . - . - - . - - - - . . - . 1 3 w e e k s .
                                     General        belfer,    errand,       erc.................1                    t
                                     Offlce storage
                                                boy,                company.                            -             t             ,
                                                                                                                    i *Hg!l
       ID                       lo   T e l e g r a p hm e s s e n g e r - . . . . . . . . . - . - - . . - . . . .                           Do.
       l5                       r5   Bendilg Iorgings-                                                                                      Do.
       !o                       l6   C l e r k ( n o tt i n s t o r e ))..... . . . . . ........ .
                                           rk                   bre                                                                         Do.
                                16   stroptoy, iaciiriyj: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :.                                      Do,
       to                       10                                                                                                          Do,

       lo                       I8                                                                                                      16months.
       to                       t7                                                                                                         Do.
                                16                                                                                                       . Do.
       ID                       t7                                                                                                         Do.
       15                       l9                                                                                                         Do.
       l5                       19                                                                                                         Do.
       l5                       l9                                                                                                         Do.
       ID                       19                                                                                                         Do.
       15                       19                                                                                                      18months.
       IO                       ta                                                                                                         Do.
       15                       l9                                                                                                      19montbs.
       15                       20                                                                                                         Do.
       I5                       22                                                                                                      20nonths.


                                                                                                                                        3 months,

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                         CHILD     LABOR IN                 AN        UNEMPLOYMENT                              PERIOD.                           131
       Dur,rrr,nn Tanrn G.-Bpri,ngf.eld: Children 14 and 15 yearsoJ age to wlnnt employmcn
        czrtif,mtes had beeniswed prinr to May 1, 1921,who uere untmployed February 1,

        ^ _^ I  Grade
       -.5".1 completed.                                                                                                             leaving lmt
                                                                                                                                       job and
                                                                                                                                     Feb. 1, 1922.

                                                                                                                                    2 months.

                                                                                                                                    3 months.

                                                                                                                                    7 montbs.


             Seventh-...,                                                                                             3 months 3 l month.
                                                                                                                      2 weeks.
             First voer                                                                                               2 months 2 2 months.
              highsihool.                                                                                                weeks.
                                                                                                                       I   ye,ar 2
                                                                                                                      2 w e e k s - . . - . Less than    1
                                       .....do..........                                                              11 months 1
                                        Ttreader, knitting mill - -. .                                                1 month 3
                                                                                                                      l month.
                                 1 8 | A s s e m b U n gf,a c t o r y - . . . . . . . . . .                           I month 3                 Do.
                                        C u t t i n g t r i p sf,a c t o r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 months 2
                                        Eousework          (not at home)....                                          1 month 2
        I5   Eishth- - ....                                ga         f,
                                 16 A s s e m b l i n g m e s a c t o r y . . . . .- - - - . - . - - . - 10 months-- - 6 moDths.
        I5   EiEhth- - -...      2l                                                                                   2 w e e k s - . - - - 9 months.
                                       Winding, mill - -.                                                             4 months.
                                                                                                                      7 months,
        IJ                                                                                                            6 months.... 10montbs.
        IR                       16 Tumingin,factory...........                                                       4 months 2 11months.
                                     i                                                                                   weeks.
        ID                                                  f.
                                 2 t I B e n r t i n e i nm t o r v . . - - . - - . . . -                             4 months.---               Do.
                                        Panerubx facow                                                                1 month 3
                                     I                                                                                   weeks.
                                     I Liehtoackine.-                                                                 2 weeks.
                                       E o = u s e w o r h o m e - .-.- - - . . . - - . . . . . . . . . - 1 month 3
                                                          ai k
                                     I                                                                                   woeks.
                                 t5 | salesgirl.....                                                                  I w e e k . . . . . - i2 months.
                                                                                                                      2 mol3ths.

Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university
      t32                   UNEMPI'YMENT                               AITD CIIILD'WELFARE.

      De rarrno T.rnr,oG.-Sp ringfi.eld:Children14 and 15 uears ageto u hont'
                                                               of           employmrnt
       cpili.rtcales beeniim,ed"prior to Moy 1,1921, ulio weri unemploycdFebruory l,
        /9?z-contin ued'
                                        c utLS- coniinued.

                                                                                                                    I Lensth of         between
                                                                   Jobs held.                                       I time. in eech   leaving last
                                                                                                                                        job and
                                                                                                                         JO D .
                                                                                                                                      Feb. I, 1922.1

                                       Buttoning coats, coat srrpply company.- - - 2 months 2 12 months.
                                                                                   6 montbs 2                Do.
                               1 9 S t o c k c l e r k , d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e -- . - - - - - - - - . . t
                                                                                     weeKs.                          I
                                                                                   3 w e e k s - - - . . 14 months.
                                   B o o k b i n d i n s .b i n d e r ve o m o a n y - . - . . . . . . . :
                                                                                   3 t'eks. - -..-           Do.
                               1 5 S a l e s g r-r-t - . 1 ' - . - . . . - - - - . - - - - - . - . . . - - . . - . -
                                                             -               .
                                                                                   3 m o n t h s 2 15 months.
                               i 9 A s s a b U i l g , f a c t o r y -- - - - - - - - - . . . - . . . - . - . - . I

                                       sateseiri. . -. -.
                                              .. .                                                      . . . . . . .I , #33,ti'.
            \inth.---...       19      S t m E n g r u b b e r s ,s t m k r o o m . - - . - - . - . . . - - 2 m o t l t h s - -- - 16 months.
            Si\th--...--.              Salesgirl--                                                          2 wepks- ---- 17 motrths.
                                       Threader,kdttinsmiu-.-.     . . . t           t
                                                                          i rffiil:o
                                             clasps.              ........12
                                                  factory....-.--...                 t
                                       Packer.-...--...-                                                .......1 month 1              18 months.
                                                                                                               I We€K.
                                       Sewing,factor]'.,                                                --.-..- lmonth.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
         'I'he agents who visited the families of unemployed men were re-
      questedto sum up briefly the outstanding features of the conditions
     in the districts assignedthem. The descriptions that follow, relating
     to districts in Racine, are given in the words of the agents. They all
      tell the same story-families overburdened by debts, discouragedby
     Iong seekingfor work, their ambitions for owrring their homes doomed
     to failure, and illness and unaccustomeddependence charitable aid.
         Drsrmcr 1. The houseswere mostly one and two story frame, in
     good repair, and well kept up. There was usually only one family to
     a house. Sometimes one family lived in the front of the house and
     one in the rear. The houses all had electric lights, running water,
     and indoor toilets. AII the houseshad small yards, and many had
     also a small garden. Severalhad a garage on the back of the lot.
        The 37 families visited in this district representedeleven nationali-
     ties, but nearly all spoke Bnglish. The majority of the families
     interviewed had never before been in such difficult circumstances
     financially. They were families who had always made enoughmoney
     to keep their bills paid up, and perhaps to put a little in the bank.
     tr'ollowing the outbreak of war, when wages were very good, many of
     the families bought homes. In many casesrents were so high that
     they were practically forced to do this, and they bought homes that
     cost very much more than they would otherwise have felt justified
     in paying. The initial cash pa5zment      was often not more than 9100
     or $200on a $3,000property, the buyer contracting to make monthly
     payments of from $20 to $30 or $40, part of which applied on the
     principal of the mortgage, the rest covering interest charges. The
     families felt able to carry such an undertaking successfullywhile the
     father was holding a steady job; but as soon as he was thrown out
     of work, they fell behind in the payments. Many families were on
     the verge of losing their homes becausethey could not meet the
     pa;zments. Many were confident that as soon as the fathers could
     go back to work they would get on their feet again.
        Some of the men felt that the situation was quite hopeless. They
     said they were forced to sit around idle while the debts piled up,
     and they were getting so deeply into debt it would.take years to get
     even again. All they wanted was an opportunity to get work.
     They did not ask or want charity, but merely a chance to earn an
        Most of the families rvere running up large bills at the grocery and
     the meat market, had borrowed money wherever they could, and

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       L34            UNEMPI,OYMENT     AND   CTIILD   WELFAR.E.

       were doing everything to keep from asking for charitable aid, or
       even for credit from the city commissary.
          During and just after the war, when the wages were high the
       majority of the people were enjoying such successfultimes, and were
       so sure that the conditionswould continueindefinitely, or at least for
       several years longer, that the standard of living was raised. When
       the change came it was especially hard for all these people.
          Drsrnrcr 2. The conditionshere were less favorable than those in
       the first district. The district included some housesaround the fac-
       tories, also some along the railroad, and rari out to the city limits.
       The housesin the manufacturing section of the district were one and
       two story tumble-down frame houses,with two or more families to a
       house. Beyond this section was a gootl residential neighborhood
       composed one and two story frame houses,
                   of                                 usually'with one family
       to a house. The majority of the 23 families scheduled were foreign
       born. Most of them spoke English, though some rather brokenly.              (
          More of the families in this district rented their homes than in
       district 1, but those who had undertaken to buy houseswere facing
       the same problem of back pa1'rnents. The standard of living was             t
       not so high as in the first district, and more families had asked for       (
       aid from the relief society.                                                t
          Employment for women seemed&sscB,tce for the men, Several
                                                    as                             1
       of the women said that they had walked the streets trying to find work      c
       to do. Very few of the children over 16 were working, becausethere          n
      was no work to be had. As a result, somewere going to continuation          t
      school every day, and one or two to businesscollege.                        f,
         The situation in regard to debts was the s&meas in the first district.   t
       When they could get no further credit from their own grocery they          d
      w_ere  obliged to go to the factorv commissary or to the relief society.    el
      Most of the men spoke very highly of their former emplovers, and feit
      that they had tried to do the squarestthing. They said they did not         U
      know what they rvouldhave done if the companyhad not loanedthem             ri
      money and sold them groceries on credit.                                    cl
         Drsrntcr 3 was a good neighborhood next, to the best residence           la
      district of the town. The houseswere all of much the same type-             la
      two-story frame structures, most, of which had electric lights, gas for     br
      cooking,storm windows and doors,and inside water closets,but very           tc
      few had bathrooms. Many families had tacked tar paper securely              rI
      over the front door, which ryas therefore closed for the winter. tr'ew      o1
      houseshad furnace heat; in some the gas had been turned off, and            rh
      the families were using coal stoves for cooking becausethey furnished       AI

      heat as well. All the houseshad yard sp&ce,   and most of the families      olr
      had gardens. A few kept chickens.                                           nc
         With but few exceptions the families were thrilty people who were        fa:
      trying hard to pay for their homes and educate their rhildren. Thero

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                  SUMMARIES OF CONDITIONS BY DISTRICTS.                135
     w'ereseyer&linstanceswhere specialpride was shoTrnover the progress
     of the children in school. one mother said her daughter *ur *ulking
     to and from school, 15 blocks, four times a day and would not miss
     a day for anything, even though the weather was .,ery severeand the
    child had insufficient clothing. Another child in the same family
    told her mother she wished she could go to school on saturday, too.
    fn one family the father was spending$1b a month, the amount he
    receivedfrom rental of rooms, to pay the expenses the son in busi-
    ness college. As a whole, the children seemed to bo advanced in
    school. One small girl was teaching English to her father. Two
    fathers were attending night schoolsand studying English. A few of
    the older children were working and attending the continuation
    school. r{ost of the families, however, had no children of rvorking
      A high percentage of the people in the district were receiving
     charitableaid or buying on promissorynotes  from the citycommissaryl
     They all seemedto be in very similar positions. A great majoriiy
     had begun to buy their homeswhen they were ,,making good morl"y ;,
     and had paid fairly high prices. Then they lost their jobs and as a
     consequence   were not only unable to meet the monthly payments
     but had to ask aid to secure food and clothes. very few families
    had received aid before the present unemployment period. The
    conditions seemedthe more lamentable, becauseso many had been
    in a position to acquire their homes, educate their children, and bring
    them *p to be good citizens. No case of mortgage foreclosure was
    found, but this was probably due to the fact that the horders felt
    there was 16f,hing to be gained thereby. Real estate prices had
    declined, and they probably would not get so good a p"i"e again,
    especially since peoplewere not in a position to buy at any prrce.
       Many of the families were without sufficient clothes for the winter.
    Most who had received any had got them through the central associa-
    tion. Two mothers had been able to make coats and shirts for the
    children from clothes given them by neighbors, and one mother had
   laid in a supply of materials while the father was working; all she
   lacked was shoes. one mother was keeping a child home frJm school
   becauseof lack of shoes. she said she had not the 14 cents for carfare
   to get to the aid society's office to ask for shoes, and if she did eo
   they would probably not have any to give. One family, which from
   outside a,ppearances  seemed to be in more fortunate circumstances
   than most of the famillss visited, had almost nothing in their house,
   and the children were clothed only in very ragged underryear and
   old coats. one mother had a 2-weeks-old       baby for whom she had
   no clothes. shiftlessness seemed to be the keynote in onlv trvo
   families. rn one the father had beon in the state prison for 11 mlnths;

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       136            UNEMPLOYMDNI'      AND   CHILD   WELFARE.

       the mother received aid during this time. The other family was an
       old charity casel the children beggedon the streets and were noted
       for playing truant from school.
          There had been something of an epidemic of scarlet fever and
       diphtheria within the last year and' a half. One mother said it
       seemedas if everything had struck them at,once. One of irer children
       was just recoveringfrom pneumoniaand another u'as in the isolation
       hospital with scarletfever. Most familiesreported children'sdiseases.
       In three families visited the mothers were especially miserable.
       One mother v'as pregnant and could not afiord a doctor, and was
       feeling very bad. Another mother had great trouble with her nose,
       head, and throat. She looked very ill and said she thought she would
       have to go to the hospital.
          Drsrnrcr 4. This district w'asan old residence    sectionwith several
       large factories, and was cut, through by two or tlrree long business
       streets and the railroad tracks. The houses were one or two stories
       high, a few rvereof brick, but the majority \4'ereof frame construction;
       many needed   painting, bui most of them wereotherwisein good repair.
       Only a few of the housesrvere equipped with bathrooms, but nearly
       all had inside toilets, either within the apartment itself, or in the hall
       or basement. A few homeswere heated by furnaces,the rest by coal
       stoves; nearly all had either gas or electric lights. The sizesof tire
       lots varied. The older houseshad front, side, and back yards, with
       spaco for gardens; the newer ones were built close together, with
       only narrow passagesbetrveen and front, entrances ou the sidewalk.
          The population of this district was largely foreign, with a scattering
       of American born. The nationalities most common were Polish,
       Bohemian, Russian, German, Lithuanian, Hungarian, and Italian.
       During the past year a number of Armenians had come in-families
       in rvhich the mother and children had come to America during the
       last 12 months, worn and broken by years of suffering in Armenia.
       These families were highly spoken of by the relief society, for they
       demandedso little-scarcely enoughfor their own good.
          Over half the famiiies visited in this district were buying their
       homeson "land contract,,"rvhich entailed a small initial deposit, and
       monthly payments of from $15 to $50, l'hich included the interest on
       the mortgage and a small payment on the principal. About tu'o-
       tbirds of them began buying their housesduring the war, when wages
       were high and work rvaspientiful. A few had borrorvedmoney to keep
       up their payments, but the majority were behind from one month to
       one year, and if relief did not come soon, were likely to lose everything
       they had put into the venture. None of the families visited had lost
       their homes so far, though 6as fa,mily had had to make a rather un-
       usiral and complicated trade, contracti:rg for a more expensive house,
       in ord<irnot to lose the $2.000 alreadv inyested.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                   SUMMARIES    O}' CONDITIONS   BY DISTRIT]TS.         13?
       _ Local grocers,butchers, and bakers had given credit to the limit.
       tr'amilieson'ed as much as $200 to on" gro"u", and many had run
       bills in several difrerent places. Everyone .rvas  utterly ciscouraged,
       with       hope for the future. The situation was getiing desperate.
       People could not keep their homes much ronger-with"out making
       payrnents; credit was exhausted, and many families had alreaci.vl
       goneinto debt at the city 61 factory commissary. Manv felt beyc,nd
       all hope of ever getting clear of debt.
          Drsrnrcr 5. The              type of house in this district rvas th6
      small one-storyframe cottage, with no motlern improvementsexccpb,
      sometimes,gas for lighting. Few had electricity and very few had
      bathrooms; some toilets were in the basement,tut often they w-ere
      outdoors. Of the two-story houses,many accommodateda family
      on each floor, the second floor being reached by a rear stairway
      leatling to the kitchen.
         rn thc eastern section of this district most of the homes visited
      were of better construction,had gas ancl eleetricity and were located
      on paved streets with sidewalksand were easily accessible stores,
      schools,and churches. Many were owned, bu1 a few n ere rented.
      rn one part of this section there were many diflerent factories ancl
      several large lumberyards, which with the railroad tracks made it
      an undesirable neighborhood in which to reside.
         rn the extreme west of this district was a ne\\'subdivision in which
      a few of the scheduledfamilies lived. Here rvas found a much better
     type of house-two-s-tory one-family dwelrings, modern up-to-date
     homes with good yards, w'hich were on paved streets rvith sidewalks.
     Most of thesewere being bought on the monttrly payment system and
     were really more expensive than the families *oua have btught had
     they not, been forced to buy them during the time of scaicity of
     houses. some had lost theirhomes tbL'oughJailure pay the mon1ily
        A dozen different nationalities were represented in this district,,
              oJ rv!9m spoke their native tongue in the home, although in
     all the families either the mother or the father, or both, could sneak
        In most of the families visited in this district the father had been
    unemployed so long that, while the standard of living in regard to
    housing conditions had not been reduced very geneially, ii most
    casesthere had been a decided lowering in the qu"antity and quality
    of food and clothes, and all recreation had been eliminated. I;
    many homesthe kitchen was the most used room because          during the
    winter it, was the only one which coulcrbe kept heated. Most o1 the
    homes were fairly clean. Possibly there had not been much chango
    in the general attention given to the home, except in a few cases
    where the mother had 'been working. 'rn the greater numler

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       138            UNEMPLOYNIENT     AND   CITILD   $TELFARE.

       families it seemedvery apparent that no special attention was given
       to the preparation and serving of meals. Ifany times the a'gent was
       at homes where the children came from school at noon. They\vould
       help therrselves to whatever vias available, seeming to be perfectly
       contentednot to sit down to a preparcd meal.
           In many homes signs were placed in the windows advertising
       tttr'urniture fot sale," "Baby carriagefor sale,tt"Plain sewingdone,tt
       "Day rvork wanted," "Shoe repairing neatly done," in addition to
       "n'urnished room" signs, and there were other indications that fam-
       ilies were trying in every way to earn something' Not many of these
       .famiJies  had gardens; in most cases this was due to lack of space. A
       few had    chickens. I{any families had held out as long as they were
        able by running bills at stores, but at the time of the visit they had
       had to seek assistancefrom relief organizations and through them
        were obtaining supplies from the city commissary' paJnnentfor which
        was to be made when the men were again employed.
           The conditions which seemedappalling were fouad in the families
        of native-born fathers, some of whom had lived all their lives in the
        city or its vicinity, and who were ambitious and industrious and most
        anxious for work but rvho had been out, of work for more than one
        year. They were held here becauseof lack of money to go elsewhere,
        becausethey wished to keep the children in school, or becausethey
        were buying a house. The foreign-born men who had lived many
        years in the city and who had made high wages during the war, but
        who had saved little becauseof high prices, faced similar situations'
        Some of the men who lived in this district were skilled workers, many
        were laborers, and very ferv were casual laborers. The impression
        gained from taiking to many of the fathers was that they were a self-
        rcspecting set of men, who wished u'ork in order to keep their homes
        and families and to give their children the best that they were able to.
        Very few instances were found in v'hich mothers or children were
        working, for there was not a,ny moro work for them than there was
        for the men.
            Drsrnrcr 6 was on the whole better off than tho preceding one.
        Part of it was in a new subdivision which had recently been added
        to the city. Here were located story-and-a-halfand two-story frame
        houses,pleasantly situated on well-paved and well-lighted streets.
        Most of these homes were quite new and were being purchased by
        families on the "land coutract system"-that is, payment by monthly
        installments which included interest and a small payment on the
        principal. Many families lvere still living in houses purchased in
        this way; only a few had lost them, but many others felt that before
        Iong the'real estate company would force them to vacate for non-
        payment of installments. Homes in this district were mostly furnace
        heated; they had gas, electricity, and plumbing facilities, except a

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                   SUI,TMARIES   OF CONDITIONS   BY DISTRICTS.         139
      very few v'hich were so close to the city limits that such improve-
      ments had not reachedthern. Thesemost distant homesrvereiather
      inaccessible street cars and stores,but schoolsand churches\yere
      being built near by. The part of the district nearer to the city was a
      fairly good neighborhood of frame dwellings, some one-family and
      many two-family homes. rt' l'as much more convenient to cars.
      stores, schools,and churches,and rvas also near many of the large
      factories. Thesehomeslvere not new, but most of them had heatinq
      and plumbing systems and gas.
        The population of ihis district included people of 15 different
      nationalities,arnongthem a large number of American born. Despite
      the varied population nearly all the parents courd speak English;
      only in very few casesdid the foreign born continue to speak in the
      native tongue. trspecially in families in which there rvere children
     going to school and also in those in which the father or both parents
     had attended night school was English spoken.
        Most of the homes in this .district were comfortably furnished,
     and the families were striving hard to keep up appearances. Many
     had gone the limit in running bills and as a rasi i'esort had had tL
     seek aid from relief organizations. New clothing they could cl6
     without, but food they had to have. These families rvere securins
     suppliesthrough the city semmissary,payment for which rvas to be
     made rvhen the fathers were reemployed. rfany hatl small gardens
     a.d kept chickens,which had furnished some food for thern-during
     the stringent times.
        All the children seenappearedto be strong and healthy, although
     the mothers often remarked that their facesl-erc fat, but iheir bodies
     very thin. There was very little ilIness reported duri'g this periocl
     of unemployment. Most of the children scheduled    r""-.1 fu be up to
     standard in their grades,and someeven above. The father.,sunem-
     ployment seemedto have had very little effect on the schooling of
     the children.

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                           original document.

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                           original document.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                         APPENDIX A.-TABIES.
       T,.ann L-R*iru:           Dmati.on of uncmproymznt of Jather and rast regurar occupation.

                                                                         Unemployed fathers.

                                                                           Duration of memployment.
            Fsthor's lsst regular occupation.
                                                                Iass                                'o*^',   lmonths
                                                               than 6   6to8            9to11
                                                               months. months.         months.      ,iiijfil. lag.ove;
                                                                                                               and not



       I Includes 3 fathers for whom
                                     duration    of unemployment   was not reported.

      Tanr,n 2.-Bpringf'eld:         Duration of unemployment o/father and iast regular ocanTtatian.

                                                                        Unemployed fathers

                                                                         Duration oI unemployment
          Iather's last regular occupation.
                                                              than 6   6to8        9 t o U I l z t o 1 4 months
                                                              months. months.      months. I months. and ov€r
                                                                                                              and not

           Total. . . .

                                                          I                                                             3
                                                          5                                                  "'"'"i
                                                          a                                                            ,
                                                          4                                                            I


                                                         39                                                            8
                                                          7                                                            1

      I Includes 7 fathss   for whom duation    of unemployed. was not reported.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      144                               UNI]ITPLOYIIENT       AND    CHILD       \VELFARE.

      Tasln        ll.*_Roci,ne: Country of birth of uwmploved.fathers, bq ltngtlt, 2f residence in
                                         L ' n i t e dS l o l c so n d t o r l : s l t l r t s .

                                                          fathers pre\.icusly cnployed at skilled trade

                                                                    Length of residence in L-nited States

                                                                     10 to      l5 to     20years Bom in          Not re-
                                                          Stog                             and          United
                                                          years.   14 years   19 years                            ported.
                                                                                           oYer.        States.

                                                                                     2             3
                                                                                     o             2
                                                                                     z        )
                                                                                         ""-"'o '

                                                          Fathers prcviously employed at unskilled trade.

                                                                    Iaogth of residence in ftrited      States.
                 Country of birth.
                                                           Less                 roroL - -r;ro ll'J."f"sl?.lT.'i
                                                                                                 20vear lBomin
                                                          than 5
                                                                    years.        [.I'o'i#..I II|5,t';'
                                                                                 . *," '" r. - ". l#.
                                                                              1.1vcsrs. | 19 vears. |
                                                                                                  over. srares.
                                                                              _'    | tl
                                                                                    t          I
                                                                                  tel       151
                                                                                                        6l    e
      United States- -. -                                                     _t_i_l

      P o l a n d-.- - - - . .- . - . . , . . . - . .
      R m s i a . - - - - - - - - -- . . . . . - - .

        r Includes 1 " casul worker."

Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university
                                            APPENDIX       A.-TABLES.
      rur,n 4.-Bpringfict'd:
                           ,""W#u#i;IWf:,!;yfr{::0,,t                                 by tensth residence
                                                                                              of       in

                                                     l'athors previouslJ. emlto!red at skilletl trade.

                        I Torat                                  Irngth   of residence in United Stat€s.
       coutry of birth.
                        I Jtt"-;
                        I ritders. Tot&I. i.         i
                                          I b years. I
                                             _Under           Stog
                                               I            i yegrs.





                                                   Fathers pre\iously employed at mskilletl       trade.

                            unem-                            Irength of residence in United Smtes.
      Country of birth.

                                   I                                                      -'r'-"-"-..1.---------
                                   I                                                           "'_-"----i--.--.---.
                                   t                                                      "1.'-.----.-1..---.-.-"
                                   8                                                     i-1"'-"-'--i-""'-"'
                                  l4                                                     I t"'-'---.-1.-..--....
                                                                                         '1"-""..-l     1
                                  10                                                     "t"""""t"""'-"
                                   3                                                     "'-'-"""1""".-'-
                                   2                                                     "i""-""'i"'-""'-
                                   7                                                     -''-"-""'1""""'-
                                   2                                                     '-l--'-"""1"'-""-'
                                   I                                                     "l'-""""t'-""'-.-
     r Includm 2 casml work€rs.


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        T46                                UNEMPI,OYMENT                   AND CEILD WELFARE.

       T.rsrn 5.-Racine: Literaey and natiuip                                       father, by duration of un*mploymnnt of

                                                                                                Unemployed fathers.

                                                                                                   Duration    of unempioyment.
              Ilteracy and nativity oJfather'
                                                                                    Less thar     6to8         9to11       L2to 14 LSmonths
                                                                                    t months     m.onths      months.      months. md oYer,

               Total... -- -. -... -.                                      BI               7                       28         95        70

        Nativoborn.----.                                                    52                                       8          24       I
           Litercte-.--......                                                               3                        8                   I
        Forein born-. - ..                                                 179                                      n           7L       58
           Uter8te- . ,. -. . -..                                          154                                      15          63       49
                   Enslish onlY-....
                                                                                                            """"6          """i6
                   NaIive Ianguageonly r..... -. - ....                     l6              I
                   B o t h .. . - . - . . . . . . .                         7l                         12             o         n        20
           I U i t e r s t e .- . . . . . . .                               22                          3             4                   7
           Literacy not report€d. . . . -. - . .. .. .. . .                                                           I    .......:

          I I. e., other than Engush.

        T,r.rr,r 6.-,Sp ringfuld : Lri,teraL!and,rntinity of farltn, by ilwatinn oJ uwmpl,oym'ent oJ

                                                                                                Unemployed      fsthers.

                                                                                                  Duration of uaemployment.
               Literey analnatiYtty offather.

                                                                                    Lessthen   6 to 8 9 t o 1 1 I 1 2 t o 1 4 l5 months
                                                                                     months.l moDths. months, I montbs. and over.

                                                                                           131         34                       36

                                                                            62                                                  14       ;
           Literate. . . . . . . . ..                                       62                                                  14       13
        Forei€B born- .. ..                                                 aa                                                  tz       19
           Literate--------.-                                               67                                                  a)       19
                Enslishonlv-.-..                                             2
                n-a[ivc lmgrnge only r. .......                -. -.        18
                B o t h -- . . . . . . - . . - .
             Iuiterate--.......                                                 5
             utlilr.i ii<it ieiiortlt- : : : :. : : : : : : : : :.              1

          1 I. e., other thsn Englisb.

        T rl;nn 7.-Rotinz:                                                               Jathns, by bngth of residma
                                                    Citiunship of .foreign-bornwl'emploYed
                                                             ' 'in
                                                                     thi Urvitcd Stntni.

                             LeDgth of residence in United Ststes.

                T o t a i . . . - . - . . . . .-.
        Under5 y€ars...-
        5-9years. -... -. .
        1 5 - 1y e a r s . . . . . . .
        20-24  yesrs.- -. .. .
        25v€rs and over
        Not reported.....

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                        APPENDIX A.-TABLES.                                           r47
    Terr,n 8.-Bpringfuld:        Citizens.hipof /oreig_r:-born         fathers, by lengtlt oJ
                                     restd.enfe the unlted states.


               Length ofresidonce in the United States,                                              Not
                                                                                         Not         ouf,
                                                                                      citizens.    hqvils

                                                                      2                                          2
                                                                      6                                          I
                                                                     l4                      z
                                                                     20                      7
                                                                     la                      5
                                                                     lo                      3                   I
                                                                      I                      r 1..-.......

   Tasr'      9.-Ra ai,ru: Tenureof hnmz,s
                                         occupizdbyfamilies oJurumplnyedmen, by duratian
                                         oJ occupancu.

                                                               Families of unemployed men.

                                                                           Tenureof home.
                 Duration of occupancy.

                                                          10         I            t         7                1
                                                          39        32                     27                7
                                                          lo         6            I                          I
                                                          33        30            1        m
                                                          N         33                     33
                                                          36        25                                      1l
                                                          23                                3               m
                                                          28                                2               %
                                                                                            5               2

  ?.r,nr,o 10.-Springf,eld: Tenureof homzsolcuwd, by
                                                     Jamitizs of wr,empl,oyed
                                                                            mnn, by
                                 dwatinn oJ occupanfo,

                                                                            Families of unemployed

                          Duration ofoccupancy.

    y€afs..                                                                   m
  3 years..                                                                   t3                        1'

    yesrs--                                                                   L2                        8
                                                                              n                        16

                                                                              l6                       IO
                                                                              18                       t8

   ' All ow!.ed homes were

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       148                   UNEI\{PINYMENT                    AND             CHILD          WELT'AR.D.

       Tanrr   ll.-Raeine:        Ionthly rental of ;fami,l:itsoccupging rentedhousesduri,ngfathn's
                                  unemployment, by number of roomsin house.

                                                                                         Families occupying rented houses.

                       llonthly    rentsl                                                             Number of rooms.


       Tenr,n 12.-Springf,e.Id: )Ionthly rental of families ocanpying rented housesduring
                       father's unemployment, by nwnber of roomsin house.

                                                                               Families ocupying       rented houses

                  Monthly rental.                                                               Number of rmm

                                                                           5 and

                                                                ID                  4             5
                                                                a                  10            11
                                                                    I                6            I

       T,rsrn 13.--Raci,ne: Nu,mberof pusons in.households unemployedm.en,by nuntber oJ
                                         roo'm"s nou,$e.

                                                                        Families of uemployed          men.

                                                                               Number of rooms in hoNe

                                            4 7l . - . . . . . . i 3 7                                                  5
                                            59i......._i.......- 10                                                     2
                                            5A r-..   - l- I .-.-       Ll^-    . -...                                 10
                                            30 .-......
                                            22 :..-"---.------.1 1

                                             1l- -- . - - -
                                                    I    l---                                                     """i'
                                             t l:.:::::.i:.:.:..:1...:...

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                       APPENDIX              A.-TABLES.                                                149
     T'*nr,r 14.-B yringfuld: Number of persons hotnehorcrs unemproyed
                                               in        of          mzn, by number
                                      of roomsin house.

                                                                             Families of unemploy€d men

        Nmber        in household.                                                  Number of rooms in house.

                                                                                                                                  I suoa
          T o t a l - - . . . . - - - . . -- - - -                                                281       49                    l-l
                                                                             lt          3     to     ta              ii-      ""'.'i
                                                                             lt          4      4i     8;             61     4
                                                                        ........1        3      5     72              1l     3      I
                                                                                                8i     5l             5l     2
                                                                        ...-..-.1        r --.-----i 8l               41     2
                                                                                                r 1.....-..'          2 1....-.-.
                                                                                           -----...1 3                11.-....--
                                                                        :.:::::l::.::::           31........

     Tesrn 15.-B acitw: )tontltly rental at ttmt. of study of f_amities ururnplnyed,
                                                                      of           m.en,by
                         nwntnLyreilar preuwus to unrmpl,oyrnent.

                                                                          Families oI unemployed rnen.

                                                                        Renting prior to unemplolment.
     Present rental and
      whether familv have
      moved since irnem-                                                  Rental alifferent from present.
      ployment.                                                                                                                        Not
                                         Total.                                                                                       rent-

                                                                                     I   ltu, i *"n          $25,
                                                                                     I r_essl i . ; :        less           re-
                                                                                     I tharl I than         than    and
                                                                                         tro.I     $25.      $30.
                                                                                     I            l_

                                                                                     t,,          i
                                                                                                  lL2                  10

                                                      il       43
                                                      rl       a
                                               15     -.1      14
                                               t7     rl       15
                                                8               o
                                                4    ...i 2
                                                2    - . -- . . . . :
                                             176     24 I       e                            31         3
                                                                                             1l         11.....-.1..-....
                                              l9                                             2l         2l-......1 I
                                               2                                                               t

     I Owned house previous to
                               unemplolment,                        later rented.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      150                       UNEMPTOYMENT                       AND      CITILD         WELFARE.

      Tesr,r 16.-B pringfzld: Moryt-hlyrent-alat timn of study odfamili'es of wumplnyed m,en,
                          by monthlg rental preaious to unemployment.

                                                                   Families of rmemployed men.

                                                                Renting prior to uemployment.
      Present rental and
        whether    femily                                      Rental difierent trom present rental.
        have moved since        Total                                                                                      Not
        unemplolment.           fami-
                                 Iies.       Rental                                                              RentBl    mg
                                                                  $1q      !15,         -$20,    125,            nol re-
                                                                   less     lss          tess     less    *i'0   poriod.
                                                      Total.                            than     than
                                                                  than     than                          over.
                                                                   $15.     t20.         $25.     $30.

            Total..-.----          r35                                         15                                                27
                                    30                    l9                                                 o        5

         Less than $10- - -              I
                                         e                            I            I
         $10,lessthan $15-
         $lS,lessthsn $20.                        1        4          1                     1
         $2O, essthan 125-
             I                           7        2                                         ,
         S25,less than &30-         II            2        7           t                     1                        I
         S30and over- - . -              2                                                                   2
         Not renting- -. - .             1

      Didnotmove...--..            10{           ol       19          2            8        3                         8

         Less than $10. . .
         S10,  less than $la
         $15,less than $2C
                                                                           :.::::::l::::.:::                          I
         t20,1ess than $2i          25                                             41       2                         c
         t25, less than tiilc       l3                                             11 . . . . . . . .        I
         $10 and over- - . -
         Not rentins - -.. -
      NotreDorted---..----               t
                                                                           .:::.:::l::::::::               rt

         tl0-, lesstban 115-             I                                 .:::.::.1:_::::..
        I Retrted houseprevious to unemploym.ent,later owned.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                                      A?PENDIX A.-TABIJS.                                                                                151
         Tesr,B 17.-Ratine:                             Totalresour,ces
                                                                      ofJamilg duingfathu,s unemplor.tm.ent,bu
                                                                                                ' r -- "' er dwatinn
                                                         of unemploym-ent owntrihip oJ homt.

                                                                                               Fam,ilies of uemployed                 men

                                                                                     Total resources duriDg father,s unemployment.
        Duratiou of unemployment
         and ownership ofhbme-
                                                                          $200 $,300,$400, s500,sloo, $700, $.800,  $900                                                 Not
                                                                      tess less ICSS less less less less       tess less
                                                                     than thar than than than tban than than thar                                               and port
                                                                     $200. $300 $400. $500. $600. $700. $800. s900. ,1,ofl                                      over.

                 T o t s l - - .--. - . . . - - . - - - .   231                  3         5          o       10              7   10            i1               38       131
          Ownedfreelrorq u,ortgBge.                              9                                                I                                                        6
       F 7 m o n t h s .... . . .                                I
       /-dlrlonilrs-.--...                                       I                                                                                                         I
       Il-12 nonths-- -. _                                       1                                                                                                         I
       12-13montbs-.---                                          I                                                                                                         1
       1+15 onths.....
             m                                                                                                                                                             I
       15-17 eonths... -.                                        3                                                                                                   t     1
          M o r t g a g e-d - . . . . . - . . . . -
                          -.                                136                            I          4       o           2           6             6                     u
       Lessthan 4 m,onths-. -. - - -l     -                 I          I
       5 - 6m o n t h s - - . . . . . . - . . . - . . i
      ! - J n o t r t h s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. . 1                                                                                                         I     1
      l - ^ 6 o n r n s - - . . _ - - . - .-...-.l.
      r r - 9 o n i l r s- .- - . . - - . . - - - - _ l
            m            .
                                                                       i     1                                            I
                                                                                       I                      t
      l F I om o n t h s - . _ . . - . . . . . . - . . . o 1
      1 0 - 1m o n t h s . . . - . - . . . . - _ - - 4I                                            i                                                                       o
      1 1 - 1m o n t h s . . . . . . . . . . - _.l .
               2                                                                                              I
      1 2 - 1m o n t h s . . . . . . . . . . . . _i
               3                                                                                                                                                           2
                                  -                                                                           i           I
      l $ - 1 4 o n t h s . . - . . . . . . - . . - I 13
              m                 .                                            I                                                                                       7
      1 4 - 1m o n t b s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 81                                                                                     I                         10
      1 5 - 2m o n t h s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I .
               2                                                                                              I                                                  o        12
      N o tr e p o r t e d . . . .-..-... . . . . 1                                                                                                              8

                                                            86               t                            4                                 5                   lo        4l
      L e s st h a n 4 m o n t h s - . - - . . . .           I
      ffi months-... --.                                                                                                                                         I
                                                                                       I                                                    I
      /-6 montns-_ - - .. -
      9--r0nlonins- - -. ..
                                                                            .l         I
                                                                                                  I                   I
      l0-11 months-.. -.                                                                                  t
      12-13months...-.                                                                                    I
      l&-l4months.....                                                                                                            I
      t,1-l5months--.--                                     t1                                                                              I           I
      r}-r6monHrs-.--.                                                                                    I           I
                                                            27                                                                    3         i                    q



Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        r52                                      UNEMPLOYMENT                                    AND      CHILD       WELFARE.

       Tasrp lE.-springfeld:. Total rcsources famlly during falhn s unemploymenl,by
                       duration ol uwmployment and ou'nership home.

                                                                                                      Femihes of unemployed nen.

                                                                                            Total resources during father's unemployment.
        Dumtion of unemployment
         and ownership of home .r

           Mortgaged- - - - -. - - -. - - -
                                                                si_.i__r[_rt__ri__rl-                                                             1

        7 - 8 m o n t h s - -- . . . .
        8-9 monlhs-. -.. - -
                                                                    I l::::::1.::.:: :::.:.i::::::l.::::-l:::::-
                                                                   '?l r'......1 l al rl
                                                                               z                                         el zl 21......                           79
                                                                                                                                                      :l:          2


        13-14Eonths-----                                                                                                                                          t0
        1G15months.---.                                                                                                                                     2      6
        15-25months.....                                                                                                                                          tn
        Not reported.. -
                     -.                                                                                                                                            a

           r ^'{o homes $ere os'ned free from mortgage.

        Tenr,r l9.-Bources of income during unemploymzntinfamikes oJ wwmploged men, by

                                                                                            Familis    of uemployed     men har-ing each specified souce
                                                                                                                       of income.

         Sources of income duing                        memplolment                                                     Racine.                  Springfiekl.

                                                                                                                    Nmber.       I Per cent.

        Fsther's earnings from tcmporary work..                                                  362                    2n             90. I                    98.5
        Mother's eaminss                                                                         115                     65            28.1           50        37.0
        C N l d r e n ' s a m i n s s - - - .- - - - - . - . - - - - - - - - - - -
                         e                          .                                             75                     46            19.9           y)        2\.5
        Income from lodgers, boarders, or relatives
        _  l o d g u g o r b o a r d i n g$ - i t h i a m i l y . - - - - - - - .                 m                                    18.2           14        10.4
        lncome lrom rent                                                                          60        16.4         6             19.I           t4        10.4
        - A , i dr o m r e l a l i t e s -- - - . . - - - - - - - . - - - - - - - - - - .
                f                                                                                 38        10.4         I4             6.1                     17.8
        Charitable aid-- - -                                                                     191        52.2        141            61.0           50        37.0
        Crodits lor food.- -                                                                     2N         oJ. o       18?            81.6           53        39.3
                                                                                                 7t7        32.0         97            4.0            20        14.8
         Othprdcbls-.----                                                                        253        69.I        774            ?5.3           ?o        cd. D
                                                                                                 158        43.2         97            42.O           61        45.2
                                                                                                             4.r             ,          0.9           13         9.6

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                               APPENDTX       A.-TABLES.                                       153

                                                Families of unemploycd men.

                                        -{\.erage monthl}- r*rourccs year }lrior to uncmplo}qent.
                                      $50,less I g100.less
                                                         SIj0. loss | 8200,lcss S:.io,less I Nor re
                                      han $1otl.lthan'$150 $200.11han
                                                          han             $2;0. rhrn $300.] porled.

                                  6                    I
                                 12                    3
                                 1E                    ,1
                                 22                                                                 11
                                                       rl                                           12
                                 18                    1
                                 10                                                                 1I
                                                       2                                             6
                                 l5                    3
                                  7                                                                  7
                                  8                                                                  5
                                  3                                                                  1
                                  I                    I
                                 10                    3
                                231                   27

     Tesrr 21.-Rarinr: Duratio^2^^of-!tn(s,unlmployment,byfatlter.stotnleorningsfrort
                         |?mporor u,orkduri ng u Itr mplounlp;lt.

                                         Families of memployed mcn.

                                            Duration of father,s lmemployment.

                          ,.      ri i l :i l:: : :::r.::::

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       L54                                UNEMPLOYN,IENT             AND     CHII"D       \\'ELFARE.

       T.raln 22.-,Springfuld: Durotion oJJath.nlsunemploymenl,by.Jathu'stotal eamings
                                         uorlcdunng unemptoVmcnr'
                          frorn temporarlJ

                                                                  Families oI unemployed men.

       Father's total eam-                                          Duration ot father's unemployment.
        lnss from tempG
         raiy work during
                                                                                           10           121131
                                                                                          mos.          mos.lmos.l
                                                                                                        .-t-ll l
                                          135   I                                           o              01161
                                                                                    t2      6l
                                                                                                        _t*1 6
                                            3       ..i                                    -: 'l
                                                                                            ,i          ""'t""'
                                            1       "'i                              1     -"i
                                            8                                        I                     :
                                                                                                        : :2 l. : ll : : : : :
                                            I                                        2     .::
                                                                                            l li
                                            7                                                                 1 1...-.
                                            5                                        I     :::j         -. ...1

                                                                                                        ..-..1 1
                                           10                                              "; '' ll
                                            7                                              '            " t'l tt
                                           2L                                        1
                                                                                     4       'l               lt      8

       T.lsr,r 23.-.Raciru: Number n*t:ffr::rf:f:,1!;rof uwnnlovedmen.bv weekiv

                                                                  Famil.ies ol unemployed men

                                                                    Weeklyincome time of study.
         Number oI
         -       in
                                                                   $15,   s20,     $25,    So'         $35,
                                          '!r | ilil:
                                          r.o. ,t'-        $10,
                                                           less    less   less     less     less       less        s40
                                                                                                                               Not I No
                                                                                                                               re- I weekly
                                              I           than
                                                                                                                   over       ported.llncome

                Total...            BI      nlm                      n       t7      16                                   2      lo      96

       1 ....-....,...
       1                             il                      3               2        6                                           31     21
       1...-.........                oo                      3               o        6                                   I       Bl     21
       6. . . . . , . . - . . . .
       t                             43                      4                        2                                           21     2(
        r..-.......-..                                                                t                                           31     1r
        3 . . . . - . . . . . - . . 19
                                                             ;        t                                                           2l      1
        t.............                                       1               ,                                                    11      3
        t 3 . . . . .. . . . ..
                                                                                                                                  l l:::::::

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                   APPENDIX A.-TABI;ES.                                                     155
     Tasrp 24.-Bpringfield: Numbe.roJ pers.olts famittes of unemproyedmen, by ueelcly
                                lncome ttme, studu.
                                       at       ol

                                                               Famiiies of unenployed men.

                                                                   \feakly income al l ime of sl udy.

                                      Less .$5,     $10'        srs,I szo, $25,             $30,
                                                                                                             MO    Not       No
                                            less    le-ss       less I less                 less
                                      than than                                     ICSS
                                                                                                            and     te-   weekly
                                                   than        than I than         than    than
                                            $10.    $15.        $20.   $25.         s30.    $35.            over. ported. lncome.

                                                                   181 77                                      8               n
                38                             4         3         61 3                       3                1               10
    5.............               26            2         6          31        5               1                1                5
    6 . - .. . . . . . - . . .   n             6         6          *t        o               I                I
                                 18                      2          31   1                    t                                 1
    8_..._--..._..                             i         2          11   3                    3                I                1
    9-....-......_               6            'i         1          11.......                 2                1
    l0-...--..-...               3                       I
    l l . . . . . . . . . - ..   2

    T":::,3,!..:!:y1e                  ap,snriysfuld: Number ehiWren
                                                           of      infamittesin uhichttLe
                                                  u'ere      percentages
                                                                     of reui,its

                                              Children in familics in which resources during unemplo],nent repre_
                                               sented specifled percentage of receipts previcius to uniem"ptoyment.

                    Age ofchild.
                                               Total         I0-14 per      5-24per 2Hg pe         50-74       por 100
                                                                                                       per 75-99      per
                                             children          cent.         cent.   cent.          cent.   cent. cent and

                                                    203               6            13        82         78          t2        t2
                                                    L2                2                       8         2
                                                    14                              I
                                                    13                              I
                                                                      1                       6
                                                             " " " ' t . . . . .l. . ,
                                                    10                                        5         4
                                                    20                                                  8
                                                              .i                              6
                                                    10                              I
                                                    10       . . . . : . . :":" " ' t                   3
                                                     I                                                  4
                                                     7                                        2
                                                     6                                        I
                                                             ..:::..:.                        ,         I
                                                     6                     ::.:::.:,

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       156                                   UNEMPLOY}TENT                           AND          CHII,D           WIILITARE.

      T,reln 26.--Bacine: At,erage ru:nthlE resourcesduring urrcmploym.entand esti,mated
                      budgetrequirem.ents Jamilizs of uncmployedm.en.r

                                                                                                    Families of uemployed           men.r

              Average monthly resources during                                                                   Monthly budget estimate.
                                                                                             $7{, less       $100,1ess$125,1ess$150,1e-*s $175, less
                                                                                              tmn              f,mn     rnan     thsn       tiran
                                                                                              $i00.            t125.    $150.    $175.      $200.

                                                                                                                     27                          7
      $ 7 5 , I e s s t h a n $ 1 0 0 - . . . . - . . . . - - - - . . . - . . . . . .2. 8 |             1            13                          2
            less                .
      S100, thDn$125.. . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . - - . - I                   1r I. - . . . - - . - .          I                          3
      E 1 2 5 ; l e s s t h a n t 1 5 0 . - . . . . . . . - - . - - . . . - . . - . - 2i 1 . . - . . . , . , .        I                          1
      $150,lessthang175                                                               3                               2
                                                                       i                  1........-.
         1 Includes only families for which aversge monthly receipts were reported.

      Tesr,n 2i.-S pringfuld: Aauage lnonthl! resourusdwino untmploumtnt and estttnated
                      bidget require-mtnts jomilbs of unemployedinei.l

                                                                                              Fanilies of memployed men.t

          Average mmthly resources                                                                      llonthly     budget estimate.
            ounng unemrJlolT€nt.
                                                                                                                 lcss              less    lcss
                                                                                                             8125, | $ri0,less $175, | $200,
                                                                                                                 t150. | $l;5. 1 $200. |             $225.

      Less than $25.. . -                                               ;
      $25,Iessthan $50.--- - - - - -. - - - - - -                       11
      $50,less thaD $75-                                                t7
      $75,less than $100                                                l9
      9 1 0 0l,e s st h a n 9 1 2 5 - -- - . . - . - - - - -
                                         -                               8
      S 1 2 5l , s st h a n S 1 5 0 - ---. - . - - - - - - -             2
      $ 1 5 0l,e s st h a n 9 1 7 5-. - . - - . - - - - . . .            I

         r Includesonly familiesfor which average
                                                monthly rtreipts werereported.

      T.tsrt          28.-Raeinz: Inkruol elapsing bctweenbeginnino of urumploumrnl and rect"irtng
                            charitabk aid, by ireoious uork sdtus oJununplouid intn.

                                                                                                                            Unemployed fathers.

                      Intervsl elapsing before receiving charitable eid.
                                                                                                                                  Skillsl andl
                                                                                                                                  seniskilled | "-:t:'-Y1

                                                                                                                          2 L4l

                                                                                                                              o                              2
                                                                                                                                            23              10
                                                                                                                                            32              10
                                                                                                                           219              L4               .I
            $ - 1 1m o n t h s . . - - -                                                                                     12              I               3
            1 2m o n t h sa D d o v e r . - - .- . - . - - - - - , __                                                         o              4               2
            Interval not reported -. - - - - - - - -.. - _                                                                                  l6               7
      Not reeiving charitable aid- - -.,, -                                                                                 90              6E              22

        r Jncludes 2 iathers who were casuel laborers.
        r Includes 1 fathef whose work status was not reDorted.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                 APPI]NDIX              A.-.IABLI]::,.                                                   ti) /

    Trcrr    I t.-s.pringfcld' Intuaol
                                                        . t l a p s i n g b e t ue e n b e g i n n i r t g c f u n e t n p l o g m e n r u t , , !
                r ( r c n t n g C n a n t a 0 t c t d , b t t p r e r t o u s t r o r l : s l a l u s o f u , t e r t t y , ! o U t,d r , . , t .
                                                a                                                                                   r

                                                                                                         Unemployed iathers.

     t Includes2 fatherswho werecasuallaborers.
     I IncludesI father whosework status was not reported.

     Tesrp     30.--Raciru:           A'mnunt and duratinn o/ char,itable aid receiled bu
                                                            -men.l                        famitics                                       oJ

                                                                      Iamilies recei\.ing charitable aid

     Amount of charitable aid.

    I Excluiles g0 families which receired no charitable


Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university
        158                                UNEMPLOYMENT AND CTIILD WELFARE.

        T.r.ar,r             Amount                                                                                 aidreceiaedfamitias
                                                                                                                             by       oJ

                                                                                          Families receiving charitable aid.

                                                                                                 Duration   of charitable aid.
         Amount of charitsbls ald.

                                                                                     1-213-516-8                                         months Not r&
                                                                                    months.I months,lmonths.                              and ported.

                                                                50                                                                                       28
                                                                 6                                                  I
                                                                 2                                                                 I                         1
                                                                                                                         : . . . .. i
       Amount uot reported- . . -. .. .                         l6              I                                                  1                     72
       Clothing and other aid. . . . -. .                               """'i
       Nursing service only.. .......                               1

         I Excludes 85 lamilies which received no charitablo aid.

       T.rsrp 32.-Racine: AueragenuTnber workino hours po ueek, motherswho worked
                                         oJ                         for
              duringfallter's unzmploAment,bytype oJu'ork dnil place'ofemployment.

                                                                                                 Working mothers.

       Type of work ani w\ether at                                                                  AYerage hours per week.
         nomeor av/aylrom .nome.
                                                                             Lessthan        12-        2+35            3647            48-59       Not
                                                                             12hous.        hous.       hous.           hours,          hours.   roported.

              T o t a l - . . . . - . . . . . .- . - . - - .
                                -.                                      60           8            10                                         o

       Workingaway from home......                                                   a                        5                o             5           n
           Work bv tho dav                                              30           6                                         1                        11
                Laundrv woik- -. -- - - - - -                           1l                                                                              r4
                C l e a n i n i - - - . .-.... - -- - - .                8           1                        3                I                        t1
                La.uniry work and
                  c t e a n r n q . - _- - - - . - - . .                8            I                                                                  .1
                General       h-ousework..          - -.                I                                                                                I
                N o t r e D o r t e d -- - - - - - - . .
                                        -                                                                       I                                        I
           Factoryw-ork.---                                             12                                                                               2
           5 e r o 9 . - . - -- . - . .                                  2                                                                              .2
           Practiial nursilg                                             2                                                                              r2
           Chamberwork in hotel- - - - -
           Restaurantwork                                               I                                                                                1
                                                                                    61                       7l                                         t2
       Working at hooe                                                  14           1                                         I                         1l
           S e w i n s . . . . . . . --
                                 --                                     6                                                                                    o
           Lamdry work---                                                                                                      I
           Keepingstore.--- .                                                                                                                                2
           Weavingrag rugs                                              1                                                                                    I

                  tlother                                                                5 One mother also dms cl€ning by the dav.
           -r One (lo€s also cares for neighbor's boy-
           z Also       washrns at home.                                                 6 works in ', old clothes room'i af relief rg-ency.
           I One mother also keeps lodgers.                                              z pickine beans.
           I One mother also aloessewing at home.                                        t Pnlling bsets.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                                   APPENDIX A.-TABI.ES.                                                159
      Tesrn 33..-,sgnng^rt(ld:.
                              Aooage_number of working hows pn weekfor mothers uho
          uorrieddunng Jathers unemploymcnt,by type of u'ork and plau oJemployment.

                                                                                                   Working mothers.

                                                                        r                          Averagehours per week.
      Typo oI work ancl whether at home                                          I
              or away from homo.                                              1,,
                                                                        rol.al.    '^^^ I         I      I      i      l-^.    I
                                                                                 ,r.r,;iiiz'-tz-2sl.z+JE                         Notre_
                                                                                  "hffi;. hours. hours. hours.l_arse lou.llusl
                                                                                                                  nours. ff$!. I porretl.
                                                                                          I       I      I      I      |

                                                                            50                11        7       6
      Working away from                                                     39                I1        7       6        7
         Wolk by the day-.                                                             1      11        7                3
               Le(ulory wor,E. -.                                                             r2        1
               uleaung.......-.                                                                         1
               ^Lamdrl work anQ cleaning.                                   I
               ueneral ]lousewor_k--- - -, _- __                            I          I       2       22
               Notr€ported.....                                             1                  I
         Practiial nursing                                                                                               I        t
         s e w r n q - -_ . . . . . . .                                     2
         C l e r i c aw o r k . . . . . . . . - - . . . : . . - - - -       I
         Pantrv work in hotel-..... -- -- --                                I                                                     I
         Kitcben work in hotel.--. - - - - - - -                            1
         Not reported- - .. .                                               I              ::::::::
     Working at home. -                                                     11         3
         Sewins...........                                                  6
         Laudrv                                                                                                                            6
                  work. . -                                                                                                                1
         Baking bread. -                                                    I

                 r one mother alsosewsat home.                                       r one mother alsodoeslau:rdry work at home.

     Tanrn 34.--Rar:ineand,$nyngrteld:Eyntgamnnt of _rnothers
                         penodoJJathers, plau oJempLoynunt.

                                                                                                               Mothers empioyed,

                                  Place of mother's emplo''ment.                                                    Before and     During
                                                                                                                      during     uemnlov- '
                                                                                                                    unemploy-     ment^of
                                                                                                                     ment of     father but
                                                                                                                      father.    not before.

     At home...

Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university

       160                    UNEMPLOYMENT AND (]HILD WELFANE.

                                   d                                   :-i:
                              zA                                       :ii
                                                                       :       l:
                                                                       : *T.
                                   L=                                  i tI :








      .c                                                                              :








                                         N b i @ < 6 i v v : < r Q X       -   4m$o606iaNN€di
                                             N M N N N O : N d                  : -ddNimNNi


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University

                                                       APPF]NDIX      A.-TABI,ES.                                161


                                      |     ; h


                              , I .ik
                              o I Fo
                              o       I rh

                                   I P^>

     €                                E                                                 N




         o'       d
     L                                             @    N
    €         O


                                                             !@@6iN                          ioooo       i
                                  <i                                                                         i
    R.                            d                                                         €@sH;;;::;




                          j                                 -io@€4dNtsts@m



                                                                                            9?i   ieEliliii

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University

       L62                    UNEMPLOYMENT                    AND CEII;D WELFARE.

       Trerr     37.-Ra,cine and Springfpld: Am.ount of ueekly,earningsof worlting children oJ
                                   unemplo?Jed oy ageana ser.


                                                                                         Weekly eamings
                       Age and sex.

                                                                                                              $15              lvage
                                                                                                             and                 not



         I One not working at time of sgent's \isit.
        ! Two not working eL ti.me of agent's \isit.
        3 Three not v/orking at time of agent's visit.

       Teal,r 38.-/iacinc: Occupatinnof worbing chill,ren during father's ururnployrnent, anl'
                             timz,oJ beginning uorJr, by ageand ser.


                                                                 Boys.                                      Girls,
           st occuDation and time
           of begiining work.
                                                                15      IO                            ID             16
                                                    Total.   y-ears vears    years 'rof,&I.         years   years years
                                                             ol age. or age, oI age.                oI age. or age. or age.

               Total---..-.-...-.....                   l0                 3         6                                    c

       Beginning    work   before
        tather's unemployment - -           I            6                                      3                         I

                                            3                              I        rl
                                            I            I                           I
                                            I            I                          r1
       Begiming    work   tluring
        fatler's mmDlommt..-               12                                                   o                         q.

                                                                          r1                    I                      1
                                            I                                                   1                                       I
                                            I                                                   I
                                            5            1                rl                                ,         rl               rl

                                            I            1                           L
                                            1            1                          rl

        r Ooe qot working at tine oI Bg€ot's yisit.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                               APPENDIX A.-TABI,ES.                                             163
      Tenr,p 39.-Bprtng.fuld:
                              9:.y?ltig" oJ working children during father,s unemploymznt,
                                                                        - - -"" "r-
                           and time of begi,itningwirh, by aqeand s\i.

                                                                                      Working cbi dren.

      Latest occupatiotr and time                                            Boys.
           of begiining work.                                   -----T------l    --                           _--T--___l-
                                                      Total.                                r
                                                                _..1       15     16        L7                   15116117
                                                                romr.l years I years | years Total
                                                                               I       I                       yearslyearsiyeam
                                                                      I ol age.Jot age.I of age.              or 8ge,I or age. I of age.

                                                                    L7       7          7                 6

                                                          L2       11        3          6       2                                   I
                                                          1          I
                                                          I         I
                                                          7         o       It                  ,         I
                                                          I         I
                                                                    t       ii

                                                         l0         D
         E o u s m a i a l _- . . . - . - . . , . .       I

         Messenser -                                                                                                       1
                                                          2                 2
         rieamtress altffition in
         _ aepartment Store- -...                         1
         Balesm... -...........                           I                            I
         r,aundry operative. . - -.                       I
         .tac&ory orker..-.,....
         urenet worker. .... .. -.                        t
         Maclinist's apprentice..                                                                                                   1
     NotJeported... - -                                   I                                     1
         r r r n r c r _ . - -- . -- -- - - _ -           I

       I Not working st timo of agert's visit.

Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university
       164                                    UNEMpLovMENT           AND crrrr-D wELTARE.

       T,rnr,r 40.-J?acine and, Sprino.fi,eld:Time oJ beginntng uorlc and grade [;t. scliool of
                        uork'ing ehi,ldi|n o;funemployed"mrn,6fuageand serl

                                                                         Working children

                                                 Who left school at completing sp€ified grade.

       Age, sex, and time ol
          beginiring work.                                                      Eish
                                                               jffi]nisntn                 lot re.

              Total...........                                                  6     1        3
       Beginning to work
        before father's m-
        emploJment - - -. .. .

           B o y s -. . . . . . . . . . . .

                  15yesrs. ... -.
                  1 6y a r s - . . . - .

                  16 years - -. ..
                  17 years. -. - .

       Feginniag to work
         during father's un-



           Girls.......... -.-

                  U years- -. ..
       NotreDorted..,.----.12                      2t-..---..1   1
         B6Is(rTyesrs)...1 2l                      2 .---.--.1 rl

                     I One not working at time of agent's visit.                r Remained in school half time.
                     2 Three not workiDg at time of agent's visit.              t Gradutedf rom an academy
                     I Two not workhg at time of agent's visit.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
                                                      APPENDIX          A.-TABI,ES.                                         165
      T-rnr,n 4l.-.i?acine                 a,nd Springf,eld:
                                                              \ngtl-t of ti,me since _l,eaaing school of worhing
                                            children o;f unzmployed min, bu aqe and ser.

                                                                       Length of time sinceleaving school.
                   and sex.

                                                                                                                           Not re-
                                                                                                                 and       ported.

                Total-..-,.---...                                10                                                              5

     B o y s . . .-. . - . - . - . . - .                          4
             lSyesrs-----.-.-..                                  r3
             16years.-..-.-...-.                                  I
             17years.----.-.-...                                                                                                 2
     Cirlq                                   l8                   6                                                              4
             15years-----.......             -           2        rl         I                                                   I
                                              6                  r3                      .....--..1..--....-l          1         2
                                              7                   21.........
                I One not working at time of asent's visit                 I Two not working at time of agent's visit.
                r One remained in sehoolhalf t"ime.

     T.,\nle 42,.-,gpi.ngfe.Id:                   Febntary_.11922, oJ children uhose
           ?mployment           .Employmcnt.statlus
                                  ,rereissued                                         first
                       rertif cates                  lo
                                            subscquent .llay l, 1g?l: l)u aqeand sex.

                                                                                                           Chiltlren Children
                                                                                                Totol        em-     not em-
                                                  Age and sex.                                              ploved oloved
                                                                                                            Fe6. r,   Feli. t,
                                                                                                             7922.     1922-

               Totel-                                                                                                          33
             14 years.                                                                                                          6
             I 5 years.                                                                                                        t2
     G i r l s - .- - . . , - - . - - -                                                                                        15
             rr Jrus- -
             l5 years-
                                                                                                     u           m
                                                                                                     5.1         44            10

     T,rsr,u.43.-,sprtngfilrl:- Lcn.grh time sinu oriqiwl employm,ent
                                      of                              urrificatz uas 'tsswd
       to ctuldrenunor(ulDpdcerli.liealcssubsequettt Jfatl1,19/j, but t"hou.ere at uork
                                                   to                          nol
       February 1, 1922; by amnuit of tim.eu6rked

                                                         Children who n-orked specified amount of time.
         Length of timc
     since original p.emit
          was lssueo.




       r Includes 1 child for wbom amount of tiEe was not reDorted.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University


          166                      UNEMPLOYMENT               AND CI{ILD        WEL]IARE.

          Tenr,r 44.-B yringfuId: Number of jobsheld and total arrwunt of thne cltil'dhad workeil
            prior to Febiuar{" t, 1922; childrii with employm,ent           unemplnyedFebruary

                                                  Unemployod children who had hatl specified trumber ofjobs.
            Total amount of time child
                   had worked.


          l0months---.--..                          2
          llmonths-.-..---                          1
          15months---..-,                           1
          Not reported....

          T.rrr.n 45.-,SpringfuH: Gra.de mmpl,ekil by chil.drenbetween and t6 yems of oge to
            uhofiLemploym,ent  cotirtcaks hod beenissuedbut uho u'erenot at work February1,
            1922, by ageand ser.

                                                          Children who had completed specified grade.

                    Age and s€x.                                                                        First Grado
                                         Total.   Fouth     Fifth.   Sixth.          Eiehth.l Ninth.
                                                                                                        high not re-
                                                                                                       schml. ported.

                                            109                                                    I

                                             76                          18     22
                                              7                  1        2      2                 I
                                             69                          l6     20       22                I

                                                        1        1               o       12
                                              5                           I      2        2 l-..-_--
                                             28                           4      5       l0 I     5        3        1

    Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                                      APPENDIX        A.-TABLES.
                                                       r                      Unemployed childr€n who had s,orked.

                                                                                  Total amount ol time worked in all positions.

                                                                                                                                   mos. I re-
                                                                                                                                    ald I port-
                                                                                                                                   oYer.l cd.

                                                                                                                                        rl     g
        I month-
        2 m o n t h s --. - . . - . . _ - . .- .
                                                             2                                                                     ll          '
        J m o n t n s - _ . . - . _- - - - ___
        4 m o n t h s - _- - - _- - . _- - - -

                                                                                                                                   :-.-..:. . 1...:-:. . : :
        5 u o n t h s . . - - . . -- - _ - _ . -   -                                                                                        1.
        omontns_-.--.. .-...-       -                       ?                                                                      ""t."'-.
        a m o n t n s - - . . .--. . - - . . - -
        8 m o n t h s - ---. - - . - - - . - - -
       I m o n t h s ---- . . - . . . . . . - -

                                                            r1                                                                     :-:.1::--::
       l , l m o D t h s - - - . . - - - . -- .
                                          .                 ;l                                                                     -"'1"""
       1 5 m o D t h s - . - - - . -. - - - _ -
       16 months.- - _.- - - - - - -..-
                                          -                 il
                                                           15                                                                      --..1 I
                                                                 1                                                                 '31......
       r / m o l l i l r s _ --.. _ - - . . - - - -
       1 8m o n t h s . - - - . ---. . - . - -
       1 9m o n t h s . - - . - - . --._- - -
       20months-.. ..-..-..-
       { r m o l l r D s --.- - . . - . . . - - .
       z z m o n t i s - . . . - .- . . - - --
                                                                                                                                   21 )

       bmollths.---                                         'l                                                                     ""i"""t::::::
                        I Worked 1{ months                              2 Worked 15 months.                 3'lVorked 11 months.

      r aeLe 47'-s prinsfe :
                          td                                                                P pto rd m n t'| o upre
                                                               :,f                           m a c h
                                                           trii' ,?[';',:
                                                                        #1;; #.*;*'I/ ;niiun

                                                                                Unemplol'ed men given cit1, work

                                                                                          Period of residcncei n citr-.
                Coutry          of birth
                                                                             I t o 4 | 5 t o 9 l r 0 t o 1 { 1 5t o 1 9 years
                                                                                                             )'ears.     and

                                                             346                                     66
                                                                 18         ...'----l       3
                                                                        1   .....-.1        9
                                                              7                  2l        rl        t
                                                                                 3 l-.......1        1
                                                                 4               31......-.1         1
                                                                 3               3 i....-...1........
                                                                 9               21     31     2
                                     born in Czechostovakia,in palestine,1 in portugal,
     ,#t:t1d"Hj#"n                                                                      2 in Fintand, z io A.r_*y,                       *a

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       168                                UNEMPLOYMENT              AND CTIILD WELFARE.

       T,r.ure 48.-Bpringf                                   trceliy wages.oJuftemployed,m?n, by length.oJ unem.
                                              eld:. Prepi6.v,5
                                                prcament ,eJore appttcallonJor ctta worfi.

                                                                Unemployed men grven city work.

        'wecklv                                              I€ngth of unemplolment   belore applying for work
                 waees be-
       fore unrimplo-yment
                                                    than 1                   3
                                                                           monihs.    l..l-.^.r
                Total--------.-                                                59             33
       $10,lessthan $15.. ..                            3                       ,             I
       $15.less thatr $20.-. -                 66      16                       3              2       i0
       g20;Iess than $25- . . .               168      43     2\l     16       14             11                 I
       $25.less than $30- - . .               161      13     2il     23       10             10       M
       $30,tess than $35- - . -                90      12                       I              2       42        2
       $SSandover---------                     84      T2      91      8       10              5       21
       N o t r e p o r t c d -- . . - . . -    EO      22                       6              2       72

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                      FORM 1.

     U. S. Dor.lnrMENT oF Lanon,                  Current-     Last date-
          Crrr,onnN's Bunreu.                         Cont. Assn.-      PoorOffice-

                               UNE}IPLOYITE\T       CASE.
     Name:                    Unempl. began:                Date fust applic.:
     Address:                        Occupation:

     Age:    Race:    Birthplace:    Citizen: Y    N    Yrs. U. S.-speaks Eog. -
                      Work Secured Th:ough Employment Office.


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       170                    L NhIIPLOIfII'IXT                AND       CHILD    WELFARE.

                                                           roRM 2.
       U. S. Drp.rntlrnNr oF L-tnon,                                                    Number
           C u r r o n e l r ' sB u n r . " u .                                         Dateof visit

                                UNEI{PLO\AIENT AND DEPENDENCY,
       Father's last regular emPloYment:                                                \{ages:

       Date unemployment began:                                                         Cause:

       Nationality: l'ather-                               Mother-                       CitizenshiP: Y     N

       tength of time father in U. S.:                       In city:             Age: Father-         Mother-

       Literacyoffather: reads              writes              Eng.        N. L.            English: Y
                                                                                        Speaks                   N


                                                  I        Lelt school
                                                                            Occupa-    Industry.   Wages.   b€Cq.
            Name,                                                            ilotr,
                                                      Grade                                                 worK.



       Others living with the family:
        Total in home:                            No. rooms-                     Usedforsleeping       Bath:Y        N

        Homeowned: Y          N            Mortgaged: Y             N            tength of time in house:
                                           Mo. interest:                          Rent: Present-    During emPl.

        Characterof dwelling and neighborhood:

        Agent:                          Informant: Agency-                                   Mo.-         Fa.-

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                       APPENDIX B.-FOR}IS        USED IN THE STUDY.                      L7L

                                     FORM 2-Continued.
                                            lPago 2.j


      Temporary work of father:                               Curent empl. OII case: y    N
         Type of work:
         Amount of time employed (proportion):

          Earnings (dail-v or weekly rate):
          Totai earnings since ,,date unemployment began',:
      Employment of tnother: Before unempl. :                           present time:
         At home:          Away from home:              Type of work:
         Time per day or week:
         Average rveekly sa,lningsi             Total earnings during unemploym.ent:
         Care of children:

     Employ'ment of children:

     Other gourcesof income:
         1. Existing beiore unemplolment of father:

         2. Added during period of unemployment:
                  (Aid from relatives; sold house; rental of house; boardere,etc.)

     Charitable aid:

     Total weekly income of family at time of inquiry:
     Approximate total iucome during period of unemployment:

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      L72                UNEMPLOYMENT           AND CHILD WELFARE.

                                       FORM 2-Continued.
                                         SPECIAL NOTES.

                  (Ifandicaps and retrenchment during unemplol'ment period.)

      1. Father's rvork status:
            Regularly employed at trade (name trade)-
            Unskilled worker, but trsually steadily empl.-
            Casuallaborer, frequently unemployed-
             Is unemploy'ment due to physicai disability: (Nature of die.)

       2. Ilealth:
              Seriousillnesses during unempl. period: health of mother and children,

       3. Children committed to institutions: (for permanent custody or temporary care).

       4. Losses, etc.:
             Lossesdue to unpaid installments on furniture, unpaid mortgage interest, in-
               surance premiums, etc. Probable permanent loss of industrial standing
               ttrrough long period of unemplol'ment.

       5 Credit and debts:
            During unemplolment period; debt€ by items; extent to which credit at stores
              has tided family through.

       6. Reduction in standard of living:
             Ilousi:rg, food, comforts, recreation, etc.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                        APPENDIX      B.-FORMS       USED IN    TIIE   STUDY.      1?3
                                              FORM 3.
       U. S. DnpanruENT L.mon,
                                 RECORDOF FAMILY RELIEF.                  Agency:
       Name:                         Address:                             Rent:
       Father: Occrtpation-                            Date unempl. began-
                            Race-        Birthplace-                  Citizen: y    N
       Children'in home: (Ages) Under 14-       14 and over-     Wk,g-       Unempt,_
       Motheruorbing.. At home-                 Away from home-
       Others in family:
       Total income at applic.: Date-               Income and sources-
       Date first applic. to agency:                Date unempl. applic.-
       Active caseprior to presentunempl.: 1916-      1917-    1918-    1919_ 1920_
       Datesand amountsof relief :
                                            FORM 4.
       U. S. DnranlrlrnNT or, Lenon,
           Csrr,onnx's Buan.lu.
                                   DAY NURSERY CASE.           Cent. Assn. case: y N
                                                               Sched.familycase: Y N
       Name:                       Address:                    Specialvisit case: y N
       Father: Prcvious occupation:         Unempl. began:           Temp. work:
       Childrenin ltome: Ages-              In school-              WorkinE_
           Children cared for by day nursery: Ages-            Daity charge:
           Periods of care:
       Employment oJ motfur:
                                           FORM 5'
       u. s. DnpanruENT oF T,aaor,                                 Date-
           CsllnnrN's Bunpau.

      Date of application-                        Age of father-
      Birthplace-                                 Years in Springfield-
      \Vhen last employed-                        Occupation-
      \Vages-                                     Wife employed-
      Ages of children-
      Agesof working children-
      Social data-
                                    FORM 6.
      Sex-               Date of birth-               Date original permit-
      Date left school-                          Grade completed-
      Date began work-                           Date leaving last empl.-
      Actiyities rvhile unemployed :
                                             FORM 7.
                          CERTIFICATE        CI]ILD-NOT    EIIPLOYED.
      Sex-              Date of bfuth-                 Date original certif._
      Date left school-                          Grade completed-
      Now in school?                             Grade-
      Date began work-                           Date leaving last empl.-
      Jobs held, length of time i.lr each:

Provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university

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